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Sample records for adequate blood supply

  1. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments. PMID:27535246

  2. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments.

  3. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  4. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  5. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  6. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  7. Safety of the blood supply in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, Gabriel A; Cruz, Jose R

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate selection of donors, use of sensitive screening tests, and the application of a mandatory quality assurance system are essential to maintain the safety of the blood supply. Laws, decrees, norms, and/or regulations covering most of these aspects of blood transfusion exist in 16 of the 17 countries in Latin America that are the subject of this review. In 17 countries, there is an information system that, although still incomplete (there are no official reports on adverse events and incidents), allows us to establish progress made on the status of the blood supply since 1993. Most advances originated in increased screening coverage for infectious diseases and better quality assurance. However, in 2001 to 2002, tainted blood may have caused infections in 12 of the 17 countries; no country reached the number of donors considered adequate, i.e., 5% of the population, to avoid blood shortages, or decreased significantly the number of blood banks, although larger blood banks are more efficient and take advantage of economies of scale. In those years, paid donors still existed in four countries and replacement donors made up >75% of the blood donors in another eight countries. In addition, countries did not report the number of voluntary donors who were repeat donors, i.e., the healthiest category. In spite of progress made, more improvements are needed.

  8. Blood supply to the amphibian mesonephros.

    PubMed

    Zemanová, Z; Gambaryan, S

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe geometry of branching, topography and sources of blood vessels supplying the mesonephros of three different species of amphibia and to infere from the results their common and species-specific features. The detailed information on arrangement of portal and arterial blood supply to mesonephros is necessary for better understanding of the conditions under which these kidneys function. For this reason the blood vessels of the mesonephros of adult Hynobius Keyserlingi, Triturus vulgaris and Rana temporaria were injected with stained gelatin. The urodelian kidneys were shown to be supplied by numerous segmental arteries. Three types of arterial supply to glomeruli were distinguished: those mediated by short, medium and long branches, which create different physical conditions for the glomerular filtration in pertinent nephrons--as the blood pressure necessarily decreases with the increasing distance from the aorta. The tributaries to the renal portal vein were identified in all three species as the veins draining hind limbs, tail, pelvis and body wall. It is being suggested that the purpose of this large drainage area is to secure a sufficient volume of blood to the peritubular network.

  9. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  14. Pathogen inactivation technology: cleansing the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Klein, H G

    2005-03-01

    The calculated residual infectious risk of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) from blood transfusion is extremely low. However, the risk of bacterial contamination remains and a variety of other agents including emerging viruses, protozoa and tick-borne agents threaten blood supplies and undermine public confidence in blood safety. Traditional methods of donor screening and testing have limited ability to further reduce disease transmission and cannot prevent an emerging infectious agent from entering the blood supply. Pathogen inactivation technologies have all but eliminated the infectious risks of plasma-derived protein fractions, but as yet no technique has proved sufficiently safe and effective for traditional blood components. Half-way technologies can reduce the risk of pathogen transmission from fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Traditional methods of mechanical removal such as washing and filtration have limited success in reducing the risk of cell-associated agents, but methods aimed at sterilizing blood have either proved toxic to the cells or to the recipients of blood components. Several promising methods that target pathogen nucleic acid have recently entered clinical testing. PMID:15715679

  15. Indian Supreme Court demands cleaner blood supply.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1996-01-13

    The government of India recently admitted in parliament that 25% of the country's blood banks remain unlicensed. The Supreme Court has directed the government to establish a National Council for Blood Transfusion in an attempt to curb malpractice, malfunctioning, and corruption in the national blood banking system, and to ensure a safe blood supply. Furthermore, the Court advised the government to enact separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution, and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks. Legal action will be taken if any blood banks remain ill equipped or unlicensed after the period of one year. Agencies have been directed to take steps to eliminate professional blood selling within two years. They have also been asked to ensure that there are trained drug inspectors to check upon the banks. To boost funding for the councils, the government has been advised to allow 100% exemption upon income tax to those who donate money to the organizations. The Director General of Health Services has been asked to submit a report on action taken by July 16, 1996, to ensure compliance.

  16. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  17. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  18. Blood supply and vasculature of mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Fahal, A H; el Hag, I A; Gadir, A F; el Lider, A R; el Hassan, A M; Baraka, O Z; Mahgoub, E S

    1997-01-01

    The blood supply to the mycetoma lesion and its vasculature were studied in patients with various types of mycetoma using histological, ultrastructural, angiographic and sonographic techniques. The mycetoma lesion proved to be well vascularized. However, certain vascular abnormalities were demonstrated. In histological sections, the small arteries and arterioles showed medial muscular hypertrophy in 83%, intimal fibrosis in 33%, arteritis in 7% and endarteritis obliterans with narrowed lumen in 7% of the patients. No vascular occlusion, ischaemic changes or arteriovenous shunts were observed. These changes were confirmed ultrastructurally. Angiography of the lesion showed a brisk pathological circulation which was more evident in eumycetoma. The vascular Doppler study showed normal blood flow pattern in the affected limb. Regional intra-arterial chemotherapy for mycetoma is suggested as a possible treatment modality. PMID:9147269

  19. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  20. Meanings of blood, bleeding and blood donations in Pakistan: implications for national vs global safe blood supply policies

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Bowen, Sarah; Mumtaz, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary public policy, supported by international arbitrators of blood policy such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of the Red Cross, asserts that the safest blood is that donated by voluntary, non-remunerated donors from low-risk groups of the population. These policies promote anonymous donation and discourage kin-based or replacement donation. However, there is reason to question whether these policies, based largely on Western research and beliefs, are the most appropriate for ensuring an adequate safe blood supply in many other parts of the world. This research explored the various and complex meanings embedded in blood using empirical ethnographic data from Pakistan, with the intent of informing development of a national blood policy in that country. Using a focused ethnographic approach, data were collected in 26 in-depth interviews, 6 focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews and 25 hours of observations in blood banks and maternity and surgical wards. The key finding was that notions of caste-based purity of blood, together with the belief that donors and recipients are symbolically knitted in a kin relationship, place a preference on kin-blood. The anonymity inherent in current systems of blood extraction, storage and use as embedded in contemporary policy discourse and practice was problematic as it blurred distinctions that were important within this society. The article highlights the importance—to ensuring a safe blood supply—of basing blood procurement policies on local, context-specific belief systems rather than relying on uniform, one-size-fits-all global policies. Drawing on our empirical findings and the literature, it is argued that the practice of kin-donated blood remains a feasible alternative to the global ideal of voluntary, anonymous donations. There is a need to focus on developing context-sensitive strategies for promoting blood safety, and critically revisit the assumptions

  1. Anatomical variant of the liver blood supply

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular variations are significant for liver transplantations, radiological procedures, laparoscopic method of operation and for the healing of penetrating injuries, including the space close to the hepatic area. These variants are very common in the abdominal region, and their description will be useful. During a routine dissection of a 73 year old female cadaver, we found in the subhepatic region that the blood supply of the liver differed from a normal one. The difference was found in the absence of the right liver branch and the cystic artery, which normally arises from the common hepatic artery. After a detailed dissection of the superior mesenteric artery we distinguished a branchthat was routed to the right lobe of the liver. The diameter of this vessel was 3.7 mm and the length 8.2 cm. In the artery pathway, three consecutive branches were observed. The first branch was found about 2.02 cm before the portal region of the liver. The second one became visible after another millimeter and finally the artery made one little curve and became a cystic artery. PMID:26609280

  2. The blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa: needs, challenges, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Lund, Troy C; Hume, Heather; Allain, Jean P; McCullough, Jeffrey; Dzik, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is burdened with a growing population and poor health care resources. Transfusion medicine is uniquely affected for SSA as a result of a combination of factors which put tremendous pressure on the blood supply. In this review, we consider these factors including: malaria, sickle cell anemia, transfusion medicine infrastructure, and past transfusion medicine policies including those which are tied to foreign aid, such as a VNRD-only practice. We also consider how SSA can overcome some of these hurdles to achieve a safe and adequate blood supply for its people through the advent of new vaccines, medications, infrastructure development, policy changes, and education.

  3. Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to eye tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, G.C.Y.; Yan, H.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Although it is essential that intraocular pressure (IOP) be reduced in glaucoma treatment, it is also vitally important to provide sufficient blood flow to eye tissues so that healthy visual field is maintained. It is possible for an agent to reduce IOP and blood supply to the eye. In that case, glaucoma appears to be under control since IOP has been reduced to within normal range yet the disease is actually progressing, causing damage to the retina, optic nerve, and other tissues. /sup 85/Sr-Microsphere technique was used to study the effects of several antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to various eye tissues. Clearly, L-timolol, D-timolol and pilocarpine are good drugs to use in treating glaucoma because they do not reduce blood flow. On the other hand, although moperone reduced IOP effectively, it also decreased blood supply markedly. Therefore, it should not be used for the treatment of glaucoma.

  4. Determining which automatic digital blood pressure device performs adequately: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Y; Heneghan, C; Stevens, R; McManus, R J; Ward, A; Perera, R; Thompson, M; Tarassenko, L; Mant, D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically examine the proportion of accurate readings attained by automatic digital blood pressure (BP) devices in published validation studies. We included studies of automatic digital BP devices using recognized protocols. We summarized the data as mean and s.d. of differences between measured and observed BP, and proportion of measurements within 5 mm Hg. We included 79 articles (10 783 participants) reporting 113 studies from 22 different countries. Overall, 25/31 (81%), 37/41 (90%) and 34/35 (97%) devices passed the relevant protocols [BHS, AAMI and ESH international protocol (ESH-IP), respectively]. For devices that passed the BHS protocol, the proportion of measured values within 5 mm Hg of the observed value ranged from 60 to 86% (AAMI protocol 47–94% and ESH-IP 54–89%). The results for the same device varied significantly when a different protocol was used (Omron HEM-907 80% of readings were within 5 mm Hg using the AAMI protocol compared with 62% with the ESH-IP). Even devices with a mean difference of zero show high variation: a device with 74% of BP measurements within 5 mm Hg would require six further BP measurements to reduce variation to 95% of readings within 5 mm Hg. Current protocols for validating BP monitors give no guarantee of accuracy in clinical practice. Devices may pass even the most rigorous protocol with as few as 60% of readings within 5 mm Hg of the observed value. Multiple readings are essential to provide clinicians and patients with accurate information on which to base diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:20376077

  5. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

  6. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments.

  7. New, faster blood test may make blood supply safer.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    Major blood suppliers in the United States are investigating a new HIV test that could move the country closer to a zero percent transmission rate. The Milwaukee Blood Center was the first in the nation to use the test, which identifies HIV infection two weeks earlier than standard tests. The test reduces the time period during which HIV infection is undetectable from 22 days to 10. The new test called nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) was developed by Roche Molecular Systems and Chiron Corp. It identifies HIV genetic material circulating in the blood stream. America's Blood Centers has been testing NAT in 16 facilities. The procedure was initially developed to reduce the risk of transmitting hepatitis C, and a single sample can be used for testing both hepatitis C and HIV. The cost of using the new test would be an additional $5 to $7 per blood donation. NAT has not yet been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration.

  8. Challenges in the management of the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lorna M; Devine, Dana V

    2013-05-25

    Although blood suppliers are seeing short-term reductions in blood demand as a result of initiatives in patient blood management, modelling suggests that during the next 5-10 years, blood availability in developed countries will need to increase again to meet the demands of ageing populations. Increasing of the blood supply raises many challenges; new approaches to recruitment and retainment of future generations of blood donors will be needed, and care will be necessary to avoid taking too much blood from these donors. Integrated approaches in blood stock management between transfusion services and hospitals will be important to minimise wastage--eg, by use of supply chain solutions from industry. Cross-disciplinary systems for patient blood management need to be developed to lessen the need for transfusion--eg, by early identification and reversal of anaemia with haematinics or by reversal of the underlying cause. Personalised medicine could be applied to match donors to patients, not only with extended blood typing, but also by using genetically determined storage characteristics of blood components. Growing of red cells or platelets in large quantities from stem cells is a possibility in the future, but challenges of cost, scaling up, and reproducibility remain to be solved. PMID:23706803

  9. Challenges in the management of the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lorna M; Devine, Dana V

    2013-05-25

    Although blood suppliers are seeing short-term reductions in blood demand as a result of initiatives in patient blood management, modelling suggests that during the next 5-10 years, blood availability in developed countries will need to increase again to meet the demands of ageing populations. Increasing of the blood supply raises many challenges; new approaches to recruitment and retainment of future generations of blood donors will be needed, and care will be necessary to avoid taking too much blood from these donors. Integrated approaches in blood stock management between transfusion services and hospitals will be important to minimise wastage--eg, by use of supply chain solutions from industry. Cross-disciplinary systems for patient blood management need to be developed to lessen the need for transfusion--eg, by early identification and reversal of anaemia with haematinics or by reversal of the underlying cause. Personalised medicine could be applied to match donors to patients, not only with extended blood typing, but also by using genetically determined storage characteristics of blood components. Growing of red cells or platelets in large quantities from stem cells is a possibility in the future, but challenges of cost, scaling up, and reproducibility remain to be solved.

  10. Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Mairbäurl, Heimo

    2013-01-01

    During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood's buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called “sports anemia.” This is not anemia in a clinical sense, because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume (PV). The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g., in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise. PMID:24273518

  11. Is dengue a threat to the blood supply?

    PubMed

    Teo, D; Ng, L C; Lam, S

    2009-04-01

    Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne infection worldwide, affecting at least 50 million people every year and endemic in more than 100 countries. The dengue virus is a single-stranded RNA virus with four major serotypes. Infection with one serotype confers homotypic immunity but not heterologous immunity, and secondary infection with another serotype may lead to more severe disease. The major route of transmission occurs through the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector, but dengue has also been transmitted through blood transfusion and organ transplantation. Infection results in a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from asymptomatic infection, undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) to dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Dengue is spreading rapidly to new areas and with increasing frequency of major outbreaks. A trend has also been observed towards increasing age among infected patients. This will impact blood supply availability as more blood donors are deferred because of dengue infection or exposure to infection. The risk of transmission through transfusion of blood from asymptomatic viraemic donors will also increase. Although screening tests for dengue and effective pathogen reduction processes are now available for the blood supply, the value of implementing these costly measures needs to be carefully considered. Demand for platelets and fresh frozen plasma will rise with increasing number of DHF/DSS. Evidence-based guidelines for the clinical use of these blood components in the management of patients with DHF/DSS have not been well established, and inappropriate use will contribute to the challenges faced by blood services.

  12. [Blood supply during disasters: the experience of Chile in 2010].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Marcela; Maldonado, Mónica; Tagle, Federico; León, Sergio; Soto, Alejandra; Mena, Aaron; Toro, Carla

    2011-05-01

    A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from interviews, internal reports, and the computer database from the Maule regional blood production center. The results lead to the conclusion that to respond efficiently and effectively to the need for blood in the immediate wake of a disaster it is essential to have both a centralized management system that facilitates the supply and administration of blood and volunteers with competence in health that are willing to swiftly arrive during these events. A change in the profile of blood donors during such emergencies was also observed. In Chile, for example, during the two weeks after the earthquake, the ratio of male/female donors was reversed. There was 61.1% participation by women, whereas in the week before the event women accounted for only 37%.

  13. Manufacturing blood ex vivo: a futuristic approach to deal with the supply and safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal K.; Saini, Abhishek; Tsuji, Kohichiro; Sharma, P. B.; Chandra, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusions are routinely done in every medical regimen and a worldwide established collection, processing/storage centers provide their services for the same. There have been extreme global demands for both raising the current collections and supply of safe/adequate blood due to increasingly demanding population. With, various risks remain associated with the donor derived blood, and a number of post collection blood screening and processing methods put extreme constraints on supply system especially in the underdeveloped countries. A logistic approach to manufacture erythrocytes ex-vivo by using modern tissue culture techniques have surfaced in the past few years. There are several reports showing the possibilities of RBCs (and even platelets/neutrophils) expansion under tightly regulated conditions. In fact, ex vivo synthesis of the few units of clinical grade RBCs from a single dose of starting material such as umbilical cord blood (CB) has been well established. Similarly, many different sources are also being explored for the same purpose, such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the major concerns remain elusive before the manufacture and clinical use of different blood components may be used to successfully replace the present system of donor derived blood transfusion. The most important factor shall include the large scale of RBCs production from each donated unit within a limited time period and cost of their production, both of these issues need to be handled carefully since many of the recipients among developing countries are unable to pay even for the freely available donor derived blood. Anyways, keeping these issues in mind, present article shall be focused on the possibilities of blood production and their use in the near future. PMID:25364733

  14. Operational effectiveness and quality assurance mechanisms with stochastic demand of blood supply: blood bank case study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    A general overview of various blood products operational effectiveness and related strategies that can be utilised by service providers (in particular, healthcare providers) is presented in the present study. In terms of the massive volumes of blood products, the North American blood centres collect more than eight million units of whole blood, which represents appropriately 50% of the US and Quebec, Canada?s volunteer donor blood supply. A case study of the quality inspection and inventory control concerns of the Central Blood Bank, located in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA, is presented. Initially, brief introduction to its general operating environment is followed by sections describing its general situation, quality-service initiatives, and followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the practical applications of lessons learned from the case study.

  15. Impact of vCJD on blood supply.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Rainer; von Auer, Friedger; Blümel, Johannes; Burger, Reinhard; Buschmann, Anne; Dietz, Klaus; Heiden, Margarethe; Hitzler, Walter E; Klamm, Horst; Kreil, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Hans; Nübling, Micha; Offergeld, Ruth; Pauli, Georg; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Volkers, Peter; Zerr, Inga

    2007-04-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is an at present inevitably lethal neurodegenerative disease which can only be diagnosed definitely post mortem. The majority of the approximately 200 victims to date have resided in the UK where most contaminated beef materials entered the food chain. Three cases in the UK demonstrated that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Since BSE and vCJD have spread to several countries outside the UK, it appears advisable that specific risk assessments be carried out in different countries and geographic areas. This review explains the approach adopted by Germany in assessing the risk and considering precautionary measures. A fundamental premise is that the feeding chain of cattle and the food chain have been successfully and permanently cleared from contaminated material. This raises the question of whether transmissions via blood transfusions could have the potential to perpetuate vCJD in mankind. A model calculation based on actual population data showed, however, that this would not be the case. Moreover, an exclusion of transfusion recipients from blood donation would add very little to the safety of blood transfusions, but would have a considerable impact on blood supply. Therefore, an exclusion of transfusion recipients was not recommended in Germany.

  16. Potential impact of AUSFTA on Australia's blood supply.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary J; Faunce, Thomas A; Johnston, Kellie

    2006-09-18

    Australia is largely self-sufficient in its supply of safe, fresh blood products because of the goodwill of non-remunerated, volunteer donors, plus rigorous testing and processing standards. CSL Limited is the sole provider of plasma fractionation services in Australia, enjoying exclusive rights under the Plasma Fractionation Agreement with the Australian Government. In the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), Australia agreed to review its current contract with CSL Limited, and to recommend to the states and territories that the process be opened up to overseas tender. Overseas tenders for off-shore fractionation services are likely to be highly competitive due to their low manufacturing costs and accumulated expertise. Off-shore fractionation could compromise the safety of Australia's blood supply through delays in processing and transportation, issues related to quality control, and even the siphoning of stock to overseas markets. This could compromise the long-term care of Australian patients and create a serious national security risk in the event of a terrorist attack or natural disaster. Australia's AUSFTA obligation to recommend changes does not equate to an obligation to actually proceed. The states and territories should carefully consider whether such changes would be in our national interest. The long-term security of the Australian people in the current security environment is dependent on continuance of an on-shore fractionation plant and appropriate back-up facilities. PMID:16999673

  17. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    PubMed

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity.

  18. Anatomical Study of Variations in the Blood Supply of Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Aristotle, Sharmila; Sundarapandian; Felicia, Christilda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery and a single renal vein, which accounts for about 20% of the cardiac output. However, variations in the form of level of origin and arrangement of renal arteries are so frequent. Aim: The present study aimed to note the vascular anatomy of kidneys with respect to the variations in their origin, course and any aberrant vessels which were present. Materials and Methods: The study material comprised of 15 formalin fixed human cadavers. During routine abdominal dissection for undergraduate students, the kidneys were exposed and the blood supply, along with its variations, were noted. Results: The following anatomical findings are observed in this study: (i) Accessory renal arteries (ii) Presegmental arteries (iii) Upper polar arteries (iv) Lower polar arteries (v) Inferior suprarenal artery from accessory renal artery and (vi) Accessory renal vein. Conclusion: Awareness of the normal as well variational anatomy is mandatory for the surgeons, radiologists and urologists, for doing any uroradiological procedures or angiographic studies. Hence, this study will serve a useful guideline for the above mentioned procedures. PMID:24086837

  19. Noncoronary Collateral Myocardial Blood Flow: The Human Heart’s Forgotten Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Picichè, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The “noncoronary collateral circulation” (NCCC) or “noncoronary collateral myocardial blood flow” (NCCMBF), reaches the heart through a micro-vascular network arising from the bronchial, esophageal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, and aortic arteries. The left and right internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) along with their collateral branches also serve as a source of NCCMBF-a feature seen in other mammals. Under certain circumstances the ITAs have a high potential for developing collateral branches. In the case of severe Leriche syndrome or with chronic obstruction of the abdominal aorta, the ITAs can serve as the main or even sole source of blood supply to the lower limbs. It is also possible for the ITAs to develop angiographically visible branches that directly connect with the coronary arteries. In ischemic conditions there is a functional, ischemia-reducing extracardiac coronary artery supply via natural ipsilateral ITA anastomosis. To date we know little about NCCMBF and its potential benefits in clinical applications, which makes this a challenging and intriguing field of research. This paper reviews all available data on noncoronary collateral blood supply to the human heart. PMID:27006713

  20. Analysis of the adequate size of a cord blood bank and comparison of HLA haplotype distributions between four populations.

    PubMed

    Haimila, Katri; Penttilä, Antti; Arvola, Anne; Auvinen, Marja-Kaisa; Korhonen, Matti

    2013-02-01

    The number of units and especially the number of different HLA haplotypes present in a cord blood (CB) bank is a crucial determinant of its usefulness. We generated data relevant to the development of our national CB in Finland. The HLA haplotype distribution was examined between specific populations. We developed graphical ways of data presentation that enable easy visualization of differences. First, we estimated the optimal size of a CB bank for Finland and found that approximately 1700 units are needed to provide a 5/6 HLA-matched donor for 80% of Finnish patients. Secondly, we evaluated HLA haplotype distributions between four locations, Finland, Japan, Sweden and Belgium. Our results showed that the Japanese Tokyo Cord Blood Bank differs in both the frequency and distribution of haplotypes from the European banks. The European banks (Finnish Cord Blood Registry, The Swedish National Cord Blood Bank, and Marrow Donor Program-Belgium) have similar frequencies of common haplotypes, but 26% of the haplotypes in the Finnish CB bank are unique, which justifies the existence of a national bank. The tendency to a homogenous HLA haplotype distribution in banks underlines the need for targeting recruitment at the poorly represented minority populations.

