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Sample records for adequate caloric intake

  1. Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly G.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2016-01-01

    The role that meal pattern plays in weight regulation is a popular topic of scientific and common debate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between meal timing with caloric intake and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that latemeal timing and eating closer to sleep onset time would be associated with greater energy intake and higher BMI. Participants included 59 individuals recruited from the community. Rest/activity patterns were assessed using seven days of wrist actigraphy, and caloric intake was evaluated using seven days of diet logs. Results demonstrated that the timing of meals was associated with overall energy intake but not with BMI. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep duration, and timing; eating more frequently, later timing of the last meal, and a shorter duration between last meal and sleep onset predicted higher total caloric intake. In a mediational model, eating frequency explained the relationship between eating closer to sleep onset and total caloric intake. Results suggest that later relative timing of meals, particularly eating close to sleep, could lead to weight gain due to a greater number of eating occasions and higher total daily caloric intake. These findings have important implications for the development of novel, time-based interventions for weight management. PMID:25439026

  2. Calorie Anticipation Alters Food Intake After Low-Caloric but Not High-Caloric Preloads

    PubMed Central

    Hogenkamp, PS; Cedernaes, J; Chapman, CD; Vogel, H; Hjorth, OC; Zarei, S; Lundberg, LS; Brooks, SJ; Dickson, SL; Benedict, C; Schiöth, HB

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake. Design and Methods During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low caloric (LC: 180 kcal/300 g) or high caloric (HC: 530 kcal/300 g) and was provided with either consistent or inconsistent calorie information (i.e., stating the caloric content of the preload was low or high). Appetite ratings and hormone and glucose levels were measured at baseline (t = 0), after providing the calorie information about the preload (t = 20), after consumption of the preload (t = 40), and just before ad libitum intake (t = 60). Results Ad libitum intake was lower after HC preloads (as compared to LC preloads; P < 0.01). Intake after LC preloads was higher when provided with (consistent) LC information (467±254 kcal) as compared to (inconsistent) HC information (346±210 kcal), but intake after the HC preloads did not depend on the information provided (LC information: 290±178 kcal, HC information: 333±179 kcal; caloric load*information P = 0.03). Hormone levels did not respond in an anticipatory manner, and the post-prandial responses depended on actual calories consumed. Conclusions These results suggest that both cognitive and physiological information determine food intake. When actual caloric intake was sufficient to produce physiological satiety, cognitive factors played no role; however, when physiological satiety was limited, cognitively induced satiety reduced intake to comparable levels. PMID:23585292

  3. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI.

    PubMed

    Baron, Kelly G; Reid, Kathryn J; Kern, Andrew S; Zee, Phyllis C

    2011-07-01

    Sleep duration has been linked to obesity and there is also an emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. However, there is a paucity of research evaluating timing of sleep and feeding on weight regulation in humans. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep timing in dietary patterns and BMI. Participants included 52 (25 females) volunteers who completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. Fifty-six percent were "normal sleepers" (midpoint of <5:30 AM) and 44% were "late sleepers" (midpoint of sleep ≥5:30 AM). Late sleepers had shorter sleep duration, later sleep onset and sleep offset and meal times. Late sleepers consumed more calories at dinner and after 8:00 PM, had higher fast food, full-calorie soda and lower fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher BMI was associated with shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, caloric consumption after 8:00 PM, and fast food meals. In multivariate models, sleep timing was independently associated with calories consumed after 8:00 PM and fruit and vegetable consumption but did not predict BMI after controlling for sleep duration. Calories consumed after 8:00 PM predicted BMI after controlling for sleep timing and duration. These findings indicate that caloric intake after 8:00 PM may increase the risk of obesity, independent of sleep timing and duration. Future studies should investigate the biological and social mechanisms linking timing of sleep and feeding in order to develop novel time-based interventions for weight management. PMID:21527892

  4. Relationship of Dieting and Restrained Eating to Self-Reported Caloric Intake in Female College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Katterman, Shawn N.; Lowe, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that restrained eaters do not eat less than unrestrained eaters in the natural environment. However, no study has examined caloric intake in those who are currently dieting to lose, or avoid gaining, weight. The current study examined caloric intake using 24-hour food recalls among individuals dieting to lose weight, dieting to avoid weight gain, restrained nondieters, and unrestrained nondieters. Participants were 246 female college students participating in a weight gain prevention trial. The predicted significant difference in caloric intake across the four groups was found for beverage but not for food intake. Results reinforce past literature indicating that dieting/restraint status does not reflect hypo-caloric intake in naturalistic settings. PMID:23557829

  5. Relationship of dieting and restrained eating to self-reported caloric intake in female college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that restrained eaters do not eat less than unrestrained eaters in the natural environment. However, no study has examined caloric intake in those who are currently dieting to lose, or avoid gaining, weight. The current study examined caloric intake using 24-hour food recalls among individuals dieting to lose weight, dieting to avoid weight gain, restrained nondieters, and unrestrained nondieters. Participants were 246 female college students participating in a weight gain prevention trial. The predicted significant difference in caloric intake across the four groups was found for beverage but not for food intake. Results reinforce past literature indicating that dieting/restraint status does not reflect hypo-caloric intake in naturalistic settings. PMID:23557829

  6. Reliability and Predictive Validity of Caloric Intake Measures from the 24-Hour Dietary Recalls of Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    24-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults’ eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total caloric intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. 230 homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two sub-samples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n = 52), sufficient test-retest reliability of caloric intake was observed (r = 0.59); but caloric intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r = 0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n = 143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient caloric intake (odds ratio = 3.49, p = .009), and in White participants compared to African American participants (odds ratio = 3.13, p=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals are needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of caloric intake measures for this population. PMID:20430140

  7. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  8. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I

    2010-11-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster's alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure to either: alcohol, sucrose or saccharin. In Experiments 1 and 2, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v) and water; once alcohol consumption steadied, a bottle containing an ascending concentration of sucrose (99-614 mM) or saccharin (2-10 mM), or water was added. In Experiment 3, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v), sucrose (614 mM), saccharin (4 mM), or a second water bottle for 14 days. After the second bottle was removed, measurements continued for 14days. Sucrose exposure suppressed alcohol consumption at concentrations lower in calories than the alcohol solution. Saccharin exposure failed to suppress alcohol consumption. Exposure to sucrose and alcohol but not saccharin decreased food intake. Decreased alcohol consumption in response to a caloric sweetener and decreased food intake during alcohol exposure support that alcohol consumption by the hamster is mediated by caloric content. However, suppression of alcohol intake by a sucrose solution of lower caloric content and the equivalent intake of individual alcohol, sucrose and saccharin solutions support a role for reward value in alcohol consumption. PMID:20688091

  9. Sex and race differences in caloric intake during sleep restriction in healthy adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that men and African Americans may be more susceptible to weight gain resulting from sleep loss than women and whites, respectively. Increased daily caloric intake is a major behavioral mechanism that underlies the relation between sleep loss and weight gain. Objective: We sought to assess sex and race differences in caloric intake, macronutrient intake, and meal timing during sleep restriction. Design: Forty-four healthy adults aged 21–50 y (mean ± SD: 32.7 ± 8.7 y; n = 21 women, n = 16 whites) completed an in-laboratory protocol that included 2 consecutive baseline nights [10 or 12 h time in bed (TIB)/night; 2200–0800 or 2200–1000] followed by 5 consecutive sleep-restriction nights (4 h TIB/night; 0400–0800). Caloric intake and meal-timing data were collected during the 2 d after baseline sleep and the first 3 d after sleep restriction. Results: During sleep restriction, subjects increased daily caloric intake (P < 0.001) and fat intake (P = 0.024), including obtaining more calories from condiments, desserts, and salty snacks (Ps < 0.05) and consumed 532.6 ± 295.6 cal during late-night hours (2200–0359). Relative to women, men consumed more daily calories during baseline and sleep restriction, exhibited a greater increase in caloric intake during sleep restriction (d = 0.62), and consumed a higher percentage of daily calories during late-night hours (d = 0.78, Ps < 0.05). African Americans and whites did not significantly differ in daily caloric intake, increased caloric intake during sleep restriction, or meal timing. However, African Americans consumed more carbohydrates, less protein, and more caffeine-free soda and juice than whites did during the study (Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: Men may be more susceptible to weight gain during sleep loss than women due to a larger increase in daily caloric intake, particularly during late-night hours. These findings are relevant to the promotion of public health awareness by

  10. Teaching self-management skills to cystic fibrosis patients and its effect on their caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Luder, E; Gilbride, J A

    1989-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether cystic fibrosis patients who received nutrition counseling based on self-management skills had an increased caloric intake and enhanced body mass index (kg/m2) values. Thirty-seven patients, aged 4 to 29 years, were placed on a nonrestricted nutrition program for a study period of 4 years. Bandura's self-management principles were applied in counseling patients to meet their nutrition needs. The results showed significant increases in energy intake and body mass index values (p less than .001). The mean energy intake increased from 93.6 +/- 16.9% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance to 125.8 +/- 24.1% of the RDA, and mean body mass index value increased from 16.9 +/- 2.3 to 18.8 +/- 2.5. Pulmonary functions remained unchanged during the counseling period. Four to six counseling sessions were required before the mean caloric intake of the patients increased to the desired goal of 115% of the RDA. During the remainder of the study period, the mean caloric intake rose to 125% of the RDA. The results of this study suggest that cystic fibrosis patients are able to increase their caloric intake significantly with counseling. PMID:2921442

  11. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status. PMID:26375457

  12. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Caloric Intake and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Calvin, Andrew D.; Carter, Rickey E.; Adachi, Taro; G. Macedo, Paula; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; van der Walt, Christelle; Bukartyk, Jan; Davison, Diane E.; Levine, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of sleep restriction on caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Methods: We conducted a randomized study of usual sleep vs a sleep restriction of two-thirds of normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcomes were caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Results: Caloric intake in the sleep-restricted group increased by +559 kcal/d (SD, 706 kcal/d, P = .006) and decreased in the control group by −118 kcal/d (SD, 386 kcal/d, P = .51) for a net change of +677 kcal/d (95% CI, 148-1,206 kcal/d; P = .014). Sleep restriction was not associated with changes in activity energy expenditure (P = .62). No change was seen in levels of leptin (P = .27) or ghrelin (P = .21). Conclusions: Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in caloric consumption with no change in activity energy expenditure or leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Increased caloric intake without any accompanying increase in energy expenditure may contribute to obesity in people who are exposed to long-term sleep restriction. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01334788; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23392199

  13. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement among U.S. Children from Ages 5 to 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Eric J.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the…

  14. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  15. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Eric J; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test from ages 5 to 14. While models controlling for within-family covariates showed that prenatal caloric intake was associated with lower reading and mathematical achievement at age 5, models controlling for between-family covariates (such as maternal IQ) and unobserved familial confounders revealed only a statistically significant association between siblings differentially exposed to prenatal caloric intake and mathematical achievement at age 5. PMID:26306885

  16. Effect of thermal environment and caloric intake on head growth of low birthweight infants during late neonatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, L; Lala, R V; Jaiswal, V; Nigam, S K

    1975-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of ambient thermal conditions on postnatal head growth in low birth weight infants, 42 asymtomatic neonates were reared under 4 combinations of caloric intake and thermal environment after the first week of life. Exposure to a subthermoneutral temperature (abdominal skin temperature of 35 degrees C), together with a relatively low caloric intake (120 cal/kg per day), was associated with significant retardation of head growth over a 2-week study period. PMID:1167073

  17. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

  18. Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

  19. Relationship Of Mediterranean Diet And Caloric Intake To Phenoconversion In Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Karen; Gu, Yian; Eberly, Shirley; Tanner, Caroline M.; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Importance Adherence to Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) may delay onset of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Whether adherence to MeDi affects time to phenoconversion in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a highly penetrant, single gene disorder, is unknown. Objective To determine if MeDi modifies the time to clinical onset of HD ('phenoconversion') in premanifest carriers participating in Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study (PHAROS), and to examine the effects of BMI and caloric intake on time to phenoconversion. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting 41 Huntington Study Group sites in the US and Canada. Participants 1001 participants were enrolled in PHAROS between July 1999 and January 2004, and were followed every 9 months until 2010. A total of 211 participants aged 26–57 with an expanded CAG repeat (≥37) were included in the current study. Exposure A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered 33 months after baseline. We calculated daily gram intake for dairy, meat, fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals, fish, monounsaturated and saturated fatty-acids, and alcohol, and constructed MeDi scores (0–9); higher scores indicate higher adherence. Demographics, medical history, BMI, and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) were collected. Main Outcome Measure Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of MeDi and phenoconversion. Results Age, caloric intake, gender, education, and UHDRS motor scores did not differ among MeDi tertiles (0–3, 4–5, 6–9). The highest BMI was associated with lowest adherence to MeDi. 31 participants phenoconverted. In a model adjusted for age, CAG, and caloric intake, MeDi was not associated with phenoconversion (p for trend=0.14 for tertile of MeDi, and p=0.22 for continuous MeDi). When individual diet components of MeDi were analyzed, higher dairy consumption (hazard ratio 2.36; 1.0–5.57; p=0.051) and higher caloric intake (p=0.035) were associated with

  20. Effects of obesity and caloric intake on biliary lipid metabolism in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, L J; Grundy, S M

    1975-01-01

    The effects of obesity and caloric intake on biliary lipid metabolism were investigated in a series of related studies. The degree of saturation of gallbladder bile with cholesterol was found to be significantly higher in a group of 23 obese healthy subjects than in a group of 23 nonobese controls matched for age, sex, and race. Bile was also significantly more saturated in 11 obese subjects before than after weight reduction. To determine whether supersaturated bile in obesity is due to excessive secretion of cholesterol or to deficient secretion of bile acids and phospholipids, the hepatic outputs of these three lipids were measured during constant duodenal infusion of formula in the same 11 subjects before and after weight reduction. Weight reduction resulted in significant reduction of cholesterol output but not of bile acid or phospholipid output. Moreover, very obese subjects were found to have cholesterol secretion rates markedly higher than less obese subjects previously studied by the same method. In obese subjects, bile was supersaturated with cholesterol despite increased bile acid pool sizes and increased secretion rates of bile acids and phospholipids. Supersaturated bile in the obese could therefore be attributed to a single defect in lipid secretion, namely, an excessive output of cholesterol. To determine whether the rate of caloric intake can account for the effects of obesity on biliary lipid composition and secretion, nine obese white men were studied on a weight maintenance diet and then during weight reduction on a 1,000 cal diet. As compared to weight maintenance, chronic caloric restriction resulted in reduced outputs of cholesterol, bile acids, and phospholipids, reduced bile acid pool size, and reduced synthesis and fecal excretion of cholesterol. Saturation of bile with cholesterol did not decrease during weight reduction, evidently because of the mobilization of cholesterol from adipose stores and the marked reduction in bile acid and

  1. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  2. The influence of pre- and postnatal caloric intake on colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Bueche, D; Suphiphat, V; Schrager, T F; Sahaphong, S

    1990-01-01

    Mother rats were allowed to litter under conventional conditions. They were fed a complete, semipurified diet during gestation, and at time of littering the numbers of pups were reduced to either eight per litter or four per litter in two additional groups. At weaning, all rats were continued on the same diet that their mothers had consumed. One group of those reduced to four per litter at birth was allowed to continue to eat ad libitum while the other group, reduced to four per litter, was pair fed to the ad libitum eight per litter group. The group reduced to four per litter at birth and allowed to eat ad libitum during postnatal life gained the most weight and were heaviest at the termination of the study. This group also had the greater incidence and frequency of colon tumors when exposed to dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The group pair fed to rats fed conventional diets, eight rats per litter, had an incidence and frequency of tumors between the other two groups. These data demonstrate that early exposure to excess calories increased risk for cancer and that early and late excess caloric intake further increased risk. Thus, pre- and perinatal caloric intake may have a significant influence on susceptibility to cancer later in life. Mechanisms are only speculative but may include differences in metabolism and modulation of hormonal balance. PMID:2308872

  3. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  4. Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985

  5. Using eastern gamagrass to construct diets that limit intake and caloric density for dairy replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that eastern gamagrass (EGG; Tripsacum dactyloides L.) will survive winter climatic conditions common throughout central Wisconsin, and will produce yields of dry matter (DM) ranging approximately from 7,000 to 10,000 kg/ha annually when managed with a 1-cut harvest system. The objective of this research was to determine whether the fibrous nature of this perennial warm-season grass could be effective in reducing the caloric density and DMI of corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets for replacement dairy heifers. A total of 120 Holstein dairy heifers were blocked by body weight (heavy, 424 ± 15.9 kg; medium, 369 ± 11.8 kg; light, 324 ± 22.4 kg), and then assigned to 15 individual pens containing 8heifers each. Eastern gamagrass forage was harvested, ensiled, and subsequently incorporated into blended corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets at rates of 0, 9.1, 18.3, or 27.4% of the total dietary DM (EGG0, EGG9, EGG18, and EGG27, respectively). These diets were offered during a 105-d evaluation period for ad libitum intake; however, the EGG0 diet also was offered on a limit-fed basis (LF), which was set at 85% of the voluntary intake of EGG0. Serial additions of EGG increased concentrations of neutral detergent fiber in blended diets from 39.6 (EGG0) to 48.7% (EGG27), and simultaneously reduced corresponding estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) from 68.2 to 61.3%, and net energy for gain from 1.07 to 0.83 Mcal/kg. Dry matter intakes for all diets offered ad libitum were greater than observed for LF (9.06 vs. 8.07 kg/d); however, DM intakes for diets containing EGG were reduced relative to EGG0 (9.40 vs. 8.94 kg/d). Similarly, intakes of TDN were greater for diets offered for ad libitum intake than for LF (5.84 vs. 5.50 kg/d); however, inclusion of EGG reduced TDN intakes relative to EGG0 (6.41 vs. 5.65 kg/d). This reduction was explained by both linear and quadratic effects of the inclusion rate of EGG in the diet. Over the 105-d trial

  6. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats. PMID:26555482

  7. Role of VMH ketone bodies in adjusting caloric intake to increased dietary fat content in DIO and DR rats.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henry M; Levin, Barry E

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of astrocyte-derived ketone bodies in regulating the early changes in caloric intake of diet induced-obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats fed a 31.5% fat high-energy (HE) diet. After 3 days on chow or HE diet, DR and DIO rats were assessed for their ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) ketone bodies levels and neuronal ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) sensing using microdialysis coupled to continuous food intake monitoring and calcium imaging in dissociated neurons, respectively. DIO rats ate more than DR rats over 3 days of HE diet intake. On day 3 of HE diet intake, DR rats reduced their caloric intake while DIO rats remained hyperphagic. Local VMH astrocyte ketone bodies production was similar between DR and DIO rats during the first 6 h after dark onset feeding but inhibiting VMH ketone body production in DR rats on day 3 transiently returned their intake of HE diet to the level of DIO rats consuming HE diet. In addition, dissociated VMN neurons from DIO and DR rats were equally sensitive to the largely excitatory effects of β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus while DR rats respond to increased VMH ketone levels by decreasing their intake after 3 days of HE diet, this is not the case of DIO rats. These data suggest that DIO inherent leptin resistance prevents ketone bodies inhibitory action on food intake. PMID:25786485

  8. Caloric Intake on the Sabbath: A Pilot Study of Contributing Factors to Obesity in the Orthodox Jewish Community.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Deborah A; Swencionis, Charles; Segal-Isaacson, C J

    2016-10-01

    The American Orthodox Jewish community has specific cultural factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. This study aimed to look at caloric intake on the Sabbath and its contribution to overweight and obesity. Twelve married or previously married women who identify themselves as Orthodox Jews were recruited to do 24-h food recalls over the phone. The participants were divided into three weight groups (normal, overweight, and obese) based on their BMI. The overweight and obese participants' data were combined into one group for the purposes of statistical testing. Paired t tests looking at the data for all participants showed significantly great caloric intake during an average Sabbath day than an average weekday [t(4) = 7.58, p < 0.001]. A repeated-measures ANOVA showed significantly greater energy intake on the Sabbath for the overweight-obese women compared to the normal weight women [F(1) = 7.83, p = 0.02]. No statistical difference was seen between the weekday energy intake of the normal weight women as compared to the combined group of overweight-obese women [F(1) = 0.501, p = 0.499]. These results support the hypotheses that all groups eat significantly more on the Sabbath than on weekdays, and overweight and obese individuals eat significantly more on the Sabbath than normal weight individuals. This supports the theory that caloric intake on the Sabbath is a contributing factor to overweight and obesity within the American Orthodox Jewish community. PMID:26613588

  9. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans’ health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners’ socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. Methods We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. Conclusions If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious – probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did

  10. Consuming More of Daily Caloric Intake at Dinner Predisposes to Obesity. A 6-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Simona; Musso, Giovanni; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Fadda, Maurizio; Fedele, Debora; Gambino, Roberto; Gentile, Luigi; Durazzo, Marilena; Ghigo, Ezio; Cassader, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been hypothesized that assuming most of the caloric intake later in the day leads to metabolic disadvantages, but few studies are available on this topic. Aim of our study was to prospectively examine whether eating more of the daily caloric intake at dinner leads to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Subjects/Methods 1245 non-obese, non-diabetic middle-aged adults from a population-based cohort underwent a 3-day food record questionnaire at enrollment. Anthropometric values, blood pressure, blood metabolic variables, and estimated liver fat were measured at baseline and at 6-year follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study. Results Subjects were divided according to tertiles of percent daily caloric intake at dinner. A significant increase in the incidence rate of obesity (from 4.7 to 11.4%), metabolic syndrome (from 11.1 to 16.1%), and estimated NAFLD (from 16.5 to 23.8%) was observed from the lower to higher tertile. In a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for multiple covariates, subjects in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of developing obesity (OR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.17–4.65; p = 0.02), metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.01–2.30; p = 0.04), and NAFLD (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.10–2.22; p = 0.01). Conclusions Consuming more of the daily energy intake at dinner is associated with an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:25250617

  11. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  12. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  13. Identification of Sphingolipid Metabolites That Induce Obesity via Misregulation of Appetite, Caloric Intake and Fat Storage in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Stanley M.; Attle, Steve J.; Brulte, Gregory B.; Walls, Marlena L.; Finley, Kim D.; Chatfield, Dale A.; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is defined by excessive lipid accumulation. However, the active mechanistic roles that lipids play in its progression are not understood. Accumulation of ceramide, the metabolic hub of sphingolipid metabolism, has been associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity in humans and model systems. Here, we use Drosophila genetic manipulations to cause accumulation or depletion of ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) intermediates. Sphingolipidomic profiles were characterized across mutants for various sphingolipid metabolic genes using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. Biochemical assays and microscopy were used to assess classic hallmarks of obesity including elevated fat stores, increased body weight, resistance to starvation induced death, increased adiposity, and fat cell hypertrophy. Multiple behavioral assays were used to assess appetite, caloric intake, meal size and meal frequency. Additionally, we utilized DNA microarrays to profile differential gene expression between these flies, which mapped to changes in lipid metabolic pathways. Our results show that accumulation of ceramides is sufficient to induce obesity phenotypes by two distinct mechanisms: 1) Dihydroceramide (C14:0) and ceramide diene (C14:2) accumulation lowered fat store mobilization by reducing adipokinetic hormone- producing cell functionality and 2) Modulating the S1P: ceramide (C14:1) ratio suppressed postprandial satiety via the hindgut-specific neuropeptide like receptor dNepYr, resulting in caloric intake-dependent obesity. PMID:24339790

  14. Race, childhood insulin, childhood caloric intake, and class 3 obesity at age 24: 14-year prospective study of schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity. PMID:21593807

  15. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys☆

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carla J.; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E.; Johnson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. PMID:23207191

  16. Polymorphism of rs1836882 in NOX4 Gene Modifies Associations between Dietary Caloric Intake and ROS Levels in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Wang, Ningfu; Chen, Huaihong; Jin, Qihui; Zhang, Ruoyu; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Excessive caloric intake is a contributing risk factor for human metabolic disorders. Caloric restriction may prolong a person’s life by lowering the incidence of deadly diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been associated with the biochemical basis of the relationship between caloric intake and pathophysiologic processes. Polymorphisms associated with ROS generation genes are being increasingly implicated in inter-individual responses to daily caloric intake alterations. In the current study, a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs1836882, in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene’s promoter region was found to modulate associations between dietary caloric intake and ROS levels in PBMC. Based on rs1836882, 656 Chinese Han participants were classified into CC, CT and TT genotypes. ROS levels in PBMC were significantly higher in the CC or CT genotypes compared with the TT genotype with the same increases in daily caloric intake. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, NOX4 promoter region with rs1836882 (T) was observed to have a higher affinity for hepatocyte nuclear factor gamma (HNF3γ) protein than rs1836882 (C). HNF3γ protein over-expression decreased NOX4 gene transcriptional activity in the TT genotype more than in the CC genotype (5.68% vs. 2.12%, P<0.05) in a dual luciferase reporter assay. By silencing the NOX4 gene using small interfering RNA or over-expressing HNF3γ using an expression plasmid, serum from high dietary caloric intake participants decreased ROS levels in PBMC of the TT genotype more than in the CC or CT genotype via HNF3γ down-regulating the NOX4 gene expression signaling pathway. This is the first study to report on the functions of phenotypes of rs1836882 in the NOX4 gene, and it suggests rs1836882 as a candidate gene for interpreting inter-individual ROS levels differences in PBMC induced by alterations in daily caloric intake. PMID:24392026

  17. Caloric stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    Caloric test; Bithermal caloric testing; Cold water calorics; Warm water calorics; Air caloric testing ... your acoustic nerve by delivering cold or warm water or air into your ear canal. When cold ...

  18. CALORIC INTAKE AND DIETARY FAT TO CARBOHYDRATE RATIO INFLUENCE BODY WEIGHT ACCRETION AND ADIPOSITY IN RATS FED BY TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of high energy high-fat diets leads to weight gain and adiposity in rodents. However the relative roles of higher caloric intake vs. increased dietary fat remain unclear. Low carbohydrate high fat diets, like the Atkins diet, claim to promote weight loss. We employed a total enteral nutr...

  19. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  20. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  1. Observational study of caloric and nutrient intake, bone density, and body composition in infants and children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I

    PubMed Central

    Poruk, Katherine E; Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Smart, Abby L; Chisum, Benjamin S; LaSalle, Bernie A; Chan, Gary M; Gill, Gurmail; Reyna, Sandra P; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2012-01-01

    Clinical experience supports a critical role for nutrition in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Three-day dietary intake records were analyzed for 156 visits in 47 SMA type I patients, 25 males and 22 females, ages 1 month-13 years (median 9.8 months) and compared to dietary reference intakes for gender and age along with anthropometric measures and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) data. Using standardized growth curves, twelve patients met criteria for failure to thrive (FTT) with weight for age < 3rd percentile; eight met criteria based on weight for height. Percentage of body fat mass was not correlated with weight for height and weight for age across percentile categories. DEXA analysis further demonstrated that SMA type I children have higher fat mass and lower fat free mass than healthy peers (p<0.001). DEXA and dietary analysis indicates a strong correlation with magnesium intake and bone mineral density (r=0.65, p<0.001). Average caloric intake for 1–3 year olds was 68.8 ±15.8 kcal/kg - 67% of peers’ recommended intake. Children with SMA type I may have lower caloric requirements than healthy age-matched peers, increasing risk for over and undernourished states and deficiencies of critical nutrients. Standardized growth charts may overestimate FTT status in SMA type I. PMID:22832342

  2. Can adherence to dietary guidelines address excess caloric intake? An empirical assessment for the UK.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C S

    2013-12-01

    The facilitation of healthier dietary choices by consumers is a key element of government strategies to combat the rising incidence of obesity in developed and developing countries. Public health campaigns to promote healthier eating often target compliance with recommended dietary guidelines for consumption of individual nutrients such as fats and added sugars. This paper examines the association between improved compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients and excess calorie intake, the most proximate determinant of obesity risk. We apply quantile regressions and counterfactual decompositions to cross-sectional data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000-01) to assess how excess calorie consumption patterns in the UK are likely to change with improved compliance with dietary guidelines. We find that the effects of compliance vary significantly across different quantiles of calorie consumption. Our results show that compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients, even if successfully achieved, is likely to be associated with only modest shifts in excess calorie consumption patterns. Consequently, public health campaigns that target compliance with dietary guidelines for specific nutrients in isolation are unlikely to have a significant effect on the obesity risk faced by the population. PMID:23665354

  3. The effect of current and anticipated body pride and shame on dietary restraint and caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a link between body shame and eating disorder symptoms and behaviours. However, few have differentiated current feelings of body shame from those anticipated with weight change and none has examined the effects of these on subsequent eating behaviour. In this paper, a measure of body pride and shame was developed (Study 1) for the purposes of using it in a subsequent longitudinal study (Study 2). Two hundred and forty two women were recruited from a university and the general population and participated in Study 1, completing the Body Pride and Shame (BPS) scale either online or offline, as well as a number of validating measures. In Study 2, 40 female students completed the BPS, as well as a measure of dietary restraint, and subsequently recorded their dietary intake everyday for the next seven days. Study 1 identified and validated subscales of current body pride/shame as well as pride/shame that is anticipated were the individual to gain weight or lose weight. In Study 2, over and above levels of dietary restraint, current feelings of body shame predicted eating more calories over the next 7 days while the anticipation of shame with weight gain predicted eating fewer calories. Although previous research has only measured current feelings of body shame, the present studies showed that anticipated shame also impacts on subsequent behaviour. Interventions that regulate anticipated as well as current emotions, and that do not merely challenge cognitions, may be important in changing eating behaviour. PMID:26456412

  4. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal. PMID:20018804

  5. Effect of ethanol and/or reduced caloric intake during pregnancy on brain weight and synaptic membranes of mothers and their newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, M.; Weinsxein, H.G.

    1986-03-05

    Pregnant female rats were divided into five groups and fed as follows: - Ad libitum (AD), 20% of calories as ethanol (ED20), pair fed to ED20 (CD20), 36% of calories as ethanol (ED36), pair to ED36( CD36). New-born rats were obtained from these groups and labelled:- AN, EN20, CN20, EN36, CN36. The brains were removed and a synaptic membrane enriched fraction isolated which was analyzed for protein, sialic acid and the marker enzymes:- acetylcholinesterase (AC) and Na/K ATPase. Caloric intake was reduced by ethanol to 85% (ED20) and 68% (ED36) of the ad libitum fed (AD). Brain wt. of the neonate was reduced by the lower caloric intake of the dam but ethanol ingestion reduced the brain weight of the neonate even more significantly, CN36 vs. ED36 (p<0.05). The amount of synaptic membranes (syn.mem), in the brain was 5 to 7 times greater in the dam than their corresponding neonates, but there was no significant difference in the sialic acid (SA) content of the syn. mem. of dams and their corresponding neonates; however, the levels of both enzyme markers were negligible in the neonate. The reduced caloric and/or ethanol ingestion by the dam increased the levels of SA in the syn. mem. of both dam and neonate, and the marker enzymes in the dam.

  6. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  7. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  8. Differential caloric intake in overweight females with and without binge eating: effects of a laboratory-based emotion-regulation training.

    PubMed

    Svaldi, J; Tuschen-Caffier, B; Trentowska, M; Caffier, D; Naumann, E

    2014-05-01

    Negative emotions are among the best predictors for the occurrence of binge eating attacks in binge eating disorder (BED). Evidence from self-report and experimental studies suggests that this link may be mediated by deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to experimentally test the effects of a short laboratory-based ER training on caloric intake in BED. Thirty-nine women with BED and 42 overweight females without BED were randomly assigned to a laboratory-based ER training focusing on either expressive suppression or cognitive reappraisal. They were then given a negative mood induction with the instruction to adopt the learned ER strategy, which was followed by a bogus taste-test. Independent of group membership, caloric intake was significantly higher in the suppression compared to the reappraisal condition. Furthermore, the BED group displayed significantly higher habitual suppression and significantly lower habitual reappraisal scores than the overweight group. The data suggest that therapeutic interventions focusing on the mediation of more adaptive affect-regulation skills may be useful for the reduction of binge eating episodes. PMID:24650627

  9. Abdominal obesity, independent from caloric intake, accounts for the development of intestinal tumors in Apc(1638N/+) female mice.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Derek M; Augenlicht, Leonard H; Zhang, Xueying; Lofrese, John J; Atzmon, Gil; Chamberland, John P; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether visceral fat (VF), independent of other confounders, is causally linked to intestinal tumorigenesis, we surgically removed visceral fat in Apc(1638/N+) mice. At 15 weeks of age, male and female Apc(1638/N+) mice were randomized to one of three groups: ad libitum, visceral fat removal (VF-) and ad libitum fed, or caloric restriction, and were studied for effects on tumorigenesis and survival. As compared with ad libitum, VF- and caloric restriction reduced macroadenomas to a similar extent (P < 0.05), but only caloric restriction significantly improved survival (P < 0.05). Given that a significant group × gender interaction was observed, we next examined males and females separately. In females, macroadenomas were markedly attenuated by VF- (1.33 ± 0.23 mean ± SE; P < 0.05), but not by caloric restriction (2.35 ± 0.25; P = 0.71), as compared with ad libitum (2.50 ± 0.34). In males, however, caloric restriction (1.71 ± 0.26; P < 0.01), but not VF- (2.94 ± 0.42; P = 0.29), reduced macroadenomas, as compared with ad libitum males (3.47 ± 0.30). In females, both VF- (P = 0.05) and caloric restriction (P < 0.01) improved survival, but not in male mice (P = 0.15). The benefits observed with caloric restriction were consistent with favorable metabolic adaptations, but protection conferred in VF- females was despite lower adiponectin levels (P < 0.05), and failure to reduce body mass, total adiposity, glucose, insulin, leptin, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL-1) levels. In conclusion, these data provide the first causal evidence linking visceral fat to intestinal cancer risk, and suggest that factors, other than known metabolic mediators, may impact tumor development. Furthermore, these data emphasize that strategies designed to deplete visceral fat stores in humans should be considered in the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 177-87. ©2012 AACR. PMID:23466815

  10. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p < 0.05), but at MS, it was no different either during the SM or the LM. Total kcal intake did not differ at MS after any of the beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (13.8 ± 3.3 ng/ml/min) during SM following B-CO2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1). No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms

  11. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  12. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  13. Intragastric pH and pressure profiles after intake of the high-caloric, high-fat meal as used for food effect studies.