  1. The risks of blood transfusions and the shortage of supply leads to the quest for blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nouwairi, Nicole-Soraya

    2004-10-01

    A number of factors have combined to drive the interest in developing blood substitutes. These include the time-dependent decrement in stored blood biochemistry, the general shortage of the blood supply, and public awareness of the risks associated with allogeneic transfusions. Current literature on different blood substitutes was reviewed. The aim of this article is to help the reader understand the necessity of blood substitutes and to briefly describe blood substitutes that are in clinical trials. The need for oxygen-carrying blood substitutes is the driving force in multiple clinical trials. More research is needed to develop alteratives to allogeneic blood transfusion that are free of complications.

  2. [Homeostasis in the gastric mucosa and blood circulation. Part 1. Mechanisms of the adequate blood flow maintenance in the gastric mucosa].

    PubMed

    Samonina, G E; Zhuĭkova, S E

    2001-01-01

    The increase of mucosal blood flow in response to food entrance into stomach or different irritant action is the component of gastric mucosal defence barrier. Sufficient blood flow ensures normal acid-bicarbonate balance in gastric mucosa, supports the healing process and prevents superficial damages from developing into deep ones. Capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerve fibers play the large role in the blood flow regulation. The influence of these nerve fibers on the gastric blood flow is mediated by the calcitonin-gene related peptide. This peptide released from peripheral afferent terminals improves microcirculation in stomach walls. Moreover nerve impulses from afferent neurons modulate parasympathetic activity that in turn induces the increase of gastric mucosal blood flow through both choilinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms. The gastric mucosal blood flow may be also regulated by humoral and paracrine metabolites. Nitric oxide and prostaglandines are the most important low molecular weight compounds. They play the main role in the maintenance of the basal gastric mucosal blood flow and in the development of hyperemic responses to harmful agents.

  3. Paying donors and the ethics of blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez del Pozo, P

    1994-01-01

    Countries may be erring in the current trend towards relying entirely on volunteers to fulfil blood and plasma needs. Complementing uncompensated blood with compensated blood is vitally necessary not only effectively to meet the blood and plasma needs of most countries, but it is also ethically sound. PMID:8035437

  4. [Arterial blood supply of the digestive tract in badgers].

    PubMed

    Rahm, S; Frewein, J

    1982-01-01

    In 5 dendrohyraxes, 6 heterohyraxes, and 7 procaviae the three main visceral arteries have been studied. In all hyracoidea the Arteria coeliaca divides into the Arteria lienalis, Arteria hepatica communis, and Arteria gastrica sinistra. Occasionally the latter two arteries run together for 7-15 mm before they separate. The Arteria mesenterica cranialis gives rise to the Arteriae pancreaticoduodenales caudales, Arteriae jejunales, Arteria colica media, and Arteria colica dextra and continues as Arteria ileocolica. Some animals had an Arteria colica media accessoria which supplied the first half of the colon descendens. In all other animals the entire colon descendens was supplied by the Arteria colica sinistra which originates in the Arteria mesenterica caudalis. Branches of the Arteria rectalis cranialis extend close to the anus. PMID:7124335

  5. [Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with multiple arterial blood supply].

    PubMed

    Uroz Tristán, J; Mogueya, S A; Poenaru, D; Martínez Lagares, F; Arteaga García, R; Sanchís Solera, L; López-Pinto Ruiz, J

    1994-04-01

    We report the case of a 4 years old boy, who presented at our institution with reiterative neumonia affecting left basal lobe. Anomalous vascular appearance was detected in the chest x-ray. With the suspicion of pulmonary sequestration we carried on Digital Intravenous Angiography by Substraction (DIVAS) and aortogram. The anomalous systemic arterial supply was formed by 6 vessels coming from the thoracic aorta and going into the left lower lobe basal segment. Lobectomy was performed and previous diagnosis was confirmed pathologically.

  6. Myocardial Ischemia: Lack of Coronary Blood Flow or Myocardial Oxygen Supply/Demand Imbalance?

    PubMed

    Heusch, Gerd

    2016-07-01

    Regional myocardial blood flow and contractile function in ischemic myocardium are well matched, and there is no evidence for an oxygen supply/demand imbalance. Thus, myocardial ischemia is lack of coronary blood flow with electric, functional, metabolic, and structural consequences for the myocardium. All therapeutic interventions must aim to improve blood flow to ischemic myocardium as much and as quickly as possible. PMID:27390331

  7. [Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with multiple arterial blood supply].

    PubMed

    Uroz Tristán, J; Mogueya, S A; Poenaru, D; Martínez Lagares, F; Arteaga García, R; Sanchís Solera, L; López-Pinto Ruiz, J

    1994-04-01

    We report the case of a 4 years old boy, who presented at our institution with reiterative neumonia affecting left basal lobe. Anomalous vascular appearance was detected in the chest x-ray. With the suspicion of pulmonary sequestration we carried on Digital Intravenous Angiography by Substraction (DIVAS) and aortogram. The anomalous systemic arterial supply was formed by 6 vessels coming from the thoracic aorta and going into the left lower lobe basal segment. Lobectomy was performed and previous diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:8086288

  8. [Our experiences in the blood supply by means of a blood bank].

    PubMed

    Rajcić, E

    1975-01-01

    "GIVE US BLOOD TODAY, YOU'LL GET IT WHEN YOU NEED IT". Under this slogan the blood transfusion service gathers the blood donors offering, in return for the given blood the security that, any moment and in required quantities, the blood will be provided for every donor i.e. every member of any collective that acts on the request and "deposits" blood in so called blood banks", at least twice a year. Agitation among the prospective blood donors is completely confided to prominent people, social and medical workers, who do it permanently, and not from time to time, and who, if possible, are also blood donors, and owing to their own example, more convincing. The obligations between the blood transfusion service and "the investors" are regulated by oral agreement. It is noticed that the mutual moral obligation has more positive influence on the fulfillment of obligation than the administrative measure--a contract. According to this experience, individual work, a personal contact with prospective blood donors, and the feeling of personal security that is offered to them give the best results in motivating the people to become blood donors. PMID:1225312

  9. Rethinking blood shield statutes in view of the hepatitis C pandemic and other emerging threats to the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Rueda, A

    2001-01-01

    Researchers have identified at least twenty-five pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusions. Four percent of patients who receive the average amount of blood during a transfusion are at risk of being infected with a contaminated unit, and exposed to the danger of serious adverse reactions, including future debilitating conditions. Victims of transfusion-related diseases, however, generally have been unsuccessful when making claims against the purveyors of blood products because of blood shield statutes that were initially enacted in response to unknown pathogens that made the blood an "unavoidably unsafe" product. Today, blood purveyors are aware of the possibility of epidemics from unsafe blood and have continued to research and supervise the blood supply to create mechanisms that detect and inactivate various blood-borne pathogens. In response to the current and advancing methods of blood purification, this Article suggests that a hybrid strict liability/negligence standard be implemented to ensure advancements in safety of blood transfusions. A strict liability standard should attach for infections that can be detected and eliminated through current testing and inactivation methods. A negligence standard should govern infections for which no current test or inactivating method is available. Under this approach, blood purveyors would be compelled to take account of the risks of any manufacturing decisions that they make, and they would not enjoy the freedom from liability that the blood shield statutes now provide. The costs necessary to ensure compliance with this hybrid structure are small in comparison to the social and economic costs exacted by thousands of transfusion-related diseases.

  10. 77 FR 31026 - Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood Supply in Support of Planning for Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood Supply... (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood... panel discussions will: (1) Discuss ] simulation modeling of the U.S. blood supply, including...

  11. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery of a 12-week scar pregnancy with temporary occlusion of the uterine blood supply.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jan; Gunnarson, Gudmundur; Lindahl, Bengt

    2009-03-01

    A Cesarean section scar pregnancy is a serious obstetric complication. For all treatment modalities there are risks of heavy bleeding and emergency hysterectomy. Here we report the use of the da Vinci robot for removal of the pregnancy with adequate bleeding control. A 36-year-old para-3 was diagnosed having a 11 + 3 week live cesarean scar pregnancy and a complete placenta previa. S-hCG was 52 726 IU/l. One week after methotrexate treatment the pregnancy was uneventfully and completely removed by robot-assisted laparoscopy with minimal blood loss. The uterine defect was repaired. Bleeding was controlled by temporary application of metal clips to the distal internal iliac arteries and the propria ligaments. Postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography revealed normal uterine blood flow, a repaired uterine defect, and no remaining pregnancy tissue. S-hCG was normalized (<3 IU/l) 38 days after surgery. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery with temporary occlusion of the main uterine blood supply is a feasible and safe technique for surgery of a Cesarean scar pregnancy. PMID:27628455

  12. Self-Deferral, HIV Infection, and the Blood Supply: Evaluating an AIDS Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Novick, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of self-deferral, a social screen implemented to protect the U.S. blood supply from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prior to the advent of laboratory testing. Mathematical models are developed to estimate the number of infectious transfusions ultimately leading to AIDS prior to self-deferral.…

  13. Protecting the blood supply from emerging pathogens: the role of pathogen inactivation.

    PubMed

    Allain, Jean Pierre; Bianco, Celso; Blajchman, Morris A; Brecher, Mark E; Busch, Michael; Leiby, David; Lin, Lily; Stramer, Susan

    2005-04-01

    Although the risk of infection by blood transfusion is relatively low, breakthrough infections still occur, Transfusion-related fatalities caused by infections continue to be reported, and blood is not tested for many potentially dangerous pathogens. The current paradigm for increasing the safety of the blood supply is the development and implementation of laboratory screening methods and restrictive donor criteria. When considering the large number of known pathogens and the fact that pathogens continue to emerge, it is clear that the utility of new tests and donor restrictions will continue to be a challenge when considering the cost of developing and implementing new screening assays, the loss of potential donors, and the risk of testing errors. Despite improving the safety of blood components, testing remains a reactive approach to blood safety. The contaminating organisms must be identified before sensitive tests can be developed. In contrast, pathogen inactivation is a proactive strategy designed to inactivate a pathogen before it enters the blood supply. Almost all pathogen inactivation technologies target nucleic acids, allowing for the inactivation of a variety of nucleic acid-containing pathogens within plasma, platelets, or red blood cells thus providing the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. However, widespread use of a pathogen inactivation technology can only be realized when proven safe and efficacious and not cost-prohibitive. PMID:15852240

  14. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches. PMID:21864330

  15. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  16. Hypertension: a problem of organ blood flow supply-demand mismatch.

    PubMed

    Koeners, Maarten P; Lewis, Kirsty E; Ford, Anthony P; Paton, Julian Fr

    2016-05-01

    This review introduces a new hypothesis that sympathetically mediated hypertensive diseases are caused, in the most part, by the activation of visceral afferent systems that are connected to neural circuits generating sympathetic activity. We consider how organ hypoperfusion and blood flow supply-demand mismatch might lead to both sensory hyper-reflexia and aberrant afferent tonicity. We discuss how this may drive sympatho-excitatory-positive feedback and extend across multiple organs initiating, or at least amplifying, sympathetic hyperactivity. The latter, in turn, compounds the challenge to sufficient organ blood flow through heightened vasoconstriction that both maintains and exacerbates hypertension. PMID:27091483

  17. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease latest unknown in struggle to restore faith in blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, P

    1996-01-01

    There was considerable medical interest in a recent Toronto conference on prion disease--and in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in particular--because of the recent tainted-beef controversy in Britain. Although there is no proven link between a newly recognized variant form of CJD and "mad cow disease," and no evidence that CJD can be spread through the blood supply, the theoretical risk has scientists scrambling to understand how the disease is spread and policymakers struggling with the thorny issue of whether to notify persons who have received blood or blood products that may place them at risk. Until the mysteries of prion diseases and their transmission are unravelled, Dr. Peter Vaughan reports, physicians and their patients will have to live with uncertainty. Images p566-a PMID:8804263

  18. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply in the gluteal region: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Andrew James

    2014-11-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply are complex and largely not dealt with in common anatomy texts. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy can be divided into the height of division of its branches, relation of the branches to the piriformis muscle, and its blood supply. These variations should be well known to any surgeon operating in this anatomical region. It is unknown whether these variations increase the risk of surgical injury and consequent morbidity. This paper will review the current knowledge regarding anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve and its blood supply.

  19. Blood supply to the retina and the lens in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Imada, Hideki; Isomura, Genzoh; Miyachi, Ei-ichi

    2003-03-01

    The blood supply to the retina and the lens in 32 gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) of both sexes from infancy to maturity was studied under light and stereoscopic microscopes, and a scanning electron microscope. Mercox (CL-2R; Dai Nippon Ink, Tokyo, Japan) was injected into the left ventricle of 30 animals in order to visualize the blood supply to the retina and the lens from the ophthalmic artery. The central retinal artery arises from the ophthalmic artery, passes through the papilla of the optic nerve together with the central retinal vein and penetrates the vitreous space (cavity of the eye) between the lens and the internal limiting membrane of the retina, where it divides into the central branches covering the lens and the parietal branches to supply the retina. The former passes through the hyaloid space after branching several arterioles and then covers the lens like a network from its medial and marginal sides. Different from small experimental animals, the parietal branches, just after separating from the central one, divides into the nasal, dorsal and temporal branches in the vitreous space, each of which then subdivides to distribute across the retina on the inner limiting membrane, then delineates the membrana vasculosa retinae. This basal pattern of vasculization 1 day after birth continues to death. Both the central and parietal branches of the central retinal artery correspond to the branches of the hyaloid artery in embryo and the latter is preserved in adult gerbils. PMID:12680468

  20. Right hepatic artery crossing the common hepatic artery: an unusual blood supply to the liver.

    PubMed

    Felli, Emanuele; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Santoro, Roberto; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-04-01

    To perform hepatic surgery a precise preoperative and intraoperative study of liver vascular supply is mandatory. Detecting vascular variations may have great importance on surgical strategy and outcome, and details of anatomy do not concern only academical knowledge but become deeply involved in practice. We present a case of unusual blood supply to the liver, the common hepatic artery was directed to the right liver and a right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery was directed to the left liver. The right hepatic artery crossed the common hepatic artery in the proximal part of the hepatic pedicle, anterior to the portal vein. To our knowledge this type of anatomical variation has not been described before and it represents a rare finding that has to be kept in mind, especially in case of major hepatectomies and more demanding splitting liver procedures such as A.L.P.P.S., in situ split, ex situ split and living donor liver transplantation. PMID:26198115

  1. Liver blood supply after a modified Appleby procedure in classical and aberrant arterial anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Vyacheslav I; Petrov, Roman V; Lozhkin, Michail V; Maynovskaya, Olga A; Starostina, Natalia S; Chernaya, Natalia R; Filippova, Ekaterina M

    2013-01-01

    Reported here are two cases of a modified Appleby operation for borderline resectable ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic body, in one of which a R0 distal resection was attended to by excision, not only of the celiac axis, but also of the common and left hepatic arteries in the presence of arterial anatomic variation Michels, type VIIIb. The possibility and avenues of the maintenance of the blood supply to the left hepatic lobe after surgical aggression of this kind are demonstrated employing computed tomography (CT) and 3-D CT angiography. Furthermore, both cases highlight all important worrisome aspects of pancreatic cancer resectability prediction. PMID:23556062

  2. Clinical Impact of MALDI-TOF MS Identification and Rapid Susceptibility Testing on Adequate Antimicrobial Treatment in Sepsis with Positive Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Verroken, Alexia; Defourny, Lydwine; le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Belkhir, Leïla; Laterre, Pierre-François; Delmée, Michel; Glupczynski, Youri

    2016-01-01

    Shortening the turn-around time (TAT) of positive blood culture (BC) identification (ID) and susceptibility results is essential to optimize antimicrobial treatment in patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the impact on antimicrobial prescription of a modified workflow of positive BCs providing ID and partial susceptibility results for Enterobacteriaceae (EB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus on the day of BC positivity detection. This study was divided into a pre-intervention period (P0) with a standard BC workflow followed by 2 intervention periods (P1, P2) with an identical modified workflow. ID was performed with MALDI-TOF MS from blood, on early or on overnight subcultures. According to ID results, rapid phenotypic assays were realized to detect third generation cephalosporin resistant EB/P. aeruginosa or methicillin resistant S. aureus. Results were transmitted to the antimicrobial stewardship team for patient’s treatment revision. Times to ID, to susceptibility results and to optimal antimicrobial treatment (OAT) were compared across the three study periods. Overall, 134, 112 and 154 positive BC episodes in P0, P1 and P2 respectively were included in the analysis. Mean time to ID (28.3 hours in P0) was reduced by 65.3% in P1 (10.2 hours) and 61.8% in P2 (10.8 hours). Mean time to complete susceptibility results was reduced by 27.5% in P1 and 27% in P2, with results obtained after 32.4 and 32.6 hours compared to 44.7 hours in P0. Rapid tests allowed partial susceptibility results to be obtained after a mean time of 11.8 hours in P1 and 11.7 hours in P2. Mean time to OAT was decreased to 21.6 hours in P1 and to 17.9 hours in P2 compared to 36.1 hours in P0. Reducing TAT of positive BC with MALDI-TOF MS ID and rapid susceptibility testing accelerated prescription of targeted antimicrobial treatment thereby potentially improving the patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:27228001

  3. Blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the laboratory mouse using corrosion and dissection techniques.

    PubMed

    Flesarova, Slavka; Mazensky, David; Teleky, Jana; Almasiova, Viera; Holovska, Katarina; Supuka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mice are used frequently as experimental models in the study of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the mouse. The study was carried out on 20 adult mice using the corrosion and dissection technique. Dorsal intercostal arteries were found as branches of the thoracic aorta: as 7 pairs in 80% of cases, as 8 pairs in 15% of cases and as 9 pairs in 5% of cases. The paired lumbar arteries arising from the abdominal aorta were present as 5 pairs in all cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, we observed left-sided branches entering the ventral spinal artery in 64.2% and right-sided branches in 35.8% of cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, the branches entering the dorsal spinal arteries were left-sided in 60.8% of cases and right-sided in 39.2% of cases. We found some variations in the site of origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz and in the number of dorsal spinal arteries. Documenting the anatomical variations in spinal cord blood supply in the laboratory mouse will aid the planning of future experimental studies and in determining the clinical relevance of such studies.

  4. Widefield in vivo spectral and fluorescence imaging microscopy of microvessel blood supply and oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jennifer; Kozikowski, Raymond; Wankhede, Mamta; Sorg, Brian S.

    2011-02-01

    Abnormal microvascular function and angiogenesis are key components of various diseases that can contribute to the perpetuation of the disease. Several skin diseases and ophthalmic pathologies are characterized by hypervascularity, and in cancer the microvasculature of tumors is structurally and functionally abnormal. Thus, the microvasculature can be an important target for treatment of diseases characterized by abnormal microvasculature. Motivated largely by cancer research, significant effort has been devoted to research on drugs that target the microvasculature. Several vascular targeting drugs for cancer therapy are in clinical trials and approved for clinical use, and several off-label uses of these drugs have been reported for non-cancer diseases. The ability to image and measure parameters related to microvessel function preclinically in laboratory animals can be useful for development and comparison of vascular targeting drugs. For example, blood supply time measurements give information related to microvessel morphology and can be measured with first-pass fluorescence imaging. Hemoglobin saturation measurements give an indication of microvessel oxygen transport and can be measured with spectral imaging. While each measurement individually gives some information regarding microvessel function, the measurements together may yield even more information since theoretically microvessel morphology can influence microvessel oxygenation, especially in metabolically active tissue like tumors. However, these measurements have not yet been combined. In this study, we report the combination of blood supply time imaging and hemoglobin saturation imaging of microvessel networks in tumors using widefield fluorescence and spectral imaging, respectively. The correlation between the measurements in a mouse mammary tumor is analyzed.

  5. Blood supply to the retina in the laboratory shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Isomura, G; Ikeda, S; Ikezaki, K; Miyashita, Y

    1997-06-01

    The blood supply to both retinae was studied light microscopically and by scanning electron microscopy in 48 adult laboratory shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes. Thirty-eight of the animals were injected into the left ventricle with Neoprene latex (Du Pont. 601A) or with Mercox (Dai Nippon Ink Ltd., CL-2R) to elucidate the blood supply to the retina from the ophthalmic artery. The remaining animals were kept for histological study of the retina. The central retinal artery, originating from the ophthalmic artery in the muscular part of the orbit, enters the optic nerve, passes through the optic disk together with the central retinal vein and penetrates the vitreous space (cavity of the eye) between the lens and the inner limiting membrane of the retina, where it divides into the dorsal, ventral, and caudal branches. Each branch, moreover, bifurcates into nasal and temporal arterioles and is distributed throughout the retina on the inner limiting membrane as far as the ciliary body and the lens. On the way they obliquely send small vessels through the inner limiting membrane into the outer plexiform layer of the retina. Their vascularization appears to correspond to the membrana vasculosa retinae found in teleosts, amphibia and reptiles.

  6. Effect of the high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Shim, S.S.; Leung, G.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was done to study the effects of high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip and to further our knowledge of its physiologic basis. We have used established methods of study, including bone scans, microangiography, isotope clearance and perosseous venography, and based upon the results of these studies, we have reached certain conclusions. First, high femoral osteotomy increases the blood flow and vascularity in the hip joint, the femoral head and neck and the great trochanter. Second, bone scanning techniques using /sup 99m/Tc labeled diphosphonate have shown increased uptake in the femoral head and neck after high femoral osteotomy. The localization was done using a Digital Gamma III computer, and the activity on the osteotomy side at two weeks was 3.5 times as great as on the control side. By 16 weeks postoperatively, there was still two times as much activity on the osteotomy side. Third, microangiography showed increased vascularity both at the osteotomy site and in the femoral head and neck and the greater trochanter on that side. Such an increase in vascularity first became evident two weeks after osteotomy and persisted during the four month period studied. Fourth, the results of the /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate clearance study showed a 25 per cent increase in femoral head blood flow on the operative side. Fifth, perosseous venography of the femoral head and neck showed a marked increase in venous drainage through the osteotomy site in the immediate postosteotomy stage.

  7. How to maintain blood supply during computer network breakdown: a manual backup system.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, T; Slonka, J; Bürgi, H R; Kretschmer, V

    2000-12-01

    Electronic data management systems using computer network systems and client/server architecture are increasingly used in laboratories and transfusion services. Severe problems arise if there is no network access to the database server and critical functions are not available. We describe a manual backup system (MBS) developed to maintain the delivery of blood products to patients in a hospital transfusion service in case of a computer network breakdown. All data are kept on a central SQL database connected to peripheral workstations in a local area network (LAN). Request entry from wards is performed via machine-readable request forms containing self-adhesive specimen labels with barcodes for test tubes. Data entry occurs on-line by bidirectional automated systems or off-line manually. One of the workstations in the laboratory contains a second SQL database which is frequently and incrementally updated. This workstation is run as a stand-alone, read-only database if the central SQL database is not available. In case of a network breakdown, the time-graded MBS is launched. Patient data, requesting ward and ordered tests/requests, are photocopied through a template from the request forms on special MBS worksheets serving as laboratory journal for manual processing and result report (a copy is left in the laboratory). As soon as the network is running again the data from the off-line period are entered into the primary SQL server. The MBS was successfully used at several occasions. The documentation of a 90-min breakdown period is presented in detail. Additional work resulted from the copy work and the belated manual data entry after restoration of the system. There was no delay in issue of blood products or result reporting. The backup system described has been proven to be simple, quick and safe to maintain urgent blood supply and distribution of laboratory results in case of unexpected network breakdown.