    PubMed

    Koziolek, M; Schneider, F; Grimm, M; Modeβ, Chr; Seekamp, A; Roustom, T; Siegmund, W; Weitschies, W

    2015-12-28

    The intraluminal conditions of the fed stomach are critical for drug release from solid oral dosage forms and thus, often associated with the occurrence of food effects on oral bioavailability. In this study, intragastric pH and pressure profiles present after the ingestion of the high-caloric, high-fat (964 kcal) FDA standard breakfast were investigated in 19 healthy human subjects by using the telemetric SmartPill® capsule system (26 × 13 mm). Since the gastric emptying of such large non-digestible objects is typically accomplished by the migrating motor complex phase III activity, the time required for recurrence of fasted state motility determined the gastric emptying time (GET). Following the diet recommendations of the FDA guidance on food effect studies, the mean GET of the telemetric motility capsule was 15.3 ± 4.7 h. Thus, the high caloric value of the standard breakfast impeded gastric emptying before lunch in 18 out of 19 subjects. During its gastric transit, the capsule was exposed to highly dynamic conditions in terms of pH and pressure, which were mainly dependent on further meal and liquid intake, as well as the intragastric capsule deposition behavior. Maximum pH values in the stomach were measured immediately after capsule intake. The median pH value of the 5 min period after capsule ingestion ranged between pH 3.3 and 5.3. Subsequently, the pH decreased relatively constantly and reached minimum values of pH 0-1 after approximately 4 h. The maximum pressure within the stomach amounted to 293 ± 109 mbar and was clearly higher than the maximum pressure measured at the ileocaecal junction (60 ± 35 mbar). The physiological data on the intraluminal conditions within the fed stomach generated in this study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of food effects on oral drug product performance. PMID:26476174

  14. Antagonism of Corticotrophin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptors Attenuates Caloric Intake of Free Feeding Subordinate Female Rhesus Monkeys in a Rich Dietary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C J; Johnson, Z P; Higgins, M; Toufexis, D; Wilson, M E

    2015-01-01

    Social subordination in macaque females is a known chronic stressor and previous studies have shown that socially subordinate female rhesus monkeys consume fewer kilocalories than dominant animals when a typical laboratory chow diet is available. However, in a rich dietary environment that provides access to chow in combination with a more palatable diet (i.e. high in fat and refined sugar), subordinate animals consume significantly more daily kilocalories than dominant conspecifics. Substantial literature is available supporting the role of stress hormone signals in shaping dietary preferences and promoting the consumption of palatable, energy-dense foods. The present study was conducted using stable groups of adult female rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that pharmacological treatment with a brain penetrable corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist would attenuate the stress-induced consumption of a palatable diet among subordinate animals in a rich dietary environment but would be without effect in dominant females. The results show that administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced daily caloric intake of both available diets among subordinate females compared to dominant females. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the attenuation in caloric intake in response to Antalarmin (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was significantly predicted by the frequency of submissive and aggressive behaviour emitted by females, independent of social status. Taken together, the findings support the involvement of activation of CRF1 receptors in the stress-induced consumption of excess calories in a rich dietary environment and also support the growing literature concerning the importance of CRF for sustaining emotional feeding. PMID:25674637

  15. Trends in purchases and intake of foods and beverages containing caloric and low-calorie sweeteners over the last decade in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Background Current food databases might not capture rapidly occurring changes in the food supply, such as the increased use of caloric (CS) and low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in products. Objective We explored trends in purchases and intake of foods and beverages containing LCS, CS or both sweeteners over the last decade in the U.S., as well as household and SES predictors of these trends. Methods We analyzed household purchases from Homescan 2000–10 (n=140,352 households; 408,458 individuals); and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–10 (n=34,391 individuals). We estimated per-capita purchases and intake (g or mL/d) and percent of consumers of foods and beverages containing LCS, CS, or both LCS+CS. We estimated change in purchases associated with SES and household composition using random-effects longitudinal models. Results From 2000–10, percent of households purchasing CS products decreased, whereas for LCS and LCS+CS products increased among all types of households and particularly among those with children. African-American, Hispanic, and households with children had a higher % CS beverage purchases (+9%; +4%; +3% respectively, P<0.001) and lower % LCS beverage purchases (−12%; −5%; −2% respectively, P<0.001). Conclusions During a period of declining purchases and consumption of CS products, we have documented an increasing trend in products that contain LCS and a previously unexplored trend in products with both LCS and CS, especially important among households with children. PMID:23529974

  16. Maternal overweight predicts infant caloric intake from complimentary foods and weight-for-length at age 6 months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the role of maternal overweight on infant dietary intake and body size during the first 6 months of life. Participants were from the Beginnings study, an on-going, longitudinal cohort. Trained research assistants measured infant weight and length; weight-for-length percentiles (WL perc...

  17. Leucine improves glucose and lipid status in offspring from obese dams, dependent on diet type, but not caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Simar, D; Ting, J H Y; Erkelens, J R S; Morris, M J

    2012-10-01

    Previously, we showed that offspring from obese rat dams were hyperphagic, with increased adiposity, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance associated with increased orexigenic neuropeptide expression after fasting. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) can inhibit food intake through a hypothalamic action. As we previously showed that maternal obesity down-regulated hypothalamic mTOR, in the present study, we hypothesised that dietary leucine supplementation would activate hypothalamic mTOR to reduce food intake, thus limiting metabolic disorders in offspring from obese dams, regardless of postweaning diet. Obesity was induced in Sprague-Dawley females by high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. Male pups from HFD-fed mothers were weaned onto chow or HFD; within each dietary group, half were supplied with leucine via drinking water (1.5%) versus water control for 10 weeks. Those from chow-fed mothers were fed chow and water. Maternal obesity led to increased adiposity in chow-fed offspring. Postweaning HFD consumption exaggerated adiposity, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Supplementation with leucine doubled leucine intake and increased hypothalamic mTOR activation; however, appetite regulation was not affected. A reduction in blood lipid levels was observed in offspring regardless of diet, as well as improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed rats. In HFD-fed rats, up-regulated carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in muscle and glucose transporter 4 in fat suggested that leucine improved peripheral fat oxidation and glucose transport. Leucine is able to improve peripheral glucose and lipid metabolism independent of appetite and weight regulation, suggesting its potential application in the management of metabolic disorders. PMID:22612562

  18. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  19. Caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Mitchell, Sharon E

    2011-06-01

    Restricting the intake of calories has been practiced as a method for increasing both the length and quality of life for over 500 years. Experimental work confirming the success of this approach in animals has accumulated over the last 100 years. Lifelong caloric restriction (CR) may extend life by up to 50% in rodents, with progressively less impact the later in life it is started. This effect is matched by profound impacts on age related diseases including reduced risk of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. The disposable soma theory of ageing suggests that CR evolved as a somatic protection response to enable animals to survive periods of food shortage. The shutdown of reproductive function during CR is consistent with this suggestion, but other features of the phenomenon are less consistent with this theory, and some have suggested that in rodents it may be mostly an artifact of domestication. CR induces profound effects on animals at all levels from the transcriptome to whole animal physiology and behavior. Animals under CR lose weight which is disproportionately contributed to by white adipose tissue. Generally animals on CR change their activity patterns so that they are more active prior to food delivery each day but total activity may be unchanged or reduced. Considerable debate has occurred over the effects of CR on resting metabolic rate (RMR). Total RMR declines, but as body mass and body composition also change it is unclear whether metabolism at the tissue level also declines, is unchanged or even increases. Body temperature universally decreases. Hunger is increased and does not seem to abate even with very long term restriction. Circulating adipokines are reduced reflecting the reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass under restriction and there is a large reduction in circulating insulin and glucose levels. There are profound tissue level changes in metabolism with a

  20. Comparing the Trend of Physical Activity and Caloric Intake between Lipid-Lowering Drug Users and Nonusers among Adults with Dyslipidemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jin-Young; Chekal, Lan; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Jee-Yon

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and caloric intake trends of lipid-lowering drug users with those of non-users among Korean adults with dyslipidemia. Methods This study was a repeated cross-sectional study with a nationally representative sample of 2,635 Korean adults with dyslipidemia based on the 2010–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and caloric intake was estimated through 24-hour dietary recall. All statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). The changes in physical activity and caloric intake were investigated for lipid-lowering drug users and non-users using generalized linear models. Results The proportion of lipid-lowering drug users in the 2010–2013 survey population increased from 3.5% to 5.0% (P<0.001). Among adults of dyslipidemia, total of 1,562 participants (56.6%) reported taking lipid-lowering drugs, and 1,073 (43.4%) reported not taking lipid-lowering drugs. Drug users were more likely to be older and less educated and to have a diagnosis of diabetes, higher body mass index, and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Physical activity trends were tested separately for the lipid-lowering drug users and non-users, and a significant decrease was found among the drug users during the study period. Physical activity among the drug users in 2013 was 38% lower (1,357.3±382.7 metabolic equivalent [MET]; P for trend=0.002) than in 2010 (2,201.4±442.6 MET). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between drug users and non-users in the trend of caloric intake during the same period. Conclusion Physical activity significantly decreased among lipid-lowering drug users between 2010 and 2013, which was not observed among non-users. The importance of physical activity may need to be re-emphasized for lipid-lowering drug users

  1. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  2. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006) from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml) and caloric energy (kcal) contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages. PMID:20964842

  3. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  4. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  5. Energy Expenditure and Caloric Balance After Burn

    PubMed Central

    Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Herndon, David N.; Chinkes, David L.; Lal, Sophia O.; Obeng, Michael K.; Beauford, Robert B.; Mlcak RT, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Objective Resting energy expenditure (REE) is commonly measured in critical illness to determine caloric “demands” and thus nutritive needs. Summary Background Data The purpose of this study was to 1) determine whether REE is associated with clinical outcomes and 2) determine whether an optimal caloric delivery rate based on REE exists to offset erosion of lean mass after burn. Methods From 1995 to 2001, REE was measured by indirect calorimetry in 250 survivors of 10 to 99%TBSA burns. Caloric intake and REE were correlated with muscle protein catabolism, length of stay, ventilator dependence, sepsis, and mortality. From 1998 to 2000, 42 patients (>60%TBSA burns) received continuous enteral nutrition at a spectrum of caloric balance between 1.0x REE kcal/d –1.8x REE kcal/d. Serial body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lean mass, fat mass, morbidity, and mortality were determined. Results REE/predicted basal metabolic rate correlated directly with burn size, sepsis, ventilator dependence, and muscle protein catabolism (P < .05). Declining REE correlated with mortality (P < .05). 2) Erosion of lean body mass was not attenuated by increased caloric balance, however, fat mass increased with caloric supply (P < .05). Conclusion In surviving burned patients, caloric delivery beyond 1.2 × REE results in increased fat mass without changes in lean body mass. Declining energy expenditure appears to be a harbinger of mortality in severely burned patients. PMID:11753055

  6. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  7. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  8. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children. PMID:17258351

  9. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    PubMed

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis. PMID:27030668

  10. Caloric balance during simulated and actual space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Reid, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The in-flight caloric intakes of all Apollo astronauts are examined and shown to average about 25 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of weight changes following recovery indicates that about 0.15 kg of fat was lost per man per day in-flight for an average deficit of about 19 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of the caloric intake of astronauts under ground-based conditions and during hypobaric exposure indicated a caloric requirement which was not significantly different from the in-flight requirement adjusted for weight loss. Partial metabolic balance data and measurements of bone loss and body volume revealed that protein and mineral losses also occurred to an extent which would reduce the size of estimated in-flight caloric deficits.

  11. Can we live longer by eating less? A review of caloric restriction and longevity.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lauren W; Polotsky, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    Caloric restriction, decreasing caloric intake by 20-30%, was first shown to extend life in rats nearly 80 years ago. Since that time, limiting food intake for longevity has been investigated in species from yeast to humans. In yeast and lower animals, caloric restriction has repeatedly been demonstrated to lengthen the life span. Studies of caloric restriction in non-human primates and in humans are ongoing and initial results suggest prolongation of life as well as prevention of age-related disease. There is also data in rodents suggesting that short term caloric restriction has beneficial effects on fertility. Although caloric restriction has many positive effects on health and longevity, quality of life on a restricted diet as well as the ability to maintain that diet long term are concerns that must be considered in humans. PMID:22281163

  12. Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Paul A M; Weijzen, Pascalle; de Graaf, Cees; Viergever, Max A

    2011-01-15

    Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is expected to modulate taste activation in reward areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the amount of oro-sensory stimulation and energy content on consumption-induced changes in taste activation. Ten men participated in a 2×2 randomized crossover study. Subjects were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging: after fasting for at least 2h and after treatment, on four occasions. Treatment consisted of the ingestion of 450 mL of orangeade (sweetened with 10% sucrose or non-caloric sweeteners) at 150 mL/min, with either small (5 mL) or large (20 mL) sips. During scanning, subjects alternately tasted orangeade, milk and tomato juice and rated its pleasantness. Before and after the scans, subjects rated pleasantness, prospective consumption, desire to eat and sweetness for all tastants. Main findings were that, before treatment, the amygdala was activated more by non-caloric than by caloric orangeade. Caloric orangeade activated part of the striatum before, but not after treatment. We observed no main effects of sip size on taste activation and no interaction between sip size and caloric content. In conclusion, the brain responds differentially to caloric and non-caloric versions of a sweet drink and consumption of calories can modulate taste activation in the striatum. Further research is needed to confirm that the observed differences are due to caloric content and not to (subliminal) differences in the sensory profile. In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established. PMID:20804848

  13. [Caloric restriction: about its positive metabolic effects and cellular impact].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Raúl Julián; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Monroy-Guzmán, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction, as a 30 to 60% decrease of ad libitum balanced caloric intake, without malnutrition, is the non-genetic strategy that has consistently extended the average and maximum lifespan of most living beings, and it has been tested from unicellular organisms like yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Rhesus primates. In addition, various genetic and pharmacological caloric restriction models have shown to protect against cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Primate studies suggest that this intervention delays the onset of age-related diseases; in humans, it has physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects decreasing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Although currently the mechanism by which caloric restriction has its positive effects at the cellular level is unknown, it has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25125067

  14. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction. PMID:24528344

  15. Caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient

    SciTech Connect

    Shizgal, H.M.; Martin, M.F.

    1988-04-01

    The caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient was determined by measuring body composition, by multiple isotope dilution, before and at 2-wk intervals while receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in 86 septic and 57 nonseptic malnourished patients. All patients received a TPN solution containing 25% dextrose and 2.75% crystalline amino acids. The body composition of the nonseptic patients, who received 51.9 +/- 1.5 kcal/kg.day, improved significantly, while that of the septic patients, receiving 46.8 +/- 1.1 kcal/kg.day was only maintained. The relationship between caloric intake and the restoration of a malnourished body cell mass (BCM) was determined for each group by correlating, using multiple linear regression, the mean daily change in the BCM with the caloric intake and the nutritional state, as determined by body composition. According to the resultant regressions, an intake of 35.1 and 50.7 kcal/kg.day was required to maintain the BCM of the septic and nonseptic patients, respectively. To restore a depleted BCM, caloric intakes in excess of this amount are required.

  16. Substitution and caloric regulation in a closed economy.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, R A; Raslear, T G; Hursh, S R; Shurtleff, D; Simmons, L

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of an imperfect substitute for food on demand for food in a closed economy. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats pressed a lever for their entire daily food ration, and a fixed ratio of presses was required for each food pellet. In both experiments, the fixed ratio was held constant during a daily session but was increased between sessions. The fixed ratio was increased over a series of daily sessions once in the absence of concurrently available sucrose and again when sucrose pellets were freely available. For both series, increases in the fixed ratio reduced food intake, but body weight was reduced only in the no-sucrose condition. In the sucrose condition, body weight and total caloric intake (sucrose plus food) were relatively unaffected by increases in the fixed ratio. At all fixed ratios, food intake was proportionally reduced by the intake of sucrose. In Experiment 3, monkeys obtained food or saccharin by pressing keys; the fixed ratio of presses per food pellet was increased once when tap water was each monkey's only source of fluid, again when each monkey's water was sweetened with saccharin, and a third time when each monkey had concurrent access to the saccharin solution and plain water. Increases in the fixed ratio, but not the intake of the saccharin solution, reduced each monkey's food intake. Because neither rats' sucrose nor monkeys' saccharin intakes affected the slope of the respective demand curves for food, monkeys and rats increased their daily output of presses and thereby defended their daily intake of those complementary elements of food. However, sucrose reduced rats' food intake. The relative constancy of body weight and total caloric intake in the sucrose condition is consistent with the possibility that rats tended to regulate caloric intake. PMID:8851540

  17. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala mediates caloric sugar preference over a non-caloric sweetener in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasoshima, Y; Yoshizawa, H; Shimura, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-04-16

    Neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying increased intake of and preference for nutritive sugars over non-nutritive sweeteners are not fully understood. We examined the roles of subnuclei of the amygdala in the shift in preference for a nutritive sugar. Food-deprived mice alternately received caloric sucrose (1.0 M) on odd-numbered training days and a non-caloric artificial sweetener (2.5 mM saccharin) on even-numbered training days. During training, mice with sham lesions of the basolateral (BLA) or central (CeA) nucleus of the amygdala increased their intake of 1.0 M sucrose, but not saccharin. Trained mice with sham lesions showed a significant shift in preference toward less concentrated sucrose (0.075 M) over the saccharin in a two-bottle choice test, although the mice showed an equivalent preference for these sweeteners before training. No increased intake of or preference for sucrose before and after the alternating training was observed in non-food-deprived mice. Excitotoxic lesions centered in the BLA impaired the increase in 1.0M sucrose intake and shift in preference toward 0.075 M sucrose over saccharin. Microlesions with iontophoretic excitotoxin injections into the CeA did not block the training-dependent changes. These results suggest that food-deprived animals selectively shift their preference for a caloric sugar over a non-caloric sweetener through the alternate consumption of caloric and non-caloric sweet substances. The present data also suggest that the BLA, but not CeA, plays a role in the selective shift in sweetener preference. PMID:25684750

  18. Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A population-based study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Sichieri, Rosely; Verly-Jr, Eliseu

    2016-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management. PMID:26708263

  19. Caloric restriction as a mechanism mediating resistance to environmental disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frame, L T; Hart, R W; Leakey, J E

    1998-01-01

    It has been observed that susceptibility to many degenerative diseases increases concurrently with industrialization and rising living standards. Although epidemiologic studies suggest that specific environmental and dietary factors may be important, caloric intake alone (as reflected in body size) may account for much of the differential risk observed among diverse human populations. It has been suggested from animal studies that caloric intake may be the primary effector for many hormonal, metabolic, physiologic, and behavioral responses that coordinate reproductive strategy to apparent availability of food. When caloric intake is excessive, particularly at critical developmental stages, physiologic priorities are set for body growth and fecundity rather than for endurance and longevity. The converse occurs during periods of famine, thus increasing the probability that sufficient individuals survive to restore the population when conditions improve. Calorically restricted rodents have significantly longer reproductive and total life spans than their ad libitum-fed controls and exhibit a spectrum of biochemical and physiologic alterations that characterize their adaptation to reduced intake. These include reduced stature, hypercorticism in the absence of elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, increased metabolic efficiency, decreased mitogenic response coupled with increased rates of apoptosis, reduced inflammatory response, induction of stress proteins and DNA repair enzymes, altered drug-metabolizing enzyme expression, and modified cell-mediated immune function. The overall profile of these changes is one of improved defense against environmental stress. This has been suggested as the mechanistic basis for the protective effects of low body weight on radiation and chemically induced cancers in experimental animals. It may also explain the significantly higher thresholds of acute toxicity observed when calorically restricted rodents are exposed to certain

  20. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  1. Metabolic reprogramming, caloric restriction and aging

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rozalyn M.; Weindruch, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows the aging process and extends lifespan in diverse species by unknown mechanisms. The inverse linear relationship between calorie intake and lifespan suggests that regulators of energy metabolism are important in CR’s actions. Studies in several species reveal tissue-specific changes in energy metabolism with CR and suggest that metabolic reprogramming plays a critical role in its mechanism of aging retardation. We herein describe common signatures of CR and suggest how they may slow aging. We discuss recent advances in understanding the function of key metabolic regulators that likely coordinate the response to altered nutrient availability with CR, and how the pathways they regulate may retard the aging process. PMID:20004110

  2. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was <1 g/kcal. Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks

  3. Food intake of very obese persons: quantitative and qualitative aspects.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Hershcopf, R J; Zumoff, B

    1992-02-01

    To document the caloric intake of very obese persons and investigate the food choices and dietary composition that maintain severe obesity, we studied the self-selected food intake required to maintain stable weight in two groups of very obese subjects: 11 inpatients with a mean weight 181% above desirable body weight and 35 outpatients with a mean weight 125% above desirable body weight. Qualitative and quantitative food intake were evaluated using records obtained on the hospital metabolic ward for the inpatients and using self-recorded food records for the outpatients. Absolute caloric intake in both groups was greater in proportion to the degree of obesity (deviation from desirable body weight); caloric intake per unit of lean body mass (kilocalories per gram urinary creatinine) was constant regardless of the degree of obesity and was essentially the same as that of normal nonobese persons. Food records indicated that the obese subjects maintained their high caloric intake by consuming mostly foods of high caloric density, with occasional binge eating. They largely avoided foods of low intrinsic energy density and modified-calorie foods, ie, foods with decreased fat, nonnutritive sweeteners, or fillers. By substituting foods of lower caloric density for usual food choices from the same food group, obese persons could decrease caloric intake by 20% and increase potential for notable weight loss. PMID:1737901

  4. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  5. How have agricultural policies influenced caloric consumption in the United States?

    PubMed

    Rickard, Bradley J; Okrent, Abigail M; Alston, Julian M

    2013-03-01

    Many commentators have speculated that agricultural policies have contributed to increased obesity rates in the United States, yet such claims are often made without any analysis of the complex links between real-world farm commodity support programs, prices and consumption of foods, and caloric intake. This article carefully studies the effects of US agricultural policies on prices and quantities of 10 agricultural commodities and nine food categories in the United States over time. Using a detailed multimarket model, we simulate the counterfactual removal of measures of support applied to US agricultural commodities in 1992, 1997, and 2002 and quantify the effects on US food consumption and caloric intake. To parameterize the simulations, we calculate three alternative measures of consumer support (the implicit consumer subsidy from policies that support producers) for the 10 agricultural commodities using information about government expenditures on agricultural commodities from various sources. Our results indicate that-holding all other policies constant-removing US subsidies on grains and oilseeds in the three periods would have caused caloric consumption to decrease minimally whereas removal of all US agricultural policies (including barriers against imports of sugar and dairy products) would have caused total caloric intake to increase. Our results also indicate that the influence of agricultural policies on caloric intake has diminished over time. PMID:22331635

  6. Protection against chronic cadmium toxicity by caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Z A; Jordan, S A; Tang, W

    1999-04-15

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) can result in nephrotoxicity and osteotoxicity. Because Cd-induced nephrotoxicity involves oxidative stress and caloric restriction decreases oxidative stress, we examined whether reduced caloric intake will protect against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. In addition, the protection against the osteotoxicity was also examined. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided drinking water containing 100 mg Cd/l. Since fluid intake relative to the body weight was higher in females as compared to the males, the Cd concentration in their water was reduced to 80 mg/l after 3 months and 65 mg/l after 6.5 months. During the 27 month exposure period the males and females consumed a total of about 5 g Cd/kg body weight. Food was restricted to 20 g/day after the first 3 months. During the unrestricted food intake period Cd exposure reduced the bone density in females by 23%, with a partial recovery and stabilization during the caloric restriction phase. Hepatic and renal Cd accumulation and corresponding metallothionein (MT) levels were very similar in both sexes. The reported critical Cd concentration for nephrotoxicity was reached by 9 months. Renal MT levels were maximum at this time. Despite a 1.5-fold increase in renal Cd concentration over the next 18 months, there was no significant increase in renal MT levels. In spite of high renal Cd levels and lack of availability of sufficient MT, there was no sign of nephrotoxicity, as measured by urinary protein and glucose excretion. It is concluded that caloric restriction prevents Cd-induced nephrotoxicity and also appears to control the osteotoxicity of Cd. PMID:10378476

  7. Reduction in Purchases of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Low-Income Black Adolescents After Exposure to Caloric Information

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Bradley J.; Flagg, Desmond D.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect of an intervention to provide caloric information about sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the number of SSB purchases. Methods. We used a case-crossover design with 4 corner stores located in low-income, predominately Black neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. The intervention randomly posted 1 of 3 signs with the following caloric information: (1) absolute caloric count, (2) percentage of total recommended daily intake, and (3) physical activity equivalent. We collected data for 1600 beverage sales by Black adolescents, aged 12–18 years, including 400 during a baseline period and 400 for each of the 3 caloric condition interventions. Results. Providing Black adolescents with any caloric information significantly reduced the odds of SSB purchases relative to the baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36, 0.89). When examining the 3 caloric conditions separately, the significant effect was observed when caloric information was provided as a physical activity equivalent (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.85). Conclusions. Providing easily understandable caloric information—particularly a physical activity equivalent—may reduce calorie intake from SSBs among low-income, Black adolescents. PMID:22390447

  8. Caloric Cost of Playing Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampley, James H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Women who play golf at the same rate of speed as men will use energy at a higher rate, but the rapidity with which the course is completed, which is dependent on the number of members of the golfing party, is a factor in the caloric expenditure of both sexes. (JD)

  9. A two year randomized controlled trial of human caloric restriction: feasibility and effects on predictors of health span and longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Caloric restriction (CR), energy intake reduced below ad libitum (AL) intake, increases life span in many species. The implications for humans can be clarified by randomized controlled trials of CR. Methods: To determine CRs feasibility, safety, and effects on predictors of longevity, di...

  10. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment. PMID:26137793

  11. Close to recommended caloric and protein intake by enteral nutrition is associated with better clinical outcome of critically ill septic patients: secondary analysis of a large international nutrition database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current international sepsis guidelines recommend low-dose enteral nutrition (EN) for the first week. This contradicts other nutrition guidelines for heterogenous groups of ICU patients. Data on the optimal dose of EN in septic patients are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of energy and protein amount given by EN on clinical outcomes in a large cohort of critically ill septic patients. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of pooled data collected prospectively from international nutrition studies. Eligible patients had a diagnosis of sepsis and/or pneumonia and were admitted to the ICU for ≥3 days, mechanically ventilated within 48 hours of ICU admission and only receiving EN. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition were excluded. Data were collected from ICU admission up to a maximum of 12 days. Regression models were used to examine the impact of calorie and protein intake on 60-day mortality and ventilator-free days. Results Of the 13,630 patients included in the dataset, 2,270 met the study inclusion criteria. Patients received a mean amount of 1,057 kcal/d (14.5 kcal/kg/day) and 49 g protein/day (0.7 g/kg/d) by EN alone. Patients were mechanically ventilated for a median of 8.4 days and 60-day mortality was 30.5%. An increase of 1,000 kcal was associated with reduced 60-day mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.77, P <0.001) and more ventilator-free days (2.81 days, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.08, P = 0.02) as was an increase of 30 g protein per day (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, P <0.001 and 1.92 days, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.27, P = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions In critically ill septic patients, a calorie and protein delivery closer to recommended amounts by EN in the early phase of ICU stay was associated with a more favorable outcome. PMID:24506888

  12. Mechano-caloric cooling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Luna, Jack; Abbassi, P.; Carandang, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The mechano-caloric effect is potentially useful in the He II temperature range. Aside from demonstration work, little quantification effort appears to have been known since other refrigeration possibilities have been available for some time. Successful He II use-related system examples are as follows: in space, the utilization of the latent heat of vaporization has been quite successful in vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) in conjunction with thermomechanical force application in plugs. In magnet cooling systems, the possibility of using the mechano-caloric cooling effect in conjunction with thermo-mechanical circulation pump schemes, has been assessed (but not quantified yet to the extent desirable). A third example is quoted in conjunction with superfluid wind tunnel studies and liquid helium tow tank for surface vessels respectively. In all of these (partially future) R and D areas, the question of refrigerator effectiveness using the mechano-caloric effect appears to be relevant, possibly in conjunction with questions of reliability and simplicity. The present work is concerned with quantification of phenomena including simplified thermodynamic cycle calculations.

  13. Status of selected nutrients in obese dogs undergoing caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dog plasma concentrations of selected nutrients decrease after undergoing caloric restriction for weight loss. Thirty-one overweight dogs that had successfully lost at least 15% of initial body weight were included in the study. Nutrients that had been previously identified to be at potential risk of deficiency during caloric restriction were measured in plasma (choline, amino acids) and urine (selenium) at the initiation and completion of a standardized weight loss regimen in dogs. Results Dogs remained healthy throughout the study, and no signs attributable to nutrient deficiency were noted. Percentage weight loss was 28.3% (16.0-40.1%) starting body weight, over a period of 250 days (91–674 days). Median energy intake during the weight loss period was 62 (44 to 74) Kcal/kg0.75 target weight per day. Choline (P = 0.046) and threonine (P = 0.02) decreased after weight loss. Glycine (P = 0.041), and urinary selenium:creatinine ratio (P = 0.006) both increased after weight loss. There were no other significant differences in plasma nutrient concentrations. Conclusions Since concentrations of most measured nutrients did not change significantly, the data are not consistent with widespread nutrient deficiency in dogs undergoing caloric restriction using a diet formulated for weight loss. However, the significance of the decrease in plasma choline concentration requires further assessment. PMID:24156605

  14. A Human Thrifty Phenotype Associated With Less Weight Loss During Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Successful weight loss is variable for reasons not fully elucidated. Whether effective weight loss results from smaller reductions in energy expenditure during caloric restriction is not known. We analyzed whether obese individuals with a “thrifty” phenotype, that is, greater reductions in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and smaller increases with overfeeding, lose less weight during caloric restriction than those with a “spendthrift” phenotype. During a weight-maintaining period, 24-h energy expenditure responses to fasting and 200% overfeeding were measured in a whole-room indirect calorimeter. Volunteers then underwent 6 weeks of 50% caloric restriction. We calculated the daily energy deficit (kilocalories per day) during caloric restriction, incorporating energy intake and waste, energy expenditure, and daily activity. We found that a smaller reduction in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and a larger response to overfeeding predicted more weight loss over 6 weeks, even after accounting for age, sex, race, and baseline weight, as well as a greater rate of energy deficit accumulation. The success of dietary weight loss efforts is influenced by the energy expenditure response to caloric restriction. Greater decreases in energy expenditure during caloric restriction predict less weight loss, indicating the presence of thrifty and spendthrift phenotypes in obese humans. PMID:25964395

  15. Benefits of caloric restriction for cardiometabolic health, including type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, life expectancy has markedly increased during the past century, and population ageing is expected to double within the next 25 years. The process of ageing in a population is associated with the development of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, that can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions. The evidence to date, consolidated by the numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials conducted, suggests that caloric restriction is an effective nutritional intervention for preventing most of these age-related conditions. At a metabolic level, caloric restriction with adequate nutrition has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce fasting glucose and insulin concentration and prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and chronic inflammation. The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge of the metabolic and clinical implications of caloric restriction with adequate nutrition for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24532291

  16. Patterns of intraspecific variability in the response to caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Kaido, Oksana; Jarvis, George; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-03-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is cited as the most robust means of increasing lifespan across a range of taxa, yet there is a high degree of variability in the response to CR, both within and between species. To examine the intraspecific evolutionary conservation of lifespan extension by CR, we tested the effects of chronic caloric restriction (CCR) at multiple food levels and of intermittent fasting (IF) in twelve isolates from the Brachionus plicatilis species complex of monogonont rotifers. While CCR generally increased or did not change lifespan and total fecundity, IF caused increased, unchanged, or decreased lifespan, depending upon the isolate, and decreased total fecundity in all but one isolate. Lifespan under ad libitum (AL) feeding varied among isolates and predicted the lifespan response to CR: longer-lived isolates under AL were less likely to have a significant increase in lifespan under CCR and were more likely to have a significantly shortened lifespan under IF. Lifespan under AL conditions and the response to CR were not correlated with hydroperiodicity of native habitat or with time in culture. Lack of trade-off between lifespan and fecundity under CCR, and differences in lifespan and fecundity under CCR and IF, even when average food intake was similar, suggest that longevity changes are not always directly determined by energy intake and that CCR and IF regimens extend lifespan through diverse genetic mechanisms. PMID:24384399

  17. Changes in nutrient intake of hypertensives during a behavioral weight-control program.

    PubMed

    Nowalk, M P; Wing, R R

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional adequacy of the diets selected by hypertensive patients participating in a behavioral weight-control program, 26 patients were asked to complete 3-day food records at the start and end of the 8-week program. These records were analyzed using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Handbook 456 data base. Patients decreased their overall caloric intake by 39% during the course of the program and decreased consumption of all nutrients, but only calcium intake decreased to unacceptable levels. There was, however, a significant increase in the number of individuals consuming less than two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for thiamin, niacin, calcium, and iron, and a significant increase in the number of patients who were deficient in three or more nutrients. Thus, although average intake in the behavioral weight-control program was adequate, there was a sizeable number of individuals who were consuming poor diets. Inadequate intake occurred primarily in patients eating less than 1000 calories a day. The simple behavior change of adding a cup of skim milk to the unstructured calorie-counting diet would help restore calcium, thiamin, and niacin to adequate levels. PMID:4091068

  18. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  19. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  20. Long-term Effects of High and Low Glycemic Load Diets at Different Levels of Caloric Restriction on Dietary Adherence, Body Composition and Metabolism in CALERIE, a One Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context The effects of dietary macronutrient composition and level of energy intake on adherence to a calorically-restricted diet remain uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of dietary macronutrients, and level of caloric restriction (CR), for 12 months, on adherence to the prescribed regim...