  8. Multi-Objective Algorithm for Blood Supply via Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the Wounded in an Emergency Situation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in many industries. In the medical environment, especially in some emergency situations, UAVs play an important role such as the supply of medicines and blood with speed and efficiency. In this paper, we study the problem of multi-objective blood supply by UAVs in such emergency situations. This is a complex problem that includes maintenance of the supply blood's temperature model during transportation, the UAVs' scheduling and routes' planning in case of multiple sites requesting blood, and limited carrying capacity. Most importantly, we need to study the blood's temperature change due to the external environment, the heating agent (or refrigerant) and time factor during transportation, and propose an optimal method for calculating the mixing proportion of blood and appendage in different circumstances and delivery conditions. Then, by introducing the idea of transportation appendage into the traditional Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP), this new problem is proposed according to the factors of distance and weight. Algorithmically, we use the combination of decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and local search method to perform a series of experiments on the CVRP public dataset. By comparing our technique with the traditional ones, our algorithm can obtain better optimization results and time performance.

  9. Multi-Objective Algorithm for Blood Supply via Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the Wounded in an Emergency Situation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in many industries. In the medical environment, especially in some emergency situations, UAVs play an important role such as the supply of medicines and blood with speed and efficiency. In this paper, we study the problem of multi-objective blood supply by UAVs in such emergency situations. This is a complex problem that includes maintenance of the supply blood's temperature model during transportation, the UAVs' scheduling and routes' planning in case of multiple sites requesting blood, and limited carrying capacity. Most importantly, we need to study the blood's temperature change due to the external environment, the heating agent (or refrigerant) and time factor during transportation, and propose an optimal method for calculating the mixing proportion of blood and appendage in different circumstances and delivery conditions. Then, by introducing the idea of transportation appendage into the traditional Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP), this new problem is proposed according to the factors of distance and weight. Algorithmically, we use the combination of decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and local search method to perform a series of experiments on the CVRP public dataset. By comparing our technique with the traditional ones, our algorithm can obtain better optimization results and time performance. PMID:27163361

  10. Effect of clipping anterior communicating artery aneurysms via pterional approach contralateral to supply of dominant blood: report of 15 patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Pan, Li; An, Xuefeng; Ma, Lianting; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoAA) is a common cerebrovascular disease. This research is to observe the curative effect and safety of clipping anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms by microsurgery through the pterional approach contralateral to supply of dominant blood. Materials and methods: Before the surgery, three-dimensional-DSA (3D-DSA) was performed to study the regional anatomy of ACoA complexes in all 15 patients with ACoA aneurysms. According to 3D-DSA, the aneurysms and ACoA complexes could be satisfactorily exposed by the microsurgery through the pterional approach contralateral to the supply of dominant blood. And then the microsurgery through the pterional approach contralateral to the supply of dominant blood was performed in 15 patients with ACoA aneurysms. Results: Clipping of ACoA aneurysms were successfully performed in all patients. The aneurysms and ACoA complexes were satisfactorily exposed via 3D-DSA. Among 15 patients with ACoA aneurysms, 14 cases were cured and 1 case need further care. Conclusions: The ideal side of pterional approach may be cheese via simulation of pterional approach with 3D-DSA. The ACoA complex and aneurysm can be clearly exposed, and the aneurysm may be smoothly clipped safely by the microsurgery through the ideal side pterional approach contralateral to supply of dominant blood in the patients with ACoA aneurysms. PMID:25932120

  11. Anti-VEGF treatment reduces blood supply and increases tumor cell invasion in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Keunen, Olivier; Johansson, Mikael; Oudin, Anaïs; Sanzey, Morgane; Rahim, Siti A. Abdul; Fack, Fred; Thorsen, Frits; Taxt, Torfinn; Bartos, Michal; Jirik, Radovan; Miletic, Hrvoje; Wang, Jian; Stieber, Daniel; Stuhr, Linda; Moen, Ingrid; Rygh, Cecilie Brekke; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P.

    2011-01-01

    Bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a promising, yet controversial, drug in human glioblastoma treatment (GBM). Its effects on tumor burden, recurrence, and vascular physiology are unclear. We therefore determined the tumor response to bevacizumab at the phenotypic, physiological, and molecular level in a clinically relevant intracranial GBM xenograft model derived from patient tumor spheroids. Using anatomical and physiological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we show that bevacizumab causes a strong decrease in contrast enhancement while having only a marginal effect on tumor growth. Interestingly, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed a significant reduction of the vascular supply, as evidenced by a decrease in intratumoral blood flow and volume and, at the morphological level, by a strong reduction of large- and medium-sized blood vessels. Electron microscopy revealed fewer mitochondria in the treated tumor cells. Importantly, this was accompanied by a 68% increase in infiltrating tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. At the molecular level we observed an increase in lactate and alanine metabolites, together with an induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and an activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase pathway. These data strongly suggest that vascular remodeling induced by anti-VEGF treatment leads to a more hypoxic tumor microenvironment. This favors a metabolic change in the tumor cells toward glycolysis, which leads to enhanced tumor cell invasion into the normal brain. The present work underlines the need to combine anti-angiogenic treatment in GBMs with drugs targeting specific signaling or metabolic pathways linked to the glycolytic phenotype. PMID:21321221

  12. Multi-Objective Algorithm for Blood Supply via Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the Wounded in an Emergency Situation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wong, Kelvin K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in many industries. In the medical environment, especially in some emergency situations, UAVs play an important role such as the supply of medicines and blood with speed and efficiency. In this paper, we study the problem of multi-objective blood supply by UAVs in such emergency situations. This is a complex problem that includes maintenance of the supply blood’s temperature model during transportation, the UAVs’ scheduling and routes’ planning in case of multiple sites requesting blood, and limited carrying capacity. Most importantly, we need to study the blood’s temperature change due to the external environment, the heating agent (or refrigerant) and time factor during transportation, and propose an optimal method for calculating the mixing proportion of blood and appendage in different circumstances and delivery conditions. Then, by introducing the idea of transportation appendage into the traditional Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP), this new problem is proposed according to the factors of distance and weight. Algorithmically, we use the combination of decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and local search method to perform a series of experiments on the CVRP public dataset. By comparing our technique with the traditional ones, our algorithm can obtain better optimization results and time performance. PMID:27163361

  13. Targeting growth factor supply in keratopathy treatment: comparison between maternal peripheral blood and cord blood as sources for the preparation of topical eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Terzi, Adriana; Fresina, Michela; Velati, Claudio; Campos, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitheliotrophic growth factors (GF) can be supplied topically to patients with severe keratopathy through a variety of blood-derived products. We compared GF content in adult peripheral blood serum (PB-S) and cord blood serum (CB-S) as potential sources of GF. To limit inter-individual variability the assessment was performed in maternal-child pairs at the time of delivery. Material and methods The amounts of epidermal GF (EGF), insulin-like GF (IGF), transforming GF-beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) in CB units collected from the umbilical vein and PB from mothers (each group n=30) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Obstetric characteristics and haematological data were recorded from the archives of the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank. Statistical evaluations were performed by Wilcoxon’s test and correlations between variables were determined using Spearman’s (ρ) coefficient; p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results EGF, TGF-β and VEGF levels were significantly higher in CB-S than in PB-S (median 1,254.4 vs 646.0 pg/mL, 51.3 vs 38.4 μg/mL and 686.8 vs 30 pg/mL, respectively; all p<0.0001) whereas IGF content was significantly higher in PB-S than in CB-S (159.9 vs 53.5 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In CB-S, the CD34+ cell concentration appeared to be related to EGF, IGF and TGF-β levels whereas white blood cell count appeared to be related to EGF and TGF-β levels. VEGF levels showed no relation to the haematological parameters considered. Platelet counts were not related to GF level in either CB or PB. Discussion The GF content in the two blood sources was different, with CB containing larger amounts. Each GF selectively regulates cellular processes involved in corneal healing, so the use of PB or CB should be targeted to supply specific GF on the basis of the type and severity of the keratopathy. PMID:26192781

  14. Designing and Constructing an Optical Monitoring System of Blood Supply to Tissues under Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Akbari; Amin, Younessi Heravi Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Reduced blood flow due to obstruction is in most cases a primary factor in pressure ulcer formation and creation of bedsores. The aim of this study is to design and manufacture a care system for tissue under pressure, based on variations in blood flow at different depths of tissue. In the manufacture of the system two infrared light transmitters and receivers were located between 5 and 10 mm depth to measure the flow of blood at different in the under- pressure heel tissue. In addition, blood flow was evaluated in an unloaded and loaded condition, with 30 mmHg and 60.0 mmHg. A total of 15 people participated with a mean age of 50. Of these 15; 9 (60%) were men and 6 (40%) were women. Primary measurement results showed different individual differences in variation of blood flow in the tissue. To study signal amplitude changes significantly influenced by external pressure the PPG, P-value was measured. It was noted that there were significant changes in PPG signal amplitude during loading both pressures of 30 and 60 mmHg. Further development of this system would be possible with the use of a more flexible probe and by using a stronger optical receiver and transmitter to access more depth. PMID:23626948

  15. [Blood supply of the compact and spongy myocardium of fish, amphibia and reptiles].

    PubMed

    Romenskiĭ, O Iu

    1978-07-01

    Coronal arteries were injected with lead carbonate suspension and with Indian ink and cleared preparations 150--300 mkm thick were made in 195 hearts of fish, amphibians and reptiles and studied roentgenographically. It was stated that in Chondrichthyes (shark, skate) and in Chondrostei (beluga, stellate sturgeon, sturgeon), as well as in alligator both compact and spongy myocardium of the cardiac ventricle possess blood vessels. In teleostei, amphibians and reptiles (except alligator) spongy myocardium is avascular and receives its nutrition from the ventricle. In view of the data on the presence of blood vessels in the spongy myocardium in some vertebrates, it is impossible to accept the theory suggested by Grant and Regnier according to which vessels in the heart walls appear only in connection with compactization of the myocardium. Vascularization of the spongy myocardium is closely connected with oxygen saturation of the blood flowing through the heart. When this saturation is not satisfactory, the spongy myocardium has blood vessels. In alligator, vascularization of the spongy myocardium is connected with the fact that the heart has four chambers and there are arterial and venous blood streams.

  16. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. Results The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. Conclusion The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:23525363

  17. Effects of Resveratrol in Pregnancy Using Murine Models with Reduced Blood Supply to the Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Rajan; Stanley, Joanna L.; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F.; Andersson, Irene J.; Sibley, Colin P.; Davidge, Sandra T.; Baker, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) contribute significantly to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Although the causes of PE and FGR are not fully understood, both conditions are known to be associated with impaired uterine artery blood flow. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in a number of plants, has been shown to induce relaxation of uterine arteries in vitro as well as improve many pathological conditions associated with PE and FGR. We hypothesized that treatment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS−/−) and catechol-O-methyltransferase knockout mice (COMT−/−) with resveratrol during pregnancy would improve uterine artery blood flow and therefore ameliorate the PE-like phenotype and FGR in these murine models. Pregnant C57BL/6J, eNOS−/− and COMT−/− mice received either resveratrol supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) or control diet between gestational day (GD) 0.5 and GD 18.5. Resveratrol supplementation significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity and fetal weight in COMT−/− but not in eNOS−/− mice. There were no effects of resveratrol on litter size and placental weight among the groups. In conclusion, resveratrol increased uterine artery blood flow velocity and fetal weight in COMT−/− mice, suggesting potential as a therapeutic strategy for PE and FGR. PMID:23667712

  18. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  19. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus (XMRV) and the Safety of the Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew D; Cohn, Claudia S

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, a new virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), was discovered in a cohort of U.S. men with prostate cancer. Soon after this initial finding, XMRV was also detected in samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The blood community, which is highly sensitive to the threat of emerging infectious diseases since the HIV/AIDS crisis, recommended indefinite deferral of all blood donors with a history of CFS. As XMRV research progressed, conflicting results emerged regarding the importance of this virus in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer and/or CFS. Molecular biologists traced the development of XMRV to a recombination event in a laboratory mouse that likely occurred circa 1993. The virus was propagated via cell lines derived from a tumor present in this mouse and spread through contamination of laboratory samples. Well-controlled experiments showed that detection of XMRV was due to contaminated samples and was not a marker of or a causal factor in prostate cancer or CFS. This paper traces the development of XMRV in the prostate and CFS scientific communities and explores the effect it had on the blood community. PMID:27358491

  20. [Blood supply function and the tonus of the cerebral vessels in cervical sympathetic ganglionitis].

    PubMed

    Bulygin, I A; Ginzburg, S E; Leonovich, A L; Starostenko, L I

    1984-01-01

    In 42 patients with cervical sympathicoganglionitis and secondary diencephalic dysfunction, the cerebral circulation was studied by REG in order to elucidate the role of vascular factor in the pathogenesis of diencephalic impairments. The authors established the persistent elevation in the tone of the cerebral vessels in the carotid and vertebral-basilar area and a decrease in the pulse blood filling. The nitroglycerin test indicated the functional nature of the changes. A clear-cut vasculodilating effect following therapy with gangleron administered in the area of the impaired ganglia by graded electrophoresis was observed. It is suggested that vascular factor is involved in the pathogenesis of secondary diencephalic dysfunctions.

  1. Soft Polymers for Building up Small and Smallest Blood Supplying Systems by Stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Engelhardt, Sascha; Novosel, Esther; Elling, Burkhard; Wegener, Michael; Krüger, Hartmut

    2012-03-29

    Synthesis of a homologous series of photo-polymerizable α,w-polytetrahydrofuranether-diacrylate (PTHF-DA) resins is described with characterization by NMR, GPC, DSC, soaking and rheometrical measurements. The curing speeds of the resins are determined under UV light exposure. Young's modulus and tensile strength of fully cured resins show flexible to soft material attributes dependent on the molar mass of the used linear PTHF-diacrylates. Structuring the materials by stereo lithography (SL) and multiphoton polymerization (MPP) leads to tubes and bifurcated tube systems with a diameter smaller than 2 mm aimed at small to smallest supplying systems with capillary dimensions. WST-1 biocompatibility tests ofm polymer extracts show nontoxic characteristics of the adapted polymers after a washing process. Some polymers show shape memory effect (SME).

  2. Intraorgan differences of blood flow, oxygen supply and glycogen content in the multilobular liver of normal and hemorrhagic rats.

    PubMed

    Metzger, H P; Schywalsky, M

    1992-02-01

    In order to characterize intraorgan differences in blood supply of the rat liver, hepatic blood flow (HBF), surface oxygen tension (sPO2) and glycogen content of the largest and smallest lobi have been determined for normal and hemorrhagic rats (N = 68) in ketamin-xylazine anesthesia. 1. Mean HBF +/- SD of lobus sinister measured 1.07 +/- 0.23 ml/g min (n = 119 determinations, N = 9 rats); HBF of lob. caudatus dexter showed a left-shifted histogram (mean value = 0.77 ml/g.min, median = 0.72 ml/g.min, modul = 0.63 ml/g.min, p less than 0.005). 2. Mean sPO2 +/- SD of lob. sin. measured 23 +/- 6.8 mm Hg (n = 168, N = 16). The histograms of lob. caudat. dext. and sin. were left-shifted (mean value of l.c.d. = 9 mm Hg, median = 4 mm Hg, modul = 0 mm Hg, mean value of l.c.s. = 16 mm Hg, median = 17 mm Hg, modul = 0 mm Hg). Under hemorrhage sPO2 became almost zero in 91% of the measurements. 3. In response to an arterial bolus of fluorescence stained gamma-globulins, spreading of the dye showed a pronounced front and marked periportal area within lob. sin., while an irregular convective front and a much smaller area were detected within both of the lobi caudati. Under hemorrhage, intersinusoidal staining and undefined, irregular contours were observed within all lobes. 4. Compared with lob. sin. preferential glycogen depletion and partial centrilobular necrosis were detected within both of the lob. caudati while under hemorrhage the glycogen stores were empty and severe group necroses have been observed especially within the small lobi. From the data it is concluded that in comparison to lob. sin. an insufficient supply and pronounced vulnerability against hepatic ischemia exists within the small lobi caudati.

  3. Anatomical study of blood supply to the cervical spinal cord in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan; Petrovova, Eva; Flesarova, Slavka; Supuka, Peter; Supukova, Anna; Luptakova, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in the guinea pig. The study was carried out on 20 adult English self guinea pigs using corrosion and dissection technique. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17(©) was used as a casting medium. The origin of the ventral spinal artery from the left vertebral artery was found on average in 35% of the cases and from the right vertebral artery on average in 40% of the cases. The ventral spinal artery with origin from the anastomosis of two medial branches was found on average in 25% of the cases. The presence of ventral radicular branches of rami spinales entering the ventral spinal artery in the cervical region was observed in 42% of the cases on the right side and in 58% of the cases on the left side. The presence of dorsal radicular branches of rami spinales that reached the spinal cord was observed in 63% of the cases on the left side and in 37% of the cases on the right side. The number of radicular branches supplying the spinal cord is greater in guinea pig than in humans.

  4. The effect of intramedullary bone endoscopy on the endosteal blood supply in long bones. An experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Herget, Georg W; Haberstroh, Jörg; Südkamp, Norbert; Riede, Ursus; Oberst, Michael

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated whether the Intramedullary Bone Endoscopy (IBE) procedure within the cavity of an intact long bone will interfere with the local endosteal blood supply. In a sheep model, 10 animals underwent the IBE procedure with complete perioperative anaesthesiology monitoring. After the femora were harvested, histological analysis was performed to examine destruction of the endosteum and consecutive reduction in perfusion. Only one animal showed evidence of detachment of the endosteum with destruction of several microns of the endosteum, although this did not interfere with the cortical perfusion. None of the vessels were occluded by fat or other causes of occlusion, e.g. blood coagulation. Our findings indicate that with the IBE procedure under visual control there is a potential risk to damage the endosteum. However, the interference was limited to a small part of the endosteum and did not lead to a reduction in the cortical perfusion. Clinical use could be in localized intramedullary lesions such as osteomyelitis or benign bone tumours.

  5. Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2009-02-01

    This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20μm on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320μm in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

  6. Severe familial hypercholesterolemia impairs the regulation of coronary blood flow and oxygen supply during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2016-11-01

    Accelerated development of coronary atherosclerosis is a defining characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, the recent data highlight a significant cardiovascular risk prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that FH produces coronary microvascular dysfunction and impairs coronary vascular control at rest and during exercise in a swine model of FH. Coronary vascular responses to drug infusions and exercise were examined in chronically instrumented control and FH swine. FH swine exhibited ~tenfold elevation of plasma cholesterol and diffuse coronary atherosclerosis (20-60 % plaque burden). Similar to our recent findings in the systemic vasculature in FH swine, coronary smooth muscle nitric oxide sensitivity was increased in vivo and in vitro with maintained endothelium-dependent vasodilation in vivo in FH. At rest and during exercise, FH swine exhibited increased myocardial O2 extraction resulting in reduced coronary venous SO2 and PO2 versus control. During exercise in FH swine, the transmural distribution of coronary blood flow was unchanged; however, a shift toward anaerobic cardiac metabolism was revealed by increased coronary arteriovenous H(+) concentration gradient. This shift was associated with a worsening of cardiac efficiency (relationship between cardiac work and O2 consumption) in FH during exercise owing, in part, to a generalized reduction in stroke volume which was associated with increased left atrial pressure in FH. Our data highlight a critical role for coronary microvascular dysfunction as a contributor to impaired myocardial O2 balance, cardiac ischemia, and impaired cardiac function prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis in FH.

  7. Severe familial hypercholesterolemia impairs the regulation of coronary blood flow and oxygen supply during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2016-11-01

    Accelerated development of coronary atherosclerosis is a defining characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, the recent data highlight a significant cardiovascular risk prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that FH produces coronary microvascular dysfunction and impairs coronary vascular control at rest and during exercise in a swine model of FH. Coronary vascular responses to drug infusions and exercise were examined in chronically instrumented control and FH swine. FH swine exhibited ~tenfold elevation of plasma cholesterol and diffuse coronary atherosclerosis (20-60 % plaque burden). Similar to our recent findings in the systemic vasculature in FH swine, coronary smooth muscle nitric oxide sensitivity was increased in vivo and in vitro with maintained endothelium-dependent vasodilation in vivo in FH. At rest and during exercise, FH swine exhibited increased myocardial O2 extraction resulting in reduced coronary venous SO2 and PO2 versus control. During exercise in FH swine, the transmural distribution of coronary blood flow was unchanged; however, a shift toward anaerobic cardiac metabolism was revealed by increased coronary arteriovenous H(+) concentration gradient. This shift was associated with a worsening of cardiac efficiency (relationship between cardiac work and O2 consumption) in FH during exercise owing, in part, to a generalized reduction in stroke volume which was associated with increased left atrial pressure in FH. Our data highlight a critical role for coronary microvascular dysfunction as a contributor to impaired myocardial O2 balance, cardiac ischemia, and impaired cardiac function prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis in FH. PMID:27624732

  8. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products.

  9. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of six human melanoma xenograft lines: tumour bioenergetic status and blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, H.; Olsen, D. R.; Southon, T. E.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1993-01-01

    Six human melanoma xenograft lines grown s.c. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice were subjected to 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy in vivo. The following resonances were detected: phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate gamma, alpha and beta (NTP gamma, alpha and beta). The main purpose of the work was to search for possible relationships between 31P-NMR resonance ratios and tumour pH on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The latter parameter was measured by using the 86Rb uptake method. Tumour bioenergetic status [the (PCr + NTP beta)/Pi resonance ratio], tumour pH and blood supply per viable tumour cell decreased with increasing tumour volume for five of the six xenograft lines. The decrease in tumour bioenergetic status was due to a decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio as well as an increase in the Pi/total resonance ratio. The decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio was mainly a consequence of a decrease in the PCr/total resonance ratio for two lines and mainly a consequence of a decrease in the NTP beta/total resonance ratio for three lines. The magnitude of the decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio and the magnitude of the decrease in tumour pH were correlated to the magnitude of the decrease in blood supply per viable tumour cell. Tumour pH decreased with decreasing tumour bioenergetic status, and the magnitude of this decrease was larger for the tumour lines showing a high than for those showing a low blood supply per viable tumour cell. No correlations across the tumour lines were found between tumour pH and tumour bioenergetic status or any other resonance ratio on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The differences in the 31P-NMR spectrum between the tumour lines were probably caused by differences in the intrinsic biochemical properties of the tumour

  10. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  11. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  12. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  13. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  15. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  16. The March of Extrahepatic Collaterals: Analysis of Blood Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located in the Bare Area of the Liver After Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Ikeno, Hiroshi; Orito, Nobuaki; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in vascular supply to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the bare area of the liver in patients who were mainly treated with chemoembolization. Twenty-six patients with HCC showing a mean diameter of 3.1 {+-} 1.4 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation) were mainly treated with chemoembolization. All patients underwent 2.7 {+-} 2.3 chemoembolization sessions over 40.1 {+-} 25.2 months. Tumor feeding branches demonstrated in each chemoembolization session were retrospectively evaluated. Initially, 18 tumors (59.2%) were supplied by the hepatic artery (H) and 8 (30.8%) by both the hepatic and the extrahepatic arteries (H + C). Fourteen tumors (53.8%) recurred at the posterior aspect of the tumor and were supplied by H (n = 4), H + C (n = 5), and extrahepatic collaterals (C) (n = 5). Several tumors recurred despite repeated chemoembolization, and these were supplied by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 7), and C (n = 2) at the second recurrence, by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 2), and C (n = 3) at the third, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fourth, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fifth, and by H (n = 1) and C (n = 1) at the sixth. One tumor was supplied by H at the seventh and by H + C at the eighth recurrence. As the number of local recurrences increased, the feeding vessel shifted from H to C. Especially, the right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) and renal capsular artery (RCA) supplied the tumor early, while the small right RCAs, adrenal arteries, and intercostal and lumbar artery supplied late recurrences in turns. In conclusion, HCCs located in the bare area are frequently supplied by extrahepatic vessels initially, while recurrence after chemoembolization is mainly due to extrahepatic blood supply. The right IPA and RCA are common feeding vessels demonstrated early, while other extrahepatic collateral supply from the retroperitoneal circulation occurs in turns during the later course.