  1. Dietary intake in adults at risk for Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Marder, K; Zhao, H; Eberly, S; Tanner, C M.; Oakes, D; Shoulson, I

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine caloric intake, dietary composition, and body mass index (BMI) in participants in the Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study (PHAROS). Methods: Caloric intake and macronutrient composition were measured using the National Cancer Institute Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in 652 participants at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who did not meet clinical criteria for HD. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between macronutrients, BMI, caloric intake, and genetic status (CAG <37 vs CAG ≥37), adjusting for age, gender, and education. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between caloric intake, BMI, and CAG repeat length. Results: A total of 435 participants with CAG <37 and 217 with CAG ≥37 completed the FFQ. Individuals in the CAG ≥37 group had a twofold odds of being represented in the second, third, or fourth quartile of caloric intake compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, gender, education, and BMI. This relationship was attenuated in the highest quartile when additionally adjusted for total motor score. In subjects with CAG ≥37, higher caloric intake, but not BMI, was associated with both higher CAG repeat length (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.26, p = 0.032) and 5-year probability of onset of HD (adjusted regression coefficient = 0.024; p = 0.013). Adjusted analyses showed no differences in macronutrient composition between groups. Conclusions: Increased caloric intake may be necessary to maintain body mass index in clinically unaffected individuals with CAG repeat length ≥37. This may be related to increased energy expenditure due to subtle motor impairment or a hypermetabolic state. GLOSSARY BEE = basal energy expenditure; BMI = body mass index; FFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire; HD = Huntington disease; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease; PHAROS = Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study; TEE = total energy expenditure; UHDRS = Unified

  2. Development of Adherence Metrics for Caloric Restriction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Pieper, Carl F.; Redman, Leanne M.; Bapkar, Manju; Roberts, Susan B.; Racette, Susan B.; Rochon, James; Martin, Corby K.; Kraus, William E.; Das, Sai; Williamson, Donald; Ravussin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are free-living. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs) of expected weight loss can be created from mathematical modeling of weight change to a given level of CR, conditional on the individual's set of baseline characteristics. These normograms can then be used by counselors to help the participant adhere to their caloric target. Purpose (1) To develop models of weight loss over a year of caloric restriction given demographics (age and sex), and well defined measurements of of Body Mass Index, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and %CR. (2) To utilize these models to develop normograms given level of caloric restriction, and measures of these variables. Methods Seventy-seven individuals completing a 6-12 month CR intervention (CALERIE) had body weight and body composition measured frequently. Energy intake (and %CR) was estimated from TDEE (by doubly labeled water) and body composition (by DXA) at baseline and months 1, 3, 6 and 12. Body weight was modeled to determine the predictors and distribution of the expected trajectory of percent weight change over 12 months of caloric restriction. Results As expected, CR was related to change in body weight. Controlling for time-varying measures, initially simple models of the functional form indicated that the trajectory of percent weight change was predicted by a non-linear function of initial age, TDEE, %CR, and sex. Using these estimates, normograms for the weight change expected during a 25%CR were developed. Our model estimates that the mean weight loss (% change from baseline weight) for an individual adherent to a 25% CR regimen is -10.9±6.3% for females and -13.9±6.4% for men after 12 months. Limitations There are several limitations. Sample sizes are small (n=77), and, by design

  3. Caloric curve of star clusters.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results. PMID:23005049

  4. Effect of caloric deficit and dietary manipulation on aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    McMurray, R G; Proctor, C R; Wilson, W L

    1991-04-01

    Twelve competitive wrestlers restricted their caloric intake (92 kJ/kg FFW/day) for 7 days, using a high (HC) or normal (NC) carbohydrate diet to determine the acute effect of caloric deficiency on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance as well as growth hormone (hGH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. The subjects were tested while on a eucaloric diet and at the end of the dietary restriction. Neither the dietary restriction nor composition had an effect on the ability to complete an 8-minute run at 85% of maximal capacity, but both produced an increased fat utilization during the run. The responses to the Wingate Anaerobic Test indicated that the NC group had a significant reduction in total and mean power output (-7% & -6%, respectively; p less than 0.05), whereas the HC group maintained all power measures. The caloric restriction, regardless of dietary composition, increased the exercise hGH response more for the NC group than the HC group (p less than 0.05). IGF-1 levels were significantly lowered by the diet, but the diet composition had no effect. These results indicate that even during caloric restriction, a high carbohydrate diet better maintains anerobic exercise performance. Furthermore, the composition of the diet appears to have no effect on the resting hGH and IGF-1 responses to caloric deficits. However, carbohydrate composition may have an effect on the gGH response to exercise. PMID:1860739

  5. Dietary Protein to Carbohydrate Ratio and Caloric Restriction: Comparing Metabolic Outcomes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Mitchell, Sarah J; Coogan, Sean C P; Cogger, Victoria C; Gokarn, Rahul; McMahon, Aisling C; Raubenheimer, David; de Cabo, Rafael; Simpson, Stephen J; Le Couteur, David G

    2015-06-16

    Both caloric restriction (CR) and low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) ad-libitum-fed diets increase lifespan and improve metabolic parameters such as insulin, glucose, and blood lipids. Severe CR, however, is unsustainable for most people; therefore, it is important to determine whether manipulating macronutrient ratios in ad-libitum-fed conditions can generate similar health outcomes. We present the results of a short-term (8 week) dietary manipulation on metabolic outcomes in mice. We compared three diets varying in protein to carbohydrate ratio under both CR and ad libitum conditions. Ad libitum LPHC diets delivered similar benefits to CR in terms of levels of insulin, glucose, lipids, and HOMA, despite increased energy intake. CR on LPHC diets did not provide additional benefits relative to ad libitum LPHC. We show that LPHC diets under ad-libitum-fed conditions generate the metabolic benefits of CR without a 40% reduction in total caloric intake. PMID:26027933

  6. Caloric restriction: beneficial effects on brain aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Vandendriessche, Charysse; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2016-08-01

    Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and effects of CR on aging and Alzheimer's disease. A potential alternative to CR as a lifestyle modification is the use of CR mimetics. These compounds mimic the biochemical and functional effects of CR without the need to reduce energy intake. We discuss the effect of two of the most investigated mimetics, resveratrol and rapamycin, on aging and their potential as Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. However, additional research will be needed to determine the safety, efficacy, and usability of CR and its mimetics before a general recommendation can be proposed to implement them. PMID:27240590

  7. Caloric Beverages Were Major Sources of Energy among Children and Adults in Mexico, 1999–2012123

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5–11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12–19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20–49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P < 0.05). Over the same period, intake of beverages with added sugars increased, specifically flavored milk, agua fresca (fruit water made in stalls or at home, usually with added sugars), and fruit drinks among children aged 5–11 y and females aged 12–19 y and caloric coffee/tea, soda, and agua fresca among adult females aged 20–49 y. In 2012, beverages represented 17.5% (325 kcal) and 19.0% (382 kcal) of the total daily energy intake per capita in children aged 1–19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1–19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among

  8. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P < 0.05). Over the same period, intake of beverages with added sugars increased, specifically flavored milk, agua fresca (fruit water made in stalls or at home, usually with added sugars), and fruit drinks among children aged 5-11 y and females aged 12-19 y and caloric coffee/tea, soda, and agua fresca among adult females aged 20-49 y. In 2012, beverages represented 17.5% (325 kcal) and 19.0% (382 kcal) of the total daily energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult

  9. Beneficial Effects of Caloric Restriction on Chronic Kidney Disease in Rodent Models: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-meng; Cai, Guang-yan; Bu, Ru; Wang, Wen-juan; Bai, Xue-yuan; Sun, Xue-feng; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated the life-extending effect of caloric restriction. It is generally accepted that caloric restriction has health benefits, such as prolonging lifespan and delaying the onset and progression of CKD in various species, especially in rodent models. Although many studies have tested the efficacy of caloric restriction, no complete quantitative analysis of the potential beneficial effects of reducing caloric intake on the development and progression of CKD has been published. Methods All studies regarding the relationship between caloric restriction and chronic kidney diseases were searched in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (SCI), OVID evidence-based medicine, Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Chinese science and technology periodicals (CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang). The pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by using fixed- or random-effects models. Results The data from 27 of all the studies mentioned above was used in the Meta analysis. Through the meta-analysis, we found that the parameter of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary protein levels of the AL group was significant higher than that of the CR group, which are 4.11 mg/dl, 0.08mg/dl and 33.20mg/kg/24h, respectively. The incidence of the nephropathy in the caloric restriction (CR) group was significantly lower than that in the ad libitum—fed (AL) group. We further introduced the subgroup analysis and found that the effect of caloric restriction on the occurrence of kidney disease was only significant with prolonged intervention; the beneficial effects of CR on the 60%-caloric-restriction group were greater than on the less-than-60%-caloric-restriction group, and caloric restriction did not show obvious protective effects in genetically modified strains. Moreover, survival rate of the caloric restriction group is much higher than that of the ad libitum—fed (AL) group

  10. Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21974860

  11. Caloric restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, MJ; Cloutier, AM; Thomas, NA; Panus, DA; Lotinun, S; Pinz, I; Baron, R; Rosen, CJ; Bouxsein, ML

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The effects of caloric restriction (CR) on the skeleton are well studied in adult rodents, and include lower cortical bone mass but higher trabecular bone volume. Much less is known about how CR affects bone mass in young, rapidly growing animals. This is an important problem because low caloric intake during skeletal acquisition in humans, as in anorexia nervosa, is associated with low bone mass, increased fracture risk, and osteoporosis in adulthood. To explore this question, we tested the effect of caloric restriction on bone mass and microarchitecture during rapid skeletal growth in young mice. Methods At 3 wks of age we weaned male C57Bl/6J mice onto 30% caloric restriction (CR, 10% Kcal/fat) or normal diet (N, 10% Kcal/fat). Outcomes at 6 (N=4/group) and 12 wks of age (N=8/group) included body mass, femur length, serum leptin and IGF-1, whole body bone mineral density (WBBMD, g/cm2), cortical and trabecular bone architecture at the midshaft and distal femur, bone formation and cellularity, and marrow fat measurement. Results Compared to N, CR mice had 52% and 88% lower serum leptin and 33% and 39% lower serum IGF-1 at 6 and 12 wks of age (p<0.05 for all). CR mice were smaller, with lower bone mineral density, trabecular and cortical bone properties. Bone formation indices were lower, while bone resorption indices were higher (p<0.01 for all) in CR vs. N. Despite having lower %body fat, bone marrow adiposity was dramatically elevated in CR vs. N (p<0.05). Conclusion Caloric restriction in young, growing mice is associated with impaired skeletal acquisition, low leptin and IGF-1 levels, and high marrow adiposity. These results support the hypothesis that caloric restriction during rapid skeletal growth is deleterious to cortical and trabecular bone mass and architecture, in contrast to potential skeletal benefits of CR in aging animals. PMID:20229598

  12. Effect of differential gastric evacuation and multispecies prey items on estimates of daily energy intake in juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, A.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The caloric density of stomach contents in juvenile chinook salmon,Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was not affected by gastric evacuation, suggesting a constant caloric density of stomach contents during evacuation. Differences in the caloric density of prey consumed did affect caloric density of stomach contents over a 24-h period. Consumption of the amphipodCorophium sp. was associated with reduced caloric densities of stomach contents. During periods whenCorophium contributed more than 4% of the stomach contents, average caloric density declined from 5.56 to 5.33 kcal g−1. Despite this difference, estimates of daily energy intake of juvenile chinook salmon were only 3%, greater when developed from the mean caloric density of stomach contents excludingCorophium.

  13. Patterns of nutrients’ intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p < 0.001) due to energy provided by complementary foods (321 vs. 190 Kcal, p < 0.001) and milk (363 vs. 301 Kcal, p = 0.007). Non-breastfed infants had also higher intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789

  14. Atomistic simulations of caloric effects in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, Sergey; Ponomareva, Inna

    2013-03-01

    The materials that exhibit large caloric effects have emerged as promising candidates for solid-state refrigeration which is an energy-efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional refrigeration technology. However, despite recent ground breaking discoveries of giant caloric effects in some materials they appear to remain one of nature's rarities. Here we use atomistic simulations to study electrocaloric and elastocaloric effects in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 and PbTiO3 ferroelectrics. Our study reveals the intrinsic features of such caloric effects in ferroelectrics and their potential to exhibit giant caloric effects. Some of the findings include the coexistence of negative and positive electrocaloric effects in one material and an unusual field-driven transition between them as well as the coexistence of multiple giant caloric effects in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 alloys. These findings could potentially lead to new paradigms for cooling devices. This work is partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0005245.

  15. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  16. New developments in caloric materials for cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, S.; Mathur, N. D.; Moya, X.

    2015-06-01

    Caloric materials are in the spotlight as candidates for future environmentally friendly cooling technologies. We describe stimulating recent developments in the three caloric strands that are now being studied collectively, namely magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects.

  17. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  18. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake. PMID:1805294

  19. Periodic alternating nystagmus during caloric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Taki, Masakatsu; Hasegawa, Tatsuhisa; Adachi, Naoko; Fujita, Tomoki; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2014-04-01

    Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a form of horizontal jerk nystagmus characterized by periodic reversals in direction. We report a case who exhibited transient PAN induced by caloric stimulation. The patient was a 75-year-old male. He had experienced floating sensation in January 2010. Eight months later, he was referred to our university hospital. Gaze nystagmus and positional tests revealed no nystagmus. Only weak right-beating horizontal nystagmus was observed during left Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Electronystagmography showed normal saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements. The optokinetic nystagmus pattern test was also bilaterally normal. However, during the caloric stimulation to the right ear, at 166 s from the start of irrigation, the direction of nystagmus alternated from leftward to rightward, and thereafter this reversal of direction repeated 15 times. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no significant lesion except for chronic ischemia in the brain. The patient probably had some kind of latent lesion of impaired velocity storage and exhibited transient PAN induced by caloric stimulation. Caloric stimulation is useful and simple examination to disclose latent eye movement disorders of which velocity storage mechanism is impaired. PMID:24182689

  20. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  1. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are common food supplements consumed by millions worldwide as means of combating weight gain and diabetes, by retaining sweet taste without increasing caloric intake. While they are considered safe, there is increasing controversy regarding their potential ability to promote metabolic derangements in some humans. We recently demonstrated that NAS consumption could induce glucose intolerance in mice and distinct human subsets, by functionally altering the gut microbiome. In this commentary, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent works demonstrating the effects of NAS on host health and the microbiome, and the challenges and open questions that need to be addressed in understanding the effects of NAS consumption on human health. PMID:25831243

  2. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are common food supplements consumed by millions worldwide as means of combating weight gain and diabetes, by retaining sweet taste without increasing caloric intake. While they are considered safe, there is increasing controversy regarding their potential ability to promote metabolic derangements in some humans. We recently demonstrated that NAS consumption could induce glucose intolerance in mice and distinct human subsets, by functionally altering the gut microbiome. In this commentary, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent works demonstrating the effects of NAS on host health and the microbiome, and the challenges and open questions that need to be addressed in understanding the effects of NAS consumption on human health. PMID:25831243

  3. Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and relevant to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We generated transcript profiles of ...

  4. Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Oleski, Jessica; Gordon, Katherine; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal research suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is associated with weight loss and decreased appetite. Results from human studies are mixed; some suggest that VNS affects weight whereas others do not, and it is unclear how VNS affects eating behaviors. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and VNS device settings may moderate the effects of VNS on caloric intake. This study investigates the association among BMI, VNS device settings, and caloric intake of highly palatable foods during VNS on versus VNS off sessions in 16 adult patients (62.5% female; BMI mean = 29.11 ± 6.65) using VNS therapy for either epilepsy or depression. Participants attended 2 experimental sessions (VNS on versus off) where they were presented with 4 preferred snack foods totaling 1600 calories. At the start of the session, they either had their VNS devices turned off or left on. Caloric intake was calculated by weighing foods before and after each session. BMI category (overweight/obese and lean) was the between group factor in the analysis. After controlling for covariates, an interaction of condition and BMI category (P = .03) was found. There was an interaction of condition and device output current (P = .05) and a trend toward an interaction of condition and device on time (P = .07). Excess weight may impact how neurobiological signals from the vagus nerve affect appetite and eating. Future research is needed to further elucidate this relationship. PMID:24876624

  5. Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

  6. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  7. Weight cycling and cancer: weighing the evidence of intermittent caloric restriction and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obese individuals frequently restrict caloric intake to lose weight. The resultant weight loss, however, typically is followed by an equal or greater weight gain, a phenomenon called weight cycling. Most attention to weight cycling has focused on identifying its detrimental effects, but preclinical experiments indicating that intermittent caloric restriction or fasting can reduce cancer risk have raised interest in potential benefits of weight cycling. Although hypothesized adverse effects of weight cycling on energy metabolism remain largely unsubstantiated, there is also a lack of epidemiologic evidence that intentional weight loss followed by regain of weight affects chronic-disease risk. In the limited studies of weight cycling and cancer, no independent effect on postmenopausal breast cancer but a modest enhancement of risk for renal cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been reported. An effect of either intermittent caloric restriction or fasting in protecting against cancer is not supported by the majority of rodent carcinogenesis experiments. Collectively, the data argue against weight cycling and indicate that the objective of energy balance-based approaches to reduce cancer risk should be to strive to prevent adult weight gain and maintain body weight within the normal range defined by body mass index. PMID:21982873

  8. On the characteristics of caloric nystagmus in healthy persons. [in response to caloric stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodo, D.; Baranova, V. P.; Matsnev, E. I.; Yakovleva, M. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The asymmetry of reflex activity of labyrinths and directional preponderance of the reaction were studied on healthy persons subjected to caloric tests. Calorization with hot water was accompanied by less pronounced reactions in all parameters of nystagmus than analogous indices at cold water stimulation. The symmetry of labyrinth function shifted to the right in individuals with greater activity of the left central vestibular formations, analogous to right handedness behavior. It is concluded that asymmetry of reflex nystagmus in healthy persons can be due to a certain preponderance of functional activity in structures of the left hemisphere of the brain.

  9. Caloric restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Maureen J; Cloutier, Alison M; Thomas, Nishina A; Panus, David A; Lotinun, Sutada; Pinz, Ilka; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2010-09-01

    The effects of caloric restriction (CR) on the skeleton are well studied in adult rodents and include lower cortical bone mass but higher trabecular bone volume. Much less is known about how CR affects bone mass in young, rapidly growing animals. This is an important problem because low caloric intake during skeletal acquisition in humans, as in anorexia nervosa, is associated with low bone mass, increased fracture risk, and osteoporosis in adulthood. To explore this question, we tested the effect of caloric restriction on bone mass and microarchitecture during rapid skeletal growth in young mice. At 3 weeks of age, we weaned male C57Bl/6J mice onto 30% caloric restriction (10% kcal/fat) or normal diet (10% kcal/fat). Outcomes at 6 (n = 4/group) and 12 weeks of age (n = 8/group) included body mass, femur length, serum leptin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) values, whole-body bone mineral density (WBBMD, g/cm(2)), cortical and trabecular bone architecture at the midshaft and distal femur, bone formation and cellularity, and marrow fat measurement. Compared with the normal diet, CR mice had 52% and 88% lower serum leptin and 33% and 39% lower serum IGF-1 at 6 and 12 weeks of age (p < .05 for all). CR mice were smaller, with lower bone mineral density, trabecular, and cortical bone properties. Bone-formation indices were lower, whereas bone-resorption indices were higher (p < .01 for all) in CR versus normal diet mice. Despite having lower percent of body fat, bone marrow adiposity was elevated dramatically in CR versus normal diet mice (p < .05). Thus we conclude that caloric restriction in young, growing mice is associated with impaired skeletal acquisition, low leptin and IGF-1 levels, and high marrow adiposity. These results support the hypothesis that caloric restriction during rapid skeletal growth is deleterious to cortical and trabecular bone mass and architecture, in contrast to potential skeletal benefits of CR in aging animals

  10. A new light on caloric test--what was disclosed by three dimensional analysis of caloric nystagmus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arai, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For better understanding of caloric nystagmus, this phenomenon will be reviewed historically in three stages. 1) The first light on caloric nystagmus was thrown by Barany 1906. Through direct observation of eye movements, Barany established the caloric test as an important tool to determine the side of lesion for vertigo. 2) The second light is shed by electrooculogram (EOG) from the late 1950th. EOG enabled qualitative analysis of caloric nystagmus, and proved Barany's convection theory, but resulted in neglect of vertical and roll eye movements. 3) The third light is gained by 3D recording of eye movements started from the late 1980th. 3D recordings of eye movements enabled us to analyze the spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus, and disclose the close correlation of the nystagmus components in the head vertical and the space vertical planes, suggesting a contribution of the velocity storage integrator. The 3D property of caloric nystagmus will be explained in detail.

  11. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  12. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  13. Modeling microscale heat transfer using Calore.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2005-09-01

    Modeling microscale heat transfer with the computational-heat-transfer code Calore is discussed. Microscale heat transfer problems differ from their macroscopic counterparts in that conductive heat transfer in both solid and gaseous materials may have important noncontinuum effects. In a solid material, three noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of phonons across a thin film, scattering of phonons from surface roughness at a gas-solid interface, and scattering of phonons from grain boundaries within the solid material. These processes are modeled for polycrystalline silicon, and the thermal-conductivity values predicted by these models are compared to experimental data. In a gaseous material, two noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of gas molecules across a thin gap and accommodation of gas molecules to solid conditions when reflecting from a solid surface. These processes are modeled for arbitrary gases by allowing the gas and solid temperatures across a gas-solid interface to differ: a finite heat transfer coefficient (contact conductance) is imposed at the gas-solid interface so that the temperature difference is proportional to the normal heat flux. In this approach, the behavior of gas in the bulk is not changed from behavior observed under macroscopic conditions. These models are implemented in Calore as user subroutines. The user subroutines reside within Sandia's Source Forge server, where they undergo version control and regression testing and are available to analysts needing these capabilities. A Calore simulation is presented that exercises these models for a heated microbeam separated from an ambient-temperature substrate by a thin gas-filled gap. Failure to use the noncontinuum heat transfer models for the solid and the gas causes the maximum temperature of the microbeam to be significantly underpredicted.

  14. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  15. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices. PMID:26858681

  16. Caloric and exercise requirements of space flight - Biostereometric results from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittle, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The biostereometric study of the Skylab astronauts used stereophotogrammetry to make accurate three-dimensional measurements of body form, from which regional and total body volumes were derived. Volume changes in the thighs and calves, over the course of the flight, showed a high correlation with inflight exercise on the bicycle ergometer, and suggested that an exercise level of 80-100 W-min/d/kg lean body mass would be necessary to prevent inflight muscle atrophy. The bicycle ergometer is thus a relatively inefficient means of preventing leg muscle atrophy. Inflight caloric intake showed a high correlation with the change in volume of the buttocks, the abdomen, and the body as a whole, and suggested that a caloric intake of 47-51 kcal/d/kg lean body mass would be necessary to prevent a change in body fat. Only one of the astronauts exceeded this range and gained body fat; the group as a whole showed a mean fat loss of 1.2 kg.

  17. Caloric and multicaloric effects in oxygen ferroics and multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flerov, I. N.; Mikhaleva, E. A.; Gorev, M. V.; Kartashev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The main problems of the current state-of-the-art research into the caloric effects observed in oxygen ferroics, multiferroics, and composites, as well as the influence of different factors (anisotropy, dimensional parameters, direct and indirect interferroic interactions) on these effects, have been considered. Possible ways to increase the caloric efficiency of materials have been analyzed.

  18. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air or water caloric stimulator. 874.1800 Section 874.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or...

  19. Dietary intake of chromium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, calcium and magnesium: Duplicate plate technique - Measured and derived

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M. )

    1991-03-15

    Duplicate plate technique is currently the most reliable method to measure dietary intake of nutrients. However, there is no control for alterations in the diet, conscious or subconscious, due to the collection process. Duplicate diet samples were collected by 19 adult subjects, 11 females (F) and 8 males (M), while consuming freely-chosen diets. Subjects were then placed on a controlled diet to determine actual caloric requirement. Most subjects consumed fewer calories during the freely-chosen diet collection day than their actual caloric requirement. The ratio of the determined caloric intake to the calories measured in the duplicate plate sample varied from 0.90 to 2.2. The data demonstrate that derived nutrient intake may be a better measurement of actual intake than duplicate technique alone.

  20. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  1. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  2. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  3. Better Living through Chemistry: Caloric Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics Alter Genome Function to Promote Increased Health and Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Zoe E; Pickering, Joshua; Eskiw, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure. Here we discuss how genome function and structure are influenced by CR and potential CR mimetics, including changes in gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications and their potential to identify the genetic fountain of youth. PMID:27588026

  4. Better Living through Chemistry: Caloric Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics Alter Genome Function to Promote Increased Health and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Zoe E.; Pickering, Joshua; Eskiw, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure. Here we discuss how genome function and structure are influenced by CR and potential CR mimetics, including changes in gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications and their potential to identify the genetic fountain of youth. PMID:27588026

  5. Caloric Restriction Mimetics Enhance Anticancer Immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Pietrocola, Federico; Pol, Jonathan; Vacchelli, Erika; Rao, Shuan; Enot, David P; Baracco, Elisa E; Levesque, Sarah; Castoldi, Francesca; Jacquelot, Nicolas; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Senovilla, Laura; Marino, Guillermo; Aranda, Fernando; Durand, Sylvère; Sica, Valentina; Chery, Alexis; Lachkar, Sylvie; Sigl, Verena; Bloy, Norma; Buque, Aitziber; Falzoni, Simonetta; Ryffel, Bernhard; Apetoh, Lionel; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Madeo, Frank; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Zitvogel, Laurence; Levine, Beth; Penninger, Josef M; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-07-11

    Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) mimic the biochemical effects of nutrient deprivation by reducing lysine acetylation of cellular proteins, thus triggering autophagy. Treatment with the CRM hydroxycitrate, an inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, induced the depletion of regulatory T cells (which dampen anticancer immunity) from autophagy-competent, but not autophagy-deficient, mutant KRAS-induced lung cancers in mice, thereby improving anticancer immunosurveillance and reducing tumor mass. Short-term fasting or treatment with several chemically unrelated autophagy-inducing CRMs, including hydroxycitrate and spermidine, improved the inhibition of tumor growth by chemotherapy in vivo. This effect was only observed for autophagy-competent tumors, depended on the presence of T lymphocytes, and was accompanied by the depletion of regulatory T cells from the tumor bed. PMID:27411589

  6. The impact of weight stigma on caloric consumption.

    PubMed

    Schvey, Natasha A; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-10-01

    The present study assessed the influence of exposure to weight stigma on energy intake in both overweight and normal-weight adult women. Seventy-three women (mean age: 31.71 ± 12.72 years), both overweight (n = 34) and normal weight (n = 39), were randomly assigned to view one of two videos depicting either weight stigmatizing material or neutral material, after which they consumed snacks ad libitum. Pre- and post-video measures included blood pressure, attitudes toward overweight individuals, and positive and negative affect. Participants' body weight was measured, as was the number of kilocalories consumed following video exposure. Overweight women who watched the stigmatizing video ate more than three times as many kilocalories as overweight women who watched the neutral video (302.82 vs. 89.00 kcal), and significantly more calories than the normal-weight individuals who watched either the stigmatizing or the neutral video. A two-by-two analysis of covariance revealed that even after adjusting for relevant covariates, there was a significant interaction between video type and weight status in that when overweight, individuals consumed significantly more calories if they were in the stigmatizing condition vs. the neutral condition (F(1,65) = 4.37, P = 0.04, η(2) = 0.03). These findings suggest that among overweight women, exposure to weight stigmatizing material may lead to increased caloric consumption. This directly challenges the notion that pressure to lose weight in the form of weight stigma will have a positive, motivating effect on overweight individuals. PMID:21760636

  7. Electronystagmographic analysis of caloric test parameters in vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Szirmai, Agnes; Keller, Balázs

    2013-01-01

    The electronystagmographical analysis of the eye movements provoked by caloric stimulation is an important method in the evaluation and topical diagnostic procedure of several vestibular lesions. The aim of the study was to compare the electronystagmographical results of caloric response in several vestibular disorders. The patients were divided into five groups: right and left unilateral and bilateral peripheral lesions, central vestibular dysfunction, and normal vestibular function. In the normal vestibular system group the average caloric nystagmus SPV in normal vestibular system was 17.4 °/s. In the peripheral lesion groups the average slow phase velocities are decreased in the affected side, as we expected. In the compensated vestibular lesion the average ASPV of caloric nystagmus is also decreased on the unaffected side. This might be caused by the effect of the central adaptive mechanisms. According to our observations, in central dysfunctions the average caloric ASPV and the spontaneous nystagmus ASPV is increased (25.0 °/s). This suggests that in central vestibular lesions the central inhibiting mechanisms of the caloric response are impaired. Our results show that electronystagmographical analysis of spontaneous and caloric nystagmus is very important in the evaluation of dizzy patients. PMID:22298250

  8. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). Methods We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. Results In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1–4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Conclusions Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis. PMID:26932259

  9. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. PMID:24467926

  10. Caloric Restriction and the Aging Process: A Critique 5/15pm/2014

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Rajindar S.; Forster, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to provide an appraisal of the current status of the relationship between energy intake and the life span of animals. The concept, that a reduction in food intake, or caloric restriction (CR), retards the aging process, delays the age-associated decline in physiological fitness and extends the life span of organisms of diverse phylogenetic groups, is one of the leading paradigms in gerontology. However, emerging evidence disputes some of the primary tenets of this conception. One disparity is that the CR-related increase in longevity is not universal and may not even be shared among different strains of the same species. A further misgiving is that the control animals, fed ad-libitum (AL), become overweight, prone to early onset of diseases and death, and thus may not be the ideal control animals for studies concerned with comparisons of longevity. Re-examination of body weight and longevity data from a study involving over 60,000 mice and rats, conducted by a National Institute on Aging-sponsored project, suggests that CR-related increase in life span of specific genotypes is directly related to the gain in body weight under the AL feeding regimen. Additionally, CR in mammals and “dietary restriction” in organisms, such as Drosophila, are dissimilar phenomena, albeit they are often presented to be the very same. The latter involves a reduction in yeast rather than caloric intake, which is inconsistent with the notion of a common, conserved mechanism of CR action in different species. Although specific mechanisms by which CR affects longevity are not well understood, existing evidence supports the view that CR increases the life span of those particular genotypes that develop energy imbalance due to AL feeding. In such groups, CR lowers body temperature, rate of metabolism and oxidant production, and retards the age-related pro-oxidizing shift in the redox state. PMID:24941891

  11. Long-Term Hyperphagia and Caloric Restriction Caused by Low- or High-Density Husbandry Have Differential Effects on Zebrafish Postembryonic Development, Somatic Growth, Fat Accumulation and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Sandra; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia) and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI) displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis

  12. Some strategies for improving caloric responses with ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Scott, James F.; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-06-01

    Many important breakthroughs and significant engineering developments have been achieved during the past two decades in the field of caloric materials. In this review, we address ferroelectrics emerging as ideal materials which permit both giant elastocaloric and/or electrocaloric responses near room temperature. We summarize recent strategies for improving caloric responses using geometrical optimization, maximizing the number of coexisting phases, combining positive and negative caloric responses, introducing extra degree of freedom like mechanical stress/pressure, and multicaloric effect driven by either single stimulus or multiple stimuli. This review highlights the promising perspective of ferroelectrics for developing next-generation solid-state refrigeration.

  13. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  14. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  15. Are caloric beverages compensated for in the short-term by young adults? An investigation with particular focus on gender differences.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, D V; Henry, C J K

    2010-08-01

    The effect of liquid calories on short-term energy compensation is a topic that justifies further investigation. Whilst previous studies appear to vary widely in terms of protocol, design and outcomes, none have placed much focus on possible gender differences in compensation. This study investigated the impact of isocaloric (150kcal) portions of a sucrose sweetened fruit drink (SSD), orange juice (OJ) and semi-skimmed milk (M) on subjective hunger and food intake at a subsequent ad libitum buffet consisting of a large variety of foods, and compared their effects with a calorie free (artificially sweetened) fruit drink control (CTRL). Forty-seven young adults (24 females and 23 males) were provided a standard breakfast which was followed 3h later by the preload beverage and 1h later by lunch. Participants rated hunger, fullness and desire to eat throughout the study period. Compared to the CTRL, males demonstrated a good caloric compensation at lunch following all three treatment beverages, whilst females reduced food intake following M. Total energy intake (energy in preload+energy intake at lunch) by males was similar across all four beverage conditions whilst females showed an increased total energy intake following SSD compared to the CTRL. The study indicates that the consumption of caloric beverages may not be affecting total energy intake in males in the short-term even in the presence of a large selection of palatable foods. On the other hand, females appeared to show a possible dysregulation, which requires further investigation. PMID:20546812

  16. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  17. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  18. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  19. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  20. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  1. The weighty costs of non-caloric sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    FEEHLEY, TAYLOR; NAGLER, CATHRYN R.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses in mice and humans indicate that non-caloric artificial sweeteners may promote obesity-associated metabolic changes by changing the function of the bacteria that colonize the gut. PMID:25231865

  2. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  3. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-11-15

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  4. Characteristics of vestibulosensory reactions studied by experimental caloric test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapranov, V. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibulo-sensory reactions were studied in 135 workers who were in contact with nitroethers, by the method of an experimental caloric test. The response vestibulo-sensory reactions were recorded by means of an electroencephalograph. The changes in the sensory reaction depended on the duration of the workers' contact with toxic agents. A study of illusion reactions by the labyrinth calorization widens diagnostic possibilities in the examination of functional condition of the vestibular analyser considerably.

  5. Energy and Nutrient Intake From Pizza in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Dietz, William H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children’s and adolescents’ caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children’s and adolescents’ pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. METHODS: Twenty-four–hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. RESULTS: From 2003–2004 to 2009–2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. PMID:25601973

  6. AMP Activated Protein Kinase Is Indispensable for Myocardial Adaptation to Caloric Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Kobayashi, Satoru; Xu, Xianmin; Viollet, Benoit; Liang, Qiangrong

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust dietary intervention known to enhance cardiovascular health. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to mediate the cardioprotective effects of CR. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested by using definitive loss-of-function animal models. In the present study, we subjected AMPKα2 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to a CR regimen that reduces caloric intake by 20%–40% for 4 weeks. CR decreased body weight, heart weight and serum levels of insulin in both WT and KO mice to the same degree, indicating the effectiveness of the CR protocol. CR activated cardiac AMPK signaling in WT mice, but not in AMPKα2 KO mice. Correspondingly, AMPKα2 KO mice had markedly reduced cardiac function during CR as determined by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. The compromised cardiac function was associated with increased markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and myocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, CR down-regulated the expression of ATP5g2, a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, and reduced ATP content in AMPKα2 KO hearts, but not in WT hearts. In addition, CR accelerated cardiac autophagic flux in WT mice, but failed to do so in AMPKα2 KO mice. These results demonstrated that without AMPK, CR triggers adverse effects that can lead to cardiac dysfunction, suggesting that AMPK signaling pathway is indispensible for energy homeostasis and myocardial adaptation to CR, a dietary intervention that normally produces beneficial cardiac effects. PMID:23527250

  7. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  8. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas.

    PubMed

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (-5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  9. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  10. The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake. PMID:25128835

  11. Analysis of nutritional intake in a cohort of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Hogg, R S; Zadra, J N; Chan-Yan, C; Voigt, R; Craib, K J; Korosi-Ronco, J; Montaner, J S; Schechter, M T

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in the nutritional intake of seronegative (SN) and seropositive (SP) AIDS-free subjects within a cohort of gay men. The nutritional intake of 145 SN and 139 SP subjects between October 1991 and September 1992 was evaluated using a self-administered 24-h dietary recall questionnaire. The calorie and nutrient content of all food items eaten in a day was coded using the Canadian Nutrient File database. SP subjects were estimated to have been HIV positive a median of 8 years (range, 0.5-9.8 years) and were AIDS-free as of November 1992. SP subjects were younger (median 38 versus 41 years; p = 0.009) and had lower body mass index (BMI) (median index 23.5 versus 24.5; p = 0.017). No significant differences was observed between the two serologic groups in regard to weight change over the previous year. Total caloric intake was significantly higher in the SP group (median, 2,198 versus 1,971 kcal; p = 0.019). SP subjects had higher intakes than SN subjects of protein (median, 94 versus 81 g; p = 0.011), fat (median, 79 versus 66 g; p = 0.023), carbohydrates (median, 240 versus 216 g, p = 0.032), and cholesterol (median 317 versus 252 mg; p = 0.017). These differences persisted after adjustment for age and BMI. In the SP group, there was no difference in caloric intake between those with CD4 counts above and below 200. HIV-infected individuals appear to have a caloric intake higher than that of HIV-negative homosexual controls from the same cohort.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749793

  12. Nonnutritive, low caloric substitutes for food sugars: clinical implications for addressing the incidence of dental caries and overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W; Wright, J Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  13. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael W.; Wright, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  14. Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005–9

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods. PMID:23102182

  15. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  16. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  17. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  18. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  19. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  20. Predictors of sustained reduction in energy and fat intake in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Nichola J.; Ma, Yong; Delahanty, Linda M.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Franks, Paul W.; Saudek, Christopher; Brown-Friday, Janet; Isonaga, Mae; Kriska, Andrea M.; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle intervention studies examine long-term sustainability of dietary changes. Objective To describe sustainability of dietary changes over 9 years in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) among participants receiving the intensive lifestyle (ILS) intervention. Design 1079 participants were enrolled in the ILS arm of DPP; 910 continued participation in DPPOS. Fat and caloric intake derived from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at baseline and post-randomization years 1 and 9 were examined. Parsimonious models determined if baseline characteristics and ILS session participation predicted sustainability. Results Self-reported caloric intake was reduced from a median of 1876 kcal/d [inter-quartile range (IQR) 1452-2549] at baseline to 1520 kcal/d (IQR 1192 -1986) at year 1, and 1560 kcal/d (IQR 1223 -2026) at year 9. Dietary fat was reduced from a median of 70.4 grams (IQR 49.3-102.5) to 45 grams (IQR 32.2-63.8) at year 1 and increased to 61.0 grams (IQR 44.6-82.7) at year 9. Percent calories from fat was reduced from a median of 34.4% (IQR 29.6-38.5) to 27.1% (IQR 23.1-31.5) at year 1 but increased to 35.3% (IQR 29.7-40.2) at year 9. Lower baseline energy intake and year 1 dietary reduction predicted lower caloric and fat gram intake at year 9. Higher leisure physical activity predicted lower fat gram intake but not caloric intake. Conclusions Intensive lifestyle intervention can result in reductions in total energy intake for up to 9 years. Initial success in achieving reductions in fat and caloric intake and success in attaining activity goals appear to predict long-term success at maintaining changes. PMID:24144073

  1. Proximate composition and caloric content of eight Lake Michigan fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rottiers, Donald V.; Tucker, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    We measured the proximate composition (percentage lipid, water, fat-free dry material, ash) and caloric content of eight species of Lake Michigan fish: lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Except for alewives, proximate composition and caloric content did not differ significantly between males and females. And, for coho salmon, there was no significant difference in composition between fish collected in different years. Lipid and caloric content of lake trout increased directly with age. In all species examined, lipids and caloric contents were significantly lower in small, presumably immature, fish than in larger, older fish. Lipid content of lake trout, lake whitefish, and bloaters (range of means, 16-22%) was nearly 3 times higher than that of coho salmon, sculpins, rainbow smelt, and alewives (range of means, 5.2-7.0%). The mean caloric content ranged from 6.9 to 7.1 kcal/g for species high in lipids and from 5.8 to 6.3 kcal/g for species low in lipids. Although the caloric content of all species varied directly with lipid content and inversely with water content, an increase in lipid content did not always coincide with a proportional increase in caloric content when other components of fish composition were essentially unchanged. This observation suggests that the energy content of fish estimated from the proximate composition by using universal conversion factors may not necessarily be accurate.

  2. Changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru

    Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.

  3. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice

    PubMed Central

    van Norren, Klaske; Rusli, Fenni; van Dijk, Miriam; Lute, Carolien; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J; Dwarkasing, Jvalini; Boekschoten, Mark V; Luiking, Yvette; Witkamp, Renger F; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Background In rodent models, caloric restriction (CR) with maintenance of adequate micronutrient supply has been reported to increase lifespan and to reduce age-induced muscle loss (sarcopenia) during ageing. In the present study, we further investigated effects of CR on the onset and severity of sarcopenia in ageing male C57BL/6 J mice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CR induces changes in behaviour of the animals that could contribute to the pronounced health-promoting effects of CR in rodents. In addition, we aimed to investigate in more detail the effects of CR on the onset and severity of sarcopenia. Methods The mice received either an ad libitum diet (control) or a diet matching 70 E% of the control diet (C). Daily activity, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), grip strength, insulin sensitivity, and general agility and balance were determined at different ages. Mice were killed at 4, 12, 24, and 28 months. Skeletal muscles of the hind limb were dissected, and the muscle extensor digitorum longus muscle was used for force-frequency measurements. The musculus tibialis was used for real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Results From the age of 12 months, CR animals were nearly half the weight of the control animals, which was mainly related to a lower fat mass. In the control group, the hind limb muscles showed a decline in mass at 24 or 28 months of age, which was not present in the CR group. Moreover, insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test) was higher in this group and the in vivo and ex vivo grip strength did not differ between the two groups. In the hours before food was provided, CR animals were far more active than control animals, while total daily activity was not increased. Moreover, agility test indicated that CR animals were better climbers and showed more climbing behaviours. Conclusions Our study confirms earlier findings that in CR animals less sarcopenia is present. The mice on the CR diet, however, showed

  4. Nutrient intake: A cross-national analysis of trends and economic correlates.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Doytch, Nadia; Kelly, Inas Rashad

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is a key input in the health production function, and a better understanding of how we eat can aid in guiding effective policy change towards better population health. This study documents prevalence rates, trends in, and potential correlates of nutrient intake for panels of countries, categorized by geographical regions and levels of development. We assemble data from 209 countries, spanning 51 years (1961-2011), based on original data compilations using 960 country-years for BMI, 370 country-years for glucose, and 321 country-years for cholesterol. Our estimates inform the nature and scope of nutrient intake on a global scale, and contribute towards an understanding of the drivers of the general upward trend in food intake and obesity. The cross-national trends, across countries spanning the spectrum of economic development and geographic regions, suggest that simply analyzing aggregate caloric intake masks the heterogeneity in trends for the various food groups. Food groups analyzed include cereals, sugars and sweeteners, vegetable oils, meat, starch, milk, fruits, animal fats, alcoholic beverages, oil crops, pulses, vegetables, fish, and eggs. Fixed effects regression analyses reveal that caloric intake is strongly associated with hunger depth, body mass index, cholesterol levels, and glucose levels. Moreover, changes in real GDP per capita, labor force participation, and health care inputs in a nation can partly explain the increase in caloric intake. We note that substantial heterogeneity remains. PMID:27161358

  5. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  6. Modeling and design aspects of active caloric regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    A cooling device based on a solid caloric material using, for example, the elastocaloric, magnetocaloric, barocaloric or electrocaloric effect has the potential to replace vapor-compression based systems for a variety of applications. Any caloric device using a solid refrigerant may benefit from using a regenerative cycle to increase the operating temperature span. This presentation shows how all active caloric regenerators can be modeled using similar techniques and how they are related to passive regenerator performance. The advantages and disadvantages of using a regenerative cycle are also discussed. The issue of hysteresis in caloric materials is investigated from a system/thermodynamic standpoint and the effects on cooling power and efficiency are quantified using a numerical model of an active regenerator using model caloric materials with assumed properties. The implementation in a working device will be discussed for elastocaloric and magnetocaloric cooling devices. It is shown that demagnetization effects for magnetocaloric systems and stress concentration effects in elastocaloric system reduce the overall effect in the regenerator and care must be taken in regenerator design for both technologies. Other loss mechanisms outside the regenerator such as heat leaks are also discussed. Finally, experimental results for active magnetic regenerative cooler are given for a range of operating conditions. The most recently published device uses a regenerator consisting of Gd and three alloys of GdY and has demonstrated a COP over 3.

  7. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity

  8. Caloric restriction and exercise "mimetics'': Ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and diet are powerful interventions to prevent and ameliorate various pathologies. The development of pharmacological agents that confer exercise- or caloric restriction-like phenotypic effects is thus an appealing therapeutic strategy in diseases or even when used as life-style and longevity drugs. Such so-called exercise or caloric restriction "mimetics" have so far mostly been described in pre-clinical, experimental settings with limited translation into humans. Interestingly, many of these compounds activate related signaling pathways, most often postulated to act on the common downstream effector peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle. In this review, resveratrol and other exercise- and caloric restriction "mimetics" are discussed with a special focus on feasibility, chances and limitations of using such compounds in patients as well as in healthy individuals. PMID:26658171

  9. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  10. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6–18 (n = 185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment. PMID:22748026

  11. Systematic effects in CALOR simulation code to model experimental configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Job, P.K.; Proudfoot, J. ); Handler, T. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Gabriel, T.A. )

    1991-03-27

    CALOR89 code system is being used to simulate test beam results and the design parameters of several calorimeter configurations. It has been bench-marked against the ZEUS, D{theta} and HELIOS data. This study identifies the systematic effects in CALOR simulation to model the experimental configurations. Five major systematic effects are identified. These are the choice of high energy nuclear collision model, material composition, scintillator saturation, shower integration time, and the shower containment. Quantitative estimates of these systematic effects are presented. 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  13. Sepsis as a modulator of adaptation to low and high carbohydrate and low and high fat intakes.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, R R

    1999-04-01

    Catabolism of lean body mass (particularly muscle) occurs in sepsis and other forms of critical illness despite apparently adequate nutritional support. The determination of the optimal balance of carbohydrate and fat intake in this circumstance should be based on the resulting effect on the maintenance of lean body mass, and the nature and extent of any side effects. The general stress response involves a disruption in normal glucoregulation, in that hepatic glucose production is accelerated and the normal blood glucose lowering action of insulin is diminished. Nonetheless, the capacity to oxidize glucose once inside the cells is not impaired. Lipolysis, or the breakdown of peripheral triglycerides to free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol, is accelerated in critical illness, to a greater extent than fat oxidation. Provision of exogenous fat maintains fat stores, but has minimal effect on the direct oxidation of plasma FFA. From the results of oxidation studies, it seems that about 5 mg kg x min of glucose can be readily oxidized, and the balance of energy will be supplied by the oxidation of fat, either endogenous or exogenous. However, an additional consideration in determining the optimal caloric substrate is that insulin is a potent anabolic hormone and stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Consequently, provision of exogenous insulin enhances retention of muscle. This procedure dictates that almost all non-protein calories be provided as carbohydrate to avoid hypoglycemia. Preliminary studies suggest this may be the optimal approach in critically ill patients. Glucose and fatty acids are the major energy substrates in the body. The oxidative metabolism of these substrates provides the ATP needed for physiological function, including protein synthesis. Over the past 20 y, development of new techniques in nutritional support have made it possible to provide large amounts of carbohydrate and fat to critically-ill patients, along with protein or amino acids. However

  14. Sexually dimorphic responses to fat loss after caloric restriction or surgical lipectomy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifei; Strader, April D; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2007-07-01

    White adipose tissue is the principal site for lipid accumulation. Males and females maintain distinctive white adipose tissue distribution patterns. Specifically, males tend to accumulate relatively more visceral fat, whereas females accumulate relatively more subcutaneous fat. The phenomenon of maintaining typical sex-specific fat distributions suggests sex-specific mechanisms that regulate energy balance and adiposity. We used two distinct approaches to reduce fat mass, caloric restriction (CR), and surgical fat removal (termed lipectomy) and assessed parameters involved in the regulation of energy balance. We found that male and female mice responded differentially to CR- and to lipectomy-induced fat loss. Females decreased energy expenditure during CR or after lipectomy. In contrast, males responded by eating more food during food return after CR or after lipectomy. Female CR mice conserved subcutaneous fat, whereas male CR mice lost adiposity equally in the subcutaneous and visceral depots. In addition, female mice had a reduced capability to restore visceral fat after fat loss. After CR, plasma leptin levels decreased in male but not in female mice. The failure to increase food intake after returning to ad libitum intake in females could be due to the relatively stable levels of leptin. In summary, we have found sexual dimorphisms in the response to fat loss that point to important underlying differences in the strategies by which male and female mice regulate body weight. PMID:17426110

  15. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs) of expected weight loss c...

  16. Development of adherence metrics for caloric restriction interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective measures are needed to quantify dietary adherence during caloric restriction (CR) while participants are freeliving. One method to monitor adherence is to compare observed weight loss to the expected weight loss during a prescribed level of CR. Normograms (graphs)of expected weight loss ca...

  17. Effects of learned flavor cues on single meal and daily food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, S E; Tepper, B J

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the effects of learned flavor cues on lunch-meal and daily food intake in 39, normal-weight, free-living adults. Subjects were fed distinctly flavored high-calorie (HC) and low-calorie (LC) milkshake preloads. Following the repeated flavor-calorie pairings, the flavors of the milkshakes were covertly switched. Twenty-three percent of the participants were classified as sensory responders. That is, their lunch intake reflected the anticipated caloric content of the preloads based on the sensory properties rather than the true energy value. Short-term sensory learning did not reliably alter 24-h energy intake in these subjects. The remaining subjects (i.e., sensory nonresponders) ignored the flavor cues and consumed the same size lunches across all phases of the study. Compensation for the preloads was examined during the training period (i.e., before the flavors were switched). Sensory responders accurately adjusted lunch intakes on the first day of exposure to both preloads, demonstrating unlearned compensation for energy density. Compensation continued to be accurate across training days for the HC (85%) but not the LC preload (65%). Sensory nonresponders did not compensate accurately for either of the preloads. Thus, sensory responders were initially more responsive to the caloric density of the preloads and continued to make accurate adjustments when the flavor cue matched the caloric load (i.e., during training) but were misled by the flavor cue when it did not match the caloric consequence (i.e., when the flavors were switched). Sensory nonresponders ignored the sensory cues and ate the same size lunches regardless of the caloric value of the preload.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8047588

  18. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  19. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  20. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  1. Using eastern gamagrass to construct diets that limit intake and caloric density for dairy replacement heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that eastern gamagrass [EGG; Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.] will survive winter climatic conditions common throughout central Wisconsin, and will produce yields of DM ranging approximately from 7,000 to 10,000 kg/ha annually when managed with a 1-cut harvest system. The o...

  2. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Adults: United States, 2007-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... to poverty. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' poverty guidelines were used as the poverty measure to calculate this index ( 8 ). The cut point for participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is 130% of the poverty level. ...

  3. The impact of food price increases on caloric intake in China

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Robert T.; Miller, Nolan H.

    2011-01-01

    World food prices have increased dramatically in recent years. We use panel data from 2006 to examine the impact of these increases on the consumption and nutrition of poor households in two Chinese provinces. We find that households in Hunan suffered no nutrition declines. Households in Gansu experienced a small decline in calories, though the decline is on par with usual seasonal effects. The overall nutritional impact of the world price increase was small because households were able to substitute to cheaper foods and because the domestic prices of staple foods remained low due to government intervention in grain markets. PMID:21625411

  4. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Elizabeth K.; Faruquie, Sahrish S.; Anderson, Gail; Gomes, Linette; Kennedy, Andrew; Wearne, Christine M.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p = 0.039). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome. PMID:27293884

  5. The nuclear receptor CAR is a regulator of thyroid hormone metabolism during caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Maglich, Jodi M; Watson, Joe; McMillen, Patrick J; Goodwin, Bryan; Willson, Timothy M; Moore, John T

    2004-05-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor CAR (NR1I3) has been characterized as a central component in the coordinate response to xenobiotic and endobiotic stress. In this study, we demonstrate that CAR plays a pivotal function in energy homeostasis and establish an unanticipated metabolic role for this nuclear receptor. Wild-type mice treated with the synthetic CAR agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) exhibited decreased serum concentration of the thyroid hormone (TH) thyroxine (T(4)). However, treatment of Car(-/-) mice with TCPOBOP failed to elicit these changes. To examine whether CAR played a role in the regulation of TH levels under physiological conditions, wild-type and Car(-/-) mice were fasted for 24 h, a process known to alter TH metabolism in mammals. As expected, the serum triiodothyronine and T(4) concentrations decreased in wild-type mice. However, triiodothyronine and T(4) levels in fasted Car(-/-) mice remained significantly higher than those in fasted wild-type animals. Concomitant with the changes in serum TH levels, both CAR agonist treatment and fasting induced the expression of CAR target genes (notably, Cyp2b10, Ugt1a1, Sultn, Sult1a1, and Sult2a1) in a receptor-dependent manner. Importantly, the Ugt1a1, Sultn, Sult1a1, and Sult2a1 genes encode enzymes that are capable of metabolizing TH. An attenuated reduction in TH levels during fasting, as observed in Car(-/-) mice, would be predicted to increase weight loss during caloric restriction. Indeed, when Car(-/-) animals were placed on a 40% caloric restriction diet for 12 weeks, Car(-/-) animals lost over twice as much weight as their wild-type littermates. Thus, CAR participates in the molecular mechanisms contributing to homeostatic resistance to weight loss. These data imply that CAR represents a novel therapeutic target to uncouple metabolic rate from food intake and has implications in obesity and its associated disorders. PMID:15004031

  6. A Systematic Evaluation of Food Textures to Decrease Packing and Increase Oral Intake in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Meeta R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Layer, Stacy A.; Coleman, Russell; Swartzwelder, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented than when higher textured foods were…

  7. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  8. Trace mineral intake from food sources of a collegiate team

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, D.M.; Angello, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The collegiate wrestler must maintain a delicate weight balance in order to wrestle in his optimum division. The wrestler constantly restricts dietary intake to maintain the best wrestling weight but often sacrifices good nutrition in order to do this. Twenty members of the Miami University Wrestling Team kept diaries for 3 or 5 days. These diets were analyzed for total calories, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes as well as copper, iodine, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, zinc and manganese. The diets averaged 55% carbohydrate, 16% protein and 29% fat. However, all of the investigated minerals were found to be consumed in low quantities. The following are averages of the mineral intake: copper-1.51 mg, iodine-79.91 ug, fluoride-601,06 ug, chromium-0.0115 mg, molybdenum-46.56 ug, selenium-0.035 mg, zinc-7.46 mg and manganese-1.36 mg. These low mineral intakes may be due to the low calorie intake of the wrestlers. A low caloric intake is typical for wrestlers and thus these low mineral intakes may also be typical.

  9. Having it all: historical energy intakes do not generate the anticipated trade-offs in fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S.L; Grune, T; Bell, L.M; Murray, S.J; Souter, D.M; Erwin, S.S; Yearsley, J.M; Gordon, I.J; Illius, A.W; Kyriazakis, I; Speakman, J.R

    2006-01-01

    An axiom of life-history theory, and fundamental to our understanding of ageing, is that animals must trade-off their allocation of resources since energy and nutrients are limited. Therefore, animals cannot ‘have it all’—combine high rates of fecundity with extended lifespans. The idea of life-history trade-offs was recently challenged by the discovery that ageing may be governed by a small subset of molecular processes independent of fitness. We tested the ‘trade-off’ and ‘having it all’ theories by examining the fecundities of C57BL/6J mice placed onto four different dietary treatments that generated caloric intakes from −21 to +8.6% of controls. We predicted body fat would be deposited in relation to caloric intake. Excessive body fat is known to cause co-morbidities that shorten lifespan, while caloric restriction enhances somatic protection and increases longevity. The trade-off model predicts that increased fat would be tolerated because reproductive gain offsets shortened longevity, while animals on a restricted intake would sacrifice reproduction for lifespan extension. The responses of body fat to treatments followed our expectations, however, there was a negative relationship between reproductive performance (fecundity, litter mass) and historical intake/body fat. Our dietary restricted animals had lower protein oxidative damage and appeared able to combine life-history traits in a manner contrary to traditional expectations by having increased fecundity with the potential to have extended lifespans. PMID:16777725

  10. Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

    2012-01-01

    For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized. PMID:22224551

  11. Entropy changes and caloric effects in RAl2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes de Oliveira, Nilson; Caro Patiño, Julieth; von Ranke, Pedro R.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we theoretically discuss the entropy changes and the caloric effects in RAl2 single crystals, which crystalize in the cubic symmetry and have large magneto crystalline anisotropy due to the crystal electric field. For this purpose, we use a model of interacting magnetic moments including a term to account for the crystal electric field. We apply the model to calculate the entropy changes and the magnetocaloric quantities in TmAl2 and NdAl2 by applying magnetic field variations in different crystallographic directions. Our calculations for the entropy changes in these compounds are in a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data for ΔB = 7 T. Further experimental data are necessary to compare with our theoretical predictions for the adiabatic temperature change. We also calculate the caloric quantities by fixing the magnitude of the magnetic field and rotating its direction. In this case, our calculations predict an anomaly (i.e. a change of sign) in the caloric quantities of TmAl2 when a magnetic field of 3 T rotates from < 100 > to < 110 > direction. A similar behavior is also observed in NdAl2. This very interesting fact, which is basically due to the magneto crystalline anisotropy, needs experimental data to be confirmed CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ.

  12. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  13. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  14. Using dietary reference intake-based methods to estimate prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among female students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, and intake distributions were determined. Nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the National Research Council method. For nutrients for which an Estimated Average Requirement has been established, the Estimated Average Requirement cutpoint method was used to determine the proportion of students with inadequate intake. The students' food records indicated inadequate intakes of folate (99%), zinc (47%), and copper (33%). For approximately 95% of the students in this study, calcium was less than the Adequate Intake. The results showed the need for improvement in dietary choices to minimize the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate, zinc, copper, and calcium in this group. PMID:16647333

  15. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Susan; Sumien, Nathalie; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Filipetto, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR), a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i) a base diet (Ain93M) fed ad libitum (AL), (ii) the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR) or (iii) the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL). Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio), were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze) and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance). The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions. PMID:26473740

  16. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  17. Safety of two-year caloric restriction in non-obese healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Romashkan, Sergei V.; Das, Sai Krupa; Villareal, Dennis T.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Kraus, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The extent to which sustained caloric restriction (CR) in healthy non-obese adults is safe has not been previously investigated. Objective Assess the safety and tolerability of sustained two-year CR intervention in healthy, non-obese adults. Design A multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized using a 2:1 allocation in favor of 25% CR vs. Ad-Libitum intake (AL). Adverse and serious adverse events (AE, SAE), safety laboratory tests, and other safety parameters were closely monitored. Results Three participants were withdrawn from the CR intervention because of the safety concerns. No deaths and one SAE was reported by participants in the CR group. Although the difference in AE between AL and CR groups was not significant, within the CR group, the incidence of nervous system (p = 0.02), musculoskeletal (p = 0.02) and reproductive system (p = 0.002) disorders was significantly higher in the normal-weight than in the overweight participants. At months 12 and 24, bone mineral densities at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck of participants in the CR group were significantly lower than in those in the AL group. Conclusions Two-years of CR at levels achieved in CALERIE was safe and well tolerated. Close monitoring for excessive bone loss and anemia is important. PMID:26992237

  18. Television viewing at mealtime reduces caloric compensation in peripubertal, but not postpubertal, girls.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Thomas, Scott G; Hamilton, Jill K; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-11-01

    The effect of television viewing (TVV) and pubertal status of 9- to 14-y-old girls on mealtime food intake (FI) after a premeal glucose drink was determined. On four separate mornings, girls randomly received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control) or glucose (1.0 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast. FI from an ad libitum pizza meal was measured 30 min later with or without TVV. Appetite was measured at 15 min intervals to lunch and postmeal. TVV at mealtime had no effect on FI, however, glucose suppressed FI more with no TVV compared with TVV (24 versus 10%, p < 0.001), primarily because of its effect in peripubertal girls (p < 0.028). In postpubertal girls (n = 8), glucose reduced FI by ~27% in both the no TVV and TVV conditions, but in peripubertal girls (n = 17), reduction in FI was 22% without TVV and only 1% while TVV. Appetite correlated with FI at 30 min only in postpubertal girls. TVV at mealtime reduced caloric compensation after consumption of the glucose drink in peripubertal, but not postpubertal, girls, with no effect on mealtime FI. (Clinical trial number NCT01025687.) PMID:21772226

  19. The 'balance intervention' for promoting caloric compensatory behaviours in response to overeating: a formative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the 'balance intervention', which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information seeking and increased motivation and caloric compensatory behaviours. A three-group randomized trial with pre-intervention measures (n = 963, response 86%) and post-intervention measures (n = 857) using electronic questionnaires was conducted among participants aged 25-40 years, recruited from an Internet research panel. The first group received a printed brochure and electronic newsletters (print group), the second group was exposed to radio advertisements (radio group) and the third group was the control group. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of the materials on self-reported prevalence of overeating, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and compensatory behaviours. At follow-up, we found significantly more positive attitudes, intentions and dietary action in the print and radio groups. However, participants who received the radio advertisement had a significantly lower perceived behavioural control. No effects were found on the prevalence of overeating. The results indicate that the intervention materials have potential for increasing people's attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviour actions, with a possible negative side-effect on perceived behavioural control. PMID:16606638

  20. Manipulation of health span and function by dietary caloric restriction mimetics.

    PubMed

    Roth, George S; Ingram, Donald K

    2016-01-01

    After nearly a century of rigorous investigation and testing, dietary caloric restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reproducible method for slowing aging and maintaining health, function, and vitality. This intervention has been applied to species across the evolutionary spectrum, but for a number of reasons, practical applicability to humans has been questioned. To overcome these issues, we initiated the field of CR mimetics in 1998 and have observed its development into a full-fledged antiaging industry. Basically, strategies that enable individuals to obtain the biological benefits of CR without reducing actual food intake can be considered CR mimetics, whether functional, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, or other. Some of the best known candidates include resveratrol and related agents, the antidiabetic drug metformin, and rapamycin and other mTOR regulators. While the mechanisms of action vary, these and essentially all CR mimetic candidates work through at least some of the same pathways as actual CR. While the entire field continues to evolve rapidly, the current status will be reviewed here, with particular focus on recent developments, the most practical relevance and applicability for potential consumers, and new strategies for the future. PMID:26214681

  1. Sex-dependent cognitive performance in baboon offspring following maternal caloric restriction in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jesse S; Bartlett, Thad Q; Keenan, Kathryn E; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nijland, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring. PMID:22344725

  2. A network pharmacology approach reveals new candidate caloric restriction mimetics in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Shaun; Tacutu, Robi; Sharifi, Samim; Teixeira, Rute; Ghosh, Pratul; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction in calorie intake without malnutrition, retards aging in several animal models from worms to mammals. Developing CR mimetics, compounds that reproduce the longevity benefits of CR without its side effects, is of widespread interest. Here, we employed the Connectivity Map to identify drugs with overlapping gene expression profiles with CR. Eleven statistically significant compounds were predicted as CR mimetics using this bioinformatics approach. We then tested rapamycin, allantoin, trichostatin A, LY-294002 and geldanamycin in Caenorhabditis elegans. An increase in lifespan and healthspan was observed for all drugs except geldanamycin when fed to wild-type worms, but no lifespan effects were observed in eat-2 mutant worms, a genetic model of CR, suggesting that life-extending effects may be acting via CR-related mechanisms. We also treated daf-16 worms with rapamycin, allantoin or trichostatin A, and a lifespan extension was observed, suggesting that these drugs act via DAF-16-independent mechanisms, as would be expected from CR mimetics. Supporting this idea, an analysis of predictive targets of the drugs extending lifespan indicates various genes within CR and longevity networks. We also assessed the transcriptional profile of worms treated with either rapamycin or allantoin and found that both drugs use several specific pathways that do not overlap, indicating different modes of action for each compound. The current work validates the capabilities of this bioinformatic drug repositioning method in the context of longevity and reveals new putative CR mimetics that warrant further studies. PMID:26676933

  3. Dietary assessment of adolescents undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: macro- and micronutrient, fiber and supplement intake

    PubMed Central

    Jeffreys, Renee M.; Hrovat, Kathleen; Woo, Jessica G.; Schmidt, Marcia; Inge, Thomas H.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, there are as yet no data available which describe the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient’s diet pre- and post-operatively. Objective Assess the 1-year change in dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital Methods Twenty-seven subjects [67% female, 77% white, age 16.7 ± 1.4 years, baseline body mass index (BMI) 60.1 ± 14.1 kg/m2] were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study one month prior to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) between August 2005 and March 2008. Three-day dietary intake was recorded at baseline (n=24), at 2 weeks (n=16), 3 months (n=11), and 1 year (n=9) post-operatively. Dietary record data were verified by structured interview and compared with Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for ages 14–18. Results By 1 year post-surgery, mean caloric intake adjusted for BMI was 1015 ± 182 kcal/day, a 35% reduction from baseline. The proportion of fat, protein and carbohydrate intake did not differ from baseline. However, protein intake was lower than recommended postoperatively. Calcium and fiber intake was also persistently lower than recommended. Calcium and vitamin B12 supplementation increased the likelihood of meeting daily minimal recommendations (p≤0.02). Conclusions One year after RYGB, adolescents’ caloric intake remained restricted with satisfactory macronutrient composition, but with lower than desirable intake of calcium, fiber and protein. PMID:22260884

  4. Impact of Energy Intake and Expenditure on Neuronal Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    The Roman poet Horace was among the first to recognize that when “clogged with yesterday's excess, the body drags the mind down with it.” Although considerable attention has been paid in neuroscience to the enhancement of neuronal function by wheel running and caloric restriction, far less is known about the other side of this issue. What are the consequences of unhealthy habits to central nervous system function? Prolonged exposure to excessive caloric intake impairs neuronal function, and also contributes to obesity and other risk factors for diabetes. Diabetes, a disease characterized by reduced sensitivity to glucose and insulin, is also associated with deficits in brain structure and function. In contrast, enhancement of somatic metabolism by wheel running or caloric restriction improves central neuroplasticity. Generalizing across studies reveals a relationship between global metabolic efficiency and neuroplasticity in the hippocampus, a brain region that is essential for learning and memory. The specific principles upheld by these findings are suggestive of a continuum, with global metabolic alterations fluctuating in concert with neuroplasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:18543119

  5. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  6. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  7. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  8. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  11. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  12. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  13. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Adolescents and Adults in the United States: Percentage Meeting Individualized Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kimmons, Joel; Gillespie, Cathleen; Seymour, Jennifer; Serdula, Mary; Blanck, Heidi Michels

    2009-01-01

    Context Fruit and vegetable intake is an important part of a healthy diet and is associated with numerous positive health outcomes. MyPyramid provides recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption based on individual calorie requirements as determined by an individual's age, sex, and physical activity level. Objectives To determine (1) median fruit and vegetable consumption from all dietary sources among adolescent and adult consumers and the percentage of adolescents and adults meeting individual recommended intake levels based on caloric requirements and (2) consumption levels among various demographic groups, intake levels from subtypes of fruits and vegetables, and primary contributors to fruit and vegetable intake. Design Analysis of 2-day, 24-hour recall data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a continuous, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Results This study included dietary contributions of fruits and vegetables from all dietary sources. Fewer than 1 in 10 Americans meet their calorie-specific MyPyramid fruit or vegetable recommendations. Higher intake was not observed in subgroups with higher recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption based on caloric requirements. The primary contributors to total fruit intake were whole fruits among adults and fruit juices among adolescents. The largest single contributor to overall fruit intake was orange juice. Potatoes dominated vegetable consumption, particularly among adolescents, in whom fried potatoes increased the median vegetable intake from 0.72 cup to 1.21 cups per day. Dark green and orange vegetables and legumes accounted for a small portion of vegetable intake, and few people met the recommendations. Conclusions Few American adolescents or adults reported consuming the recommended amounts of fruits or vegetables. Increasing consumption will probably require multifaceted approaches that augment educational campaigns with policy and

  14. [Importance of taste in maintaining homeostasis and pathological impact of orosensory reflexes distraction in relation to sweet taste after non-caloric sweeteners consumption].