  17. Multilayer-strategy to enhance optimal safety of the blood supply: The role of pathogen inactivation for optimizing recipient safety and helping health care cost containment: Moderator views.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    This brief paper is based on the Coimbra 'conference presentation by the moderator', prior to the two main lectures on pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. Being an educationist and teacher in core and having a great interest to simplify the message convey to conference' participants and readers I decided to maintain the slide format of the presentation. To highlight most effectively the role played by pathogen reduction to supplement the multilayer-strategy already in place, emphasizes were placed by going back to basic focusing on: where we were, where we are now and where we are going!. The unresolved problems of viral safety of blood components and criteria of universal acceptability of PRT are highlighted so is the need for further DDR strategies both in incremental and innovative ways. Finally the issue of who would benefit from implementation of PRT is described based on published data and also providing some visionary foresights for the long term benefits of PRT in both optimizing the safety of blood supply and helping at least in health care containment. I hope this new approach will be useful to readers, providing at least some conceptual and technical supports in understanding the role of PRT in optimizing the safety of blood supply. PMID:25748230

  18. Multilayer-strategy to enhance optimal safety of the blood supply: The role of pathogen inactivation for optimizing recipient safety and helping health care cost containment: Moderator views.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    This brief paper is based on the Coimbra 'conference presentation by the moderator', prior to the two main lectures on pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. Being an educationist and teacher in core and having a great interest to simplify the message convey to conference' participants and readers I decided to maintain the slide format of the presentation. To highlight most effectively the role played by pathogen reduction to supplement the multilayer-strategy already in place, emphasizes were placed by going back to basic focusing on: where we were, where we are now and where we are going!. The unresolved problems of viral safety of blood components and criteria of universal acceptability of PRT are highlighted so is the need for further DDR strategies both in incremental and innovative ways. Finally the issue of who would benefit from implementation of PRT is described based on published data and also providing some visionary foresights for the long term benefits of PRT in both optimizing the safety of blood supply and helping at least in health care containment. I hope this new approach will be useful to readers, providing at least some conceptual and technical supports in understanding the role of PRT in optimizing the safety of blood supply.

  19. Positive feedback loops for factor V and factor VII activation supply sensitivity to local surface tissue factor density during blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Balandina, A N; Shibeko, A M; Kireev, D A; Novikova, A A; Shmirev, I I; Panteleev, M A; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2011-10-19

    Blood coagulation is triggered not only by surface tissue factor (TF) density but also by surface TF distribution. We investigated recognition of surface TF distribution patterns during blood coagulation and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. For these investigations, we employed 1), an in vitro reaction-diffusion experimental model of coagulation; and 2), numerical simulations using a mathematical model of coagulation in a three-dimensional space. When TF was uniformly immobilized over the activating surface, the clotting initiation time in normal plasma increased from 4 min to >120 min, with a decrease in TF density from 100 to 0.7 pmol/m(2). In contrast, surface-immobilized fibroblasts initiated clotting within 3-7 min, independently of fibroblast quantity and despite a change in average surface TF density from 0.5 to 130 pmol/m(2). Experiments using factor V-, VII-, and VIII-deficient plasma and computer simulations demonstrated that different responses to these two TF distributions are caused by two positive feedback loops in the blood coagulation network: activation of the TF-VII complex by factor Xa, and activation of factor V by thrombin. This finding suggests a new role for these reactions: to supply sensitivity to local TF density during blood coagulation.

  20. [Temperature determination of the skin surface for the estimation of blood supply disorders in myocutaneous island flaps of rats].

    PubMed

    Herrberger, U; Tilgner, A; Schumann, D

    1989-01-01

    In rectus abdominis myocutaneous island flaps (3.0 x 1.5 cm) of rats (Uje:WIST) skin surface temperature was measured by an infrared pyrometer for monitoring flap viability following experimentally induced blood flow insufficiency. The insufficiency was caused by ligation of the pedicle vessels (epigastric superior artery and vein) on the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th d after flap replantation, and by occlusion of these vessels with microclips for 2 h. Only the temperature differences between the intact and the operated skin surface were used to estimate blood flow efficiency not, the absolute values. These differences were statistically insignificant between the intact right and left abdominal skin areas and between the intact skin and the vital flap surfaces. In these cases the maximal temperature differences were 0.52 degree C. Only during the early postoperative period (3-days ligation group) a correlation between blood flow insufficiency and flap viability is expressed by temperature differences (2.14 degrees C). Later on (7-days ligation group) a temperature difference of 1.87 degrees C was no evidence of disturbed wound healing. Thus in advanced stages in myocutaneous flaps differences of blood flow and neovascularization respectively cannot be estimated reliably by measurements of skin surface temperature. However, temperature differences greater than 2 degrees C signal impaired flap viability. PMID:2711783

  1. Strengthening blood programs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Terri Konstenius; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The lack of an adequate and safe blood supply is a major limitation to health care in the developing world. It is estimated that about 80% of the worlds' population has access to only 20% of the world's blood supply. When experts from the developed world attempt to provide assistance to blood programs in the developing world, this must be done with respect for the situation and the people who often work under difficult conditions. Important factors in the potential to strengthen blood availability and safety are government support, a national blood policy, the nature and leadership of the blood organization, transfusion medicine expertise, and hospital relations. A key first step is to carry out a needs assessment of the policies, governmental support, organizations, public attitudes about blood donation, and personnel and operations involved in providing the current blood supply. The important facets of the assessment are: the tool itself, the manner in which the assessment is conducted, and the presentation of the results. The assessment should provide recommendations for infrastructure, operations, standard procedures, testing strategies, training programs, types of donors and donor recruitment, budgeting, quality systems, and hospital relations. A sound assessment provides the groundwork and strategy for moving forward. Technical assistance from developed world experts to colleagues in the developing world can be extremely valuable in improving blood availability, safety, and the quality of blood services in the developing world.

  2. Blood supply to the brain and. beta. -endorphin and acth levels under the influence of thyrotrophin releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoyan, R.S.; Ganshina, T.S.; Mirzoyan, R.A.; Ragimov, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    The authors studied beta-endorphin because of its possible mediator role in terms of the cerebrovascular effects of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), and also because of data in the literature on antagonistic relations between TRH and the endogenous opioid system of the brain. Beta-endorphin was determined by radioimmunoassay; its level was determined after its separation from the beta-lipotrophin fraction. The investigation showed that TRH has a marked depressant effect on cerebrovascular vasoconstrictor refleces. Elevation of the blood ACTH level causes an increase in BP and in the tone of the cerebral vessels. An absence of correlation between the beta-endorphin and ACTH levels in the blood and CSF under the influence of TRH is shown.

  3. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus: auto-downregulation of pulmonary arterial blood supply.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially documented case of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and flow shift in a main pulmonary artery due to a complete intrinsic obstruction of the ipsilateral main bronchus. The condition is reversible, contingent on being relieved within a few days. PMID:26374773

  4. In Vivo Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes during Clogging and Unclogging of Blood Supply for the Application of Clinical Shock Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Stelzle, Florian; Schmidt, Michael

    This paper presents a novel methodology in early detection of clinical shock by monitoring hemodynamic changes using diffuse reflectance measurement technique. Detailed prototype of the reflectance measurement system and data analysis technique of hemodynamic monitoring was carried out in our laboratory. The real time in-vivo measurements were done from the index finger. This study demonstrates preliminary results of real time monitoring of reduced/- oxyhemoglobin changes during clogging and unclogging of blood flow in the finger tip. The obtained results were verified with pulse-oximeter values, connected to the tip of the same index finger.

  5. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  6. The EASTR Study: indications for transfusion and estimates of transfusion recipient numbers in hospitals supplied by the National Blood Service.

    PubMed

    Wells, A W; Llewelyn, C A; Casbard, A; Johnson, A J; Amin, M; Ballard, S; Buck, J; Malfroy, M; Murphy, M F; Williamson, L M

    2009-12-01

    This study provides data on National Blood Service (NBS) red blood cell (RBC, n = 9142), platelet (PLT, n = 4232) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP, n = 3584) recipients independently sampled by monthly quota from 29 representative hospitals over 12 months in 2001-2002. Hospitals were stratified by size according to total yearly RBC issues. Transfusion indications were chosen from diagnostic and procedural codes, and recipients grouped into Epidemiology and Survival of Transfusion Recipients Case-mix Groups (E-CMGs). The main E-CMGs were digestive [19% of RBC recipients; including 5% gastrointestinal (GI) bleeds and 3% colorectal surgery], musculoskeletal (15%; 12% hip and knee replacement), haematology (13%) and obstetrics and gynaecology (10%). Renal failure, fractured neck of femur, cardiac artery by-pass grafting (CABG) and paediatrics, each accounted for 3-4% recipients. FFP recipients: the main E-CMGs were digestive (21% of FFP recipients; including 7% GI bleeds and 3% colorectal surgery), hepatobiliary (15%; 7% liver disease and 2% liver transplant), cardiac (12%) and paediatrics (9%) The renal, paediatrics, vascular and haematology E-CMGs each had 6-7% of recipients. PLT recipients: the main E-CMGs were haematology (27% of PLT recipients; including 9% lymphoma and 8% acute leukaemia), cardiac (17%), paediatrics (13%), hepatobiliary (10%) and digestive (9%). Back-weighting gave national estimates of 433 000 RBC, 57 500 FFP and 41 500 PLT recipients/year in England and North Wales, median age 69, 64 and 59 years, respectively. Digestive and hepatobiliary indications emerged as the top reason for transfusion in RBC and FFP recipients, and was also a frequent indication in PLT recipients.

  7. Noninvasive quantification of the differential portal and arterial contribution to the liver blood supply from PET measurements using the 11C-acetate kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sirong; Feng, Dagan

    2004-09-01

    Our recent research has demonstrated that 11C-acetate could be a complementary tracer to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our previous modeling study, a three-compartment four-parameter model with a fixed contribution ratio of the liver's two blood supplies was proposed to characterize the kinetic behavior of 11C-acetate in liver. However, in real pathology, both tumor and nontumor liver tissue can be heterogeneous in the distribution and proportion of the two blood supplies. To further improve the accuracy of quantitative analysis, the actual proportion of the hepatic artery and portal vein (PV) in different regions of interest (ROIs) was investigated in this study. An extra parameter av was included in the model input function to describe the contribution of PV to the liver. Ten ROIs extracted from six patients were used to test the models with fixed/nonfixed weighted dual-input function. The weighted nonlinear least squares algorithm was used to estimate all of the parameters. Evaluation of the adequacy of the two models was conducted and the computer simulation was performed to test the estimation accuracy of the new model. The forward clearance K was also estimated by the linear Patlak method. The results show that the model with parameter av in the input function was more suitable for mapping the tracer time activity curves. Moreover, the estimated av value fits the practical physiological and pathological conditions well and could be a potential candidate to provide useful additional diagnostic information for the early detection of hepatic metastases.

  8. Material & equipment, procurement & maintenance: Impact on blood safety.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Blood Transfusion Safety is dependent on effectively organised and managed blood services, which have adequate financial resources, skilled manpower, appropriate infrastructure and quality management systems in place. 80% of the world's population has access to 20% of the supply blood products, of which little is consistently safe. HIV highlighted the importance of blood safety. The lack of effective blood services in low human development index (LHDI), developing countries, has lead to international funding and capacity building for more than three decades. The initial strategies focused on providing HIV testing reagents to prevention transmission, however this only addresses one part of blood safety. Blood safety is not only dependent on preventing HIV transmission. In many populations there are other infectious agents, which have a higher prevalence. Ensuring the correct blood is provided to the patient depends on: well managed services with effective leadership and adequate budgets; capacity building and retention of skilled experienced staff; availability of laboratory equipment, correctly maintained; blood cold chain systems; procedures for tendering, purchasing and ensuring an unbroken supply of reagents and consumables; and quality management systems. Barriers for simplified effective tendering, procurement and contracting require urgent attention and coordination of all funding organisations to ensure an unbroken supply of reagents. PMID:20079663

  9. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  10. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  11. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  12. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  13. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  14. A new pulsed electric field therapy for melanoma disrupts the tumor’s blood supply and causes complete remission without recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Chen, Xinhua; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Baldwin, Wallace H.; Sheikh, Saleh; Pomicter, Jennifer L.; Ren, Wei; Osgood, Christopher; Swanson, R. James; Kolb, Juergen F.; Beebe, Stephen J.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2009-01-01

    We have discovered a new, ultrafast therapy for treating skin cancer that is extremely effective with a total electric field exposure time of only 180 μsec. The application of 300 high-voltage (40 kV/cm), ultrashort (300 nsec) electrical pulses to murine melanomas in vivo triggers both necrosis and apoptosis, resulting in complete tumor remission within an average of 47 days in the 17 animals treated. None of these melanomas recurred during a 4-month period after the initial melanoma had disappeared. These pulses generate small, long-lasting, rectifying nanopores in the plasma membrane of exposed cells, resulting in increased membrane permeability to small molecules and ions, as well as an increase in intracellular Ca2+, DNA fragmentation, disruption of the tumor’s blood supply and the initiation of apoptosis. Apoptosis was indicated by a 3-fold increase in Bad labeling and a 72% decrease in Bcl-2 labeling. In addition, microvessel density within the treated tumors fell by 93%. This new therapy utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields has the advantages of highly localized targeting of tumor cells and a total exposure time of only 180 μsec. These pulses penetrate into the interior of every tumor cell and initiate DNA fragmentation and apoptosis while at the same time reducing blood flow to the tumor. This new physical tumor therapy is drug free, highly localized, uses low energy, has no significant side effects and results in very little scarring. PMID:19408306

  15. Evidence of Flicker-Induced Functional Hyperaemia in the Smallest Vessels of the Human Retinal Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Bang V.

    2016-01-01

    Regional changes in blood flow are initiated within neural tissue to help fuel local differences in neural activity. Classically, this response was thought to arise only in larger arterioles and venules. However, recently, it has been proposed that a) the smallest vessels of the circulation make a comparable contribution, and b) the response should be localised intermittently along such vessels, due to the known distribution of contractile mural cells. To assess these hypotheses in human neural tissue in vivo, we imaged the retinal microvasculature (diameters 3–28 μm) non-invasively, using adaptive optics, before and after delivery of focal (360 μm) patches of flickering visible light. Our results demonstrated a definite average response in 35% of all vessel segments analysed. In these responding vessels, the magnitude of proportional dilation (mean ± SEM for pre-capillary arterioles 13 ± 5%, capillaries 31 ± 8%, and post-capillary venules 10 ± 3%) is generally far greater than the magnitudes we and others have measured in the larger retinal vessels, supporting proposition a) above. The dilations observed in venules were unexpected based on previous animal work, and may be attributed either to differences in stimulus or species. Response heterogeneity across the network was high; responses were also heterogeneous along individual vessels (45% of vessel segments showed demonstrable locality in their response). These observations support proposition b) above. We also observed a definite average constriction across 7% of vessel segments (mean ± SEM constriction for capillaries -16 ± 3.2%, and post-capillary venules -18 ± 12%), which paints a picture of dynamic redistribution of flow throughout the smallest vessel networks in the retina in response to local, stimulus-driven metabolic demand. PMID:27617960

  16. Comparative and scaling aspects of heart and body weights with reference to blood supply of cardiac fibers.

    PubMed

    Poupa, O; Lindström, L

    1983-01-01

    Relative heart weight (RHW) differs in vertebrates with the ratio 1:20 between extremes (bottom bound fishes--Pleuronectidae--and birds). When plotting heart weight (HW) against body weight (BW) one obtains channels which contain not only vertebrates of the same classes (poikilotherms, small and big mammals and birds) but also animals belonging to different classes: tuna fish data are located in the "small mammalian channel" together with data of large tropical snakes while large mammals (upwards 4000 g) belong to the "bird channel". Reasons for such groupings are not clear and physical activity seems not to be the only reason. When comparing active and non active vertebrates one finds that the RHW is as a rule greater in physically more active poikilotherms and homoiotherms. The RHW is also higher in wild than in domesticated forms the differences appearing after weaning (wild vs laboratory rat). In spongy type of myocardium the growth of cardiac fibers results in restriction of the blood flow through lacunae and the contact between endothelial cells lining growing strands of musculature probably provokes formation of capillaries. The appearance of mixed type of myocardium (outer compact and inner spongy compartments) is not bound to the water to land transition since it occurs also in some fishes; it does not occur or is rare in amphibia and is frequent in reptiles. The compact outer layer comprises a different proportion of the cardiac wall volume (5-73%). Metabolic differences were described between cardiac cells in compact and spongy compartments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Evidence of Flicker-Induced Functional Hyperaemia in the Smallest Vessels of the Human Retinal Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Duan, Angelina; Bedggood, Phillip A; Bui, Bang V; Metha, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    Regional changes in blood flow are initiated within neural tissue to help fuel local differences in neural activity. Classically, this response was thought to arise only in larger arterioles and venules. However, recently, it has been proposed that a) the smallest vessels of the circulation make a comparable contribution, and b) the response should be localised intermittently along such vessels, due to the known distribution of contractile mural cells. To assess these hypotheses in human neural tissue in vivo, we imaged the retinal microvasculature (diameters 3-28 μm) non-invasively, using adaptive optics, before and after delivery of focal (360 μm) patches of flickering visible light. Our results demonstrated a definite average response in 35% of all vessel segments analysed. In these responding vessels, the magnitude of proportional dilation (mean ± SEM for pre-capillary arterioles 13 ± 5%, capillaries 31 ± 8%, and post-capillary venules 10 ± 3%) is generally far greater than the magnitudes we and others have measured in the larger retinal vessels, supporting proposition a) above. The dilations observed in venules were unexpected based on previous animal work, and may be attributed either to differences in stimulus or species. Response heterogeneity across the network was high; responses were also heterogeneous along individual vessels (45% of vessel segments showed demonstrable locality in their response). These observations support proposition b) above. We also observed a definite average constriction across 7% of vessel segments (mean ± SEM constriction for capillaries -16 ± 3.2%, and post-capillary venules -18 ± 12%), which paints a picture of dynamic redistribution of flow throughout the smallest vessel networks in the retina in response to local, stimulus-driven metabolic demand. PMID:27617960

  18. Β-alanine and l-histidine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement in L-carnosine supply.

    PubMed

    Usui, Takuya; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The supply of L-carnosine, a bioactive dipeptide of β-alanine and l-histidine, to the retina across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was studied. The in vivo and in vitro studies revealed low uptake activities for [(3)H]Gly-Sar, a representative dipeptide, suggesting that l-carnosine transport plays only a minor role at the BRB. The in vivo study using rats showed approximately 18- and 23-fold greater retinal uptake indexes (RUI) for [(3)H]β-alanine and [(3)H]l-histidine compared with that of a paracellular marker, respectively. The RUI of [(3)H]β-alanine was taurine- and γ-aminobutyric acid-sensitive, and the in vitro uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells showed time- concentration- and temperature-dependent [(3)H]β-alanine uptake, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved in β-alanine transport across the inner BRB. [(3)H]β-Alanine uptake was inhibited by taurine and β-guanidinopropionic acid, suggesting that taurine transporter (TAUT/SLC6A6) is responsible for the influx transport of β-alanine across the inner BRB. Regarding l-histidine, the l-leucine-sensitive RUI of [(3)H]l-histidine was identified, and the in vitro [(3)H]l-histidine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells suggested that a carrier-mediated process was involved in l-histidine transport across the inner BRB. The inhibition profile suggested that L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1/SLC7A5) is responsible for the influx transport of l-histidine across the inner BRB. These results show that the influx transports of β-alanine and l-histidine across the inner BRB is carried out by TAUT and LAT1, respectively, suggesting that the retinal l-carnosine is supplied by enzymatic synthesis from two kinds of amino acids transported across the inner BRB.

  19. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  20. Relationship between oxygen supply and cerebral blood flow assessed by transcranial Doppler and near – infrared spectroscopy in healthy subjects during breath – holding

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Filippo; Liboni, William; Grippi, Gianfranco; Negri, Emanuela

    2006-01-01

    Background Breath – holding (BH) is a suitable method for inducing cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR). The assessment of VMR is of clinical importance for the early detection of risk conditions and for the follow-up of disabled patients. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is used to measure cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during BH, whereas near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures the concentrations of the oxygenated (O2Hb) and reduced (CO2Hb) hemoglobin. The two techniques provide circulatory and functional-related parameters. The aim of the study is the analysis of the relationship between oxygen supply and CBFV as detected by TCD and NIRS in healthy subjects performing BH. Methods 20 healthy subjects (15 males and 5 females, age 33 ± 4.5 years) underwent TCD and NIRS examination during voluntary breath – holding. VMR was quantified by means of the breath-holding index (BHI). We evaluated the BHI based on mean CBFV, O2Hb and CO2Hb concentrations, relating the baseline to post-stimulus values. To quantify VMR we also computed the slope of the linear regression line of the concentration signals during BH. From the NIRS signals we also derived the bidimensional representation of VMR, plotting the instantaneous O2Hb concentration vs the CO2Hb concentration during the BH phase. Two subjects, a 30 years old current smoker female and a 63 years old male with a ischemic stroke event at the left middle cerebral artery, were tested as case studies. Results The BHI for the CBFV was equal to 1.28 ± 0.71 %/s, the BHI for the O2Hb to 0.055 ± 0.037 μmol/l/s and the BHI for CO2Hb to 0.0006 ± 0.0019 μmol/l/s, the O2Hb slope was equal to 0.15 ± 0.09 μmol/l/s and the CO2Hb slope to 0.09 ± 0.04 μmol/l/s. There was a positive correlation between the CBFV and the O2Hb increments during BH (r = 0.865). The bidimensional VMR pattern shows common features among healthy subjects that are lost in the control studies. Conclusion We show that healthy subjects

  1. Involvement of adrenoceptors in the ovarian vascular pedicle in the regulation of counter current transfer of steroid hormones to the arterial blood supplying the oviduct and uterus of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Grzegorzewski, W; Skipor, J; Wasowska, B; Krzymowski, T

    1997-01-01

    On Day 10 of the oestrous cycle in pigs, after laparotomy noradrenaline (NA), methoxamine (α1-adrenomimetic, M), Prazosin (α1-adrenolytic, Pr) in total doses of 4 μmol, and saline were infused (10 min) into the superficial layer of mesovarium on both sides of the ovarian pedicle vasculature, close to the ovary.Blood flow in the ovarian artery, heart rate and progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) secretion from the ovary and their concentrations in the ovarian venous effluent, as well as the concentrations of P4 and A4 in the blood supplying the oviduct and the uterus, were determined.A significant increase of P4 and A4 secretion after NA and M infusion and increased concentrations of P4 and A4 in the ovarian venous effluent were found, but these changes did not influence the counter current transfer of hormones from the venous effluent into arterial blood supplying the oviduct and the uterus.Infusion of Pr caused a significant decrease of P4 and A4 secretion and their concentrations in the ovarian venous effluent and significantly increased A4 concentration in the blood supplying the oviduct and uterus.The results indicate that stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors in the area of ovarian vasculature did not influence, whereas block of α1-adrenoceptors affected, the local concentration of steroid hormones in the blood supplying the oviduct and the part of the uterus proximal to the ovary, despite the changes in the concentrations of steroid hormones in the ovarian effluent. PMID:9138679

  2. Overcoming blood shortages: red blood cell and platelet substitutes and membrane modifications.

    PubMed

    Davey, Richard J

    2004-03-01

    Blood shortages are increasingly common as the donor base declines and extensive restrictions on blood donation disqualify many donors. Red blood cell (RBC) and platelet substitutes have long been anticipated as alternatives to standard transfusions. However, difficulties in manufacturing, efficacy, and safety have slowed the development of these products. New understanding of the relationship between blood viscosity, oxygen transport, and vasoactivity have led to more effective RBC substitutes, several of which are in advanced clinical trials. In addition, creative approaches to RBC membrane modification, such as the enzymatic cleavage of ABH glycoproteins, may lead to a universal RBC. Advances in the understanding of platelet membrane behavior at low temperatures may lead to extended platelet storage at refrigerator temperatures. Standard transfusions of human RBCs and platelets will not be replaced soon. However, these new products will be a useful alternative for selected clinical applications and will lessen our dependence on our marginally adequate blood supply.

  3. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  4. Progress Toward Strengthening National Blood Transfusion Services - 14 Countries, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Michelle S; Kuehnert, Matthew; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Bjork, Adam; Pitman, John P

    2016-02-12

    Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical intervention; however, challenges to the recruitment of voluntary, unpaid or otherwise nonremunerated whole blood donors and insufficient funding of national blood services and programs have created obstacles to collecting adequate supplies of safe blood in developing countries (1). Since 2004, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided approximately $437 million in bilateral financial support to strengthen national blood transfusion services in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean* that have high prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. CDC analyzed routinely collected surveillance data on annual blood collections and HIV prevalence among donated blood units for 2011-2014. This report updates previous CDC reports (2,3) on progress made by these 14 PEPFAR-supported countries in blood safety, summarizes challenges facing countries as they strive to meet World Health Organization (WHO) targets, and documents progress toward achieving the WHO target of 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donors by 2020 (4). During 2011-2014, overall blood collections among the 14 countries increased by 19%; countries with 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donations remained stable at eight, and, despite high national HIV prevalence rates, 12 of 14 countries reported an overall decrease in donated blood units that tested positive for HIV. Achieving safe and adequate national blood supplies remains a public health priority for WHO and countries worldwide. Continued success in improving blood safety and achieving WHO targets for blood quality and adequacy will depend on national government commitments to national blood transfusion services or blood programs through increased public financing and diversified funding mechanisms for transfusion-related activities.

  5. Progress Toward Strengthening National Blood Transfusion Services - 14 Countries, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Michelle S; Kuehnert, Matthew; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Bjork, Adam; Pitman, John P

    2016-02-12

    Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical intervention; however, challenges to the recruitment of voluntary, unpaid or otherwise nonremunerated whole blood donors and insufficient funding of national blood services and programs have created obstacles to collecting adequate supplies of safe blood in developing countries (1). Since 2004, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided approximately $437 million in bilateral financial support to strengthen national blood transfusion services in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean* that have high prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. CDC analyzed routinely collected surveillance data on annual blood collections and HIV prevalence among donated blood units for 2011-2014. This report updates previous CDC reports (2,3) on progress made by these 14 PEPFAR-supported countries in blood safety, summarizes challenges facing countries as they strive to meet World Health Organization (WHO) targets, and documents progress toward achieving the WHO target of 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donors by 2020 (4). During 2011-2014, overall blood collections among the 14 countries increased by 19%; countries with 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donations remained stable at eight, and, despite high national HIV prevalence rates, 12 of 14 countries reported an overall decrease in donated blood units that tested positive for HIV. Achieving safe and adequate national blood supplies remains a public health priority for WHO and countries worldwide. Continued success in improving blood safety and achieving WHO targets for blood quality and adequacy will depend on national government commitments to national blood transfusion services or blood programs through increased public financing and diversified funding mechanisms for transfusion-related activities. PMID:26866413

  6. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  7. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  8. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  9. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  10. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  11. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  12. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  13. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  14. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  15. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  16. [Are legal sanctions for improving traffic safety adequate?].

    PubMed

    Geppert, K

    1990-01-01

    Referring to the field of traffic legislation the author examines the different possibilities to improve the safety on the road, within the corresponding range of summary offence and criminal law; (1) As far as the rules of conduct are concerned he demands a uniform threshold value of at least 0.8% for blood alcohol within the limits of the German penal code Sections 315 c I, 316. He rejects the plan to introduce a criminal offence of considerable speeding if imminent danger is provoked. (2) On the level of sanctions the traditional measures of traffic legislation are to be supplied sensibly by supplementary training courses concerning alcohol abuse. The legal instruments of (temporary) suspension of a person's driving license on the part of criminal jurisdiction or public authorities ought to be utilized on a larger scale. The (Flensburg) repeated perpetration point system is to be improved with regard to special preventive measures. (3) To increase the risk of being caught the control of the traffic by the police is to be intensified--especially through a larger application of technical means. (4) The extension of the instruments of traffic legislation to immediate measures by the police--preliminary or "mini" suspension of a person's driving license by resort to preventive rights by the police?--meets with constitutional or legal scruples.

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  2. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  3. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  4. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  5. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  6. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  7. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  8. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  13. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  17. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  18. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  19. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  20. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  1. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  2. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  3. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  4. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  5. Donated blood--gift or commodity? Some economic and ethical considerations on voluntary vs commercial donation of blood.

    PubMed

    von Schubert, H

    1994-07-01

    The author applies the theory of public goods on donated blood. Donated blood may be taken as a 'public good' like water and air, police and fire brigades. This theory trends to imply a preference for voluntary donation and bloodbanking by public and nonprofit organisations as well as for low cost supply. An additional commercial supply of blood nevertheless is welcome. Quality as well as quantity of blood depend first of all on the willingness to donate and the honesty of the donors about their health. An altruistic motivation alone, which is not triggered by some material incentive, does not in all systems guarantee a sufficient quantity of safe blood. Both the altruistic as well as the reimbursement-oriented donor's willingness and honesty have to be guarded by sound practice in bloodbanking and adequate public control within a legal framework which reflects the vital role of blood supply. A legal implementation of product liability will certainly be an important instrument in this field.

  6. Metabolic Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle during Acute Reduction in Blood Flow and Oxygen Supply to Mitochondria: In-Silico Studies Using a Multi-Scale, Top-Down Integrated Model

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Ranjan K.; Li, Yanjun; Kim, Jaeyeon; Beard, Daniel A.; Saidel, Gerald M.; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2008-01-01

    Control mechanisms of cellular metabolism and energetics in skeletal muscle that may become evident in response to physiological stresses such as reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria can be quantitatively understood using a multi-scale computational model. The analysis of dynamic responses from such a model can provide insights into mechanisms of metabolic regulation that may not be evident from experimental studies. For the purpose, a physiologically-based, multi-scale computational model of skeletal muscle cellular metabolism and energetics was developed to describe dynamic responses of key chemical species and reaction fluxes to muscle ischemia. The model, which incorporates key transport and metabolic processes and subcellular compartmentalization, is based on dynamic mass balances of 30 chemical species in both capillary blood and tissue cells (cytosol and mitochondria) domains. The reaction fluxes in cytosol and mitochondria are expressed in terms of a general phenomenological Michaelis-Menten equation involving the compartmentalized energy controller ratios ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD+. The unknown transport and reaction parameters in the model are estimated simultaneously by minimizing the differences between available in vivo experimental data on muscle ischemia and corresponding model outputs in coupled with the resting linear flux balance constraints using a robust, nonlinear, constrained-based, reduced gradient optimization algorithm. With the optimal parameter values, the model is able to simulate dynamic responses to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria associated with muscle ischemia of several key metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes in the subcellular cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments, some that can be measured and others that can not be measured with the current experimental techniques. The model can be applied to test complex hypotheses involving dynamic regulation of cellular metabolism and

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions Among Non-Blood Donor Female Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Zahid, Ibrahim; Lashkerwala, Sehan Siraj; Saeeduddin, Fawad; Saad, Muhammad; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Moorpani, Manpreet; Khan, Midhat Zafar; Tariq, Ahsan; Habib, Haya; Islam, Tehrema; Advani, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Blood donation is necessary in order to maintain an adequate supply of blood to patients who are suffering from any kind of disease or trauma, which requires them to have blood transfusion. Female non-blood donors are generally low in number. Therefore, this research was carried out to assess the main reasons behind the lack of blood donations made by females, and their knowledge, attitude and perceptions towards voluntary blood donation. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 664 female health professionals, who were selected by non-probability convenience sampling from two tertiary care hospitals. A pretested questionnaire was presented to the sample population, and the data was entered and analyzed on SPSS (V17). Results: 94.6 % were aware with the fact that blood is screened for AIDS, Hepatitis B and C before transfusion. Moreover, 83.7% said that they will only donate blood if a family, relative or friend would need it and similarly 83.4% suggested that they would donate blood if blood donation camps are arranged in hospital premises. 81.8 % thought that blood donors can contract Hepatitis B after donation whereas only 29.5% did not blood due already blood loss in menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The participants had adequate knowledge about the benefits of blood donation. The most important reason identified for not donating blood is the lack of facilities within the workplace or lack of approach by responsible authorities. The results of the study may help in minimizing the misconceptions of the participants about blood transfusion, which would increase their contribution towards blood donation. PMID:26573048

  8. Thrombography reveals thrombin generation potential continues to deteriorate following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery despite adequate hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond K; Sleep, Joseph R; Visner, Allison J; Raasch, David J; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Torloni, Antonio S; Arabia, Francisco A

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways of the hemostatic system converge when prothrombin is converted to thrombin. The ability to generate an adequate thrombin burst is the most central aspect of the coagulation cascade. The thrombin-generating potential in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be indicative of their hemostatic status. In this report, thrombography, a unique technique for directly measuring the potential of patients' blood samples to generate adequate thrombin bursts, is used to characterize the coagulopathic profile in post-CPB patients. Post-CPB hemostasis is typically achieved with protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation and occasionally supplemented with blood product component transfusions. In this pilot study, platelet poor plasma samples were derived from 11 primary cardiac surgery patients at five time points: prior to CPB, immediately post-protamine, upon arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU), 3 hours post-ICU admission, and 24 hours after ICU arrival. Thrombography revealed that the Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) was not different between [Baseline] and [PostProtamine] but proceeded to deteriorate in the immediate postoperative period. At the [3HourPostICU] time point, the ETP was significantly lower than the [Baseline] values, 1233 +/- 591 versus 595 +/- 379 nM.min (mean +/- SD; n=9, p < .005), despite continued adequacy of hemostasis. ETPs returned to baseline values the day after surgery. Transfusions received, conventional blood coagulation testing results, and blood loss volumes are also presented. Despite adequate hemostasis, thrombography reveals an underlying coagulopathic process that could put some cardiac surgical patients at risk for postoperative bleeding. Thrombography is a novel technique that could be developed into a useful tool for perfusionists and physicians to identify coagulopathies and optimize blood management following CPB. PMID:21449230

  9. Better Understanding of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) Pathways in Vasculature: Towards Precision Therapy Targeting Angiogenesis and Tumor Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, D; Shymanets, A; Huang, Yu; Bucher, K; Piekorz, R; Hirsch, E; Beer-Hammer, S; Harteneck, C; Gollasch, M; Nürnberg, B

    2016-07-01

    The intracellular PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway is involved in regulation of numerous important cell processes including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. The PI3Kα isoform has received particular attention as a novel molecular target in gene therapy, since this isoform plays critical roles in tumor progression and tumor blood flow and angiogenesis. However, the role of PI3Kα and other class I isoforms, i.e. PI3Kβ, γ, δ, in the regulation of vascular tone and regional blood flow are largely unknown. We used novel isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors and mice deficient in both PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ (Pik3cg(-/-)/Pik3cd(-/-)) to define the putative contribution of PI3K isoform(s) to arterial vasoconstriction. Wire myography was used to measure isometric contractions of isolated murine mesenteric arterial rings. Phenylephrine-dependent contractions were inhibited by the pan PI3K inhibitors wortmannin (100 nM) and LY294002 (10 µM). These vasoconstrictions were also inhibited by the PI3Kα isoform inhibitors A66 (10 µM) and PI-103 (1 µM), but not by the PI3Kβ isoform inhibitor TGX 221 (100 nM). Pik3cg(-/-)/Pik3cd(-/-)-arteries showed normal vasoconstriction. We conclude that PI3Kα is an important downstream element in vasoconstrictor GPCR signaling, which contributes to arterial vasocontraction via α1-adrenergic receptors. Our results highlight a regulatory role of PI3Kα in the cardiovascular system, which widens the spectrum of gene therapy approaches targeting PI3Kα in cancer cells and tumor angiogenesis and regional blood flow. PMID:27449615

  10. [The state of the mitochondrial energy-supplying system of blood leukocytes in the dynamics of Guerin's carcinoma growth under the low-level irradiation conditions].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, M M; Voloshchuk, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial NADH-dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities of peripheral blood leukocytes of rats with the grafted Guerin's carcinoma were studied in the dynamics of oncogenesis under the conditions of the preliminary low-level irradiation. Tumor growth was accompanied by a decrease in NADH-dehydrogenase activity, an increase of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Cytochrome oxidase activity of leucocytes remained at the control level up to the terminal stages of tumor growth. Preliminary low-level irradiation of the tumor bearing animals caused a tendency to the decrease of enzymatic activities studied. This tendency was observed from the initial stages of oncogenesis. PMID:25552501

  11. Influence of Hypoxia on Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Steinback, Craig D; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a vital organ that relies on a constant and adequate supply of blood to match oxygen and glucose delivery with the local metabolic demands of active neurones. It is well established that cerebral blood flow is altered in response to both neural activity and humoral stimuli. Thus, augmented neural activation (e.g. visual stimulation) leads to locally increased cerebral blood flow via functional hyperaemia, whereas humoral stimuli (i.e. alterations in arterial PO2 and PCO2) produce global increases in cerebral blood flow. Perhaps not surprisingly, cerebrovascular responses to neural activity and humoral stimuli may not be highly correlated because they reflect different physiological mechanisms for vasodilation. Exquisite regulation of cerebral blood flow is particularly important under hypoxic conditions when cerebral PO2 can be reduced substantially. Indeed, cerebrovascular reactivity to hypoxia determines the capacity of cerebral vessels to respond and compensate for a reduced oxygen supply. This reactivity is dynamic, changing with prolonged exposure to hypoxic environments, and in patients and healthy individuals exposed to chronic intermittent periods of hypoxia. More recently, a number of animal studies have provided evidence that glial cells (i.e. astrocytes) play an important role in regulating cerebral blood flow under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of cerebral blood flow control during hypoxia in humans and put into context the underlying neurovascular mechanisms that may contribute to this regulation. PMID:27343093

  12. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  13. School Nurse Inspections Improve Handwashing Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Schrader, Ronald; Trujillo, Rebecca; Blea, Mary; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Handwashing in the school setting is important for infectious disease control, yet maintaining adequate handwashing supplies is often made difficult by lack of funds, limited staff time, and student vandalism. This study measured the availability of handwashing supplies for students in New Mexico public schools and determined the…

  14. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  15. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Phan-Tang, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  16. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  17. Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  18. Radiochemotherapy-induced changes of tumour vascularity and blood supply estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and fractal analysis in malignant head and neck tumours

    PubMed Central

    Hietschold, V; Appold, S; von Kummer, R; Abolmaali, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiochemotherapy (RChT)-induced changes of transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and relative tumour blood volume (rTBV) estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and fractal analysis in head and neck tumours (HNTs). Methods: DCE-CT was performed in 15 patients with inoperable HNTs before RChT, and after 2 and 5 weeks. The dynamics of Ktrans and rTBV as well as lacunarity, slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size), and fractal dimension were compared with tumour behaviour during RChT and in the 24-month follow-up. Results: In 11 patients, an increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV after 20 Gy followed by a decrease of both parameters after 50 Gy was noted. Except for one local recurrence, no tumour residue was found during the follow-up. In three patients with partial tumour reduction during RChT, a decrease of Ktrans accompanied by an increase in rTBV between 20 and 50 Gy was detected. In one patient with continuous elevation of both parameters, tumour progressed after RChT. Pre-treatment difference in intratumoral heterogeneity with its decline under RChT for the responders vs non-responders was observed. Conclusion: Initial growth of Ktrans and/or rTBV followed by further reduction of both parameters along with the decline of the slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size) was associated with positive radiochemotherapeutic response. Increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV under RChT indicated a poor outcome. Advances in knowledge: The modification of Ktrans and rTBV as measured by DCE-CT may be applied for the assessment of tumour sensitivity to chose RChT regimen and, consequently, to reveal clinical impact allowing individualization of RChT strategy in patients with HNT. PMID:25412001

  19. Lead (Pb) contamination of self-supply groundwater systems in coastal Madagascar and predictions of blood lead levels in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Akers, D Brad; MacCarthy, Michael F; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Annis, Jonathan; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of households in coastal Madagascar rely on locally manufactured pitcher-pump systems to provide water for drinking, cooking, and household use. These pumps typically include components made from lead (Pb). In this study, concentrations of Pb in water were monitored at 18 household pitcher pumps in the city of Tamatave over three sampling campaigns. Concentrations of Pb frequently exceeded the World Health Organization's provisional guideline for drinking water of 10 μg/L. Under first-draw conditions (i.e., after a pump had been inactive for 1 h), 67% of samples analyzed were in excess of 10 μg/L Pb, with a median concentration of 13 μg/L. However, flushing the pump systems before collecting water resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in Pb concentrations: 35% of samples collected after flushing exceeded 10 μg/L, with a median concentration of 9 μg/L. Based on measured Pb concentrations, a biokinetic model estimates that anywhere from 15% to 70% of children living in households with pitcher pumps may be at risk for elevated blood lead levels (>5 μg/dL). Measured Pb concentrations in water were not correlated at statistically significant levels with pump-system age, well depth, system manufacturer, or season of sample collection; only the contact time (i.e., flushed or first-draw condition) was observed to correlate significantly with Pb concentrations. In two of the 18 systems, Pb valve weights were replaced with iron, which decreased the observed Pb concentrations in the water by 57-89% in one pump and by 89-96% in the other. Both systems produced samples exclusively below 10 μg/L after substitution. Therefore, relatively straightforward operational changes on the part of the pump-system manufacturers and pump users might reduce Pb exposure, thereby helping to ensure the continued sustainability of pitcher pumps in Madagascar. PMID:25608177

  20. Lead (Pb) contamination of self-supply groundwater systems in coastal Madagascar and predictions of blood lead levels in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Akers, D Brad; MacCarthy, Michael F; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Annis, Jonathan; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of households in coastal Madagascar rely on locally manufactured pitcher-pump systems to provide water for drinking, cooking, and household use. These pumps typically include components made from lead (Pb). In this study, concentrations of Pb in water were monitored at 18 household pitcher pumps in the city of Tamatave over three sampling campaigns. Concentrations of Pb frequently exceeded the World Health Organization's provisional guideline for drinking water of 10 μg/L. Under first-draw conditions (i.e., after a pump had been inactive for 1 h), 67% of samples analyzed were in excess of 10 μg/L Pb, with a median concentration of 13 μg/L. However, flushing the pump systems before collecting water resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in Pb concentrations: 35% of samples collected after flushing exceeded 10 μg/L, with a median concentration of 9 μg/L. Based on measured Pb concentrations, a biokinetic model estimates that anywhere from 15% to 70% of children living in households with pitcher pumps may be at risk for elevated blood lead levels (>5 μg/dL). Measured Pb concentrations in water were not correlated at statistically significant levels with pump-system age, well depth, system manufacturer, or season of sample collection; only the contact time (i.e., flushed or first-draw condition) was observed to correlate significantly with Pb concentrations. In two of the 18 systems, Pb valve weights were replaced with iron, which decreased the observed Pb concentrations in the water by 57-89% in one pump and by 89-96% in the other. Both systems produced samples exclusively below 10 μg/L after substitution. Therefore, relatively straightforward operational changes on the part of the pump-system manufacturers and pump users might reduce Pb exposure, thereby helping to ensure the continued sustainability of pitcher pumps in Madagascar.

  1. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  2. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  3. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  4. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  5. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  10. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  11. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  12. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  13. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  14. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  15. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  16. Power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  17. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  18. Oxygen supply by photosynthesis to an implantable islet cell device.

    PubMed

    Evron, Y; Zimermann, B; Ludwig, B; Barkai, U; Colton, C K; Weir, G C; Arieli, B; Maimon, S; Shalev, N; Yavriyants, K; Goldman, T; Gendler, Z; Eizen, L; Vardi, P; Bloch, K; Barthel, A; Bornstein, S R; Rotem, A

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of islet cells is an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes with critically labile metabolic control. However, during islet isolation, blood supply is disrupted, and the transport of nutrients/metabolites to and from the islet cells occurs entirely by diffusion. Adequate oxygen supply is essential for function/survival of islet cells and is the limiting factor for graft integrity. Recently, we developed an immunoisolated chamber system for transplantation of human islets without immunosuppression. This system depended on daily oxygen supply. To provide independence from this external source, we incorporated a novel approach based on photosynthetically-generated oxygen. The chamber system was packed sandwich-like with a slab of immobilized photosynthetically active microorganisms (Synechococcus lividus) on top of a flat light source (LEDs, red light at 660 nm, intensity of 8 μE/m(2)/s). Islet cells immobilized in an alginate slab (500-1,000 islet equivalents/cm(2)) were mounted on the photosynthetic slab separated by a gas permeable silicone rubber-Teflon membrane, and the complete module was sealed with a microporous polytetrafluorethylene (Teflon) membrane (pore size: 0.4 μm) to protect the contents from the host immune cells. Upon illumination, oxygen produced by photosynthesis diffused via the silicone Teflon membrane into the islet compartment. Oxygen production from implanted encapsulated microorganisms was stable for 1 month. After implantation of the device into diabetic rats, normoglycemia was achieved for 1 week. Upon retrieval of the device, blood glucose levels returned to the diabetic state. Our results demonstrate that an implanted photosynthetic bioreactor can supply oxygen to transplanted islets and thus maintain islet viability/functionality. PMID:25365509

  19. Oxygen supply by photosynthesis to an implantable islet cell device.

    PubMed

    Evron, Y; Zimermann, B; Ludwig, B; Barkai, U; Colton, C K; Weir, G C; Arieli, B; Maimon, S; Shalev, N; Yavriyants, K; Goldman, T; Gendler, Z; Eizen, L; Vardi, P; Bloch, K; Barthel, A; Bornstein, S R; Rotem, A

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of islet cells is an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes with critically labile metabolic control. However, during islet isolation, blood supply is disrupted, and the transport of nutrients/metabolites to and from the islet cells occurs entirely by diffusion. Adequate oxygen supply is essential for function/survival of islet cells and is the limiting factor for graft integrity. Recently, we developed an immunoisolated chamber system for transplantation of human islets without immunosuppression. This system depended on daily oxygen supply. To provide independence from this external source, we incorporated a novel approach based on photosynthetically-generated oxygen. The chamber system was packed sandwich-like with a slab of immobilized photosynthetically active microorganisms (Synechococcus lividus) on top of a flat light source (LEDs, red light at 660 nm, intensity of 8 μE/m(2)/s). Islet cells immobilized in an alginate slab (500-1,000 islet equivalents/cm(2)) were mounted on the photosynthetic slab separated by a gas permeable silicone rubber-Teflon membrane, and the complete module was sealed with a microporous polytetrafluorethylene (Teflon) membrane (pore size: 0.4 μm) to protect the contents from the host immune cells. Upon illumination, oxygen produced by photosynthesis diffused via the silicone Teflon membrane into the islet compartment. Oxygen production from implanted encapsulated microorganisms was stable for 1 month. After implantation of the device into diabetic rats, normoglycemia was achieved for 1 week. Upon retrieval of the device, blood glucose levels returned to the diabetic state. Our results demonstrate that an implanted photosynthetic bioreactor can supply oxygen to transplanted islets and thus maintain islet viability/functionality.