    PubMed

    Neuwirthová, Jana; Gál, Břetislav; Smilek, Pavel; Kostřica, Rom

    2014-01-01

    Taste signals and their reflexes have important signalling function in nature. They protect organism against toxic substances in food with help of taste aversion, they help to cope nutrition deficiencies through taste preferences, on the other hand, they act in many postprandial reflexes to maintain energy homeostasis. It is well-known that sweet taste is important oro-sensory stimulus for mammals. It acts as predictor of caloric food intake even before its entry into stomach and circulation. Taste and other oro-sensory signals from oral cavity affect not only the intake regulation, but also influence hormonal, neural and metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. The aim is to utilize effectively food energy and prevent energy instability of organism. Oro-sensory reflexes mediated by taste cells develop naturally from the first contact with sweet breast milk in infancy. It has been proven that the attenuation of reflexes due to the use of artificial sweeteners that don´t bring any caloric value to human body leads to hormonal and energetic dysregulation of organism and may contribute to metabolic syndrome. PMID:24974748

  15. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  16. Caloric restriction mimetics: natural/physiological pharmacological autophagy inducers

    PubMed Central

    Mariño, Guillermo; Pietrocola, Federico; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient depletion, which is one of the physiological triggers of autophagy, results in the depletion of intracellular acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) coupled to the deacetylation of cellular proteins. We surmise that there are 3 possibilities to mimic these effects, namely (i) the depletion of cytosolic AcCoA by interfering with its biosynthesis, (ii) the inhibition of acetyltransferases, which are enzymes that transfer acetyl groups from AcCoA to other molecules, mostly leucine residues in cellular proteins, or (iii) the stimulation of deacetylases, which catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from leucine residues. There are several examples of rather nontoxic natural compounds that act as AcCoA depleting agents (e.g., hydroxycitrate), acetyltransferase inhibitors (e.g., anacardic acid, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, garcinol, spermidine) or deacetylase activators (e.g., nicotinamide, resveratrol), and that are highly efficient inducers of autophagy in vitro and in vivo, in rodents. Another common characteristic of these agents is their capacity to reduce aging-associated diseases and to confer protective responses against ischemia-induced organ damage. Hence, we classify them as “caloric restriction mimetics” (CRM). Here, we speculate that CRM may mediate their broad health-improving effects by triggering the same molecular pathways that usually are elicited by long-term caloric restriction or short-term starvation and that imply the induction of autophagy as an obligatory event conferring organismal, organ- or cytoprotection. PMID:25484097

  17. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory. PMID:23874758

  18. Aging, Neurogenesis, and Caloric Restriction in Different Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions. PMID:23936746

  19. Allopregnanolone preferentially induces energy‐rich food intake in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Ellinor; Johansson, Maja; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Haage, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an increasing problem and identification of the driving forces for overeating of energy‐rich food is important. Previous studies show that the stress and sex steroid allopregnanolone has a hyperphagic effect on both bland food and palatable food. If allopregnanolone induces a preference for more palatable or for more energy‐rich food is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of allopregnanolone on food preference. Male Wistar rats were subjected to two different food preference tests: a choice between standard chow and cookies (which have a higher energy content and also are more palatable than chow), and a choice between a low caloric sucrose solution and standard chow (which has a higher energy content and is less palatable than sucrose). Food intake was measured for 1 h after acute subcutaneous injections of allopregnanolone. In the choice between cookies and chow allopregnanolone significantly increased only the intake of cookies. When the standard chow was the item present with the highest caloric load, the chow intake was increased and allopregnanolone had no effect on intake of the 10% sucrose solution. The increased energy intakes induced by the high allopregnanolone dose compared to vehicle were very similar in the two tests, 120% increase for cookies and 150% increase for chow. It appears that in allopregnanolone‐induced hyperphagia, rats choose the food with the highest energy content regardless of its palatability. PMID:25501437

  20. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds. PMID:21645427

  1. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  2. [Dietetic determinants on food intake and effects in body weight regulation].

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Monteiro, Josefina Bressan

    2003-09-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial pathology currently considered one of the main public health problems. Its prevalence is increasing dramatically in the last decades, reaching huge rates in Brazil and many other countries. Regardless of the factors associated with genetic predisposition, this pathology is often associated with abnormal food intake, and also with high consumption of caloric foods and sedentary habits. Thus, obesity is the result of an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. One of the greatest research interests in nutrition has currently been the dietetic determinants that may exert an influence on the process of food intake, as well as the role of foods on physiological, physical and chemical factors most related to the processes of satiation and satiety. Based on these aspects, this paper analyzes several research works to gain a better insight of the dietetic factors affecting food intake and body weight regulation. PMID:14694806

  3. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

  4. Fecal thyroid hormones allow for the noninvasive monitoring of energy intake in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schaebs, Franka S; Wolf, Tanja E; Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Measuring energetic condition of wild animals is of major importance in ecological research, as it is profoundly linked to fitness. However, noninvasive monitoring of energetic condition in wild-living animals is methodologically challenging. Measuring urinary C-peptide levels is a suitable method to noninvasively assess energy balance in wild-living animals. As collecting urine is not always feasible in the wild, it is essential to establish alternative biomarkers for other sample types to assess energy balance. Thyroid hormones (TH) are potential candidates as they are involved in the regulation of metabolic processes. During periods of low energy intake, serum TH levels are reduced, leading to a decrease in metabolic activity. To investigate whether fecal TH can serve as a biomarker for energy balance, we validated a total T3 ELISA to measure immunoreactive T3 (iT3) in fecal samples of yellow-breasted capuchins. We restricted caloric intake of seven males, assessed daily group caloric intake and determined daily individual fecal iT3 levels. Analytical validation of the assay showed that fecal iT3 levels can be reliably measured; however, proper storage conditions must be implemented and possible degradation to be accounted for. IT3 levels were significantly higher on days with high group caloric intake. However, individual iT3 levels varied substantially, resulting in an overlap across individuals between conditions. Our results indicate that fecal iT3 levels can serve as a useful biomarker to detect changes in energy intake of yellow-breasted capuchins. Overall, measuring fecal iT3 levels may present a suitable method for monitoring energy balance when urine collection is impossible. PMID:27460343

  5. Effect of High Sugar Intake on Glucose Transporter and Weight Regulating Hormones in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ritze, Yvonne; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; D’Haese, Jan G.; Ernst, Barbara; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd; Bischoff, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sugar consumption has increased dramatically over the last decades in Western societies. Especially the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seems to be a major risk for the development of obesity. Thus, we compared liquid versus solid high-sugar diets with regard to dietary intake, intestinal uptake and metabolic parameters in mice and partly in humans. Methods Five iso-caloric diets, enriched with liquid (in water 30% vol/vol) or solid (in diet 65% g/g) fructose or sucrose or a control diet were fed for eight weeks to C57bl/6 mice. Sugar, liquid and caloric intake, small intestinal sugar transporters (GLUT2/5) and weight regulating hormone mRNA expression, as well as hepatic fat accumulation were measured. In obese versus lean humans that underwent either bariatric surgery or small bowel resection, we analyzed small intestinal GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression. Results In mice, the liquid high-sucrose diet caused an enhancement of total caloric intake compared to the solid high-sucrose diet and the control diet. In addition, the liquid high-sucrose diet increased expression of GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression in the ileum (P<0.001). Enhanced liver triglyceride accumulation was observed in mice being fed the liquid high-sucrose or -fructose, and the solid high-sucrose diet compared to controls. In obese, GLUT2 and GLUT5 mRNA expression was enhanced in comparison to lean individuals. Conclusions We show that the form of sugar intake (liquid versus solid) is presumably more important than the type of sugar, with regard to feeding behavior, intestinal sugar uptake and liver fat accumulation in mice. Interestingly, in obese individuals, an intestinal sugar transporter modulation also occurred when compared to lean individuals. PMID:25010715

  6. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  7. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. PMID:25700893

  8. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  9. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  10. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  11. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  20. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  4. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  5. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  8. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  9. Anomalies and synergy in the caloric effects of magnetoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Shashwat; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2014-12-01

    We determine isothermal entropy changes (Δ S) associated with electrocaloric, magnetocaloric, and the corresponding multicaloric effects in a model type-I multiferroic system using Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic analysis. We show that (a) the magnetocaloric effect exhibits an unexpected anomaly at the ferroelectric transition occurring at a high temperature, even in the absence of magnetic ordering, and (b) the synergy between electro- and magnetocaloric effects leads to a significantly enhanced multicaloric effect (\\mid Δ {{S}MultiCE}\\mid \\gt \\mid Δ {{S}ECE}\\mid +\\mid Δ {{S}MCE}\\mid ) over a wide temperature range when the difference in temperatures of magnetic and ferroelectric ordering (\\mid Δ {{T}C}\\mid =\\mid TCE-TCM\\mid ) is small. This result originate from the coupled thermal fluctuations of magnetic and electric order parameters. While the former is useful in detecting multiferroic materials from the measurements covering higher temperature transition alone, the latter augurs well for caloric applications of multiferroics.

  10. Effects of rectilinear acceleration, optokinetic and caloric stimuli in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbaumgarten, R.

    1981-01-01

    The set of experiments comprising the Spacelab 1ES201 package designed to investigate the human vestibular system and equilibratory function in weightlessness are described. The specific objectives of the experiments include: (1) the determination of the threshold of perception of linear oscillatory motion; (2) measurement of physiological and subjective responses to supra threshold, linear and angular motion stimuli; (3) study of the postural adjustments, eye movements, and illusions of attitude and motion evoked by optokinetic stimuli, (i.e., moving visual patterns) in order to assess visual/vestibular interactions; (4) examination of the effect of thermal stimulations of the vestibular apparatus to determine if the eye movements elicited by the 'caloric test' are used by a density gradient in the semicircular canal; and (5) investigation of the pathogenesis of space motion sickness by recording signs and symptoms during the course of vestibular stimulation and, specifically, when the test subject is exposed to sustained, linear oscillatory motion.

  11. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions – normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity. PMID:26617514

  12. Effects of 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Leite, Neiva; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Radominski, Rosana Bento; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls. Thirty-three girls (13-17 years) were assigned into overweight training (n = 17) or overweight control (n = 16) groups. Additionally, a normal-weight group (n = 15) was used as control for the baseline values. The combined training programme consisted of six resistance exercises (three sets of 6-10 repetitions at 60-70% 1 RM) followed by 30 min of aerobic exercise (walking/running) at 50-80% VO2peak, performed in the same 60 min session, 3 days/weeks, for 12 weeks. Body composition, dietary intake, aerobic fitness (VO2peak), muscular strength (1 RM), glycaemia, insulinemia, lipid profile and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, leptin, resistin and adiponectin) were measured before and after intervention. There was a significant decrease in body fat (P < 0.01) and increase in fat-free mass (P < 0.01), VO2peak (P < 0.01), 1 RM for leg press (P < 0.01) and bench press (P < 0.01) in the overweight training group. Concomitantly, this group presented significant decreases in serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05) and leptin (P < 0.05), as well as in insulin resistance (P < 0.05) after the experimental period. In conclusion, 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction reduced inflammatory markers associated with obesity in overweight girls. PMID:26852885

  13. Modulation of Skeletal Muscle Insulin Signaling With Chronic Caloric Restriction in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth; Qin, Jianhua; Liu, Xiaotuan; Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Wagner, Janice D.; Cefalu, William T.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to retard aging processes, extend maximal life span, and consistently increase insulin action in experimental animals. The mechanism by which CR enhances insulin action, specifically in higher species, is not precisely known. We sought to examine insulin receptor signaling and transcriptional alterations in skeletal muscle of nonhuman primates subjected to CR over a 4-year period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS At baseline, 32 male adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to an ad libitum (AL) diet or to 30% CR. Dietary intake, body weight, and insulin sensitivity were obtained at routine intervals over 4 years. At the end of the study, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed and skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) was obtained in the basal and insulin-stimulated states for insulin receptor signaling and gene expression profiling. RESULTS CR significantly increased whole-body insulin–mediated glucose disposal compared with AL diet and increased insulin receptor signaling, i.e., insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, insulin receptor phosphorylation, and IRS–associated PI 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively). Gene expression for insulin signaling proteins, i.e., IRS-1 and IRS-2, were not increased with CR, although a significant increase in protein abundance was noted. Components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, i.e., 20S and 19S proteasome subunit abundance and 20S proteasome activity, were significantly decreased by CR. CONCLUSIONS CR increases insulin sensitivity on a whole-body level and enhances insulin receptor signaling in this higher species. CR in cynomolgus monkeys may alter insulin signaling in vivo by modulating protein content of insulin receptor signaling proteins. PMID:19336678

  14. Energy expenditure and physical performance in overweight women: response to training with and without caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Keim, N L; Barbieri, T F; Van Loan, M D; Anderson, B L

    1990-06-01

    The metabolic effects of exercise training and the influence of a moderate calorie restriction on the training response were examined in overweight women. Ten healthy women, 119% to 141% of desirable weight, completed the 14-week study. After a 2-week stabilization period, in which diets were designed to maintain body weight (BW), five women were assigned to a 12-week experimental program of diet and exercise (D + EX) that included a 50% reduction in energy intake and a program of moderate intensity aerobic exercise 6 days per week. The other five women were assigned to the same daily exercise (EX) and continued to consume the stabilization diet. Periodic measurements of resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), energy cost of exercise, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max) were obtained, and the respiratory quotient (RQ) was determined during rest and exercise. Body composition was monitored weekly. Tests of strength and anaerobic capacity were conducted. D + EX lost an average of approximately 1.1 kg/wk, which was 67% fat, 33% lean. EX lost approximately 0.5 kg/wk, which was 86% fat, 14% lean. In both groups, the exercise program resulted in an 11% to 13% improvement in VO2 max and an 8% to 16% decrease in energy expenditure at submaximal workloads. The caloric restriction significantly increased fat utilization during exercise. The RMR declined 9% in D + EX, from 1,550 to 1,411 kcal/d, whereas it was maintained in EX, 1,608 to 1,626 kcal/d. The decrease in RMR observed in D + EX was consistent with the loss of fat-free mass (FFM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2352481

  15. Neuroendocrine involvement in aging: evidence from studies of reproductive aging and caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J F; Karelus, K; Bergman, M D; Felicio, L S

    1995-01-01

    Neuroendocrine changes contribute to female reproductive aging, but changes in other tissues also play a role. In C57BL/6J mice, neuroendocrine changes contribute to estrous cycle lengthening and reduced plasma estradiol levels, but the midlife loss of cyclicity is mainly due to ovarian failure. Hypothalamic estrogen receptor dynamics and estrogenic modulation of gene expression are altered in middle-aged cycling mice. Although insufficient to arrest cyclicity, these neuroendocrine changes may contribute to other reproductive aging phenomena, such as altered gonadotropin secretion and lengthened estrous cycles. In women, the loss of ovarian oocytes, the cause of menopause, accelerates in the decade before menopause. Accelerated oocyte loss may in turn be caused by a selective elevation of plasma follicle stimulating hormone, and neuroendocrine involvement may thus be implicated in menopausal oocyte loss. Chronic calorie restriction retards both neural and ovarian reproductive aging processes, as well as age-related change in many other physiological systems. The diverse effects of food restriction raises the possibility of an underlying coordinated regulatory response of the organism to reduced caloric intake, possibly effected through alterations of neural and/or endocrine signalling. We are therefore attempting to identify neuroendocrine changes that may coordinate the life prolonging response of animals to food restriction. Our initial focus is on the glucocorticoid system. Food restricted rats exhibit daily periods of hyperadrenocorticism, manifest as elevated free corticosterone during the diurnal peak. We hypothesize that this hyperadrenocortical state potentiates cellular and organismic homeostasis throughout life in a manner similar to that achieved during acute stress, thereby retarding aging processes and extending life span. PMID:8532119

  16. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  17. In vitro caloric restriction induces protective genes and functional rejuvenation in senescent SAMP8 astrocytes.

    PubMed

    García-Matas, Silvia; Paul, Rajib K; Molina-Martínez, Patricia; Palacios, Hector; Gutierrez, Vincent M; Corpas, Rubén; Pallas, Mercè; Cristòfol, Rosa; de Cabo, Rafael; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2015-06-01

    Astrocytes are key cells in brain aging, helping neurons to undertake healthy aging or otherwise letting them enter into a spiral of neurodegeneration. We aimed to characterize astrocytes cultured from senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a mouse model of brain pathological aging, along with the effects of caloric restriction, the most effective rejuvenating treatment known so far. Analysis of the transcriptomic profiles of SAMP8 astrocytes cultured in control conditions and treated with caloric restriction serum was performed using mRNA microarrays. A decrease in mitochondrial and ribosome mRNA, which was restored by caloric restriction, confirmed the age-related profile of SAMP8 astrocytes and the benefits of caloric restriction. An amelioration of antioxidant and neurodegeneration-related pathways confirmed the brain benefits of caloric restriction. Studies of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function demonstrated a reduction of oxidative damage and partial improvement of mitochondria after caloric restriction. In summary, caloric restriction showed a significant tendency to normalize pathologically aged astrocytes through the activation of pathways that are protective against the age-related deterioration of brain physiology. PMID:25711920

  18. In vitro caloric restriction induces protective genes and functional rejuvenation in senescent SAMP8 astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    García-Matas, Silvia; Paul, Rajib K; Molina-Martínez, Patricia; Palacios, Hector; Gutierrez, Vincent M; Corpas, Rubén; Pallas, Mercè; Cristòfol, Rosa; de Cabo, Rafael; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are key cells in brain aging, helping neurons to undertake healthy aging or otherwise letting them enter into a spiral of neurodegeneration. We aimed to characterize astrocytes cultured from senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a mouse model of brain pathological aging, along with the effects of caloric restriction, the most effective rejuvenating treatment known so far. Analysis of the transcriptomic profiles of SAMP8 astrocytes cultured in control conditions and treated with caloric restriction serum was performed using mRNA microarrays. A decrease in mitochondrial and ribosome mRNA, which was restored by caloric restriction, confirmed the age-related profile of SAMP8 astrocytes and the benefits of caloric restriction. An amelioration of antioxidant and neurodegeneration-related pathways confirmed the brain benefits of caloric restriction. Studies of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function demonstrated a reduction of oxidative damage and partial improvement of mitochondria after caloric restriction. In summary, caloric restriction showed a significant tendency to normalize pathologically aged astrocytes through the activation of pathways that are protective against the age-related deterioration of brain physiology. PMID:25711920

  19. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  20. Dietary modulation of oral amphetamine intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, R B; Marks-Kaufman, R

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of sucrose availability and oral self-administration of amphetamine was examined in 23 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Fourteen rats were given a 0.075 mg/ml amphetamine sulfate solution as their sole source of fluid and 9 rats were given water. Feeding conditions were alternated between weeks with both granulated sucrose and chow available and weeks with only chow present. Rats drank significantly less of the amphetamine solution when consuming sucrose and chow than when eating chow alone. Sucrose intake had a slight effect on water intake. Rats drinking the amphetamine solution consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and were significantly less efficient at using calories for weight gain than rats drinking water. However, when given access to sucrose, rats drinking the amphetamine solution chose a significantly greater proportion of their daily caloric intake as sucrose (60%) than rats drinking water (42.5%). The present results demonstrate that 1) amphetamine intake alters nutrient choice and 2) that dietary variables can profoundly affect drug self-administration. PMID:3237840

  1. Exercise and Energy intake in Overweight, Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2009-01-01

    Exercise expends energy, but without dietary intervention, exercise does not appear to produce substantial weight loss. The present study examined whether overweight, sedentary individuals increase their energy intake after moderate intensity exercise, particularly in the presence of negative mood. A repeated measures design was used where overweight, sedentary individuals (N=65) completed, in counterbalanced order, two conditions: 3 minutes of exercise (Active) and 3 minutes of sedentary activity (Sedentary) during one session. Snack foods were presented 10 minutes after each activity. Mixed-effects regression modeling revealed no significant effect of Active versus Sedentary condition on energy intake. However, moderational analyses revealed that change in negative mood interacted with condition to predict energy intake, such that participants who reported increased negative mood during exercise consumed more calories in the Active compared to the Sedentary condition. That a short bout of exercise resulted in mood deterioration and increased energy intake for some overweight, sedentary individuals is concerning. Further research examining behavioral and physiological mechanisms of mood deterioration and caloric overcompensation following exercise in overweight, sedentary individuals is warranted. PMID:19171314

  2. Altered salience network connectivity predicts macronutrient intake after sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Senhua; Hu, Siyuan; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A.; Dinges, David F.; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Although insufficient sleep is a well-recognized risk factor for overeating and weight gain, the neural mechanisms underlying increased caloric (particularly fat) intake after sleep deprivation remain unclear. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined brain connectivity changes associated with macronutrient intake after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Compared to the day following baseline sleep, healthy adults consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat and a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates during the day following TSD. Subjects also exhibited increased brain connectivity in the salience network from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) to bilateral putamen and bilateral anterior insula (aINS) after TSD. Moreover, dACC-putamen and dACC-aINS connectivity correlated with increased fat and decreased carbohydrate intake during the day following TSD, but not during the day following baseline sleep. These findings provide a potential neural mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased fat intake. PMID:25645575

  3. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  4. Increased Protein Intake in Military Special Operations123

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Arny A.

    2013-01-01

    Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20–25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ∼ 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent. PMID:24027188

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Menu Labeling on Food Choices and Intake

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Peter D.; Agnew, Henry; Baik, Jenny; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of restaurant menu calorie labels on food choices and intake. Methods. Participants in a study dinner (n = 303) were randomly assigned to either (1) a menu without calorie labels (no calorie labels), (2) a menu with calorie labels (calorie labels), or (3) a menu with calorie labels and a label stating the recommended daily caloric intake for an average adult (calorie labels plus information). Food choices and intake during and after the study dinner were measured. Results. Participants in both calorie label conditions ordered fewer calories than those in the no calorie labels condition. When calorie label conditions were combined, that group consumed 14% fewer calories than the no calorie labels group. Individuals in the calorie labels condition consumed more calories after the study dinner than those in both other conditions. When calories consumed during and after the study dinner were combined, participants in the calorie labels plus information group consumed an average of 250 fewer calories than those in the other groups. Conclusions. Calorie labels on restaurant menus impacted food choices and intake; adding a recommended daily caloric requirement label increased this effect, suggesting menu label legislation should require such a label. Future research should evaluate menu labeling's impact on children's food choices and consumption. PMID:20019307

  6. How Does Energy Intake Influence the Levels of Certain Steroids?

    PubMed

    Rácz, Beáta; Dušková, Michaela; Jandíková, Hana; Hill, Martin; Vondra, Karel; Stárka, Luboslav

    2015-01-01

    The influence of steroid hormones on food intake is well described. However, there are only a few studies on the effect of food intake on steroid levels. The study involved eight non-smoker women (average age 29.48±2.99 years; average BMI 21.3±1.3 kg/m2); they did not use any kind of medication affecting steroidogenesis. We analysed the influence of four various stimuli on the levels of steroid hormones and melatonin. During their follicular phase of menstrual cycle, each woman had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a standard breakfast and psyllium (a non-caloric fibre). Cortisol declined during each test, which is a physiological decline in the morning hours. In all tests (except of the application of the non-caloric fibre, psyllium), however, this decline was modified. After the standard breakfast there was an increase in cortisol at 40th minute. The OGTT and IVGTT tests led to a plateau in cortisol levels. Testosterone levels and those of other steroid hormones showed no relationships to tested stimulations. Oral and intravenous glucose have influenced physiological decline of melatonin levels. During the IVGTT test, melatonin levels started to increase at 20th minute, reaching a maximum at 40th minute. The OGTT test led to a delayed increase in melatonin levels, compared to IVGTT. Despite the fact that we performed the tests in the morning hours, when steroid hormone levels physiologically start to change due to their diurnal rhythm, we still found that food intake influences some of the hormone levels. PMID:26654802

  7. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  8. Conjugate heat transfer analysis using the Calore and Fuego codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Nicholas Donald, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Full coupling of the Calore and Fuego codes has been exercised in this report. This is done to allow solution of general conjugate heat transfer applications that require more than a fluid flow analysis with a very simple conduction region (solved using Fuego alone) or more than a complex conduction/radiation analysis using a simple Newton's law of cooling boundary condition (solved using Calore alone). Code coupling allows for solution of both complex fluid and solid regions, with or without thermal radiation, either participating or non-participating. A coupled physics model is developed to compare to data taken from a horizontal concentric cylinder arrangement using the Penlight heating apparatus located at the thermal test complex (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. The experimental set-up requires use of a conjugate heat transfer analysis including conduction, nonparticipating thermal radiation, and internal natural convection. The fluids domain in the model is complex and can be characterized by stagnant fluid regions, laminar circulation, a transition regime, and low-level turbulent regions, all in the same domain. Subsequently, the fluids region requires a refined mesh near the wall so that numerical resolution is achieved. Near the wall, buoyancy exhibits its strongest influence on turbulence (i.e., where turbulence conditions exist). Because low-Reynolds number effects are important in anisotropic natural convective flows of this type, the {ovr {nu}{sup 2}}-f turbulence model in Fuego is selected and compared to results of laminar flow only. Coupled code predictions are compared to temperature measurements made both in the solid regions and a fluid region. Turbulent and laminar flow predictions are nearly identical for both regions. Predicted temperatures in the solid regions compare well to data. The largest discrepancies occur at the bottom of the annulus. Predicted temperatures in the fluid region, for the most part, compare well to data. As before

  9. Dopamine D1 and opioid receptor antagonist-induced reductions of fructose and saccharin intake in BALB/c and SWR inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Natanova, Elona; Lolier, Melanie; Yakubov, Yakov; La Magna, Sam; Warshaw, Deena; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Sugar and fat intake in rodents are mediated in part by brain dopamine (DA) and opioid neurotransmitter systems although important strain differences exist. Thus, whereas sucrose intake of BALB/c and SWR mice was reduced by DA D1 (SCH23390: SCH) receptor antagonism, opioid (naltrexone: NTX) receptor antagonism reduced intake only in BALB/c mice. Both SCH and NTX reduced fat (Intralipid) intake in SWR, but not BALB/c mice. The present study extended this pharmacological analysis to caloric and non-caloric sweeteners by examining whether fructose (8%) or saccharin (0.2%) intakes were differentially suppressed in BALB/c and SWR mice by SCH (50-1600nmol/kg) or NTX (0.01-5mg/kg) over a 5- to 120-min time course. SCH significantly reduced fructose (200-1600nmol/kg) and saccharin (50-1600nmol/kg) intakes in both strains as did NTX (0.1-5mg/kg). Antagonist ID40 potencies were <50nmol/kg for SCH and 0.9mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting saccharin intake, and 1234nmol/kg for SCH and 5mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting fructose intake in BALB/c mice. For SWR mice, the ID40 potencies were <50nmol/kg for SCH and 0.02mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting saccharin intake, and 298nmol/kg for SCH and 2.6mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting fructose intake. Thus, saccharin intake was similarly reduced by SCH and NTX in BALB/c and SWR mice, but greater potencies of opioid (1.9-fold) and DA D1 (4-fold) receptor antagonism of fructose intake were observed in SWR relative to BALB/c mice, indicating strong strain differences. PMID:25625602

  10. Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-11-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. PMID:23102182

  11. Caloric restriction decreases orthostatic tolerance independently from 6° head-down bedrest.

    PubMed

    Florian, John P; Baisch, Friedhelm J; Heer, Martina; Pawelczyk, James A

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction) during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight) on autonomic neural control during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Nine healthy young men completed a randomized crossover bedrest study, consisting of four (2 weeks each) interventions (normocaloric bedrest, normocaloric ambulatory, hypocaloric bedrest, hypocaloric ambulatory), each separated by 5 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded at baseline following normocaloric and hypocaloric interventions. Heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure were recorded before, during, and after 3 consecutive stages (7 min each) of LBNP (-15, -30, -45 mmHg). Caloric and posture effects during LBNP were compared using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There was a strong trend toward reduced basal MSNA following caloric restriction alone (normcaloric vs. hypocaloric: 22±3 vs. 14±4 burst/min, p = 0.06). Compared to the normocaloric ambulatory, both bedrest and caloric restriction were associated with lower systolic blood pressure during LBNP (p<0.01); however, HR responses were directionally opposite (i.e., increase with bedrest, decrease with caloric restriction). Survival analysis revealed a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance following caloric restriction (normocaloric finishers: 12/16; hypocaloric finishers: 6/16; χ2, p = 0.03). Caloric restriction modifies autonomic responses to LBNP, which may decrease orthostatic tolerance after spaceflight. PMID:25915488

  12. Caloric Restriction Decreases Orthostatic Tolerance Independently from 6° Head-Down Bedrest

    PubMed Central

    Florian, John P.; Baisch, Friedhelm J.; Heer, Martina; Pawelczyk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction) during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight) on autonomic neural control during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Nine healthy young men completed a randomized crossover bedrest study, consisting of four (2 weeks each) interventions (normocaloric bedrest, normocaloric ambulatory, hypocaloric bedrest, hypocaloric ambulatory), each separated by 5 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded at baseline following normocaloric and hypocaloric interventions. Heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure were recorded before, during, and after 3 consecutive stages (7 min each) of LBNP (-15, -30, -45 mmHg). Caloric and posture effects during LBNP were compared using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There was a strong trend toward reduced basal MSNA following caloric restriction alone (normcaloric vs. hypocaloric: 22±3 vs. 14±4 burst/min, p = 0.06). Compared to the normocaloric ambulatory, both bedrest and caloric restriction were associated with lower systolic blood pressure during LBNP (p<0.01); however, HR responses were directionally opposite (i.e., increase with bedrest, decrease with caloric restriction). Survival analysis revealed a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance following caloric restriction (normocaloric finishers: 12/16; hypocaloric finishers: 6/16; χ2, p = 0.03). Caloric restriction modifies autonomic responses to LBNP, which may decrease orthostatic tolerance after spaceflight. PMID:25915488

  13. Progress in constraining the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alan B.; Yennello, Sherry J.

    2016-05-01

    The nuclear equation of state is a basic emergent property of nuclear material. Despite its importance in nuclear physics and astrophysics, aspects of it are still poorly constrained. Our research focuses on answering the question: How does the nuclear caloric curve depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry? We briefly describe our initial observation that increasing neutron-richness leads to lower temperatures. We then discuss the status of our recently executed experiment to independently measure the asymmetry dependence of the caloric curve.