  20. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  1. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  2. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  3. Analysis of the Blood Consumption for Surgical Programs

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Dzenana; Mujicic, Ermina; Coric, Jozo; Zec, Svjetlana Loga; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Transfusion is an activity that assures sufficient supply of blood and blood components to treat the sick and injured. In transfusion departments is necessary to timely provide adequate amounts of blood and blood products for various surgical procedures. Material and methods: To determine the total amount of preoperative requirements (BT/AB and BT/AB/MT) for blood and blood products in surgical departments of General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” in the period from June 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014 and analyze the requirements for blood in relation to surgical procedures, surgical discipline, period, age and gender of patients. To determine the maximum consumption levels surgeries. Results: The total amount of preoperative requirements for blood and blood products in surgical departments amounted to 927. Almost the same number of requests with a slightly higher percentage was in December and October and the lowest in June. The average age of patients was 52.2±20.1 years with the youngest patient aged 9 and the oldest at the age of 97 years. Women were more prevalent with 686 or 74% of the time compared to men. The largest number of requests for surgery elective cesarean section 208 (22.5%) with delivery wards, then for surgery or hip replacement 98 (10.6%). Maximum consumption for surgical operations Hysterectomy totalis abdominals 15 doses of blood. Conclusion: The largest number of requests were for elective cesarean section 208 (22.5%) with delivery wards, then for surgery or hip replacement with 98 (10.6%). Maximum consumed doses had gynecology surgery at Hysterectomy totalis abdominals 15 doses of blood, then orthopedics surgery at Primary hip prosthesis 11 doses. PMID:27703282

  4. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  5. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  6. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  7. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  8. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  9. Genotyping of 22 blood group antigen polymorphisms and establishing a national recipient registry in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Yousun; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Jeong-Ran; Choi, Young Sill; Kim, Jun Nyun; Lee, Dong Han; Kwon, So-Yong; Cho, Nam-Sun; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2016-05-01

    It is often difficult for standard blood banks in Korea to supply adequate amounts of blood for patients with rare phenotype. Moreover, the definition of a blood in need is ambiguous, and much remains to be learned. In this study, we determined the prevalence of various red blood cell (RBC) antigens from a donor viewpoint and estimated the demand for specific antigen-negative blood from a patient viewpoint. Our data will aid the establishment of a Rare Blood Program in Korea (KRBP). RBC genotyping of 419 blood donors was performed using a Lifecodes RBC/RBC-R typing kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). A national recipient registry website has been established. Each hospital-based blood bank voluntarily enters data on antibodies detected and identified and the outcomes of specific antigen testing. We calculated the availabilities of specific antigen-negative blood components based on these registry data and predicted the prevalence of RBC antigens via RBC genotyping. The prevalences of various RBC antigens in the D-negative population were determined for the first time, and the Cartwright, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Cromer, and Knops blood group systems were identified. The availabilities of specific antigen-negative units differed when calculations were based on serotyping or genotyping, especially in the D-negative group. Data on the prevalences of various blood antigens are essential for estimating the availabilities of blood components that are appropriate for use by patients expressing relevant antibodies. Then, blood banks would be able to efficiently supply safe blood products. PMID:27021300

  10. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  11. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  12. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  13. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  14. Recommendations for blood pressure measuring devices for office/clinic use in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Mendis, Shanthi; Abegunde, Dele; Asmar, Ronald; Mieke, Stephan; Murray, Alan; Shengelia, Bakuti; Steenvoorden, Gijs; Van Montfrans, Gert; O'Brien, Eoin

    2005-02-01

    This paper, which summarizes the conclusions of a WHO Expert meeting, is aimed at proposing indications to develop technical specifications for an accurate and affordable blood pressure measuring device for office/clinic use in low resource settings. Blood pressure measuring devices to be used in low resource settings should be accurate, affordable, and easily available worldwide. Given the serious inherent inaccuracy of the auscultatory technique, validated and affordable electronic devices, that have the option to select manual readings, seem to be a suitable solution for low resource settings. The agreement on the technical specifications for automated blood pressure measuring devices for office/clinic use in low resource settings included the following features: high accuracy, adoption of electronic transducers and solar batteries for power supply, standard rates of cuff inflation and deflation, adequate cuff size, digital display powered by solar batteries, facilities for adequate calibration, environmental requirements, no need of memory function, resistance to shock and temperature changes, and low cost. Availability of a device with these features should be accompanied by adequate training of health care personnel, who should guarantee implementation of the procedures recommended in recent European and American Guidelines for accurate blood pressure measurement.

  15. Public Health Works: Blood Donation in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vincanne; Erwin, Kathleen; Le, Phuoc V

    2009-01-01

    Recent shifts in the global health infrastructure warrant consideration of the value and effectiveness of national public health campaigns. These shifts include the globalization of pharmaceutical research, the rise of NGO-funded health interventions, and the rise of biosecurity models of international health. We argue that although these trends have arisen as worthwhile responses to actual health needs, it is important to remember the key role that public health campaigns can play in the promotion of national health, especially in developing nations. Focusing on an example set by China in response to a public health crisis surrounding the national need for a clean and adequate blood supply and the inadvertent spread of HIV by way of blood donation in the early 19902, we argue that there is an important role for strong national public health programs. We also identify the key factors that enabled China’s response to this bourgeoning epidemic to be, in the end, largely successful. PMID:19058887

  16. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  17. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  18. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  19. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  20. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  1. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect ...

  2. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  4. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  5. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  6. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  7. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the... adequate when the voltage is within the approved limits; and (b) The installation and power supply system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply....

  8. [Blood doping: 2].

    PubMed

    Cristani, Alessandro; Boldrini, Elena; Amateis, Elisa; Arioli, Dimitriy

    2005-01-01

    Blood Doping has recently obtained a large diffusion between professional and nonprofessional athletes, in particular for endurance sports it has almost become a necessary way to warrant best performance. Seven years after the publication of our article "Blood Doping", this second installment was born to emphasize the way the biomedical research supplies (often unintentionally) new drugs and new technology to improve athletic performance and, on the other hand, to underline the antidoping strategies.

  9. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  10. FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika Updated guidance provides further protection for U.S. blood ... entire blood supply be routinely screened for the Zika virus. In February, the FDA recommended testing of ...

  11. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: How real for transfusion in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5 × 1012 cells vs 107 cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality. PMID:22177597

  12. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  13. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  14. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  15. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  19. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  20. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.65 Supplies and... testing Anti-human globulin Each day of use. Blood grouping reagents Do. Lectins Do. Antibody...

  1. 49 CFR 195.62 - Supplies of accident report DOT Form 7000-1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies of accident report DOT Form 7000-1. 195... Reporting § 195.62 Supplies of accident report DOT Form 7000-1. Each operator shall maintain an adequate supply of forms that are a facsimile of DOT Form 7000-1 to enable it to promptly report accidents....

  2. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

  3. Turnover of Se in adequately fed chickens using Se-75 as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Brandt-Kjelsen, A; Govasmark, E; Haug, A; Salbu, B

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic selenium (Se) in the form of selenite is applied to livestock to avoid Se deficiency. Selenite is, however, an artificial Se source in diets of unsupplemented chickens. It is therefore hypothesized that organic Se sources, such as Se-enriched yeast and wheat, could be a more suitable Se supply in animal nutrition, although information on the transition of Se from organic Se sources in fast-growing chickens is scarce. In this work, chickens were fed a low Se diet (0.27 ± 0.01 mg Se/kg, Se-enriched yeast) until 20 days of age, after which the Se concentration was increased to maximum concentration allowed by the poultry industry in Europe (0.5 p.p.m. Se). At the same time, a daily contribution of carrier-free (75)Se tracer from labelled wheat was administered from day 20 to 27. The chickens showed S and Se homeostasis, as the concentration of S and Se in liver, blood or kidney remained about constant, and steady state of S and Se in the other organs was reached 1 day after the diet shift. The uptake of (75)Se was readily seen in all organs. After 1 week, the depuration of the (75)Se tracer was followed, and biological half-lives and retention in individual organs were determined. The shortest biological half-lives were observed in major metabolic organs, the liver, kidney and pancreas with half-lives close to 4 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05) uptake in lung, brain and muscle that reached steady state when the administration of (75)Se was terminated. The half-life of (75)Se in heart was 9 days and 7 days in blood. The longest half-lives were observed in muscle (12 days), brain and lungs (13 days). All half-lives were shorter than in Se deplete animals.

  4. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  5. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of ... pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would be evaluated for having high blood pressure. If left ...

  6. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  7. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  8. Blood ties: accountability for blood quality in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Howden-Chapman, P

    1994-01-31

    Blood donations are 'gifts' that do not fit easily into a more market-oriented health care system. The new commercial organisational arrangements in New Zealand for the collection, manufacture and distribution of blood and blood products are compared in this paper with the old organisational arrangements. The particular case of screening blood for hepatitis C is examined. A socio-legal framework, which looks at the regulation of social institutions, is used to explore the different ways in which people have tried to maintain the quality of blood and blood products, both in New Zealand and internationally. One conclusion drawn is that blood production and distribution cannot be commercialised without affecting supply and quality.

  9. Computer-Based Interview for Screening Blood Donors for Risk of HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Locke, S.E.; Kowaloff, H.; Safran, C.; Slack, W.V.; Cotton, D.; Hoff, R.; Popovsky, M.; McGuff, J.; Page, P.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about the safety of the nation's blood supply continues to grow because of the expanding number of HIV-infected persons in the potential donor pool. Furthermore, the proportion of HIV-infected persons who engage in high-risk activities but who test seronegative may be higher than previously recognized. Despite improvements in HIV testing, it is doubtful that such testing alone will ever be adequate to eliminate transfusion-associated AIDS. Blood donation by recently infected persons must be reduced through improved donor screening, including direct questioning of donors about high risk behaviors. We have developed a computer-based interview that queries blood donors about factors that increase the risk of HIV transmission via blood donation. The interview was administered to 64 donors during a scheduled rest period after completing their blood donation. The interview required about nine minutes to complete. Results were analyzed to determine the donor reactions to the interview. Subjects enjoyed taking the interview, thought it was a good method for screening donors, and trusted the confidentiality of the interview. Donors believed they would be more honest with the computer interview than with a human interviewer. If automated blood donor screening helps to discourage donation by high-risk persons the rate of transfusion-associated AIDS will be reduced.

  10. Concise Review: Stem Cell-Derived Erythrocytes as Upcoming Players in Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zeuner, Ann; Martelli, Fabrizio; Vaglio, Stefania; Federici, Giulia; Whitsett, Carolyn; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusions have become indispensable to treat the anemia associated with a variety of medical conditions ranging from genetic disorders and cancer to extensive surgical procedures. In developed countries, the blood supply is generally adequate. However, the projected decline in blood donor availability due to population ageing and the difficulty in finding rare blood types for alloimmunized patients indicate a need for alternative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion products. Increasing knowledge of processes that govern erythropoiesis has been translated into efficient procedures to produce RBC ex vivo using primary hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although in vitro-generated RBCs have recently entered clinical evaluation, several issues related to ex vivo RBC production are still under intense scrutiny: among those are the identification of stem cell sources more suitable for ex vivo RBC generation, the translation of RBC culture methods into clinical grade production processes, and the development of protocols to achieve maximal RBC quality, quantity, and maturation. Data on size, hemoglobin, and blood group antigen expression and phosphoproteomic profiling obtained on erythroid cells expanded ex vivo from a limited number of donors are presented as examples of the type of measurements that should be performed as part of the quality control to assess the suitability of these cells for transfusion. New technologies for ex vivo erythroid cell generation will hopefully provide alternative transfusion products to meet present and future clinical requirements. PMID:22644674

  11. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  12. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  15. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  16. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  20. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  1. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  2. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  3. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  4. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  5. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism. PMID:17220489

  6. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism.

  7. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  8. New vessel formation in the context of cardiomyocyte regeneration--the role and importance of an adequate perfusing vasculature.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Katherine C; Boehm, Manfred; Kovacic, Jason C

    2014-11-01

    The history of revascularization for cardiac ischemia dates back to the early 1960's when the first coronary artery bypass graft procedures were performed in humans. With this 50 year history of providing a new vasculature to ischemic and hibernating myocardium, a profound depth of experience has been amassed in clinical cardiovascular medicine as to what does, and does not work in the context of cardiac revascularization, alleviating ischemia and adequacy of myocardial perfusion. These issues are of central relevance to contemporary cell-based cardiac regenerative approaches. While the cardiovascular cell therapy field is surging forward on many exciting fronts, several well accepted clinical axioms related to the cardiac arterial supply appear to be almost overlooked by some of our current basic conceptual and experimental cell therapy paradigms. We present here information drawn from five decades of the clinical revascularization experience, review relevant new data on vascular formation via cell therapy, and put forward the case that for optimal cell-based cardiac regeneration due attention must be paid to providing an adequate vascular supply.

  9. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  10. Penumatic-power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Portable compressed air supply has two or more outputs at pressures from 20 to 100 psi. Applications include operating production equipment, spraying paint and lubricants, and pressurizing refrigeration systems. Supply filters air from standard high-pressure line, reduces it to working pressure, and adds lubricant when required. Regulator supplies low-pressure air to output channels. On channel lines, vernier-control valves select output pressures.

  11. Regulation of red blood cell deformability is independent of red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Grau, Marijke; Lauten, Alexander; Hoeppener, Steffen; Goebel, Bjoern; Brenig, Julian; Jung, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2016-09-12

    The aim was to study impacts of mild to severe hypoxia on human red blood cell (RBC)-nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO production, protein S-nitrosylation and deformability.Ambient air oxygen concentration of 12 healthy subjects was step-wisely reduced from 20.95% to 16.21%, 12.35%, 10% and back to 20.95%. Additional in vitro experiments involved purging of blood (±sodium nitrite) with gas mixtures corresponding to in vivo intervention.Vital and hypoxia-associated parameters showed physiological adaptation to changing demands. Activation of RBC-NOS decreased with increasing hypoxia. RBC deformability, which is influenced by RBC-NOS activation, decreased under mild hypoxia, but surprisingly increased at severe hypoxia in vivo and in vitro. This was causatively induced by nitrite reduction to NO which increased S-nitrosylation of RBC α- and β-spectrins -a critical step to improve RBC deformability. The addition of sodium nitrite prevented decreases of RBC deformability under hypoxia by sustaining S-nitrosylation of spectrins suggesting compensatory mechanisms of non-RBC-NOS-produced NO.The results first time indicate a direct link between maintenance of RBC deformability under severe hypoxia by non-enzymatic NO production because RBC-NOS activation is reduced. These data improve our understanding of physiological mechanisms supporting adequate blood and, thus, oxygen supply to different tissues under severe hypoxia.

  12. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    Confusion about the determinants of nonrenewable resource supply is one of the vexing problems at the intersection of economics and public policy. Specifically, questions of oil and natural gas supply response have been at the core of arguments over price controls, taxes, and other policy measures. Supply responses also figure prominently in concern about future availability and cost of petroleum and minerals. What is needed to clear up the confusion is an approach that brings together a theory of resource supply, data to make that theory operational, and a methodology to bring the two together - all set within an institutional framework sufficiently rich to illuminate behavioral consequences. Without this amalgam, economists will not be able to answer questions of the sort suggested above with sufficient precision and certainty to provide specific and persuasive policy guidance. In a broader sense, their conclusions on resource supply trends over the longer term will remain conjectural. In market economies such as the US, approaches grounded in abstract social decision rules have limited relevance. An adequate theory must start with the behavior of individual actors and the interaction of incentives, expectations, and decisions over time. Moreover, the process of bringing resources to the market integrates across production stages and cannot be successfully modeled otherwise. Another issue that deserves special attention is the aggregation of individual behavior at the industry level.

  13. Glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply-demand ratio in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.; Dillard, E.; Parks, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    The present study was performed on eight young pigs to test the hypothesis that glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply to a greater extent than hepatic oxygen uptake, providing a better hepatic oxygen supply-demand relationship. The experiments were performed under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia and controlled ventilation. Splanchnic blood flow was studied using radioactive microspheres. Glucagon was administered in doses of 1 and 5 ..mu..g x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/. During glucagon infusion, hepatic arterial blood flow substantially increased, splenic and pancreatic blood flows increased moderately, while stomach and intestinal blood flows, as well as portal blood flow did not change significantly. Shunting of both 9- and 15-..mu..m spheres through preportal tissues did not change significantly. Oxygen content in arterial or portal venous blood did not change significantly, while it increased in hepatic venous blood by 30%. There were no differences in the effects between the doses of glucagon administered. There was no correlation found between changes in hepatic oxygen supply and cardiac output or blood pressure. The changes observed during glucagon administration resulted in an increase in oxygen delivery to the liver and hepatic oxygen supply-uptake ratio.

  14. Disorders of cochlear blood flow.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji; Sone, Michihiko; Tominaga, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Hideo; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Liu, Xiuli; Nuttall, Alfred L

    2003-09-01

    The cochlea is principally supplied from the inner ear artery (labyrinthine artery), which is usually a branch of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Cochlear blood flow is a function of cochlear perfusion pressure, which is calculated as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and inner ear fluid pressure. Many otologic disorders such as noise-induced hearing loss, endolymphatic hydrops and presbycusis are suspected of being related to alterations in cochlear blood flow. However, the human cochlea is not easily accessible for investigation because this delicate sensory organ is hidden deep in the temporal bone. In patients with sensorineural hearing loss, magnetic resonance imaging, laser-Doppler flowmetry and ultrasonography have been used to investigate the status of cochlear blood flow. There have been many reports of hearing loss that were considered to be caused by blood flow disturbance in the cochlea. However, direct evidence of blood flow disturbance in the cochlea is still lacking in most of the cases.

  15. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  16. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral smear; Complete blood count - peripheral; CBC - peripheral ... Bain BJ. The peripheral blood smear. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 157. ...

  17. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  18. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  19. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... matches yours. You may have read about the danger of becoming infected with hepatitis, HIV, or other ... member or friend donating blood before a planned surgery. This blood is then set aside and held ...

  20. Competing for supply.

    PubMed

    Stolle, B

    2001-02-01

    The Internet was supposed to make it possible for anybody anywhere to get anything anytime. Instead, it's magnified suppliers' miscalculations into global shortages. But if the Net caused these supply chain woes, it's also the solution, says the CEO of a supply-chain software manufacturer. PMID:11213695

  1. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  6. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  7. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  8. Generating Resources Supply Curves.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Power Resources Planning.

    1985-07-01

    This report documents Pacific Northwest supply curve information for both renewable and other generating resources. Resources are characterized as ''Renewable'' and ''Other'' as defined in section 3 or the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act. The following resources are described: renewable: (cogeneration; geothermal; hydroelectric (new); hydroelectric (efficiency improvement); solar; and wind); other (nonrenewable generation resources: coal; combustion turbines; and nuclear. Each resource has the following information documented in tabular format: (1) Technical Characteristics; (2) Costs (capital and O and M); (3) Energy Distribution by Month; and (4) Supply Forecast (energy). Combustion turbine (CT) energy supply is not forecasted because of CT's typical peaking application. Their supply is therefore unconstrained in order to facilitate analysis of their operation in the regional electrical supply system. The generic nuclear resource is considered unavailable to the region over the planning horizon.

  9. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with their vision of a useful model of supply behavior as dynamic and market oriented, the authors examine the literature to see what it offers, to fill in some of the missing elements, and to direct attention to the research that is required. Following an introduction, separate chapters deal with the basic theory of supply behavior; joint products, externalities, and technical change; uncertainty, expectations, and supply behavior; aggregate supply and market behavior; and empirical methods and problems. The authors argue that practical understanding of nonrenewable resource supply is hampered by gaps among theory, methodology, and data, and offer a standard designed to achieve consistency among theory, data, and estimation methods. Their recommendations for additional research focus on general specification issues, uncertainty and expectations, market-level analysis, and strategic behavioral issues. 151 references, 9 figures.

  10. The Need for Domestic Violence Laws with Adequate Legal and Social Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmons, Willa M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for comprehensive domestic violence programs that include medical, legal, economic, psychological, and child care services. Although most states have family violence legislation, more work is needed to adequately implement these programs. (Author/JAC)

  11. Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

  12. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  13. Patient acceptance of adequately filled breast implants using the tilt test.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, J B

    2000-07-01

    Adequate fill of any breast implant, regardless of shell characteristics, shape, or filler material, is important to prevent implant shell wrinkling, folding, or collapse that could potentially decrease the life of the implant. Implant shell life is a major factor that affects reoperation rates. The greater the necessity of reoperations, regardless of implant type, the greater the rate of local complications, necessitating additional surgery with additional risks and costs to patients. Palpable shell folding, visible wrinkling or rippling, palpable shifts of filler material, sloshing, and compromised aesthetic results can result from an under-filled implant. Any of these complications can necessitate reoperations with increased risks and costs to patients. This is a study of 609 consecutive patients from January of 1993 to December of 1998 who were given detailed preoperative informed consent and a choice of implant shape and type and who chose the increased firmness associated with an implant that is adequately filled to pass the tilt test. This study addresses two questions: (1) Will patients accept the increased firmness of an implant that is filled to pass the tilt test? and (2) Is adequate fill by the tilt test useful clinically to help reduce the incidence of postoperative rippling, wrinkling, and spontaneous deflation in saline implants? Patients were followed by postoperative examinations and questionnaires. No patient requested implant replacement to a softer implant postoperatively, and no reoperations were performed for visible rippling or wrinkling. The spontaneous deflation rate over this 6-year period was 9 of 1218 implants, or 0.739 percent. If patients will accept more firmness with an adequately filled implant, regardless of the filler material, surgeons might worry less about recommending an adequately filled implant to patients, and manufacturers might feel more comfortable producing adequately filled implants and redefining fill volumes for

  14. How much blood is needed?

    PubMed

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention. PMID:21175652

  15. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  16. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

  17. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  18. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  19. US Army blood program: 2025 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Richard; Taylor, Audra L; Atkinson, Andrew J; Malloy, Wilbur W; Macdonald, Victor W; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    In preparing to support the Army in 2025 and beyond, the Army Blood Program remains actively engaged with the research and advanced development of blood products and medical technology to improve blood safety and efficacy in conjunction with the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. National and International Blood Bank authorities have noted that the US Army research and development efforts in providing new blood products and improving blood safety operate on the cutting edge of technology and are transformational for the global blood industry. Over the past 14 years, the Army has transformed how blood support is provided and improved the survival rate of casualties. Almost every product or process developed by or for the military has found an application in treating civilian patients. Conflicts have many unwanted consequences; however, in times of conflict, one positive aspect is the identification of novel solutions to improve the safety and efficacy of the blood supply.

  20. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  1. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  2. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  3. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  4. Blood Transfusions and Organ/Tissue Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... supply is now among the safest in the world: All blood donors are prescreened for HIV risk factors. Blood donations are required to be tested both for presence of antibodies to HIV and for HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA testing detects HIV at an earlier stage ...

  5. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  6. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  7. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  8. Facts and Figures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advocate for a Safe and Adequate Blood Supply Advertise With Us Sponsorship Opportunities Foundation for America's Blood ... Advocate for a Safe and Adequate Blood Supply Advertise With Us Sponsorship Opportunities Foundation for America's Blood ...

  9. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  10. Technetium-99m -- new production and processing strategies to provide adequate levels for SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Osso, J A; Catanoso, M F; Barrio, G; Brambilla, T P; Teodoro, R; Dias, C R B R; Suzuki, K N

    2012-07-01

    The most important radioisotope for use in Nuclear Medicine is (99m)Tc, supplied in the form of a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator. After the supply crisis of (99)Mo starting in 2008 the availability of (99)Mo became a worldwide concern. The purpose of this work is to do a brief story of the availability of (99)Mo in the world followed by an overview of the production routes of (99)Mo and the generators technology.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  14. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph...

  15. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  16. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  17. Evaluating the Reliability of Selected School-Based Indices of Adequate Reading Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the stability (i.e., 4-month and 12-month test-retest reliability) of six selected school-based indices of adequate reading progress. The total sampling frame included between 3970 and 5655 schools depending on the index and research question. Each school had at least 40 second-grade students that had complete Oral…

  18. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  19. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  20. Performance Effects of Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    As the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law moves through the reauthorization process, it is important to understand the basic performance impacts of its central structure of accountability. In this paper, I examine the effects of failure to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under NCLB on subsequent student math and reading performance at the school…

  1. Determining Adequate Yearly Progress in a State Performance or Proficiency Index Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview regarding how several states use a performance or proficiency index in their determination of adequate yearly progress (AYP) under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Typically, indexes are based on one of two weighting schemes: (1) either they weight academic performance levels--also…

  2. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  3. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  4. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  5. [Factors associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

  6. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  7. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  8. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  9. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  10. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  11. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  12. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  13. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  14. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  15. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  16. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  17. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  19. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  20. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  4. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  6. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  7. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  8. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  10. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  11. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  12. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  13. [World population growth and the food supply].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y

    1982-07-29

    The general trend in the last several hundred years has been that the speed of growth in the food supply exceeds the speed of the population growth. For the time being, 2 major problems still exist. The 1st problem is that food production is still influenced by natural conditions. For example, abnormal weather conditions may cause regional food shortages. The 2nd problem is the imbalance of food consumption by the world population. This phenomenon exists between different social classes as well as between developed and developing countries. According to statistics released by the World Bank, 1 billion suffer from malnutrition today and most of them are in developing countries. In developed countries, about half of their increase in the food supply is for feed grains, and those countries follow the policy of reducing farm land for the purpose of maintaing stabl e grain prices. Up to the present time, grain prices have been unstable, and this has become a rather heavy economic burden for numerous developing countries. Many developing countries are trying to increase grain production by increasing their arable land and promoting their cultivating techniques. However, these countries are facing the problems of finding and adequate water supply, fertilizer, and pesticides. In addition, a rapid population growth in these countries has offset their endeavors in agriculture. In recent years, these counties have realized the necessity of birth control. The world population growth rate has decreased from 2% to about 1.7% in 1981. Birth control and an increase in the food supply will bring new hope to the world's problems of overpopulation and food supply.

  14. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  15. Selenium in blood, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa of stallions and its relationship to sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Bertelsmann, H; Keppler, S; Höltershinken, M; Bollwein, H; Behne, D; Alber, D; Bukalis, G; Kyriakopoulos, A; Sieme, H

    2010-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium is indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Until now, little data existed regarding the relationship between selenium and sperm quality in the stallion. Selenium, or selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, was determined in red blood cells, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa, and the percentages of spermatozoa with progressive motility (PMS), intact membranes (PMI), altered (positive) acrosomal status (PAS) and detectable DNA damage, determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay, were evaluated in 41 healthy stallions (three samples each). The pregnancy rate per oestrus cycle (PRC) served as an estimation of fertility. An adverse effect on stallion fertility caused by low dietary selenium intake was excluded, as all stallions had sufficient selenium levels in their blood. Interestingly, no significant correlations (P > 0.05) between the selenium level in blood and the selenium level in seminal plasma or spermatozoa were found, suggesting that the selenium level in blood is no indicator of an adequate selenium supply for spermatogenesis. The selenium level in spermatozoa (nmol billion(-1)) was correlated with PMI, PMS and PAS (r = 0.40, r = 0.31 and r = -0.42, respectively; P adequate selenium status for the male equine reproduction requires the analysis of selenium in spermatozoa. Furthermore, selenium is associated with improved sperm quality and fertility in the stallion.

  16. Adequate Selection of a Therapeutic Site Enables Efficient Development of Collateral Vessels in Angiogenic Treatment With Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Masaru; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Ayako; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of angiogenic mechanisms to promote development of collateral vessels is considered promising for the treatment of peripheral arterial diseases. Collateral vessels generally develop from preexisting arteriolar connections, bypassing the diseased artery. We speculated that induction of angiogenic mechanisms should be directed to such arteriolar connections to achieve efficient collateral development. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis using autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells in the rabbit model of chronic limb ischemia. Methods and Results The left femoral artery was excised to induce limb ischemia in male rabbits. In this model, arteriolar connections in the left coccygeofemoral muscle tend to develop into collateral vessels, although this transformation is insufficient to alleviate the limb ischemia. In contrast, arteriolar connections in the closely located adductor muscle do not readily develop into collateral vessels. At 21 days after ischemia initiation, a sufficient number of automononuclear cells were selectively injected in the left coccygeofemoral muscle (coccygeo group) or left adductor muscle (adductor group). Evaluation of calf blood pressure ratios, blood flow in the left internal iliac artery, and angiographic scores at day 28 after injection revealed that collateral development and improvement of limb ischemia were significantly more efficient in the coccygeo group than in the adductor group. Morphometric analysis of the coccygeofemoral muscle at day 14 showed similar results. Conclusions Specific delivery of mononuclear cells to the coccygeofemoral but not the adductor muscle effectively improves collateral circulation in the rabbit model of limb ischemia and suggests that adequate site selection can facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26370447

  17. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  18. Long term adequate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet protects from depressive-like behavior but not from working memory disruption and brain cytokine expression in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moranis, Aurélie; Delpech, Jean-Christophe; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Aubert, Agnès; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Joffre, Corinne; Layé, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Converging epidemiological studies suggest that dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood and cognitive disorders linked to aging. The question arises as to whether the decreased prevalence of these symptoms in the elderly with high n-3 PUFA consumption is also associated with improved central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in the brain. To answer this, we measured memory performance and emotional behavior as well as cytokine synthesis and PUFA level in the spleen and the cortex of adult and aged mice submitted to a diet with an adequate supply of n-3 PUFA in form of α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) or a n-3 deficient diet. Our results show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, was higher in the spleen and cortex of n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice and this difference was maintained throughout life. Interestingly, high level of brain DHA was associated with a decrease in depressive-like symptoms throughout aging. On the opposite, spatial memory was maintained in adult but not in aged n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice. Furthermore, increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreased IL-10 expression were found in the cortex of aged mice independently of the diets. All together, our results suggest that n-3 PUFA dietary supply in the form of α-LNA is sufficient to protect from deficits in emotional behavior but not from memory disruption and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression linked to age.

  19. Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, Raymond; Praeg, Walter

    1980-12-12

    Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.

  20. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  1. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  2. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness. PMID:10345634

  3. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  4. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  5. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  6. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  7. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  8. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by the kidneys that stimulates red cell production {{ Immunoglobulins, antibodies made by plasma cells in response ... used for chemotherapy cause temporarily impaired blood cell production in the marrow and depressed immune system functions. ...

  9. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). ...

  10. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  11. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  12. Future supply and demand: Cloudy crystal balls

    SciTech Connect

    Fechter, A.

    1995-12-31

    Alan Fechter reviews and evaluates selected studies that examine whether the future supply of Ph.D. scientists will be adequate to meet the United State`s future workplace needs. He assesses two widely cited projection models, emphasizing the uncertainty associated with forecasts of supply and demand. He concludes that these models tend to overstate potential shortages. He discusses mechanisms that can bring supply and demand into balance and examines the resource implications associated with their use, claiming that some mechanisms associated with their use, claiming that some mechanisms may produce socially undesirable side effects - particularly for underrepresented minorities. Fechter also addresses decision making in the face of the uncertainties associated with such models. He states his preference for a strategy that tilts toward anticipating shortages, arguing that the costs of being wrong in this case would be preferable to the cost of tilting toward an erroneous assumption that markets will eventually be in balance. He advocates close monitoring of and comparison between actual experiences and projections. He argues that such efforts will enable policy analysts to make midcourse corrections in projections and in policy implications, if such corrections are deemed necessary.

  13. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  14. Catecholamine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  15. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  16. [The supply chain is everybody's business...].

    PubMed

    Coulondre, Antoine

    2007-05-01

    The management of the supply chain is a matter of delicate balance. This is certainly due to its position at the crossroads between suppliers and users requirements, as well as logistic, financial and technical regulations. For a public organisation like EFS, whose annual budget amounts to 697 million euros, there is a lot at stake: supplies represent the second most important item of its budget accounting for 38% of annual expenses. Three quarters of the purchases concern basic activities such as blood collection, testing procedures, transformation and distribution of blood products. The last quarter is spent on more general activities (computer systems, telecommunications...). Professionalisation of the purchasing function has grown since the creation of the government-owned organisation as a single national unit (EFS) in the year 2000. Its consequences can be felt especially in the field of the "core activities". The current stage consists in maintaining close links between all the skills necessary to a high-quality supply chain. The latter will undoubtedly be beneficial to the medical, technical and support departments of EFS, which are the in-house customers to satisfy.

  17. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  18. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  19. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-08-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme-under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness-as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  20. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  1. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  2. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  3. [Haemovigilance and blood safety in overseas military].

    PubMed

    Sailliol, A; Plang, S; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Vedy, S; Clavier, B; Cellarier, V; Roche, C; Civadier, C; Ausset, S

    2014-11-01

    The French military blood institute (FMBI) is the only military blood supplier in France. FMBI operates independently and autonomously under the Ministry of Defense's supervision, and accordingly, to the French, European and NATO technical and safety guidelines. FMBI is in charge of the collection, preparation and distribution of blood products to supply transfusion support to armed forces, especially during overseas operations. In overseas military, a primary physician is responsible for haemovigilance in permanent relation with an expert in the FMBI to manage any adverse reaction. Additionally, traceability of delivered or collected blood products during overseas operation represents a priority, allowing an appropriate management of transfusion inquiries and assessment of practices aiming to improve and update procedures and training. Transfusion safety in overseas operation is based on regular and specific training of people concerned by blood supply chain in exceptional situation.

  4. [Haemovigilance and blood safety in overseas military].

    PubMed

    Sailliol, A; Plang, S; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Vedy, S; Clavier, B; Cellarier, V; Roche, C; Civadier, C; Ausset, S

    2014-11-01

    The French military blood institute (FMBI) is the only military blood supplier in France. FMBI operates independently and autonomously under the Ministry of Defense's supervision, and accordingly, to the French, European and NATO technical and safety guidelines. FMBI is in charge of the collection, preparation and distribution of blood products to supply transfusion support to armed forces, especially during overseas operations. In overseas military, a primary physician is responsible for haemovigilance in permanent relation with an expert in the FMBI to manage any adverse reaction. Additionally, traceability of delivered or collected blood products during overseas operation represents a priority, allowing an appropriate management of transfusion inquiries and assessment of practices aiming to improve and update procedures and training. Transfusion safety in overseas operation is based on regular and specific training of people concerned by blood supply chain in exceptional situation. PMID:25284434

  5. Perioperative hypertension due to undiagnosed aortic coarctation: are current standards of care adequate?

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael; Murrell, David

    2004-04-01

    A 12-year-old male presented for a superficial parotidectomy for chronic parotitis. The patient had an unremarkable past medical history and was admitted on the day of surgery for his procedure without further anaesthetic or surgical review. During the patient's intraoperative course, higher than expected blood pressures were noted and treated with clonidine. After further high blood pressure readings in the postoperative care unit, close surveillance of blood pressures for the following 24 h was arranged. The hypertension was ongoing, and further examination and investigation confirmed the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. We examine the possible reasons for failure to diagnose this patient's hypertension preoperatively and suggest that there is a need for greater surveillance of blood pressures in the paediatric population presenting for surgery. A discussion of the significance of hypertension in paediatrics and recommendations for minimum standards of care to address shortcomings in the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric hypertension are proposed.

  6. Bioelement effects on thyroid gland in children living in iodine-adequate territory.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Anatoly L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Koubassov, Roman V

    2007-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a primary pathology of thyroid gland and critical medico social problem in many countries. A dominant cause of endemic goitre is iodine deficiency. However, besides primary iodine deficiency, the goitre may probably develop due to effects of other bioelement imbalances, essential to thyroid function maintenance. Here we studied 44 cases of endemic goitre in prepubertal children (7-10 y.o.) living in iodine-adequate territory. Thyroid volume was estimated by ultrasonometry. Main bioelements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, Si, Zn) were determined in hair samples by ICP-OES/ICP-MS method. Relationships between hair content of bioelements and thyroid gland size were estimated by multiple regressions. The regression model revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Cr, Si, Mn contents. However, the actual factor of thyroid gland increase was only Si excess in organism. Significant negative relations of thyroid volume were revealed with I, Mg, Zn, Se, Co and Cd. In spite of this, the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increasing were I, Co, Mg and Se deficiency. Total bioelement contribution in thyroid impairment was estimated as 24%. Thus, it was suggested that endemic goitre in iodine-adequate territory can be formed by bioelement imbalances, namely Si excess and Co, Mg, Se shortage as well as endogenous I deficiency in spite of iodine-adequate environment.

  7. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  8. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  9. An adequate Fe nutritional status of maize suppresses infection and biotrophic growth of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanghua; Albarouki, Emad; Lingam, Brahmasivasenkar; Deising, Holger B; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant pathogens as well as for their host plants. As Fe plays a central role in pathogen virulence, most plants have evolved Fe-withholding strategies to reduce Fe availability to pathogens. On the other hand, plants need Fe for an oxidative burst in their basal defense response against pathogens. To investigate how the plant Fe nutritional status affects plant tolerance to a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, we employed the maize-Colletotrichum graminicola pathosystem. Fungal infection progressed rapidly via biotrophic to necrotrophic growth in Fe-deficient leaves, while an adequate Fe nutritional status suppressed the formation of infection structures of C. graminicola already during the early biotrophic growth phase. As indicated by Prussian blue and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining, the retarding effect of an adequate Fe nutritional status on fungal development coincided temporally and spatially with the recruitment of Fe to infection sites and a local production of H2 O2 . A similar coincidence between local Fe and H2 O2 accumulation was found in a parallel approach employing C. graminicola mutants affected in Fe acquisition and differing in virulence. These results indicate that an adequate Fe nutritional status delays and partially suppresses the fungal infection process and the biotrophic growth phase of C. graminicola, most likely via the recruitment of free Fe to the fungal infection site for a timely oxidative burst.

  10. Development of water quality standards criteria. [for consumables (spacecrew supplies)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were made of volatile organic compounds in water supplies collected at various stages of processing in the space station prototype vacuum compression distillation unit to evaluate the process and the product water. Additional evaluation was made of specific ingredients required to adequately enhance the taste of the reclaimed water. A concept for the in-flight addition of these ingredients was developed. Revisions to previously recommended potable water criteria and specifications are included.

  11. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  12. First report of the impact on voluntary blood donation by the blood mobile from India

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Suchet; Singh, Lakhvinder; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Lamba, Divjot Singh; Sachdeva, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The blood mobile is one of the modern methods of mobile blood collection facility funded through the third phase of National AIDS Control Programme by the National Blood Transfusion Council of India. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data in relation to the blood mobile was carried out with respect to the number of blood donation camps, number of blood units collected, adverse donor reactions, and the expenditure that occurred during the blood collection in the blood mobile from 1st January 2012 to 30th June 2014. Results: There were 64, 84 and 62 blood donation camps conducted in the blood mobile with collection of 3301, 5166 and 2842 blood units during 2012, 2013 and the first half of 2014. The percentage of voluntary blood collection in blood mobile was 8.5% in 2012, increased to 12.4% in 2013 and stands at 14.39% in the first half of 2014. The difference in the means of the adverse donor reactions in the blood mobile and the outdoor camps was not statistically significant. Discussion and Conclusion: The blood mobile is definitely an asset as far as augmentation of voluntary blood donation is concerned, ensures stable collection of blood for better provision of blood and blood components. However the facility requires a comprehensive annual maintenance with incorporation of onsite quick response team both from the manufacturer of the vehicle, and the blood collection equipments. Adequate provision of funding for operational expenditure would in turn facilitate optimum utilization of this facility. PMID:27011672

  13. Do low standing biomass and leaf area index of sub-tropical coastal dunes ensure that plants have an adequate supply of water?

    PubMed

    Ripley, Brad S; Pammenter, Norman W

    2004-05-01

    Water status in relation to standing biomass and leaf area indices (LAI) of the subtropical foredune species Arctotheca populifolia, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Scaevola plumieri were studied in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The plants showed little evidence of water stress, never developing leaf water potentials more negative than -1.55 MPa, a value which is typical of mesophytes rather than xerophytes. The plants showed no seasonal changes in osmotic potential, an indication that they did not need to osmoregulate, nor were there significant alterations in tissue elasticity. Turgor potential for the most part remained positive throughout the day or recovered positive values at night, a condition suitable for the maintenance of growth that may be essential to cope with sand accretion. All three species show relatively high transpiration rates and only I. pes-caprae showed any evidence of strong limitations of transpiration rate through reductions in midday stomatal conductance. All three species had relatively high instantaneous water use efficiencies as a result of high assimilation rates rather than low transpiration rates. Simple water budgets, accounting for losses by transpiration and inputs from rainfall, suggest that the water stored in the dune sands is sufficient to meet the requirements of the plants, although water budgets calculated for I. pes-caprae suggest that this species may on occasion be water limited. The results suggest that it is the low biomass and LAI that lead to these favourable water relations. PMID:15042456

  14. What happened to blood substitutes?

    PubMed

    Stowell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Concerns about the safety and adequacy of the blood supply have fostered twenty years of research into the so-called "blood substitutes" among them the oxygen carriers based on modified hemoglobin. Although none of these materials has yet been licensed for use in North America or Europe, the results of research and clinical trials have increased our understanding of oxygen delivery and its regulation. In particular, the examination of the basis for the vasoactivity observed with some of the hemoglobin based oxygen carriers has led to the insight that several colligative properties of hemoglobin solutions, such as their diffusion coefficient for oxygen, viscosity and colloid oncotic pressure, are important determinants of efficacy.

  15. Hemolyzed, lyophilized bovine blood for quality control of lead determination of human whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.S.; Meranger, J.C.; Connor, J.

    1985-09-01

    The determination of Pb in human whole blood is perhaps the most common application of biological monitoring in occupational and environmental health. However, the lack of an adequate reference material has prevented a thorough evaluation of current analytical methods for Pb in blood and hence the evaluation of data generated by using such methods. As a result the concentration of Pb in human whole blood is not accurately known. In this paper the authors report the preparation and analysis of two freeze-dried bovine whole blood reference specimens containing two different levels of Pb.

  16. DC uninterrupted power supply having instantaneous switching followed by low impedance switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Russell E.; Northup, Robert L.; Shimp, Alan G.

    1991-10-01

    An uninterruptible power supply is provided that incorporates switching circuitry permitting a path for instantaneous DC backup power to be supplied to a voltage-declining primary power supply bus. Once the instantaneous transition is made, battery power is switched to a low impedance path to provide long-term battery power delivery to the bus. At a point where the backup batteries no longer supply useful power to a load, disabling circuitry disconnects the batteries from the load so that excessive draining of the batteries does not result in irreversible battery damage. The uninterruptible power supply of the invention further includes an automatic battery charging circuitry that seeks to maintain the power supply batteries at optimal charge level. To enable an operator to adequately assess battery charge condition, the invention provides battery test circuitry that causes a simulated load to appear at the power supply batteries. Visual representations are then made as to battery status.

  17. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  18. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  19. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  20. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  1. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  2. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role.

  3. Water supplies in western Kentucky during 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sholar, C.J.; Wood, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    An inventory was conducted between April and October 1985 of 101 major public supply systems and of self-supplied commercial and industrial water systems in a 27-county area in western Kentucky. These systems, because they withdraw at least 10,000 gal/day (gpd), are regulated by the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Projection Cabinet (Division of Water) through a permitting program. The major purpose of the inventory was to evaluate the adequacy of these water systems to meet demands during times of drought. The inventory indicated that these systems withdrew 116.3 million gpd in 1984. The study showed that public facilities supplied 33.1 mil gpd to 471,500 people. Bowling Green Municipal Utilities in the Green River basin was the largest single public supplier. It supplied 5.05 million gpd to 48,000 people, and also sold over 1.7 million gpd to about 30 ,000 people through the Warren County Water System. Comparisons of ground- and surface-water use indicated the Lower Ohio River basin had the highest percentage of surface-water use at 97%, and the Mississippi River basin had the highest percentage of groundwater use at 41%. Sources of water were generally adequate throughout the study area. Sources for two industries, also in the Green River basin, are inadequate. Six systems may have potential problems with their treatment plant capacities because they are operating at > 80% of design capacity. Three of these systems are in the Green River basin, two are in the Lower Cumberland River basin, and one is in the Tennessee River basin. (Author 's abstract)

  4. 10 CFR 503.31 - Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... made to obtain an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate fuel for use as a primary energy source... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply for the first 10 years of useful life. 503.31 Section 503.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW...

  5. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  6. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  7. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  8. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  9. Developing an adequate "pneumatraumatology": understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Duane R

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions and systematic theology are primary resources for chaplains and congregational pastors who care for victims of physical trauma. Yet these resources may not be adequate to address the spiritual impacts of trauma. This article proposes a preliminary "pneumatraumatology," drawing on early Christian asceticism and Buddhist mysticism to describe one way of understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury. It also suggests possible responses to these impacts informed by narrative/constructionist perspectives and Breggemann's understanding of the dimensions of spiritual transformation in the Hebrew Bible.

  10. Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes.