  14. Postoral glucose sensing, not caloric content, determines sugar reward in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that because of their energy value, sugars are more rewarding than non-caloric sweeteners. However, intragastric infusion data indicate that sugars differ in their postoral appetite-stimulating effects. We therefore compared the preference for isocaloric 8% sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions with that of a non-caloric sweetener solution (0.8% sucralose) in C57BL/6J mice. Brief 2-bottle tests indicated that sucralose was isopreferred to sucrose but more preferred than glucose or fructose. Yet, in long-term tests, the mice preferred sucrose and glucose, but not fructose to sucralose. Additional experiments were conducted with a non-caloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin mixture (S + S), which does not have the postoral inhibitory effects of 0.8% sucralose. The S + S was preferred to fructose in brief and long-term choice tests. S + S was also preferred to glucose and sucrose in brief tests, but the sugars were preferred in long-term tests. In progressive ratio tests, non-deprived and food-deprived mice licked more for glucose but not fructose than for S + S. These findings demonstrate that the nutrient-specific postoral actions, not calories per se, determine the avidity for sugar versus non-caloric sweeteners. Furthermore, sweet taste intensity and potential postoral inhibitory actions must be considered in comparing non-caloric and caloric sweeteners. PMID:25715333

  15. Postoral Glucose Sensing, Not Caloric Content, Determines Sugar Reward in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that because of their energy value, sugars are more rewarding than non-caloric sweeteners. However, intragastric infusion data indicate that sugars differ in their postoral appetite-stimulating effects. We therefore compared the preference for isocaloric 8% sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions with that of a non-caloric sweetener solution (0.8% sucralose) in C57BL/6J mice. Brief 2-bottle tests indicated that sucralose was isopreferred to sucrose but more preferred than glucose or fructose. Yet, in long-term tests, the mice preferred sucrose and glucose, but not fructose to sucralose. Additional experiments were conducted with a non-caloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin mixture (S + S), which does not have the postoral inhibitory effects of 0.8% sucralose. The S + S was preferred to fructose in brief and long-term choice tests. S + S was also preferred to glucose and sucrose in brief tests, but the sugars were preferred in long-term tests. In progressive ratio tests, non-deprived and food-deprived mice licked more for glucose but not fructose than for S + S. These findings demonstrate that the nutrient-specific postoral actions, not calories per se, determine the avidity for sugar versus non-caloric sweeteners. Furthermore, sweet taste intensity and potential postoral inhibitory actions must be considered in comparing non-caloric and caloric sweeteners. PMID:25715333

  16. Vitamin D supplementation during short-term caloric restriction in healthy overweight/obese older women: Effect on glycemic indices and serum osteocalcin levels.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, D; Shapses, S A; Schneider, S H

    2015-07-15

    The effect of vitamin D supplementation and caloric restriction (CR) on glycemic indices and osteocalcin (OC) is not clear. In this randomized controlled double blind trial, we examined whether vitamin D3 supplementation at 2500 IU/d (D) or placebo has differential effects on markers of insulin sensitivity and bone turnover in overweight/obese postmenopausal women during 6 weeks of caloric restriction (weight loss; WL, n = 39) compared to weight maintenance (WM, n = 37). Seventy-six women (57 ± 6 years) completed this study and the WL groups lost 4 ± 1% of body weight. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was 24.8 ± 5.6 ng/mL at baseline; the rise was greatest in WL-D group (p < 0.05). There was an interaction between vitamin D intake and weight on serum OC, insulin, glucose and markers of insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). The change in OC was explained by changes in serum 25OHD and insulin (model R(2) = 25.6%). Overall, vitamin D supplementation and CR influence serum osteocalcin levels and modestly favor improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:25576857

  17. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Mourier, A; Bigard, A X; de Kerviler, E; Roger, B; Legrand, H; Guezennec, C Y

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-five competitive wrestlers restricted their caloric intake (28 kcal.kg-1.day-1) for 19 days, using a hypocaloric control (hC, n = 6), hypocaloric high-protein (hHP, n = 7), hypocaloric high-branched-chain amino acid (hBCAA, n = 6), hypocaloric low-protein (hLP, n = 6) diet to determine the effects of caloric restriction on body composition and performances versus control diet (C, n = 6). Anthropometric parameters (weight, percent body fat) and adipose tissue (AT) distribution measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained before and after diet, were compared. A significant highest body weight loss (-4 kg, p < 0.05) and decrease in the percent of body fat (-17.3%, p < 0.05) were observed for subjects of the hBCAA group. Subjects of the hBCAA group exhibited a significant reduction (-34.4%, p < 0.05) in abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT). There was no change in aerobic (VO2max) (p > 0.75) and anaerobic capacities (Wingate test) (p > 0.81), and in muscular strength (p > 0.82). We conclude that under our experimental conditions, the combination of moderate energy restriction and BCAA supplementation induced significant and preferential losses of VAT, and allowed maintainance of a high level of performance. PMID:9059905

  18. Reduced energy intake: the secret to a long and healthy life?

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Golden, Erin; Egan, Josephine M; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2007-09-01

    Reduced energy intake, or caloric restriction (CR), is known to extend life-span and to retard age-related health decline in a myriad of species, including nematode worms, flies, fish, mice and rats. The exact mechanism whereby CR exerts its life-extending and health-extending effects is unclear. CR however has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce oxidative stress and alter neuroendocrine responses and central nervous system (CNS) function in animals. In this review article we provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of CR on animal physiology and we discuss some of the potential molecular mechanisms and pathways whereby reduced energy intake can increase health-span and life-span. A better understanding of how energy intake can influence the aging process could lead to new strategies and therapeutics to reduce age-related decline and increase health-span. PMID:18985162

  19. Caloric restriction augments radiation efficacy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Anthony D.; Simone, Brittany A.; Palazzo, Juan; Savage, Jason E.; Sano, Yuri; Dan, Tu; Jin, Lianjin; Champ, Colin E.; Zhao, Shuping; Lim, Meng; Sotgia, Frederica; Camphausen, Kevin; Pestell, Richard G.; Mitchell, James B.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary modification such as caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to decrease tumor initiation and progression. We sought to determine if nutrient restriction could be used as a novel therapeutic intervention to enhance cytotoxic therapies such as radiation (IR) and alter the molecular profile of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which displays a poor prognosis. In two murine models of TNBC, significant tumor regression is noted with IR or diet modification, and a greater regression is observed combining diet modification with IR. Two methods of diet modification were compared, and it was found that a daily 30% reduction in total calories provided more significant tumor regression than alternate day feeding. At the molecular level, tumors treated with CR and IR showed less proliferation and more apoptosis. cDNA array analysis demonstrated the IGF-1R pathway plays a key role in achieving this physiologic response, and multiple members of the IGF-1R pathway including IGF-1R, IRS, PIK3ca and mTOR were found to be downregulated. The innovative use of CR as a novel therapeutic option has the potential to change the biology of tumors and enhance the opportunity for clinical benefit in the treatment of patients with TNBC. PMID:23708519

  20. Caloric restriction enhances fear extinction learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Megan C; McKenna, Morgan C; Yoon, Yone J; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Santos, Patricia Mae G; Casey, B J; Glatt, Charles E

    2013-05-01

    Fear extinction learning, the ability to reassess a learned cue of danger as safe when it no longer predicts aversive events, is often dysregulated in anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) enhance neural plasticity and their ability to enhance fear extinction learning may explain their anxiolytic properties. Caloric restriction (CR) has SSRI-like effects on neural plasticity and anxiety-related behavior. We implemented CR in mice to determine its effects on conditioned-fear responses. Wild type and serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice underwent CR for 7 days leading to significant weight loss. Mice were then tested for cued fear learning and anxiety-related behavior. CR markedly enhanced fear extinction learning and its retention in adolescent female mice, and adults of both sexes. These effects of CR were absent in SERT knockout mice. Moreover, CR phenocopied behavioral and molecular effects of chronic fluoxetine, but there was no additive effect of CR in fluoxetine-treated mice. These results demonstrate that CR enhances fear extinction learning through a SERT-dependent mechanism. These results may have implications for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN), in which there is a high prevalence of anxiety before the onset of dietary restriction and support proposals that in AN, CR is a motivated effort to control dysregulated fear responses and elevated anxiety. PMID:23303073

  1. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment. PMID:26455575

  2. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F.; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment. PMID:26455575

  3. Caloric Restriction Enhances Fear Extinction Learning in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Megan C; McKenna, Morgan C; Yoon, Yone J; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Santos, Patricia Mae G; Casey, B J; Glatt, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Fear extinction learning, the ability to reassess a learned cue of danger as safe when it no longer predicts aversive events, is often dysregulated in anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) enhance neural plasticity and their ability to enhance fear extinction learning may explain their anxiolytic properties. Caloric restriction (CR) has SSRI-like effects on neural plasticity and anxiety-related behavior. We implemented CR in mice to determine its effects on conditioned-fear responses. Wild type and serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice underwent CR for 7 days leading to significant weight loss. Mice were then tested for cued fear learning and anxiety-related behavior. CR markedly enhanced fear extinction learning and its retention in adolescent female mice, and adults of both sexes. These effects of CR were absent in SERT knockout mice. Moreover, CR phenocopied behavioral and molecular effects of chronic fluoxetine, but there was no additive effect of CR in fluoxetine-treated mice. These results demonstrate that CR enhances fear extinction learning through a SERT-dependent mechanism. These results may have implications for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN), in which there is a high prevalence of anxiety before the onset of dietary restriction and support proposals that in AN, CR is a motivated effort to control dysregulated fear responses and elevated anxiety. PMID:23303073

  4. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F.; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment.

  5. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  6. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  7. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  8. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  9. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... shall provide the inmate an adequate supply of drinking water. Other beverages shall also be offered....

  10. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  11. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  12. Health effects of fructose and fructose-containing caloric sweeteners: where do we stand 10 years after the initial whistle blowings?

    PubMed

    Tappy, Luc; Lê, Kim-Anne

    2015-08-01

    Suspicion that fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS) may play a causal role in the development of metabolic diseases has elicited intense basic and clinical research over the past 10 years. Prospective cohort studies converge to indicate that FCCS, and more specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), consumption is associated with weight gain over time. Intervention studies in which FCCS or SSB consumption is altered while food intake is otherwise left ad libitum indicate that increased FCCS generally increases total energy intake and body weight, while FCCS reduction decreases body weight gain. Clinical trials assessing the effects of SSB reduction as a sole intervention however fail to observe clinically significant weight loss. Many mechanistic studies indicate that excess FCCS can cause potential adverse metabolic effects. Whether this is associated with a long-term risk remains unknown. Scientific evidence that excess FCCS intake causes more deleterious effects to health than excess of other macronutrients is presently lacking. However, the large consumption of FCCS in the population makes it one out of several targets for the treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases. PMID:26104800

  13. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  14. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  15. The effect of caloric restriction and glycemic load on measures of oxidative stress and antioxidants in humans: results from the calerie trial of human caloric restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant defense is suggested as one mechanism by which caloric restriction (CR) increases longevity in animals. A total of 46 moderately overweight volunteers (BMI: 25-30 kg/m2), ages 20-42 yr were randomized to either high glycemic (HG) or low glycemic ...

  16. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-hour profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet, and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Methods Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24-hours during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Results Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep (p<0.01). Overall, sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 Kcal (p=0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (p=0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r=0.48, p=0.04). Conclusions Sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with more consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. PMID:26467988

  17. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  18. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  20. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  1. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  2. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  3. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  4. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  5. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

  6. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  7. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Isserlin, Ruth; Arab, Sara; Momen, Abdul; Cheng, Henry S.; Wu, Jun; Afroze, Talat; Li, Ren-Ke; Fish, Jason E.; Bader, Gary D.; Husain, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR). Background Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia. Methods Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL) diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d), prior to myocardial infarction (MI) via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV) of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR) analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI. Results This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01). mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group) identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX) IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38). CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function. PMID:26098549

  8. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  9. New Strategy to Reduce Hypertriglyceridemia During Parenteral Nutrition While Maintaining Energy Intake.

    PubMed

    Mateu-de Antonio, Javier; Florit-Sureda, Marta

    2014-09-11

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a frequent metabolic complication associated with fat administration in parenteral nutrition (PN). No clear guidelines have been published on how to proceed once hypertriglyceridemia has been detected. A new strategy could be to substitute the initial fat emulsion with another emulsion with faster clearance. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness in reducing triglyceridemia values, maintaining the caloric intake, and improving nutrition parameters in patients who had moderate hypertriglyceridemia during PN when an olive oil-based fat emulsion (OOFE) was substituted with a multiple-source oil fat emulsion (MOFE). We also assessed the safety of this substitution in hepatic and glycemic profiles. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective, observational study that included 38 adult patients to whom OOFE in PN was substituted with MOFE when moderate hypertriglyceridemia (≥250-400 mg/dL) was detected. Results: Triglyceridemia values decreased in 36 (94.7%) patients. The mean reduction was 71 (88-22) mg/dL. Fat load was slightly reduced after substitution (-0.14 [-0.23 to 0] g/kg/d; P < .001), but total caloric intake increased from 22.5 (19.7-25.1) to 23.1 (19.8-26.8) kcal/kg/d (P = .053). After substitution, nutrition parameters improved, liver parameters remained unchanged, and insulin requirements increased. Conclusion: The substitution of OOFE with MOFE in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia during PN resulted in a reduction in triglyceridemia values of about 70 mg/dL. That allowed maintaining the caloric intake and improved nutrition parameters without affecting the hepatic profile. For some patients, insulin requirements increased moderately. (JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx). PMID:25214551

  10. Evidence for a Circadian Effect on the Reduction of Human Growth Hormone Gene Expression in Response to Excess Caloric Intake.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Cattini, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Rhythmicity of biological functions is fundamental for optimal adaptations to environmental cues. Growth hormone (GH) is a major metabolic homeostatic factor that is secreted with a circadian pattern, but whether it is synthesized rhythmically is unknown. We used transgenic mice containing the human (h) GH gene (hGH1) locus to investigate the rhythmicity of hGH synthesis and secretion and to show that RNA and secreted protein levels oscillate over a 24-h cycle. Analysis of hGH1 promoter sequences revealed an enhancer motif (E-box) element that binds the circadian transcriptional machinery (Bmal1 and Clock). Furthermore, Bmal1/Clock were able to transactivate the hGH1 promoter, and mutation of this E-box element adversely affected basal activity after gene transfer. The ability of Bmal1 to bind the hGH1 promoter region containing the E-box element was confirmed in the hGH1 transgenic mouse pituitary in situ Occupancy was reduced in mice fed a high fat diet during the light (inactive) stage of the daily cycle in mice and corresponded to a decrease in hGH1 RNA levels. The decreases in occupancy and RNA levels were not seen, however, during the dark (active) stage. A chromatin loop required for efficient postnatal hGH1 expression was negatively affected by the high fat diet in the light but not dark stage similar to the pattern observed with Bmal1 association with the promoter region. This is the first evidence that hGH synthesis follows a diurnal rhythm and of dynamic associations of the circadian machinery with a component of a chromosomal structure of the hGH1 locus that is essential for efficient expression. PMID:27151213

  11. Intense sweeteners, food intake, and the weight of a body of evidence.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    1994-01-01

    A review of published data shows that although intense sweeteners have been shown to increase hunger ratings in some studies in humans, this has not been a consistent and reproducible observation. Any slight effect on perceived hunger has not been translated into an increase in food ingestion or effects on blood concentrations of insulin or glucose. Studies on the covert substitution of caloric sweeteners by intense sweeteners have shown either a decrease or no change in body weight. The published database does not support the concept that the consumption of intense sweeteners results in a paradoxical increase in calorie intake and body weight. PMID:8140158

  12. Caloric restriction stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons through neuropeptide Y and ghrelin receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Marques, Marisa; Aveleira, Célia A; Carmo-Silva, Sara; Botelho, Mariana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-07-01

    Caloric restriction is an anti-aging intervention known to extend lifespan in several experimental models, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy. Caloric restriction increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin, a peripheral gut hormone that acts in hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis. NPY and ghrelin have been shown to be neuroprotective in different brain areas and to induce several physiological modifications similar to those induced by caloric restriction. However, the effect of NPY and ghrelin in autophagy in cortical neurons is currently not known. Using a cell culture of rat cortical neurons we investigate the involvement of NPY and ghrelin in caloric restriction-induced autophagy. We observed that a caloric restriction mimetic cell culture medium stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons and NPY or ghrelin receptor antagonists blocked this effect. On the other hand, exogenous NPY or ghrelin stimulate autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NPY mediates the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Since autophagy impairment occurs in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, NPY and ghrelin synergistic effect on autophagy stimulation may suggest a new strategy to delay aging process. PMID:27441412

  13. Caloric restriction stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons through neuropeptide Y and ghrelin receptors activation

    PubMed Central

    Carmo-Silva, Sara; Botelho, Mariana; de Almeida, Luís Pereira; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is an anti-aging intervention known to extend lifespan in several experimental models, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy. Caloric restriction increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin, a peripheral gut hormone that acts in hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis. NPY and ghrelin have been shown to be neuroprotective in different brain areas and to induce several physiological modifications similar to those induced by caloric restriction. However, the effect of NPY and ghrelin in autophagy in cortical neurons is currently not known. Using a cell culture of rat cortical neurons we investigate the involvement of NPY and ghrelin in caloric restriction-induced autophagy. We observed that a caloric restriction mimetic cell culture medium stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons and NPY or ghrelin receptor antagonists blocked this effect. On the other hand, exogenous NPY or ghrelin stimulate autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NPY mediates the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Since autophagy impairment occurs in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, NPY and ghrelin synergistic effect on autophagy stimulation may suggest a new strategy to delay aging process. PMID:27441412

  14. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  15. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  16. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  17. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Inflammatory Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Mark A.; Dawson, Dolphus R.; Novak, Karen F.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Gunsolley, John C.; Branch-Mays, Grishondra L.; Holt, Stanley C.; Mattison, Julie A.; Ingram, Donald K.; Novak, M. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dietary caloric restriction (CR) has been found to reduce systemic markers of inflammation and may attenuate the effects of chronic inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term CR on naturally occurring chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in a nonhuman primate model. Methods The effects of long-term CR on extent and severity of naturally occurring chronic periodontal disease, local inflammatory and immune responses, and periodontal microbiology, were evaluated in a cohort of 81 (35 female and 46 male; 13–40 years of age) rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) with no previous exposure to routine oral hygiene. The CR monkeys had been subjected to 30% CR for 13–17 years relative to control-fed (CON) animals starting at 3–5 years of age. Clinical and laboratory parameters were submitted to analysis of covariance, including Tukey's test for post hoc comparisons, linear regression analysis, and nonparametric correlation analysis. Results Same sex CR and CON monkeys exhibited comparable mean scores for plaque index, calculus index, and bleeding on probing. Among CON animals, males showed significantly greater periodontal breakdown, as reflected by higher mean clinical attachment level (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PD) scores, than females (p ≤ 0.05). CR males had significantly less periodontal pocketing compared to CON males (p ≤ 0.05). CR males demonstrated a significantly lower IgG antibody response and lower levels of IL-8 and β-glucuronidase in gingival crevicular fluid compared to control males. A similar but nonsignificant reduction was found for IL-1β in CR male monkeys. In contrast, CR females exhibited mean PD and CAL scores comparable to CON females. CR females had a lower IgG antibody response but comparable levels of inflammatory markers in GCF compared to CON females. The CR diet had no demonstrable effects on the periodontal microbiota in male or female monkeys. Conclusion Males exhibited

  18. Food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of Indian obese males.

    PubMed

    Gera, T; Khetarpaul, N

    2000-01-01

    Mean daily intake of all foods except cereals i.e. pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, sugar and fats of Indian obese male respondents was higher than the values recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1987). The consumption of fat and sugar was 18 and 8 percent more than the recommended intake values respectively. However, their non-obese counterparts consumed significantly (P < 0.05) lower amounts of all the foods except cereals and pulses. The intake of various nutrients i.e. energy, protein, fats, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vit B12, folacin, ascorbic acid and calcium by obese respondents was considerably higher than the recommended values (ICMR, 1990) and the control group. All the obese respondents were consuming adequate (100% and above) amounts of energy, protein and fats. Intake of carbohydrates was marginally adequate (75-99.9%) among 92 percent of the obese respondents whereas 8 percent were consuming adequate amount of carbohydrates. They had higher consumption of visible as well as invisible fat than the control group. PMID:11142609

  19. Caloric restriction and exercise “mimetics”: ready for prime time?

    PubMed Central

    Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and diet are powerful interventions to prevent and ameliorate various pathologies. The development of pharmacological agents that confer exercise- or caloric restriction-like phenotypic effects is thus an appealing therapeutic strategy in diseases or even when used as life-style and longevity drugs. Such so-called exercise or caloric restriction “mimetics” have so far mostly been described in pre-clinical, experimental settings with limited translation into humans. Interestingly, many of these compounds activate related signaling pathways, most often postulated to act on the common downstream effector peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle. In this review, resveratrol and other exercise- and caloric restriction “mimetics” are discussed with a special focus on feasibility, chances and limitations of using such compounds in patients as well as in healthy individuals. PMID:26658171

  20. Effect of gravity on the caloric stimulation of the inner ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Deserranno, Dimitri; Oas, John G.

    2004-01-01

    Robert Barany won the 1914 Nobel Prize in medicine for his convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab 1 mission produced nystagmus results that contradicted the basic premise of Barany's convection theory. In this paper, we present a fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, natural convection is the dominant mechanism for endolymphatic flow. However, in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, an expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing endolymph motion and cupular displacement. Transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the different dynamic behaviors of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The associated fluid-structural interactions are also analyzed based on the time evolution of cupular displacements.

  1. Daily boron intake from the American diet.

    PubMed

    Rainey, C J; Nyquist, L A; Christensen, R E; Strong, P L; Culver, B D; Coughlin, J R

    1999-03-01

    Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited foods and population segments. In this study we provide a more comprehensive assessment of boron consumption by the US population. A boron nutrient database of 1,944 individual foods was developed. These foods represent 95.3% by weight of all foods consumed in the US Department of Agriculture 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 CSFII). The Boron Nutrient Database (version 1.0) was then linked to the 3-day food records of 11,009 respondents to the 1989-1991 CSFII to generate the average daily boron intake for each person. The weighted 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile boron intakes, respectively, are 0.43, 1.02, 1.17 and 2.42 mg/day for men; 0.33, 0.83, 0.96 and 1.94 mg/day for women; and 0.40, 0.86, 1.01 and 2.18 mg/day for pregnant women. For vegetarian adults, these intakes are 0.46, 1.30, 1.47 and 2.74 mg/day for men and 0.33, 1.00, 1.29 and 4.18 mg/day for women. The top 2 boron contributors, coffee and milk, are low in boron, yet they make up 12% of the total boron intake by virtue of the volume consumed. Among the top 50 boron contributors, peanut butter, wine, raisins, peanuts, and other nuts are high in boron. As more data become available on daily boron requirements, the results of this study may be used to assess whether Americans' daily intake of boron is adequate. PMID:10076586

  2. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  3. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    PubMed

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  4. Fuel NOx production during the combustion of low caloric value fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Colaluca, M.A.; Caraway, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value gases (LCVG) and the formation of NOx pollutants produced form fuel bound nitrogen. Average physical properties of a low caloric value gas were determined from the products of several industrial coal gasifiers. A computer model was developed, utilizing the PHOENICS computational fluid dynamics software to model the combustion of LCVG. The model incorporates a 3-dimensional physical design and is based on typical industrial combustors. Feed stock to the gasifier can be wood, feed stock manure, cotton gin trash, coal, lignite and numerous forms of organic industrial wastes.

  5. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S.; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  6. Changes of endolymphatic pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeon by caloric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1994-08-01

    It gets into difficult to explain the mechanism of caloric nystagmus only by convection theory from results of microgravity experiments. One of the other theories is an occurrence of a relative volume change due to a temperature change. Since the volume change must lead to a pressure change after caloric stimulation, we tried to measure the ampulla pressure of the horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons (Columba livia) using an improved servo micropipette system. The main result was that the ampulla pressure increased by cooling and decreased by heating. The changes of the ampulla pressure depended on the temperature change but were not influenced by the pigeon's head position.

  7. New prospects for characterizing the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alan; Yennello, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    My recent measurements have demonstrated a dependence of the caloric curve on the neutron-proton asymmetry. If confirmed, this represents a new feature of the nuclear equation of state. These results were made possible by the complete isotopic reconstruction of excited quasi-projectiles produced in heavy ion collisions. I will discuss the isotopic reconstruction and multiple probes of the the temperature, which are the strengths of this measurement. I have conducted a new independent experiment to further study the asymmetry dependence of the caloric curve through fusion reactions. The new experiment and the status of the analysis will be discussed.

  8. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  9. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  10. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  11. Activity, energy intake, obesity, and the risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women: a report from the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Chi, Thomas; Shara, Nawar M; Wang, Hong; Hsi, Ryan S; Orchard, Tonya; Kahn, Arnold J; Jackson, Rebecca D; Miller, Joe; Reiner, Alex P; Stoller, Marshall L

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the role of physical activity and caloric intake remains poorly understood. We evaluated this relationship in 84,225 women with no history of stones as part of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal, prospective cohort of postmenopausal women enrolled from 1993 to 1998 with 8 years' median follow-up. The independent association of physical activity (metabolic equivalents [METs]/wk), calibrated dietary energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) with incident kidney stone development was evaluated after adjustment for nephrolithiasis risk factors. Activity intensity was evaluated in stratified analyses. Compared with the risk in inactive women, the risk of incident stones decreased by 16% in women with the lowest physical activity level (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74 to 0.97). As activity increased, the risk of incident stones continued to decline until plateauing at a decrease of approximately 31% for activity levels ≥10 METs/wk (aHR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.79). Intensity of activity was not associated with stone formation. As dietary energy intake increased, the risk of incident stones increased by up to 42% (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.98). However, intake <1800 kcal/d did not protect against stone formation. Higher BMI category was associated with increased risk of incident stones. In summary, physical activity may reduce the risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women independent of caloric intake and BMI, primarily because of the amount of activity rather than exercise intensity. Higher caloric intake further increases the risk of incident stones. PMID:24335976

  12. The effects of dieting on food and nutrient intake of lactating women.

    PubMed

    Lovelady, Cheryl A; Stephenson, Kimberly G; Kuppler, Kerri M; Williams, John P

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate dietary changes in women who were participating in a study on the effects of weight loss in overweight lactating women on the growth of their infants. Women were randomly assigned at 4 weeks postpartum to either restrict energy intake by 500 kcal/day (diet and exercise group) or to maintain usual dietary intake (control group) for 10 weeks. The diet and exercise group significantly decreased fats, sweetened drinks, sweets and desserts, snack foods, and energy intake. Micronutrient intake decreased in the diet and exercise group; however, mean intakes were not significantly different from those of the control group except for calcium and vitamin D. Both groups consumed less than 76% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamins E and C at the end of the study. Mean intake of all other nutrients was adequate in both groups. These results suggest that overweight lactating women can restrict their energy intake by 500 kcal per day by decreasing consumption of foods high in fat and simple sugars. However, they must be advised to increase their intakes of foods high in calcium and vitamin D. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables should also be recommended to all lactating women, as well as multivitamin and calcium supplements to those who do not consume adequate amounts of these foods. PMID:16720131

  13. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  14. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  15. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  16. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  17. Energy Allowances for Solid Fats and Added Sugars in Nutritionally Adequate U.S. Diets Estimated at 17–33% by a Linear Programming Model1

    PubMed Central

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5–15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001–2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs. PMID:21178090

  18. Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1989-06-01

    A comparison was made of the effects on hunger and food intake of consuming preloads varying in sweetness and energy content. The preloads were a plain (unsweetened) yogurt, and the same yogurt sweetened to equal intensity with saccharin or glucose, or supplemented with starch. This balanced design made it possible to assess the consequences of adding sweetness to food as well as the consequences of substituting a nonnutritive sweetener for a caloric sweetener. Subjects (N = 24, repeated measures design) ate the preload at midday and returned one hour later for a sandwich lunch. Food intake in this meal was measured directly, and intake during the remaining part of the day was monitored using home recording in diaries. Hunger was assessed using subjective ratings of motivation to eat. Food intake at lunchtime was significantly greater following the saccharin compared with the plain preload, and parallel effects were revealed by the motivational ratings. Saccharin also stimulated further increases in intake after lunch. Food intake was lowest following the high-energy preloads, with the starch supplemented yogurt producing somewhat the largest suppression of intake. The results confirm and extend previous findings showing that intense sweeteners do not possess the same satiating capacity as glucose and sucrose. The stimulation of appetite by saccharin may be due to its sweet taste and also to effects on postingestive mechanisms. PMID:2813533

  19. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:27122369

  20. Long-time alcohol intake modifies resistin secretion and expression of resistin gene in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Pravdová, E; Macho, L; Hlavácová, N; Ficková, M

    2007-09-01

    Elevated serum resistin is implicated in insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alcohol consumption interferes with the nutritional status, metabolic and hormonal activity of the drinker. Impact of ethanol intake on resistin level and resistin metabolic effects is unknown. Effect of long-time (28 days) ad libitum moderate alcohol (6% ethanol solution) intake on serum resistin and resistin mRNA level in adipose tissue of rats (A) was compared to control (C) and pair-fed (PF) animals. PF rats were fed the same caloric amount as A rats on previous day. Alcohol consumption resulted in reduction of food and energy intake, decreased body mass gain, epididymal fat pads mass and smaller adipocytes (vs. C rats). Alcohol intake significantly increased serum resistin and glucose, insulinemia remained unchanged. Systemic insulin resistance was not proved by HOMA, QUICKI and McAuley indexes, but impaired insulin effect on glucose transport in isolated adipocytes was present. Elevated serum resistin was positively correlated with glycemia (r = 0.88, p < 0.01) and negatively with fat cell size (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). High resistin level as the consequence of long-time alcohol intake could contribute to smaller adipocytes, higher glycemia, attenuation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes. Diminished resistin gene expression in adipose tissue of A and PF rats was present. PMID:18063850

  1. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  2. Cardiac Frequency and Caloric Cost of Aerobic Dancing in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Deborah J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of cardiac frequency during aerobic dancing indicated that it can sustain an elevated cardiac frequency in most cases. The caloric cost of aerobic dancing is approximately 50 percent greater than an equal duration of barre and center-floor exercise by elite ballet dancers. (JD)

  3. The effects of a discretionary food allowance during a caloric restriction regimen with provided food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of self-selected discretionary foods in a structured energy restricted diet on adherence to a caloric restriction (CR) regimen, dietary satisfaction, and weight loss were studied in 32 healthy, overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) adults, aged 20-42y participating in the CALERIE trial. Subjects ...

  4. Body mass loss correlates with cognitive performance in primates under acute caloric restriction conditions.

    PubMed

    Villain, N; Picq, J-L; Aujard, F; Pifferi, F

    2016-05-15

    Brain functions are known to consume high levels of energy, thus, the integrity of cognitive performance can be drastically impacted by acute caloric restriction. In this study, we tested the impact of a 40% caloric restriction on the cognitive abilities of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Twenty-three male mouse lemurs were divided into two groups: 13 control animals (CTL) that were fed with 105kJ/day and 10calorie restricted (CR) animals that received 40% less food (63kJ/day) than the CTL animals. The animals were fed according to their group for 19days. Before treatment, we assessed baseline associative learning capacities, resting metabolic rates and locomotor performance of both animal groups. After treatment, we tested the same functions as well as long-term memory. Our results showed that CR animals had lower learning performance following caloric restriction. The effects of caloric restriction on memory recall varied and depended on the metabolism of the individual animal. Body mass loss was linked to memory test performance in the CR group, and lower performance was observed in individuals losing the most weight. While CR was observed to negatively impact learning, locomotor capacities were preserved in CR animals, and there were higher resting metabolic rates in the CR group. Our data reinforce the strong link between energy allocation and brain function, and suggest that in the context of food shortage, learning capacities could be a limiting parameter in the adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:26952885

  5. SIRT2 deacetylates FOXO3a in response to oxidative stress and caloric restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent (NAD) deacetylases plays an important role in aging and metabolic regulation. In yeast, the Sir2 gene and its homolog Hst2 independently mediate the action of caloric restriction on lifespan extension. The mammalian Sir2 ortholog, SIR...

  6. Vestibular reactions to long-term caloric stimulation of the rabbit labyrinth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorgiladze, G. I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term, periodically repeated caloric stimulation of the labyrinth receptors of the internal ear was studied on eight rabbits with immobilzed heads. Warm (20 C) water was used as a stimulus in a dose of 40 ml per min injected into the auditory meatus.

  7. Caloric Restriction Normalizes Obesity-Induced Alterations on Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Growth Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Cory M; Li, Ji; Williamson, David L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the impact of caloric restriction on high fat diet-induced alterations on regulators of skeletal muscle growth. We hypothesized that caloric restriction would reverse the negative effects of high fat diet-induced obesity on REDD1 and mTOR-related signaling. Following an initial 8 week period of HF diet-induced obesity, caloric restriction (CR ~30 %) was employed while mice continued to consume either a low (LF) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Western analysis of skeletal muscle showed that CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the lipogenic protein, SREBP1. Likewise, CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the hyperactivation of mTORC1 and ERK1/2 signaling to levels comparable to the LF mice. CR also reduced (p < 0.05) obesity-induced expression of negative regulators of growth, REDD1 and cleaved caspase 3. These findings have implications for on the reversibility of dysregulated growth signaling in obese skeletal muscle, using short-term caloric restriction. PMID:27289530

  8. Human Caloric Restriction for Retardation of Aging: Current Approcahes and Preliminary Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the percentage of the U.S. population over 65 y continues to increase, there is growing recognition that we need to identify effective ways to reduce age-associated morbidity and understand the potential for delaying biological aging to improve health in the later years. Caloric restriction (CR) ...

  9. The CALERIE Study: design and methods of an innovative 25% caloric restriction intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal studies have shown that life span is extended by caloric restriction (CR). This manuscript describes the design and methodology of an innovative CR intervention, which is the treatment arm of the CALERIE Study. This study is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial examining the effects o...

  10. Long–term effects of caloric restriction on total and resting energy expenditure in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans is uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of a 30% CR regimen on TEE and RMR. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of 30% CR in 29 healthy overweight adults (me...

  11. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 90 percent of adults do not obtain the Adequate Intake (AI) for dietary fiber (DF). Using only reliable recalls in NHANES 2003–2006, we modeled the following changes to assess impact on usual DF intakes in US adults 19+ yrs: 1) increase all fiber containing foods by 10, 25, 50, or 100 percent; ...