    PubMed

    Glazowski, Christopher; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-08-01

    Coherent speckle influences the resulting image when narrow spectral line-width and single spatial mode illumination are used, though these are the same light-source properties that provide the best radiance-to-cost ratio. However, a suitable size of the detection pinhole can be chosen to maintain adequate optical sectioning while making the probability density of the speckle noise more normal and reducing its effect. The result is a qualitatively better image with improved contrast, which is easier to read. With theoretical statistics and experimental results, we show that the detection pinhole size is a fundamental parameter for designing imaging systems for use in turbid media.

  11. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma) Group B – has only the B antigen on ...

  12. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body's tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  13. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  14. 75 FR 28619 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... availability of the blood supply and blood products, (2) broad public health, ethical and legal issues related to transfusion and transplantation safety, and (3) the implications for safety and the...

  15. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  16. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  17. Blood Pressure Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  18. National blood requirement, serum ALT and hepatitis in Ethiopian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Zawde, D; Sisay, Y

    1991-10-01

    To appraise the national blood requirement and supply, and to determine the impact of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening on the blood supply, 407 random blood donor sera were tested for HBsAg, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and ALT activity. HBsAg and anti-HIV antibody were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Hepanostica and Welcozyme kits, respectively. The Western Blot test was performed to confirm anti-HIV positive sera by the ELISA technique. ALT was determined by an automated photometer using ALAT kits and serologic testing for syphilis was done by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The amount of blood required in Ethiopia and the actual supply was calculated on the basis of the number and type of hospital beds in Addis Abeba and the amount of blood transfusions in units per hospital bed. The results showed that the combined donor and unit rejection rate was 34.6%. The annual blood requirement was 7 units for emergency and 4 units for nonemergency beds. The national blood requirement in 1989 was 64,350-80,000 units, but the supply met only a third of the requirement. The mean and 2SD cut off ALT levels were 28 and 69 IU/L, respectively. ALT was elevated in 9.1% of HBsAg positive but apparently healthy donors, while HBsAg screening eliminated 25% of those with elevated ALT activity. This data suggests that there is a serious blood shortage in Ethiopia and that the currently supplied blood is relatively unsafe in terms of hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1659534

  19. Oil supply: the outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1982-07-01

    The post oil-glut world will leave OPEC still in control of world production levels and prices. Some estimates show US imports rising as much as 35% to 4.3 million barrels a day as the recession ends, but others think the direct coupling of energy demand and economic growth has ended. The potential for a substantial comeback in energy-intensive industries and a replacement of business inventories could lead to a surge in demand. The current increase in gasoline demand is seasonal, and reflects an effort to replenish oil inventories. Industry spokesmen credit high prices for the moderating effect on demand. US investment in oil exploration will rise only 14% to $95.3 billion after a 39% increase in 1980 because of stable oil prices. Offshore and Alaskan exploration have a high, but expensive, potential for reducing future imports. US dependence has dropped from 48% to 30% of total supply since 1977 because of exploration efforts and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Any future supply crisis will depend on Middle East politics, a break in the price and production swings, and OPEC manipulation of the market. (DCK)

  20. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  1. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  2. Blood Flow, Slip, and Viscometry

    PubMed Central

    Nubar, Yves

    1971-01-01

    The viscosity of blood, measured by the usual viscometers in which slip is not considered, is found to be flow dependent, varying markedly with shear rate, pressure gradient, and vessel diameter in the lower ranges of these factors. The study postulates, on grounds thought reasonable, that slip may be present in blood flow, as a function of the nature of the wall surfaces, shear stress at the wall, and relative cell volume (RCV) adjacent to the wall. It presumes that blood possesses a specific, flow-independent viscosity, and determines theoretically the viscosity indications of viscometers if blood slipped in the instruments. The study shows that if the slip function is of a certain plausible form, these viscosity indications would exhibit a flow dependence of much the same pattern as the actual indications supplied by the usual viscometers. The slip postulate permits, therefore, an interpretation of the “anomalous” flow behavior of blood, dispensing with the prevailing assumption of an ad hoc variability of its viscosity with flow factors. To the extent that viscometric data for blood may be representative of other non-newtonian fluids, the slip postulate may be applicable to these fluids. PMID:5573368

  3. Industrial water supplies of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Samuel K.

    1954-01-01

    The availability of adequate supplies of water of suitable quality determines in large measure the potential for industrial development in any community. However, the pattern of availability of water for industrial use is not so generally recognized. It is the purpose of this paper to point out the more important factors affecting the distribution and quality of existing and potential sources of water with particular reference to industrial development. From a nation-wide standpoint our country is blessed with plenty of water. If the available water could be distributed completely in accordance with needs, it is probable that no part of the country would suffer from lack of water either now or in the foreseeable future. As nature has not dealt so providently however, or perhaps as man has not been able to cope with the vagaries of nature, we find ourselves beset with droughts and floods. Added to the natural deficiencies of nature are man-made difficulties such as lowered ground-water tables and salt-water encroachment of fresh water supplies resulting from overpumping of ground waters, pollution in all its forms, and wasteful use of water for many purposes. It becomes necessary, therefore, to study and evaluate our most important natural resource in order that we may use it more intelligently. This is particularly true in regard to continued industrial growth of our country.

  4. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  5. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  6. Intersection of race/ethnicity and gender in depression care: screening, access, and minimally adequate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Cook, Benjamin; Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Alegria, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to understand the interaction of race/ethnicity and gender in depression screening, any mental health care, and adequate care. Methods 2010–2012 electronic health records data of adult primary care patients from a New England urban health care system was used (n = 65,079). Multivariate logit regression models were used to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, gender, and other covariates with depression screening, any depression care among those screened positive, and adequate depression care among users. Secondly, disparities were evaluated by race/ethnicity and gender and incorporated differences due to insurance, marital status, and area-level SES measures. Findings Black and Asian males and females were less likely to be screened for depression compared to their white counterparts, while Latino males and females were more likely to be screened. Among those that screened PHQ-9>10, black males and females, Latino males, and Asian males and females were less likely to receive any mental health care than their white counterparts. The black-white disparity in screening was greater for females compared to males. The Latino-white disparity for any mental health care and adequacy of care was greater for males compared to females. Conclusions Our approach underscores the importance of identifying disparities at each step of depression care by both race/ethnicity and gender. Targeting certain groups in specific stages of care would be more effective (i.e., screening of black females, any mental health care and adequacy of care for Latino males) than a blanket approach to disparities reduction. PMID:25727113

  7. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  8. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  9. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  10. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  11. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  12. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  13. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  14. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  19. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  20. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  1. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  2. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  3. [Blood regulation in Brazil: contextualization for improvement].

    PubMed

    Silva Júnior, João Batista; Costa, Christiane da Silva; Baccara, João Paulo de Araújo

    2015-10-01

    The use of blood products as essential medicines and the recognition of the high risk associated with blood transfusions require governments to take regulatory action with a focus on quality and safety. In this scenario, regulatory agencies play an essential role in socially advancing the guarantee that blood components will be produced according to current operating rules. Thus, in the effort to manage sanitary risks involved in the processing and use of blood, the Brazilian regulatory model, based on the construction of a national blood policy overseen by the State, has undergone conceptual improvement and review of the tools employed to achieve its goals. With the inclusion of good manufacturing practices as part of the Brazilian norms, as recommended by the World Health Organization, the country has moved forward in its view of blood facilities as manufacturing centers producing blood-derived biologics for therapeutic applications. It has also strengthened the need to develop safety mechanisms for blood donors and recipients. The development of a State-coordinated national blood policy and the institution of a national surveillance system with legitimate power of inspection are essential elements used in Brazil to guarantee the amount, quality, safety, and timeliness of blood supply to the population. The present article aims to discuss the present context of the blood regulatory model in Brazil so as to identify the challenges for improvement of this model. PMID:26758225

  4. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  5. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator.

  6. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  7. Equipment, supplies, and facilites required for hospital compounding.

    PubMed

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2006-01-01

    According to United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 795, the compounding area should have adequate space to store and organize all equipment, supplies, and chemicals to prevent mix-ups between ingredients, containers, labels, in-process materials, and finished preparations, and the area should be arranged in such a manner to prevent cross-contamination. Also, there should be adequate space for each compounder to safely and efficiently compound each preparation. The ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Compounding Non-Sterile Products in Pharmacies states that a separate facility is not required for compounding activites. Those guidelines state, however, that the compounding area should be isolated from potential interruptions, chemical contaminants, and sources of dust and particulate matter. Guides to general physical requirements for compounding laboratories are easily accessible, and hospital pharmacy administrators should make themselves aware of all standards and guidelines for compounding and reackaging, because these activities require specialized equipment, supplies, and facilites different than those needed by other services of the hospital pharmacy department. The large proportion of hospitalized patients who are unable to take some commercial drug products and therefore need compounded preparations is evidence of the need for an adequate compounding area.

  8. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  9. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  10. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  11. Human Blood Identification: A Forensic Science Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Francis X.; Kobilinsky, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments (involving immunological and serological techniques) in which a stained fabric is analyzed to determine if blood is present, and if so, whether it is of human origin. The experiments can be performed without expensive or sophisticated equipment and require only a minimal expenditure on consumable supplies. (JN)

  12. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  13. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain

    PubMed Central

    Madrona, Dalmiro Prados; Herrera, María Dolores Fernández; Jiménez, Dalmiro Prados; Giraldo, Sonsoles Gómez; Campos, Rita Robles

    2014-01-01

    Background Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. Materials and methods We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. Results With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. Discussion In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia. PMID

  14. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy Monotherapy is not Adequate for Management of Staghorn Renal Calculi.

    PubMed

    Koko, Abdelmoniem K; Onuora, Vincent C; Al Turki, Mohammed A; Mesbed, Ahmed H; Al Jawini, Nasser A

    2003-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1999 a total of 186 patients with staghorn renal stones were treated in our unit. Of them, 76 patients were managed by extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) alone using a third generation Siemen's Lithostar Plus lithotriptor. Sixty-one of these patients who completed a follow-up of 41 months formed the subjects of this study. ESWL was done after routine stenting of the affected side in all cases except one. The mean number of ESWL sessions was 5.2, delivering an average 15,940 shocks per patient. The average hospital stay was 21.68 days and the duration of the treatment was 1-41 months (mean 6.75 months). Significant complications occurred in 35 patients (57.4%) eight of whom sustained multiple significant complications. A total of 162 auxiliary procedures were used in conjunction with ESWL and in the management of complications. The stone free rate at three months was 18%, but rose by the end of the treatment period (41 months) to 63.9%. Our study indicates that ESWL monotherapy is associated with high morbidity rates, high rates of unplanned invasive procedures as well as prolonged treatment periods and hospitalization. Thus, ESWL monotherapy is not adequate for the management of staghorn calculi.

  15. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  16. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  17. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  18. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  19. Household-level technologies to improve the availability and preparation of adequate and safe complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Patience; Tomkins, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Plant-based complementary foods are the main source of nutrients for many young children in developing countries. They may, however, present problems in providing nutritionally adequate and safe diets for older infants and young children. The high starch content leads to low-nutrient diets that are bulky and dense, with high levels of antinutritive factors such as phytates, tannins, lectins, and enzyme inhibitors. Phytates impair mineral bioavailability, lectins interfere with intestinal structure, and enzyme inhibitors inhibit digestive enzymes. In addition, there is often microbial contamination, which leads to diarrhea, growth-faltering, and impaired development, and the presence of chemical contaminants may lead to neurological disease and goiter. The fact that some fruits containing carotenoids are only available seasonally contributes to the vulnerability of children receiving predominantly plant-based diets. Traditional household food technologies have been used for centuries to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods. These include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. While modern communities tend to reject these technologies in favor of more convenient fast-food preparations, there is now a resurgence of interest in older technologies as a possible means of improving the quality and safety of complementary foods when the basic diet cannot be changed for economic reasons. This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of these traditional processes at the household or community level, as well as the gaps in research, so that more effective policies and programs can be implemented to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods.

  20. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management.

  1. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management. PMID:27332076

  2. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  3. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  4. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  5. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  6. Sustainability issues in rural water supply in Asia.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    This article identifies some sustainability issues in management of water supplies in rural Asia. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade was 1981-90. At present, less than 50% of the rural population in several Asian countries have access to safe water, and even less have access to adequate sanitation. Access does not ensure quality of services or supplies. Data on coverage is inadequate and does not take into account water quality, hours of service, reliability of supplies, distance to the source, and community use patterns. It is difficult to improve access to the poor. There is no single uniform strategy that works for all parts of a country. Countries need to promote community management that has strategic vision and appropriate priorities. Local management is constrained by centralized authority, the orientation of sector agencies, and staff with weak managerial, financial, technical, and communications skills. Many countries lack resources to maintain water delivery infrastructures and to prevent deterioration of services. There is a need to develop low cost appropriate technologies, management requirements, health education, community participation, mobilization of women, and synergistic, nonsequential development. Demand for water and sanitation is driven by survival and privacy issues. Rural water supply programs should view water as an economic and social good. Water management is effective when decisions are made locally. Local governments need to be strengthened in order to be able to perform demand management, select institutional options, and to take care of the unserviced.

  7. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart ... it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...

  8. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  9. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  10. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  11. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Low Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 30,2016 To know if you ... to learn more about blood pressure . If my blood pressure stays around 85/55, do I have a ...

  12. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, simple, ... this test, as well as during the donation process, is sterile, used only once and then disposed. ...

  13. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or parts of blood ... liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  14. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  15. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  16. Adequate hypoxia inducible factor 1α signaling is indispensable for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stegen, Steve; Deprez, Sanne; Eelen, Guy; Torrekens, Sophie; Van Looveren, Riet; Goveia, Jermaine; Ghesquière, Bart; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2016-06-01

    Engineered cell-based constructs are an appealing strategy to treat large skeletal defects. However, transplanted cells are often confronted with an environment that is deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Upon hypoxia, most cell types activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) signaling, but its importance for implanted osteoprogenitor cells during bone regeneration is not elucidated. To this end, we specifically deleted the HIF--1α isoform in periosteal progenitor cells and show that activation of HIF-1α signaling in these cells is critical for bone repair by modulating angiogenic and metabolic processes. Activation of HIF-1α is not only crucial for blood vessel invasion, by enhancing angiogenic growth factor production, but also for periosteal cell survival early after implantation, when blood vessels have not yet invaded the construct. HIF-1α signaling limits oxygen consumption to avoid accumulation of harmful ROS and preserve redox balance, and additionally induces a switch to glycolysis to prevent energetic distress. Altogether, our results indicate that the proangiogenic capacity of implanted periosteal cells is HIF-1α regulated and that metabolic adaptations mediate post-implantation cell survival. PMID:27058876

  17. Pulmonary vagal innervation is required to establish adequate alveolar ventilation in the newborn lamb.

    PubMed

    Wong, K A; Bano, A; Rigaux, A; Wang, B; Bharadwaj, B; Schürch, S; Green, F; Remmers, J E; Hasan, S U

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the effects of bilateral intrathoracic vagotomy on the establishment of continuous breathing and effective gas exchange at birth, we studied 8 chronically instrumented, unanesthetized, sham-operated and 14 vagotomized newborn lambs after a spontaneous, unassisted vaginal delivery. Fetal lambs were instrumented in utero to record sleep states, diaphragmatic electromyogram, blood pressure, arterial pH, and blood-gas tensions. Six of eight sham-operated lambs established effective gas exchange within 10 min of birth, whereas 12 of 14 vagotomized animals developed respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia (P = 0.008). Breathing frequency in vagotomized newborns was significantly lower during the entire postnatal period compared with sham-operated newborns. Vagotomized subjects also remained hypothermic during the entire postnatal period (P < 0.05). Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated an increased minimum surface tension, whereas lung histology showed perivascular edema and partial atelectasis in the vagotomized group. We conclude that stimulation of breathing and effective gas exchange are critically dependent on intact vagal nerves during the transition from fetal to neonatal life.

  18. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  19. VIRAL PATHOGENS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-eight public ground-water-supply wells serving less than 3,300 people were sampled from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan to determine (1) occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators, (2) whether indicators are adequate predictors of the...

  20. 75 FR 75483 - Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Blood Establishments: Training of Back-Up Personnel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... guidance, the H1N1 influenza pandemic has waned in the United States and disruptions in the blood supply..., and Preservation of the Blood Supply in Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus'' dated November 2009... in Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus'' (November 2009). At that time, we anticipated that...

  1. Who should donate blood? Policy decisions on donor deferral criteria should protect recipients and be fair to donors.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, S R; Kelly, D; Kohli, H; Slowther, A; Watkins, N A

    2015-08-01

    An important element in the development of voluntary blood donation schemes throughout the world has been the attention given to minimising the risk to recipients of donated blood, primarily the risk of transfusion transmitted infections. In response to the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the 1980s a range of national policies emerged that excluded populations at high risk of contracting HIV from donating blood, with a particular focus on men who have sex with men (MSM), the primary reason being the protection of recipients of donated blood. Recently some countries, including the UK, have revised their policies, informed by advances in screening tests, epidemiological evidence of transmission rates and an increasing concern about unfair discrimination of specific groups in society. Policy makers face a difficult task of balancing safety of recipients; an adequate blood supply for those who require transfusion; and societal/legal obligations to treat everyone fairly. Given that no transfusion is risk free, the question is what degree of risk is acceptable in order to meet the needs of recipients and society. Decisions about acceptance of risk are complex and policy makers who set acceptable risk levels must provide ethically justifiable reasons for their decisions. We suggest it is possible to provide a set of reasons that stakeholders could agree are relevant based on careful evaluation of the evidence of all relevant risks and explicit acknowledgement of other morally relevant values. We describe using such a process in the Safety of Blood Tissue and Organs (SaBTO) review of donor deferral criteria related to sexual behaviour. PMID:26190553

  2. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product. PMID

  3. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 9% A+ 31% A- 6% B+ 9% B- 2% AB+ 3% AB- 1% Blood Group Compatibility There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. Rollover blood group to view compatibility. RED BLOOD CELLS WHOLE BLOOD PLASMA Donor O Group O can donate red blood ...

  4. Are current screening protocols for chronic hepatitis B virus infection adequate?

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Eva; Kamali, Amanda; Schirmer, Patricia L; Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia; Winston, Carla A; Oda, Gina; Winters, Mark A; Durfee, Janet; Martinello, Richard A; Davey, Victoria J; Holodniy, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection screening usually includes only HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) testing; HBV core and surface antibody (anti-HBc, anti-HBs) assays, indicating resolved infection and immunity, are not routinely performed. Yet, serum HBV DNA is measurable in approximately 10% of HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive cases, representing occult HBV infection (OBI). Patient blood samples from 2 Veterans Affairs medical center look-back investigations were screened for HBV infection using HBsAg enzyme immunoassays. Supplementary testing included anti-HBc and anti-HBs enzyme immunoassays. For anti-HBc-positive samples, HBV DNA testing was performed. Background OBI prevalence was further estimated at these 2 facilities based on HBV serology testing results from 1999-2012. Finally, a literature review was performed to determine OBI prevalence in the published literature. Of 1887 HBsAg-negative cohort patients, 98 (5.2%) were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative; and 175 (9.3%), anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Six of 273 were HBV DNA positive, representing 0.3% of the total tested and 2.2% who were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative or anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Among 32,229 general population veterans at these 2 sites who had any HBV testing, 4/108 (3.7%) were HBV DNA positive, none of whom were part of the cohort. In 129 publications with HBsAg-negative patients, 1817/1,209,426 (0.15%) had OBI. However, excluding blood bank studies with greater than 1000 patients, the OBI rate increased to 1800/17,893 (10%). OBI is not rare and has implications for transmission and disease detection. HBsAg testing alone is insufficient for detecting all chronic HBV infections. These findings may impact blood donation, patient HBV screening, follow-up protocols for patients assumed to have cleared the infection, and initiation of immunosuppression in patients with distant or undetected HBV. PMID:27009896

  5. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  6. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  7. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  8. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  9. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  10. Stem cell-derived erythrocytes as upcoming players in blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is current standard-of-care for genetic forms of anemia that would be otherwise lethal and allows implementation of aggressive cytotoxic/surgical therapies developed for numerous types of cancer. In developed countries the blood supply is adequate and sporadically even in excess. However, difficulties exist in finding blood with rare phenotypes to treat alloimmunized patients and the progressive ageing of the human population predicts that blood will become scarce by 2050. These considerations establish the need for the development of techniques to generate cultured red blood cell (cRBCs) as transfusion products. Materials and Methods Recent progress in cell culture techniques is revolutionizing organ replacement therapies. Two new disciplines, cell therapy and tissue engineering, have been developed to generate in vitro therapeutic products for a variety of applications ranging from skin grafts to organ-function repairs. It is currently believed that these advances will eventually allow ex-vivo production of various cell types in numbers so great that, in the case of red cells, would be clinically adequate for transfusion. Results Proof-of-principle in animal models indicate that cRBCs generated from murine embryonic stem cells protect mice from lethal anemia. Conditions to generate small amounts of clinical grade cRBCs have been established and the first-in-man administration of autologous cRBCs perfomed. The results of this trial indicate that cRBCs survive in vivo at least as long as their natural counterpart. Discussion These ground-breaking reports have raised great excitement for clinical evaluation of cRBCs for transfusion. However, skepticism still persist that production of cRBCs in numbers sufficient for transfusion will ever be possible. This paper will discuss diagnostic and clinical goals pursuable with numbers of cRBCs that may be generated with current technology. Conclusion We are confident that development of relevant

  11. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  12. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  13. Do Foley Catheters Adequately Drain the Bladder? Evidence from CT Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Avulova, Svetlana; Li, Valery J.; Khusid, Johnathan A.; Choi, Woo S.; Weiss, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomo-graphic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube: V=(ϖ/6)*(L*W*H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. PMID:26200550

  14. When are studies adequate for regulatory purposes? View of one regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, M

    1981-01-01

    The question of adequacy of studies for regulatory purposes has been debated for years. Nine questions need answers to determine adequacy: (1) Does the study deal with a defined problem or a defined segment of it? (2) Do the study data justify the conclusions drawn? (3) Were appropriate statistical analyses used? Is there evidence of bias versus objectivity in the collection or analysis of data? (4) Does the study support, supplement (or complement) or refute information in the literature? Is the study truly new information? (5) Does the study conform to the Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG) guidelines for documentation of Epidemiologic Studies? (6) Does the study stand up to peer review? (7) Have other investigators been able to confirm the findings by duplicating the study? (8) Is the study acceptable or can it be made acceptable for publication in a reputable scientific journal? (9) Is the problem of such magnitude or significance that regulation is required? Because there is no such thing as a risk-free environment or absolute safety and there is no definitive "yes" answer to each of the questions, the regulated would hope--yes, insist--that the regulators exercise judgement with great skill in promulgation of rules or regulations. The application of safety factors and the determination of acceptable levels of risk should be social decisions. A discussion of instances where the "regulated" believes that studies have not been adequate, or others habe been ignored, or misinterpreted for regulatory purposes in included.A method of settling controversial questions to eliminate the litigation route is proposed. Judgment which is so often eliminated by regulation needs to find its way back into the regulatory process. The regulated recognize the need for regulations. However, when these regulations are based on less than good scientific judgment, harm will be done to the regulatory process itself in the long run. PMID:7333262

  15. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  16. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    PubMed

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  17. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to 100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  18. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.