  12. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  13. Measuring Population Sodium Intake: A Review of Methods

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Rachael M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake. PMID:25353661

  14. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2015-09-01

    Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and therefore pivotal in determining fluid balance. At the beginning of life, a positive sodium balance is needed to grow. Newborns and preterm infants tend to lose sodium via their kidneys and therefore need adequate sodium intake. Among older children and adults, however, excessive salt intake leads to volume expansion and arterial hypertension. Children who are overweight, born preterm, or small for gestational age and African American children are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure due to a high salt intake because they are more likely to be salt sensitive. In the developed world, salt intake is generally above the recommended intake also among children. Although a positive sodium balance is needed for growth during the first year of life, in older children, a sodium-poor diet seems to have the same cardiovascular protective effects as among adults. This is relevant, since: (1) a blood pressure tracking phenomenon was recognized; (2) the development of taste preferences is important during childhood; and (3) salt intake is often associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (predisposing children to weight gain). PMID:25127918

  15. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT. PMID:27383354

  16. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits. PMID:26438184

  17. The effects of diet and caloric restriction on adipose tissue fatty acid signatures of tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) nestlings.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cory T; Iverson, Sara J; Buck, C Loren

    2009-08-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis is a powerful tool to investigate foraging ecology and food web dynamics in marine ecosystems. However, use of FA signatures to qualitatively or quantitatively infer diets is potentially complicated by effects of nutritional state on lipid metabolism. Estimation of diets using the quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) model requires the use of calibration coefficients to account for predator metabolism of individual FAs. We conducted a captive feeding experiment to determine the effects of a 50% reduction in food intake on growth rate and adipose tissue FA signatures of tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) nestlings, a species that routinely experiences food restriction during growth. FA signatures of chicks fed low- and high-calorie diets both exhibited a change in composition in response to the dietary shift with the direction of change in the composition of individual FAs matching the direction of change in the dietary FAs. Despite a growth rate in the restricted nestlings that was 38% of those in the well-fed group, rates of FA turnover were not different between high and low-calorie treatments, and turnover was close to, but not entirely complete, after 27 days on both high-calorie and restricted diets. FA signatures of tufted puffin nestlings were significantly affected by caloric restriction, but these effects were much less pronounced than those of dietary turnover, and calibration coefficients of puffins fed low and high-calorie diets were highly correlated. Our results demonstrate that changes in physiological state can affect FA metabolism, but future research is required to better understand whether the size of these effects is sufficient to substantially alter diet estimation using the QFASA model. PMID:19350253

  18. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (p<0.001), and men had higher intakes than women (p=0.017). According to Institute of Medicine's specification, we estimate that nearly 45% of Irish women need supplemental intake of 500 mg daily but <4% need supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  19. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  20. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  1. Nutrient intake of children with intractable epilepsy compared with healthy children.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella L; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2007-06-01

    Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.0 to 3.9 and 4.0 to 8.9 years, to correspond with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Forty-three children with intractable epilepsy, mean age=4.7+/-2.2 years, had significantly lower intakes (P<0.05) of total energy; protein; carbohydrate; fat; dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, B-6, and B-12; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; zinc; copper; and selenium compared with healthy children. Thirty percent or more of the children with intractable epilepsy in both age groups had intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins D, E, and K; folate; calcium; linoleic acid; and alpha-linolenic acid. Health care professionals caring for children with intractable epilepsy should be aware of this pattern of decreased nutrient intake and educate families to provide an adequate diet and/or consider vitamin/mineral supplementation. PMID:17524723

  2. Osteoporosis and bone metabolic parameters in dependence upon calcium intake through milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Stracke, H; Renner, E; Knie, G; Leidig, G; Minne, H; Federlin, K

    1993-09-01

    The bone mineral content of young adults as well as of osteoporotic patients and age-matched controls without bone disease was measured by single-photon absorptiometry. A retrospective nutrition survey was additionally made to study the relationship between bone mineral content and calcium intake in different periods of life. The bone mineral content and bone mineral density of young adults is directly related to the calcium intake through milk and dairy products. The osteoporotics had a significantly lower bone mineral content than the controls. Calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence had been significantly lower in the patients than in the controls, whereas in the later periods of life (20-30 years prior to the study and at the time of the study) there were no significant differences between the calcium intakes of the two groups. It was also found that an adequate intake of calcium protected against increased bone resorption, as evidenced in particular by the reduced levels of serum osteocalcin, a parameter of bone turnover. In conclusion it can be stated that the data support the hypothesis that adequate calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence is a decisive marker for obtaining a maximum bone mass (peak adult bone mass) and for the prevention of osteoporosis. Furthermore, it can be stated that increased calcium intake in the later years may not reduce the accelerated risk of osteoporosis resulting from inadequate calcium intake during childhood and adolescence. PMID:8243426

  3. Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The assessment of dietary zinc intakes is an important component of evaluating the risk of zinc deficiency in populations, and for designing appropriate food-based interventions, including fortification, to improve zinc intakes. The prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes can describe the relative magnitude of the risk of zinc deficiency in the population and identify subpopulations at elevated risk. As a cornerstone to evaluating the adequacy of population zinc intakes globally, a set of internationally appropriate dietary reference intakes must be defined. The World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (WHO/FAO/IAEA) and the Food and Nutrition Board/US Institute of Medicine (FNB/IOM) have presented estimated average requirements (EAR) for dietary zinc intake, and, more recently, the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) presented a revised set of recommendations for international use. A prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes greater than 25% is considered to represent an elevated risk of population zinc deficiency. As the requirement estimates are derived from smaller, clinical studies and, for children, most components of the estimates are extrapolated from data for adults, it was desirable to evaluate their internal validity. The estimated physiological requirements for adult men and women appear to adequately predict zinc status as determined by biochemical indicators of status and/or zinc balance. With the use of data from available studies, the reported prevalence of low serum zinc concentration and the estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes predict similar levels of risk of zinc deficiency, particularly among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conformity between these two indicators is less consistent for children, suggesting that further data and/or direct studies of zinc requirements among children are needed. PMID:17988006

  4. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  5. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Although the water group had a greater reduction in grain intake at month 3 and a greater increase in fruit and vegetable intake at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05), the DB group had a greater reduction in dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Conclusions: Participants in both intervention groups showed positive changes in energy intakes and dietary patterns. The DB group showed decreases in most caloric beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  6. Diet composition, not calorie intake, rapidly alters intrinsic excitability of hypothalamic AgRP/NPY neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Pham, Kevin; Gammons, Jesse W.; Sutherland, Daniel; Liu, Yanyun; Smith, Alana; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; O’Connell, Kristen M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition resulting from a long-term pattern of poor diet and lifestyle. Long-term consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) leads to persistent activation and leptin resistance in AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, for the first time, we demonstrate acute effects of HFD on AgRP neuronal excitability and highlight a critical role for diet composition. In parallel with our earlier finding in obese, long-term HFD mice, we found that even brief HFD feeding results in persistent activation of ARH AgRP neurons. However, unlike long-term HFD-fed mice, AgRP neurons from short-term HFD-fed mice were still leptin-sensitive, indicating that the development of leptin-insensitivity is not a prerequisite for the increased firing rate of AgRP neurons. To distinguish between diet composition, caloric intake, and body weight, we compared acute and long-term effects of HFD and CD in pair-fed mice on AgRP neuronal spiking. HFD consumption in pair-fed mice resulted in a significant increase in AgRP neuronal spiking despite controls for weight gain and caloric intake. Taken together, our results suggest that diet composition may be more important than either calorie intake or body weight for electrically remodeling arcuate AgRP/NPY neurons. PMID:26592769

  7. Calcium intake and its relationship with risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Peres, Luciana Natal Lopes; Berbel, Marina Nogueira; Heigasi, Máircia Braz; Ribeiro, Josy Maria Cabral; Suzuki, Karina; Josué, Liene Mílcia Aparecida; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Adolescents' eating habits are determined by social, psychological, economic, political, and educational influences. They tend to prefer foods with inadequate nutritional value and high fat and carbohydrate content which leads to excessive weight gain and for many, calcium intake is restricted. According to some authors, low calcium intake is linked to increased adiposity. The objective was to evaluate adolescent calcium intake and investigate a possible relationship between calcium intake and nutritional state. As part of their first consultation at Botucatu Adolescent Outpatient Clinic-UNESP, 107 adolescents were nutritionally classified by BMI, according to age, gender, and bands proposed by CDC and AAP. Diet was evaluated by a 3 day 24h food recall, adopting 1300 mg/day calcium intake as recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes. Median calcium intake for the whole sample was 546.6 mg/day, with 91.30% female and 86.84% male presenting lower than adequate daily recommended ingestion levels (DRI). There was significant difference between calcium densities (Ca mg/1000 kcal) in eutrophic and overweight/obesity in males. Male adolescents showed an inverse relationship between calcium intake and adiposity (r = -0.488 and p = 0.0173), which corroborates the hypothesis that low calcium intake is linked to fatty tissue gain. Only 8.70% of female and 13.16% of male adolescents reached their daily recommended calcium intake levels. It must therefore be stressed that nutritional education is an important protection factor for children and adolescents in later life. PMID:19480339

  8. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary.

    PubMed

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use. PMID:27626443

  9. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  10. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  11. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  12. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  13. Safe use of high intakes of folic acid: research challenges and paths forward.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Abee L; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Thayer, Kristina A; Coates, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Adequate folic acid intake is an effective dietary-based prevention tool for reducing the risk of neural tube defects. Achieving adequate intake for the prevention of neural tube defects frequently requires the consumption of foods fortified with folic acid and/or the use of folic acid-containing dietary supplements. To date, research on the potential for adverse effects of high intakes of folic acid has been limited. Without such research, it is difficult to define a value for high intake. In May 2015, an expert panel was tasked with examining the available scientific literature and making research recommendations within 4 general categories of potential folate-related adverse health effects: cancer, cognition in conjunction with vitamin B12 deficiency, hypersensitivity-related outcomes, and thyroid and diabetes-related disorders. This article summarizes the expert panel's conclusions, outlines the challenges faced when reviewing the literature, and examines some of the panel's recommendations for research. PMID:27272334

  14. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  15. Metabolic phenotype modulation by caloric restriction in a lifelong dog study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Selena E; Wang, Yulan; Claus, Sandrine P; Lawler, Dennis; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2013-07-01

    Modeling aging and age-related pathologies presents a substantial analytical challenge given the complexity of gene-environment influences and interactions operating on an individual. A top-down systems approach is used to model the effects of lifelong caloric restriction, which is known to extend life span in several animal models. The metabolic phenotypes of caloric-restricted (CR; n = 24) and pair-housed control-fed (CF; n = 24) Labrador Retriever dogs were investigated by use of orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to model both generic and age-specific responses to caloric restriction from the ¹H NMR blood serum profiles of young and older dogs. Three aging metabolic phenotypes were resolved: (i) an aging metabolic phenotype independent of diet, characterized by high levels of glutamine, creatinine, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and glycerophosphocholine and decreasing levels of glycine, aspartate, creatine and citrate indicative of metabolic changes associated largely with muscle mass; (ii) an aging metabolic phenotype specific to CR dogs that consisted of relatively lower levels of glucose, acetate, choline, and tyrosine and relatively higher serum levels of phosphocholine with increased age in the CR population; (iii) an aging metabolic phenotype specific to CF dogs including lower levels of liproprotein fatty acyl groups and allantoin and relatively higher levels of formate with increased age in the CF population. There was no diet metabotype that consistently differentiated the CF and CR dogs irrespective of age. Glucose consistently discriminated between feeding regimes in dogs (≥312 weeks), being relatively lower in the CR group. However, it was observed that creatine and amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) were lower in the CR dogs (<312 weeks), suggestive of differences in energy source utilization. ¹H NMR spectroscopic analysis of longitudinal serum

  16. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  17. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  18. Caloric restriction: powerful protection for the aging heart and vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Research has shown that the majority of the cardiometabolic alterations associated with an increased risk of CVD (e.g., insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and inflammation) can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthier diets and regular exercise. Data from animal and human studies indicate that more drastic interventions, i.e., calorie restriction with adequate nutrition (CR), may have additional beneficial effects on several metabolic and molecular factors that are modulating cardiovascular aging itself (e.g., cardiac and arterial stiffness and heart rate variability). The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge on the effects of CR on the aging of the cardiovascular system and CVD risk in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Taken together, research shows that CR has numerous beneficial effects on the aging cardiovascular system, some of which are likely related to reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress. In the vasculature, CR appears to protect against endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness and attenuates atherogenesis by improving several cardiometabolic risk factors. In the heart, CR attenuates age-related changes in the myocardium (i.e., CR protects against fibrosis, reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis, prevents myosin isoform shifts, etc.) and preserves or improves left ventricular diastolic function. These effects, in combination with other benefits of CR, such as protection against obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, suggest that CR may have a major beneficial effect on health span, life span, and quality of life in humans. PMID:21841020

  19. FGF21 Mediates Endocrine Control of Simple Sugar Intake and Sweet Taste Preference by the Liver.

    PubMed

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; BonDurant, Lucas D; Peltekian, Lila; Naber, Meghan C; Yin, Terry C; Claflin, Kristin E; Urizar, Adriana Ibarra; Madsen, Andreas N; Ratner, Cecilia; Holst, Birgitte; Karstoft, Kristian; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Cassell, Martin D; Thompson, Anthony P; Solomon, Thomas P; Rahmouni, Kamal; Kinnamon, Sue C; Pieper, Andrew A; Gillum, Matthew P; Potthoff, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    The liver is an important integrator of nutrient metabolism, yet no liver-derived factors regulating nutrient preference or carbohydrate appetite have been identified. Here we show that the liver regulates carbohydrate intake through production of the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which markedly suppresses consumption of simple sugars, but not complex carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids. Genetic loss of FGF21 in mice increases sucrose consumption, whereas acute administration or overexpression of FGF21 suppresses the intake of both sugar and non-caloric sweeteners. FGF21 does not affect chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet tastants, instead reducing sweet-seeking behavior and meal size via neurons in the hypothalamus. This liver-to-brain hormonal axis likely represents a negative feedback loop as hepatic FGF21 production is elevated by sucrose ingestion. We conclude that the liver functions to regulate macronutrient-specific intake by producing an endocrine satiety signal that acts centrally to suppress the intake of "sweets." PMID:26724858

  20. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease. PMID:21138816

  1. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  2. (Magneto)caloric refrigeration: is there light at the end of the tunnel?

    PubMed

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K; Cui, Jun; Johnson, Duane D

    2016-08-13

    Caloric cooling and heat pumping rely on reversible thermal effects triggered in solids by magnetic, electric or stress fields. In the recent past, there have been several successful demonstrations of using first-order phase transition materials in laboratory cooling devices based on both the giant magnetocaloric and elastocaloric effects. All such materials exhibit non-equilibrium behaviours when driven through phase transformations by corresponding fields. Common wisdom is that non-equilibrium states should be avoided; yet, as we show using a model material exhibiting a giant magnetocaloric effect, non-equilibrium phase-separated states offer a unique opportunity to achieve uncommonly large caloric effects by very small perturbations of the driving field(s).This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402923

  3. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  4. (Magneto)caloric refrigeration: Is there light at the end of the tunnel?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Cui, Jun; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-07-11

    Here, caloric cooling and heat pumping rely on reversible thermal effects triggered in solids by magnetic, electric or stress fields. In the recent past, there have been several successful demonstrations of using first-order phase transition materials in laboratory cooling devices based on both the giant magnetocaloric and elastocaloric effects. All such materials exhibit non-equilibrium behaviours when driven through phase transformations by corresponding fields. Common wisdom is that non-equilibrium states should be avoided; yet, as we show using a model material exhibiting a giant magnetocaloric effect, non-equilibrium phase-separated states offer a unique opportunity to achieve uncommonly large caloric effects by verymore » small perturbations of the driving field(s).« less

  5. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  6. Nutritional intake of various groups of Flemish vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most recent national nutritional survey (2004) indicates that 1.2% of the Flemish population follows a vegetarian diet. Information on nutritional intake in vegetarians in this population is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study is to describe the nutritional intake and dietary adequacy of various groups of Flemish vegetarians. Materials and methods Nutritional intake was assessed in various vegetarian groups from different study designs: young children (aged 1 to 10 y; n = 27) (Group 1), adolescents and adults (aged 11 to 32 y; n = 50) (Group 2), college students (aged 18 to 24 y; n= 24) (Group 3), life-long vegetarians (aged 14 to 71 y; n = 36) (Group 4) and adults (aged 20 to 98; n= 106) (Group 5). Additionally, blood samples were collected and analysed in groups 3 and 4. Comparisons were made with standard references or with omnivores (Group 3). Results Nutritional intake was found to be close to the Belgian RDA. However, all groups showed a number of outliers with an intake of some nutrients above or below the RDAs. Blood biochemistry showed low cholesterol, iron and vitamin B12 levels in vegetarians when comparing respectively with omnivores pairs (Group 3) and with reference values (Group 4). Conclusions Data collected in Flemish vegetarians indicate that a vegetarian diet may be adequate. However, the outliers in all groups show that proper dietary planning is advisable.

  7. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation. PMID:9177368

  8. Inhibition of AMPK accentuates prolonged caloric restriction-induced change in cardiac contractile function through disruption of compensatory autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qijun; Zhao, Kun; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F; Cui, Qin; Babcock, Sara A; Yu, Shiqiang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Prolonged caloric restriction often results in alteration in heart geometry and function although the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Autophagy, a conserved pathway for bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles, preserves energy and nutrient in the face of caloric insufficiency. This study was designed to examine the role of AMPK in prolonged caloric restriction-induced change in cardiac homeostasis and the underlying mechanism(s) involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and AMPK kinase dead (KD) mice were caloric restricted (by 40%) for 30 weeks. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca²⁺ properties, autophagy and autophagy regulatory proteins were evaluated. Caloric restriction compromised echocardiographic indices (decreased ventricular mass, left ventricular diameters, and cardiac output), cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca²⁺ properties associated with upregulated autophagy (Beclin-1, Atg5 and LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio), increased autophagy adaptor protein p62, elevated phosphorylation of AMPK and TSC1/2, depressed phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1. Although AMPK inhibition did not affect cardiac mechanical function, autophagy and autophagy signaling proteins, it significantly accentuated caloric restriction-induced changes in myocardial contractile function and intracellular Ca²⁺ handling. Interestingly, AMPK inhibition reversed caloric restriction-induced changes in autophagy and autophagy signaling. AMPK inhibition led to dampened levels of Beclin-1, Atg 5 and LC3B ratio along with suppressed phosphorylation of AMPK and TSC1/2 as well as elevated phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1. Taken together, these data suggest an indispensible role for AMPK in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis under prolonged caloric restriction-induced pathological changes possibly through autophagy regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in

  9. mu-Opioid receptor stimulation in the nucleus accumbens elevates fatty tastant intake by increasing palatability and suppressing satiety signals.

    PubMed

    Katsuura, Yoshihiro; Heckmann, Jennifer A; Taha, Sharif A

    2011-07-01

    Infusion of a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) drives voracious food intake, an effect hypothesized to occur through increased tastant palatability. While intake of many palatable foods is elevated by MOR stimulation, this manipulation has a preferential effect on fatty food ingestion. Consumption of high-fat foods is increased by NAcc MOR stimulation even in rats that prefer a carbohydrate-rich alternative under baseline conditions. This suggests that NAcc MOR stimulation may not simply potentiate palatability signals and raises the possibility that mechanisms mediating fat intake may be distinct from those underlying intake of other tastants. The present study was conducted to investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of NAcc MOR stimulation on fatty food intake. In experiment 1, we analyzed lick microstructure in rats ingesting Intralipid to identify the changes underlying feeding induced by infusion of a MOR-specific agonist into the NAcc. MOR stimulation in the NAcc core, but not shell, increased burst duration and first-minute licks, while simultaneously increasing the rate and duration of Intralipid ingestion. These results suggest that MOR activation in the core increases Intralipid palatability and attenuates inhibitory postingestive feedback. In experiment 2, we measured the effects of MOR stimulation in the NAcc core on consumption of nonnutritive olestra. A MOR-specific agonist dose dependently increased olestra intake, demonstrating that caloric signaling is not required for hyperphagia induced by NAcc MOR stimulation. Feeding induced by drug infusion in both experiments 1 and 2 was blocked by a MOR antagonist. In experiment 3, we determined whether MOR activation in the NAcc core could attenuate satiety-related signaling caused by infusion of the melanocortin agonist MTII into the third ventricle. Suppression of intake caused by MTII was reversed by MOR stimulation. Together, our results suggest

  10. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  11. Caloric content of Chukchi Sea benthic invertebrates: Modeling spatial and environmental variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, Lisa M.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Miller, Thomas J.; Cooper, Lee W.

    2014-04-01

    The Chukchi Sea shelf off the northern coast of Alaska is rich with infauna and epibenthic macroinvertebrates used by foraging Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and other benthic-feeding consumers. Recent seasonal sea-ice retreat on the Chukchi Sea shelf has resulted in walrus hauling out in late summer on beaches of the Chukchi Sea in Russia and Alaska rather than on sea ice. Additional energetic costs may be imposed upon walruses traveling from these haul-outs to more productive foraging areas. Here, we provide an energetic assessment of prey items that could be relevant to the foraging energetics of walruses in haul-out locations. Caloric values for 171 potential walrus prey items (comprising 11 classes of benthic fauna) were obtained over 15 southeastern Chukchi Sea stations in 2010. There were statistically significant relationships between caloric content and increasing latitude (R=0.661) and bottom temperature (R=-0.560). Linear modeling indicated that taxon and latitude were the most important explanatory variables for caloric content in the study area, whereas a second model with taxon dependencies removed returned significant coefficients for the explanatory variables of latitude, depth, bottom water temperature, and sediment total organic carbon and nitrogen. K-means cluster analysis identified 6 clusters based mainly upon environmental variables such as bottom temperature, bottom salinity, and other water-column and sediment parameters that explained 86% of the variation in the data. The finding that caloric content varies strongly with latitude, which is a proxy for both water-mass type and associated water-mass productivity in the study area, may have implications for Pacific walrus, whose historical foraging patterns well offshore on sea ice have been disrupted by sea-ice decline.

  12. Elemental composition, biochemical composition and caloric value of Antarctic krill.: Implications in Energetics and carbon balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber-Lorda, Jaime; Gaudy, Raymond; Mayzaud, P.

    2009-11-01

    Samples of Antarctic krill were analyzed for elemental composition, biochemical composition, weight and caloric content. Sexes and maturity stages were separated. Mature females showed the highest caloric values (Joules) and juveniles the lowest in a per animal basis. On unit of wet weight per animal basis, spent females showed the lowest caloric values. For the caloric values by animal, a significant difference was found between males, mature females, spent females and juveniles, either on a per animal basis or in the basis of 1 g of wet weight, showing a real difference between the groups, regardless of their individual size. Significant differences were found for carbon, nitrogen and lipids, but not for proteins, analyzed in % of dry weight. Carbon was lowest for spent females and highest for mature females. On the contrary, nitrogen values were lowest for mature females and highest for males. Mature females had the highest lipid content and males the lowest. All variables were significantly correlated. For the linear regression analysis, the best correlation found was between Joules and carbon, followed by carbon vs. dry weight and Joules vs. dry weight. In an analysis with two independent variables, the best correlation was found for Joules vs. lipids and dry weight, followed by Joules vs. carbon and nitrogen, and Joules vs. lipids and proteins. The results obtained were used to make an analysis of the energy and carbon fluxes through the food chain in the sampled area, showing higher energetic and carbon "densities" in frontal areas, the POM calorific values showed an opposite pattern than that of krill.

  13. Effect of age and caloric restriction on cutaneous wound closure in rats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Roth, G S; Kowatch, M A; Hengemihle, J; Ingram, D K; Spangler, E L; Johnson, L K; Lane, M A

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous wounds close more slowly in rats and monkeys as age increases. Caloric restriction of 40% in rats and 30% in monkeys did not significantly affect healing rates, although it did exert a trend toward faster closure. Similarly, voluntary exercise did not significantly alter healing rates in rats. Thus, impaired wound healing appears to be a generalized physiological manifestation of aging, but its possible amelioration by "anti-aging" interventions remains to be established. PMID:9060966

  14. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  15. Subjective Visual Vertical during Caloric Stimulation in Healthy Subjects: Implications to Research and Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Funabashi, Martha; Flores, Aline I; Vicentino, Amanda; Barros, Camila G C; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Leite, João P; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G

    2015-01-01

    Background. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is a perception often impaired in patients with neurologic disorders and is considered a sensitive tool to detect otolithic dysfunctions. However, it remains unclear whether the semicircular canals (SCCs) are also involved in the visual vertical perception. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of horizontal SCCs on SVV by caloric stimulation in healthy subjects. Methods. SVV was performed before and during the ice-cold caloric stimulation (4°C, right ear) in 30 healthy subjects. Results. The mean SVV tilts before and during the caloric stimulation were 0.31° ± 0.39 and -0.28° ± 0.40, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean SVV tilts before and during stimulation (p = 0.113). Conclusion. These results suggest that horizontal SCCs do not influence SVV. Therefore, investigations and rehabilitation approaches for SVV misperceptions should be focused on otolithic and cognitive strategies. PMID:26161271

  16. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and caloric test results in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sujeet, Kumar Sinha; Niraj, Kumar Singh; Animesh, Barman; Rajeshwari, G; Sharanya, R

    2014-01-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder is a type of hearing loss where outer hair cell function are normal (as evidenced by the preservation of OAEs and cochlear microphonics), whereas auditory nerve functions are abnormal (as evidenced by abnormal auditory brainstem evoked potentials beginning with wave I of the ABR) and acoustic reflexes to ipsilateral and contralateral tones are absent. It is likely that in cases with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder not only the cochlear nerve, but also the vestibular nerves might get involved. The present study was conducted with an aim of finding out the inferior and superior vestibular nerve involvement through cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and Caloric test results respectively in individuals with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorders. Total 26 participants who fulfilled the criteria of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder participated for the study. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials results showed absence of responses from most of the subjects also caloric responses showed bilateral hypofunctional responses in most of the participants, which is suggestive of involvement of both the inferior as well as superior vestibular nerve in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders. Additionally there was no association between the pattern and degree of hearing loss to caloric test results and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials results findings. PMID:25095776

  17. CALOR2012 XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Akchurin, Nural .

    2015-05-04

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, or the CALOR series, have always been where the calorimeter experts come together to review the state of calorimetry and bring forth new ideas every two years. The fteenth conference, CALOR2012, in Santa Fe was no exception. Although they were built roughly a decade ago, we are now witnessing the exceptional power of the LHC calorimeters and the crucial role they have been playing in the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs-like boson. As we ruminate on the coming generation of experiments at the next (linear) collider and on the upgrades at the LHC, we are heartened by the substantial advances we made in calorimetry in the last decade. These advances will certainly help uncover new physics in the years to come, not only at colliders but also in astroparticle experiments that take advantage of natural elements such as air, water, and ice. The proceedings were published by the IOP in Journal of Physics, Vol 404 2011. The conference web site is calor2012.ttu.edu.

  18. Fluid-structural dynamics of ground-based and microgravity caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Oas, J. G.; Deserranno, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab1 mission produced nystagmus results with an intensity comparable to those elicited during post- and pre- flight tests, thus contradicting the basic premise of Barany's convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. In this work, we present a dynamic fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal based on two simultaneous driving forces for the endolymphatic flow: natural convection driven by the temperature-dependent density variation in the bulk fluid and expansive convection caused by direct volumetric displacement of the endolymph during the thermal irrigation. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, the natural convection mechanism is dominant. But in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing cupular displacement. A series of transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the differences between the dynamics of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The impact of these different flow dynamics on the endolymph-cupula fluid-structural interactions is also analyzed based on the time evolutions of cupular displacement and velocity and the transcupular pressure differences.

  19. Heavy metal content in sediments along the Calore river: relationships with physical-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, G; Papa, S; Sagnella, E; Fioretto, A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, trace metals contents (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) and physico-chemical parameters (nitrogen, organic and inorganic carbon, pH and particle size) in sediments samples along the Calore river were analyzed in two seasons. Sediment samples were collected in ten sites upstream and downstream of the city of Benevento and its industrial area, the confluence of Sabato and Tammaro tributaries, and the confluence of Calore and Volturno rivers. The highest contents of trace metals were found, generally, in the sites immediately downstream of industrial area and of Benevento city. The sites on the Tammaro and Sabato also showed relatively high contents of Ni and, only for Sabato sites, of Cr, and Fe. With the exception of Cd, the heavy metal contents were highest in the last site of Calore river, which therefore is a source of pollution to the Volturno river. Besides the sites downstream of Benevento city showed the higher pH values and also the highest contents of fine particles size and organic matter. Positive correlations among trace metals, organic substance, particle size sediments were found. The data obtained in this study were analyzed with reference to Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines and indicated moderate-to-high pollution by some trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu). PMID:21546150

  20. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  1. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  2. Increased calorie intake at a specific mid-morning meal and increased intake of soft drinks are strongly associated with obesity in Mexican rural women.

    PubMed

    Caamaño, María C; Gutierrez, Jessica; García, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Martinez, Guadalupe; Rosado, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary habits and foods that are associated with obesity in women from a rural area in Mexico. Anthropometry and body fat were measured in 580 women. Participants answered a socioeconomic and a food-frequency questionnaire; a subsample (n = 80) also answered three 24-hour-recall questionnaires. Results showed that obese women consumed more soft drinks and fat than did overweight and normal-weight women. Women who consumed more energy during a mid-morning meal had higher BMI. A strategy to decrease the prevalence of obesity in rural areas could be to encourage limiting the consumption of soft drinks and eliminating or reducing caloric intake at a mid-morning meal. PMID:25513976

  3. Activation of brain somatostatin2 receptors stimulates feeding in mice: analysis of food intake microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that the oligosomatostatin receptor agonist, ODT8-SST increases food intake in rats via the somatostatin2 receptor (sst2). We characterized ingestive behavior following intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a selective sst2 agonist in freely fed mice during the light phase. The sst2 agonist (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3 or 1µg/mouse) injected icv under short inhalation anesthesia dose-dependently increased cumulative light phase food intake over 4h compared to vehicle with a 3.1-times increase at 1µg/mouse (p<0.05). Likewise, the sst2,3,5 agonist octreotide (0.3 or 1µg/mouse) dose-dependently increased 4-h food intake, whereas selective sst1 or sst4 agonists at 1µg/mouse did not. In vehicle-treated mice, high fat diet increased caloric intake/4h by 2.8-times compared to regular diet (p<0.05) and values were further increased 1.4-times/4h by the sst2 agonist. Automated continuous assessment of food intake established a 6.6-times higher food intake during the dark phase due to increased number of meals, meal size, meal duration and rate of ingestion compared to non-treated mice during the light phase. During the first 4h post icv sst2 agonist injection, mice had a 57% increase in number of meals with a 60% higher rate of ingestion, and a 61% reduction in inter-meal intervals, whereas meal sizes were not altered compared to vehicle. These data indicate that activation of brain sst2 receptors potently stimulates ingestive behavior under basal or high fat diet-stimulated conditions in mice. The shortened inter-meal interval suggests an inhibitory effect of the sst2 agonist on “satiety”, whereas “satiation” is not altered as indicated by normal meal size. PMID:20851136

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern

    PubMed Central

    Wehmeyer, Malte H.; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany. Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake. NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001). Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Wehmeyer, Malte H; Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Jagemann, Bettina; Roth, Ewgenia; Windler, Eberhard; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; Lohse, Ansgar W; Kluwe, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the efficacy of dietary interventions in a real-life setting at a tertiary medical center in Northern Germany.Clinical and laboratory data as well as data obtained by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of 55 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were compared to an age and gender-matched cohort of 88 healthy individuals by univariate analysis. The efficacy of the dietary intervention was assessed in a subgroup of 24 NAFLD patients 6 months after receiving dietary advice. Macronutritional components of the diet were normalized for absolute daily energy intake.NAFLD patients consumed more calories per day as compared with healthy controls (P <0.001). The absolute amounts of most nutritional components ingested by NAFLD patients were higher than those of the controls. However, there were no significant differences with regards to the relative consumption of carbohydrates (P = 0.359), fat (P = 0.416), and fructose (P = 0.353) per 1000 kcal energy intake. NAFLD patients displayed a higher intake of glucose/1000 kcal (P = 0.041) and protein/1000 kcal (P = 0.009) but a lower intake of fibers/1000 kcal (P < 0.001) and mineral nutrients/1000 kcal (P = 0.001) than healthy controls. In the longitudinal analysis patients significantly reduced their caloric intake and their ALT levels improved 6 months after the dietary counselling (P < 0.001).Our data from a German real-life cohort demonstrate that dietary patterns of patients with NAFLD display great variability and little disease specificity, while the most distinctive feature compared with healthy controls was higher energy intake in NAFLD patients. PMID:27281105

  6. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  7. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake. PMID:26005740

  8. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Marie H.; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P.; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  9. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance. PMID:26397098

  10. Association of Energy Intake With the Lack of in-Person Review of Household Dietary Records: Analysis of Japan National Health and Nutrition Surveys From 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Okuda, Nagako; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nishi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background National surveys have demonstrated a long-term decrease in mean energy intake in Japan, despite the absence of a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to examine whether total energy intake of survey respondents is associated with completion of an in-person review of dietary records and whether it affects the trend in mean energy intake. Methods We pooled data from individuals aged 20–89 years from the National Nutrition Surveys of 1997–2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2003–2011. We conducted a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the association between total energy intake and the lack of an in-person review of semi-weighed household dietary records with interviewers. As some respondents did not have their dietary data confirmed, we used regression coefficients to correct their total energy intake. Results Compared with respondents completing an in-person review, total energy intake was significantly inversely associated with respondents not completing a review across all sex and age groups (P < 0.001). After correction of total energy intake for those not completing a review, mean energy intake in each survey year significantly increased by 2.1%–3.9% in men and 1.3%–2.6% in women (P < 0.001), but the decreasing trend in mean energy intake was sustained. Conclusions Total energy intake may be underestimated without an in-person review of dietary records. Further efforts to facilitate completion of a review may improve accuracy of these data. However, the increasing proportion of respondents missing an in-person review had little impact on the decreasing mean caloric intake. PMID:26548354

  11. Hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 neurons track intake volume and contribute to injection stress-induced hypophagia in meal-entrained rats.

    PubMed

    Kreisler, Alison D; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-05-15

    Published research supports a role for central glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling in suppressing food intake in rodent species. However, it is unclear whether GLP-1 neurons track food intake and contribute to satiety, and/or whether GLP-1 signaling contributes to stress-induced hypophagia. To examine whether GLP-1 neurons track intake volume, rats were trained to consume liquid diet (LD) for 1 h daily until baseline intake stabilized. On test day, schedule-fed rats consumed unrestricted or limited volumes of LD or unrestricted volumes of diluted (calorically matched to LD) or undiluted Ensure. Rats were perfused after the test meal, and brains processed for immunolocalization of cFos and GLP-1. The large majority of GLP-1 neurons expressed cFos in rats that consumed satiating volumes, regardless of diet type, with GLP-1 activation proportional to intake volume. Since GLP-1 signaling may limit intake only when such large proportions of GLP-1 neurons are activated, a second experiment examined the effect of central GLP-1 receptor (R) antagonism on 2 h intake in schedule-fed rats. Compared with baseline, intracerebroventricular vehicle (saline) suppressed Ensure intake by ∼11%. Conversely, intracerebroventricular injection of vehicle containing GLP-1R antagonist increased intake by ∼14% compared with baseline, partly due to larger second meals. We conclude that GLP-1 neural activation effectively tracks liquid diet intake, that intracerebroventricular injection suppresses intake, and that central GLP-1 signaling contributes to this hypophagic effect. GLP-1 signaling also may contribute to satiety after large volumes have been consumed, but this potential role is difficult to separate from a role in the hypophagic response to intracerebroventricular injection. PMID:26936779

  12. Metabolic Benefit of Chronic Caloric Restriction and Activation of Hypothalamic AGRP/NPY Neurons in Male Mice Is Independent of Ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole H; Walsh, Heidi; Alvarez-Garcia, Oscar; Park, Seongjoon; Gaylinn, Bruce; Thorner, Michael O; Smith, Roy G

    2016-04-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated ghrelin signaling. During aging, chronic caloric restriction (CR) produces health benefits accompanied by enhanced ghrelin production. Ghrelin receptor (GH secretagogue receptor 1a) agonists administered to aging rodents and humans restore the young adult phenotype; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the metabolic benefits of CR are mediated by endogenous ghrelin. Three month-old male mice lacking ghrelin (Ghrelin-/-) or ghrelin receptor (Ghsr-/-), and their wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly assigned to 2 groups: ad libitum (AL) fed and CR, where 40% food restriction was introduced gradually to allow Ghrelin-/- and Ghsr-/- mice to metabolically adapt and avoid severe hypoglycemia. Twelve months later, plasma ghrelin, metabolic parameters, ambulatory activity, hypothalamic and liver gene expression, as well as body composition were measured. CR increased plasma ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin concentrations in WT and Ghsr-/- mice. CR of WT, Ghsr-/-, and Ghrelin-/- mice markedly improved metabolic flexibility, enhanced ambulatory activity, and reduced adiposity. Inactivation of Ghrelin or Ghsr had no effect on AL food intake or food anticipatory behavior. In contrast to the widely held belief that endogenous ghrelin regulates food intake, CR increased expression of hypothalamic Agrp and Npy, with reduced expression of Pomc across genotypes. In the AL context, ablation of ghrelin signaling markedly inhibited liver steatosis, which correlated with reduced Pparγ expression and enhanced Irs2 expression. Although CR and administration of GH secretagogue receptor 1a agonists both benefit the aging phenotype, we conclude the benefits of chronic CR are a consequence of enhanced metabolic flexibility independent of endogenous ghrelin or des-acyl ghrelin signaling. PMID:26812158

  13. Caloric compensation and eating in the absence of hunger in 5- to 12-y-old weight-discordant siblings123

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Tanja VE; Allison, David B; Birch, Leann L; Stallings, Virginia A; Moore, Reneé H; Faith, Myles S

    2012-01-01

    Background: An impaired ability to compensate for calories and increased eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) has been associated with increased energy intake and weight gain in unrelated children. Objective: The aims of this study were to compare caloric compensation [the percentage compensation index (%COMPX)] and EAH in weight-discordant siblings aged 5–12 y. Design: In a crossover, behavioral genetics design, 47 same-sex sibling pairs (53% female, 55% full siblings) were served dinner once a week for 3 wk. Across conditions, siblings were served the same dinner, but 25 min before dinner, they either consumed in full or did not consume 1 of 2 preloads that varied in energy density (ED; 0.57 or 0.97 kcal/g). On the day when no preload was consumed, EAH was assessed after dinner and defined as the number of calories consumed from snacks. Results: Overweight/obese siblings undercompensated [%COMPX: −48.8 ± 56.3 (mean ± SEM)] and therefore overate after the high-ED preload, whereas normal-weight siblings showed accurate compensation (%COMPX: 101.3 ± 51.9; P = 0.03). Furthermore, overweight/obese siblings consumed 34% more calories (93 kcal) in the absence of hunger than did normal-weight siblings (P = 0.01). Within-pair resemblances for %COMPX and EAH were stronger for full siblings (P < 0.049) than for half siblings (P > 0.23). Conclusions: An impaired ability to regulate short-term energy intake, which includes incomplete adjustment for calorie differences in a preload and eating when satiated, may represent a behavioral phenotype for obesity in children. Future studies should test whether teaching children to focus on internal satiety cues may prevent at-risk children from overeating. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01598389. PMID:22854400

  14. Effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain metabolite levels: a combined proton MRS and histologic study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Matthias K; Sack, Markus; Lenz, Jenny N; Jakovcevski, Mira; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Deussing, Jan; Steinle, Jörg; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pfister, Frederik; Stalla, Günter K; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that one mechanism in this context is the promotion of neuroinflammation. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating the effects of physical exercise in a cafeteria-diet mouse model on CNS metabolites by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS). In addition postmortem histologic and real-time (RT)-PCR analyses for inflammatory markers were performed. Cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycemia, which was only partially moderated by exercise. It also induced several changes in CNS metabolites such as reduced hippocampal glutamate (Glu), choline-containing compounds (tCho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamic acid (NAAG) (tNAA) levels, whereas opposite effects were seen for running. No association of these effects with markers of central inflammation could be observed. These findings suggest that while voluntary wheel running alone is insufficient to prevent the unfavorable peripheral sequelae of the diet, it counteracted many changes in brain metabolites. The observed effects seem to be independent of neuroinflammation. PMID:25564238

  15. Effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain metabolite levels: a combined proton MRS and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Auer, Matthias K; Sack, Markus; Lenz, Jenny N; Jakovcevski, Mira; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Deussing, Jan; Steinle, Jörg; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pfister, Frederik; Stalla, Günter K; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that one mechanism in this context is the promotion of neuroinflammation. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating the effects of physical exercise in a cafeteria-diet mouse model on CNS metabolites by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS). In addition postmortem histologic and real-time (RT)-PCR analyses for inflammatory markers were performed. Cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycemia, which was only partially moderated by exercise. It also induced several changes in CNS metabolites such as reduced hippocampal glutamate (Glu), choline-containing compounds (tCho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamic acid (NAAG) (tNAA) levels, whereas opposite effects were seen for running. No association of these effects with markers of central inflammation could be observed. These findings suggest that while voluntary wheel running alone is insufficient to prevent the unfavorable peripheral sequelae of the diet, it counteracted many changes in brain metabolites. The observed effects seem to be independent of neuroinflammation. PMID:25564238

  16. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  17. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  18. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  19. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  20. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials.

    PubMed

    Tappy, Luc; Egli, Leonie; Lecoultre, Virgile; Schneider, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4-7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer

  1. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002.

    PubMed

    Barba, Corazon V C; Cabrera, Ma Isabel Z

    2008-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), as in the past, led the review and revision of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Filipinos, a vital and essential tool recognized in the nutrition and health community as the source of information on recommended energy and nutrient intakes for the maintenance of good health. This set of dietary standards is periodically evaluated and updated to keep pace with new knowledge on energy and nutrient requirements and metabolism. The set of updated standards is now called Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENIs), defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrients which, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of good health and well-being of nearly all healthy Filipinos. As in the 1989 edition, intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A, C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pyridoxine, water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) are recommended in this new edition. The desirable proportions of protein, fats, carbohydrates as well as fiber are also provided, in addition to information on recommended intake levels for selenium, magnesium, manganese, fluoride, cobalamin, and vitamin K. These recommendations were derived from a review of current evidences, principally the UN-FAO/WHO's 2002 human vitamin and mineral requirements and the US-Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB)'s series of Dietary Reference Intakes, taking into consideration applicability in and achievability among specific population groups. PMID:18460438

  2. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  6. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  7. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  13. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  19. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  20. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ≥ Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  1. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  2. [Chromium content in foods and dietary intake estimation in the Northwest of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Ballesteros Vázquez, M N; Cabrera Pacheco, R M

    2001-03-01

    Chromium is an indispensable nutrient for the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. In this study the chromium content in the twenty main foods of the diet from Northwestern Mexico was determined, as well as the daily mean intake which was estimated based on the food intake basket of this region. Chromium content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the graphite furnace technique and previous digestion of foods in microwave oven. The chromium mean intake was estimated considering the chromium daily mean intake for person per day and the chromium content of the foods analyzed in this study. The range chromium content in the foods analyzed was between 0.0004 and 0.1641 microgram/g dry weight. White cheese showed the highest chromium content followed by pasta soup, wheat tortilla, bread and meat. The main foods chromium contributors in the diet were: wheat tortilla (20%), white cheese (11%), corn tortilla (11%), pasta soup (10%), milk (10%), meat (9%) and white bread (8%). The daily chromium intake was 30.43 +/- 1.6 micrograms/d. Chromium values obtained in the food analyzed are considered low. Moreover, chromium intake obtained from the diet is not enough to meet the safety and adequate daily chromium intake. Therefore, the population from the Northwestern Mexico has a suboptimal dietary chromium intake. PMID:11515227

  3. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  4. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  5. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Merrill, David A.; Eyre, Harris; Mallam, Sravya; Torosyan, Nare; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Gach, H. Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Longstreth, W.T.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual. Objective:To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons. Methods: All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent. Results: Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis. Conclusion:Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status. PMID:26967227

  6. Caloric restriction increases serum testosterone concentrations in obese male subjects by two distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D M; Hahn, M; Oberhäuser, F; Malchau, G; Schubert, M; Heppner, C; Müller, N; Güdelhöfer, H; Faust, M; Krone, W; Laudes, M

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of serum testosterone is mainly regulated by the testicular function, which is under control of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A certain amount of testosterone is converted into β-estradiol by adipose tissue. Obesity in men is often associated with decreased androgen levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of caloric restriction on serum testosterone levels in obese men. Dietary intervention study was performed with a very low calorie diet (800 kcal/d) for 12 weeks. Thirteen obese human male subjects (median body mass index: 42.7 kg/m2) were included. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR). Testosterone (T), β-estradiol, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), LH, and FSH serum concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Statistical analysis was performed on baseline and values after 3 months. Caloric restriction significantly increased total testosterone (6.97 nmol/l to 13.21 nmol/l; p=0.001) and SHBG (22.11 nmol/l to 42.12 nmol/l; p=0.001) concentrations in serum. This is caused by a significant improvement of the testicular function (LH/T: 0.36-0.20; p=0.005) and a significant reduction of the T/β-estradiol conversion rate (73.59-104.29; p=0.003). There was a significant negative correlation of improvement of testicular function and LAR (rs=-0.683 (p=0.042)). In obese men caloric restriction significantly increases the serum testosterone concentration. This is achieved by 2 distinct mechanisms, that is, improvement of testicular function and reduced conversion of testosterone to β-estradiol by aromatase activity of the adipose tissue. PMID:24198220

  7. Statistical Analysis of Pure Tone Audiometry and Caloric Test in Herpes Zoster Oticus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin; Jung, Jinsei; Moon, In Seok; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Pure tone audiometry and caloric test in patients with herpes zoster oticus were performed to determine the biologic features of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and the pathogenesis of vestibulocochlear nerve disease in herpes zoster oticus. Study Design A retrospective chart review of 160 patients with herpes zoster oticus was designed in order to determine the classic characteristics of vestibulocochlear nerve disease associated with the syndrome. Speech frequency and isolated high frequency acoustic thresholds were analyzed based on severity of facial paralysis and patient age. Patients without cochlear symptoms were selected randomly, and audiological function was evaluated. Patients with symptoms of vestibular dysfunction underwent the caloric test, and canal paresis was analyzed according to the severity of facial paralysis and the age of each patient. Results Among the 160 patients, 111 exhibited pure tone audiometry; 26 (79%) of the patients with cochlear symptoms and 44 (56%) of the patients without cochlear symptoms had abnormal audiological data. Among the patients without cochlear symptoms, 15 (19%) had hearing loss at speech frequency, and 42 (54%) had hearing loss isolated to high frequency. The incidence of cochlear symptoms in herpes zoster oticus was not related to the severity of facial paralysis. The incidence of patients with isolated high frequency hearing loss statistically increased with age, however the incidence of patients with speech frequency hearing loss did not increase. Thirteen patients complained vertigo, and the incidence of vestibular disturbances and the value of canal paresis in the caloric test increased to statistical significance in parallel with increasing severity of facial paralysis. Conclusion Mild or moderate cochlear symptoms with high frequency hearing loss were related to age, and severe vestibular symptoms were related to the severity of facial paralysis after onset of herpetic symptoms. This study might

  8. Caloric restriction impedes age-related decline of mitochondrial function and neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Coman, Daniel; Jiang, Lihong; Rothman, Douglas L; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) prolongs lifespan and retards many detrimental effects of aging, but its effect on brain mitochondrial function and neuronal activity—especially in healthy aging—remains unexplored. Here we measured rates of neuronal glucose oxidation and glutamate–glutamine neurotransmitter cycling in young control, old control (i.e., healthy aging), and old CR rats using in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found that, compared with the young control, neuronal energy production and neurotransmission rates were significantly reduced in healthy aging, but were preserved in old CR rats. The results suggest that CR mitigated the age-related deceleration of brain physiology. PMID:24984898

  9. Does temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Irving, J; Wood, G D; Hackett, A F

    1999-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome (TDPDS) is the most common cause of facial pain after toothache. The symptoms are varied but are likely to affect the choice, intake and enjoyment of food. This has not been previously investigated. In this paper a preliminary study of 35 patients attending a department of oral and maxillofacial surgery at a general hospital is presented. Thirty-one subjects reported that eating was a problem; 15 prepared food differently and 24 considered that their choice of food was limited. Four of the five foods most often reported to be difficult to eat are valuable in the diet: meat (22), apples (20), bread (13), toast (7) and toffees (6). Twenty-three subjects reported eating a softer diet. Most (25) reported pain when eating. Such circumstances make it harder for TDPDS sufferers to meet current nutritional guidelines, especially, perhaps, for some to achieve an adequate intake of iron. PMID:10765783

  10. Ought low alcohol intake to be promoted for health reasons?

    PubMed Central

    Holman, C D; English, D R

    1996-01-01

    There is increasingly widespread acceptance that alcohol taken in moderation by the population aged 35 years or older reduces the risks of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Ten causal criteria are used to evaluate the scientific evidence for a protective effect of low alcohol intake on ischaemic heart disease. Inferences for public policy are then assessed using the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and autonomy to support a framework of nine ethical considerations: intervention versus causation; effect modification by gender, smoking, biogenetic and other factors; inappropriate adoption of recommendations; competing hazards between atherosclerotic disease and cancer; opportunity cost; equity of access; the value system used to judge outcomes; the degree of social influence warranted; and consent and responsibility. We conclude that in the absence of more adequate scientific knowledge and informed community debate it is unethical to promote low alcohol intake as a preventive health measure. PMID:8683513

  11. Food intake and meal patterns in rhesus monkeys: Significance of chronic hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, J.; Hansen, B.C. )

    1990-10-01

    To investigate the role of plasma insulin on food intake, we have examined the effect of naturally occurring chronic hyperinsulinemia on the feeding behavior of male rhesus monkeys. Two groups of monkeys, a group with normal fasting insulin concentrations (52.4 +/- 2.2 microU/ml) (mean +/- SE) and a hyperinsulinemic group (148.6 +/- 14.5 microU/ml), were selected to be similar in weight, 13.0 +/- 1.0 and 15.3 +/- 0.5 kg, respectively, prior to study. Food intake and feeding patterns were recorded and analyzed. No differences in either daily caloric intake, 815.2 +/- 27.4 versus 890.0 +/- 64.2 kcal (p less than 0.32), or feeding patterns were found. The number of meals taken per day did not differ between the two groups, 8.7 +/- 1.7 versus 6.7 +/- 1.1 (p less than 0.35), nor did meal size differ, 129 +/- 16.5 versus 110.5 +/- 16.3 (p less than 0.45). We conclude that chronic endogenous hyperinsulinemia as it occurs naturally in some obese rhesus monkeys has no significant effect on daily feeding behavior.

  12. Nutritional Intake, Physical Activity and Quality of Life in COPD Patients.

    PubMed

    Chambaneau, A; Filaire, M; Jubert, L; Bremond, M; Filaire, E

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to document the level of physical activity (PA), quality of life, depression status and nutritional data of 20 individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (mean age 65.0±7.0 years) admitted in hospital for pulmonary rehabilitation and compare these data to those obtained in 20 similarly aged healthy individuals. Nutritional data were collected using a 3-day diet record. COPD patients engaged in significantly less PA than healthy individuals and achieved a significant higher score of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than the control group. Their Fat Free Mass Index (FFMI) was significantly lower when compared to the control group (p<0.05). Patients had significantly lower total caloric intake, Vitamins B6, B9, B12, Vitamin E, β carotene and omega 3 than controls. Moreover, patients with low FFMI reported significantly lower mean intake of energy, carbohydrate, vitamin E and vitamin B6 than patients with normal FFMI. Because oxidative stress and inflammation are features of many lung diseases, nutrients with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties could be useful in prevention or treatment. Further work is needed to explore the possible relationship between the intake of B group vitamins, Vitamin E, n-3PUFAS and the development and progression of lung disease. PMID:27286177

  13. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism. PMID:27267303

  14. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schiöth, Helgi B.; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R.; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.

    2015-01-01

    Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain. PMID:26115087

  15. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-07-01

    Expectations about a food's satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload's satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain. PMID:26115087

  16. [Effect of diurnal distribution of food intake on 24-h profiles of plasma lipoproteins (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Tauber, H

    1981-02-16

    The lipid infiltration theory of atherogenesis accepted, 24 h lipoprotein profiles may be more relevant than preprandial morning samples. Such profiles were performed in 12 metabolically healthy volunteers during two dietetic regimes identical in total food content but differing in the distribution over the day: form A meant an evening meal of 15% of total caloric intake, form B of 40%. After one week of each form, 24 h lipoprotein profiles differed significantly in the time course of triglyceride rich lipoproteins and in the mean values over 24 h in VLDL and LDL phospholipids and HDL cholesterol. These findings are cautiously interpreted as possible signs of differences in the catabolism of triglyceride rich lipoproteins, remnants and intermediate lipoproteins. The difference in HDL cholesterol which was higher in form A is discussed in the context of recent epidemiologic evidence. PMID:7194945

  17. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  18. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-16

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  19. Lateral Hypothalamus GABAergic Neurons Modulate Consummatory Behaviors Regardless of the Caloric Content or Biological Relevance of the Consumed Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Montserrat; Olney, Jeffrey J; Burnham, Nathan W; Mazzone, Christopher M; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Pleil, Kristen E; Kash, Thomas L; Thiele, Todd E

    2016-05-01

    It was recently reported that activation of a subset of lateral hypothalamus (LH) GABAergic neurons induced both appetitive (food-seeking) and consummatory (eating) behaviors in vGat-ires-cre mice, while inhibition or deletion of GABAergic neurons blunted these behaviors. As food and caloric-dense liquid solutions were used, the data reported suggest that these LH GABAergic neurons may modulate behaviors that function to maintain homeostatic caloric balance. Here we report that chemogenetic activation of this GABAergic population in vGat-ires-cre mice increased consummatory behavior directed at any available stimulus, including those entailing calories (food, sucrose, and ethanol), those that do not (saccharin and water), and those lacking biological relevance (wood). Chemogenetic inhibition of these neurons attenuated consummatory behaviors. These data indicate that LH GABAergic neurons modulate consummatory behaviors regardless of the caloric content or biological relevance of the consumed stimuli. PMID:26442599

  20. Caloric stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... temperature, it should cause fast, side-to-side eye movements called nystagmus. The test is done in the ... Rapid, side-to-side eye movements should occur when cold or warm water is placed into the ear. The eye movements should be similar on both ...

  1. Optimal fluid intake in daily diet: Avicenna's view.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Tafazoli, Vahid; Daneshfard, Babak; Zare, Manijhe

    2016-07-01

    Adequate daily water consumption is an important factor of keeping regular homeostasis. However, the best quantity of daily water consumption for a healthy individual is not virtually stated in the literature. Despite the dearth of evidence-based recommendations, it is commonly thought that ingesting eight glasses of water a day is good for a healthy person. Avicenna had a unique viewpoint. He believed that daily water intake depended on numerous elements together with age, intercourse, body temperament, season, occupation and various internal and external elements. He also cited a few essential and useful measures regarding proper water consumption, which have additionally been emphasized in Islamic hadiths. PMID:27417170

  2. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  3. Caloric restriction and the precision-control of autophagy: A strategy for delaying neurodegenerative disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ntsapi, C; Loos, B

    2016-10-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in most organisms, indicating that nutrient and energy regulatory mechanisms impact aging. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration is age; thus, the antiaging effects of CR might attenuate progressive cell death and avert the aggregation of abnormal proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. CR is a potent inducer of autophagy, a tightly regulated intracellular process that facilitates recycling of abnormal protein aggregates and damaged organelles into bioenergetic and biosynthetic materials to maintain homeostasis. Thus, dysregulated autophagy can lead to cellular dysfunction, abnormal protein accumulation, proteotoxicity and subsequently the onset of several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the targeted and precision-controlled activation of autophagy represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions that delay aging by modulating specific stages of autophagy might be beneficial against premature aging, neurodegeneration and its associated ailments. However, the dynamic and often compensatory cross-talk that exists between the protein degradation pathways makes clinical translational approaches challenging. Here we review the primary autophagy pathways in the context of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on compensatory mechanisms and pathway failure. By critically assessing each underlying molecular machinery, we reveal their impact on aging and unmask the role of caloric restriction in changing cellular fate by delayed aging through stimulation of autophagy. This may point towards novel and better targeted interventions that exploit the autophagic machinery in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27473756

  4. Effect of high fat, fiber and caloric restriction on rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.; Van Sant, J.; Butler, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female rats given 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were placed on diets of control fat (CF-4.5%) or high fat (HF-20%) with either control fiber (6%) or high fiber (FB-12%). A 60% reduction in the CF diet was used to study the effects of caloric restriction on tumorigenesis. Results showed that HF diets had a shorter latency period than CF rats. The respective average number of tumors per rat and tumor volume were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 23694 mm/sup 2/ for rats on a HF diet and 5.1+/-1.1 and 9144 mm/sup 3/ for CF rats. Addition of high fiber to the diets reduced the tumor incidence from 95% to 70% in the CF group but did not reduce the incidence in HF group. Although tumor number was reduced to 3.7+/-1.5 in CF+FB rats, the tumor volumes were not reduced (8950 mm/sup 3/). Rats fed HF+FB did not have fewer tumors (7.0+/-1.1), but did show a 53% reduction in tumor load. The estrogen dependent enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by dietary levels of fat, which suggests that the promotional effects of fat may not be through estrogen stimulation. None of the caloric restricted rats had tumors 12 weeks post-DMBA. These restricted rats all had significantly elevated levels of serum corticosterone.

  5. Age-related changes in human vestibulo-ocular reflexes: Sinusoidal rotation and caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.; Schoenhoff, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were characterized in 216 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. The object of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of aging on VOR dynamics, and to identify the distributions of parameters which describe VOR responses to caloric and to sinusoidal rotational stimuli in a putatively normal population. Caloric test parameters showed no consistent trend with age. Rotation test parameters showed declining response amplitude and slightly less compensatory response phase with increasing age. The magnitudes of these changes were not large relative to the variability within the population. The age-related trends in VOR were not consistent with the anatomic changes in the periphery reported by others which showed an increasing rate of peripheral hair cell and nerve fiber loss in subjects over 55 years. The poor correlation between physiological and anatomical data suggest that adaptive mechanisms in the central nervous system are important in maintaining the VOR.

  6. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation as a Treatment for Conversion Disorder: A Case Report and Medical Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Holzapfel, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal–parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure. PMID:24917828

  7. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency. PMID:27455794

  8. Addressing the policy cacophony does not require more evidence: an argument for reframing obesity as caloric overconsumption

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous policies have been proposed to address the public health problem of obesity, resulting in a policy cacophony. The noise of so many policy options renders it difficult for policymakers to determine which policies warrant implementation. This has resulted in calls for more and better evidence to support obesity policy. However, it is not clear that evidence is the solution. This paper argues that to address the policy cacophony it is necessary to rethink the problem of obesity, and more specifically, how the problem of obesity is framed. This paper argues that the frame “obesity” be replaced by the frame “caloric overconsumption”, concluding that the frame caloric overconsumption can overcome the obesity policy cacophony. Discussion Frames are important because they influence public policy. Understood as packages that define issues, frames influence how best to approach a problem. Consequently, debates over public policy are considered battles over framing, with small shifts in how an issue is framed resulting in significant changes to the policy environment. This paper presents a rationale for reframing the problem of obesity as caloric overconsumption. The frame “obesity” contributes to the policy cacophony by including policies aimed at both energy output and energy input. However, research increasingly demonstrates that energy input is the primary cause of obesity, and that increases in energy input are largely attributable to the food environment. By focusing on policies that aim to prevent increases in energy input, the frame caloric overconsumption will reduce the noise of the obesity policy cacophony. While the proposed frame will face some challenges, particularly industry opposition, policies aimed at preventing caloric overconsumption have a clearer focus, and can be more politically palatable if caloric overconsumption is seen as an involuntary risk resulting from the food environment. Summary The paper concludes that

  9. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  10. A comparison of two methods to ascertain dietary intake: the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Dyer, A; Jacobs, D R; Hilner, J E; Caan, B J; Bild, D E; Liu, K; McDonald, A; Van Horn, L; Hardin, M

    1994-07-01

    Data on dietary intake were collected in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study at the baseline examination in 1985-86 and again at the second examination 2 years later. At baseline, a diet history questionnaire developed for the CARDIA study was used; at the second exam the NCI (Block) food frequency questionnaire was used. The purpose of the present report is to compare the estimated nutrient intakes obtained with the two instruments; to compare correlations of nutrient intakes obtained at the two exams with those observed for other lifestyle and physiological variables also measured 2 years apart; and to assess ability to test hypotheses relating 2-year changes in risk factors to between-exam differences in reported nutrient intakes. Mean levels of reported intake were generally greater for both blacks and whites on the CARDIA diet history than on the Block food frequency. Rank order correlations of reported nutrient intakes between the two questionnaires indicated greater consistency between instruments for whites (r's ranging between 0.35 and 0.52) than for blacks (r's ranging between 0.29 and 0.45). Correlations over time for nutrients were smaller than those observed for body size measures and lipid levels but were similar in magnitude to those for blood pressure, physical activity, and life events. At both exams, total caloric intake was positively associated with physical activity (range of r's for CARDIA were 0.07 for white women to 0.23 for black men, the range of r's for Block were 0.06 for women to 0.11 for white men). Using data from the two examinations, 2-year changes in total plasma cholesterol were significantly related to 2 year changes in Keys scores. The results of this comparison are useful in that they show similarities and differences between two instruments developed to gather dietary intake data. The study also illustrates the need to monitor young adults during a time when rapid changes occur in many lifestyle

  11. Peak bone strength is influenced by calcium intake in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Viguet-Carrin, S; Hoppler, M; Membrez Scalfo, F; Vuichoud, J; Vigo, M; Offord, E A; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of supplementing the diet of the growing male rat with different levels of calcium (from low to higher than recommended intakes at constant Ca/P ratio), on multiple factors (bone mass, strength, size, geometry, material properties, turnover) influencing bone strength during the bone accrual period. Rats, age 28days were supplemented for 4weeks with high Ca (1.2%), adequate Ca (0.5%) or low Ca level (0.2%). Bone metabolism and structural parameters were measured. No changes in body weight or food intake were observed among the groups. As anticipated, compared to the adequate Ca intake, low-Ca intake had a detrimental impact on bone growth (33.63 vs. 33.68mm), bone strength (-19.7% for failure load), bone architecture (-58% for BV/TV) and peak bone mass accrual (-29% for BMD) due to the hormonal disruption implied in Ca metabolism. In contrast, novel, surprising results were observed in that higher than adequate Ca intake resulted in improved peak bone strength (106 vs. 184N/mm for the stiffness and 61 vs. 89N for the failure load) and bone material properties (467 vs. 514mPa for tissue hardness) but these effects were not accompanied by changes in bone mass, size, microarchitecture or bone turnover. Hormonal factors, IGF-I and bone modeling were also evaluated. Compared to the adequate level of Ca, IGF-I level was significantly lower in the low-Ca intake group and significantly higher in the high-Ca intake group. No detrimental effects of high Ca were observed on bone modeling (assessed by histomorphometry and bone markers), at least in this short-term intervention. In conclusion, the decrease in failure load in the low calcium group can be explained by the change in bone geometry and bone mass parameters. Thus, improvements in mechanical properties can be explained by the improved quality of intrinsic bone tissue as shown by nanoindentation. These results suggest that supplemental Ca may be beneficial for the attainment of

  12. Association between phosphorus intake and bone health in the NHANES population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert W; Cho, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the independent associations between intake of phosphorus (P) and bone health parameters such as bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). It provides odds ratio (OR) of osteoporosis with quartiles of P intake adjusted for covariates (i.e., age, gender, BMI, and consumption of calcium (Ca), protein, total dairy foods, and vitamin D as well as intakes of supplemental Ca, vitamin D, and multivitamins/minerals). Data came from males and females aged 13-99 years who participated in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Analyses showed that higher P intake was associated with higher Ca intake, and that dietary Ca:P ratios (0.51-0.62, with a mean of 0.60 for adults) were adequate in all age/gender groups. High intake of P was positively associated with BMC in female teenagers (Q4 vs. Q1: BMC, 30.9 ± 1.1 vs. 29.0 ± 0.5 g, P = 0.001). It was also positively associated with BMC and BMD as well as reduced risk of osteoporosis in adults >20 years of age (Q4 vs. Q1: OR of osteoporosis, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39- 0.79; P = 0.001; BMC, 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 36.70 ± 0.3 g, P < 0.01; BMD, 0.986 ± 0.004 vs. 0.966 ± 0.005 g/cm(2), P < 0.05). The data suggest that high intake of P has no adverse effect on bone metabolism in populations with adequate Ca intake, and that it is also associated with positive bone parameters in some age/gender groups. PMID:25856461

  13. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Anita J.; Fink, Birgit A.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Boys, Christopher J.; Hoecker, Heather L.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, doubleblind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5 – 4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food were averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2 – 5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007–2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794

  14. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794

  15. [Caloric value and ash content of dominant plants in plantation communities in Heshan of Guangdong, China].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-ping; Cai, Xi-an; Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xing-quan

    2009-03-01

    Different parts of twenty dominant plant species in five plantation communities on the subtropical hilly lands in Heshan of Gunagdong as well as the litters from three of the five plantation communities were sampled, and their gross caloric value (GCV) and ash content were measured by using a PARR-1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter and a muffle furnace. Based on the measurements, the ash-free caloric value (AFCV) of the samples was calculated, and the characteristics of caloric value and ash content of the samples, according to plant part, individual, and plant growth form, were analyzed. The results showed that the GCV and AFCV of leaf, branch, stem wood, stem bark, and root were in the range of 10.7-22.17 kJ x g(-1) and 13.89-23.04 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The GCV and AFCV of leaf were significantly higher than those of other parts (P < 0.05), and the individual plant' s weighted mean values of GCV and AFCV were in the range of 14.24-19.43 and 16.63-20.99 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The mean AFCV of plantation communities was in the order of tree layer (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > shrub layer (19.46 kJ x g(-1) > herb layer (18.77 kJ x g(-1)), with indigenous coniferous tree (19.86 kJ x g(-1)) > indigenous broad-leaved tree (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > exotic eucalyptus (19.18 kJ x g(-1)), while the mean ash content was just the opposite. In Acacia mangium, coniferous, and Schima plantation communities, the GCV and AFCV of litters were higher than those of various plant parts (P < 0.01). The litter-falls in A. mangium and coniferous plantations had higher mean GCV and AFCV than the litters and fresh leaves of tree layer, while the fresh leaves of tree layer in Schima plantation showed higher mean GCV and AFCV. PMID:19637580

  16. Dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV infection and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca Maria; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Mohammed, Saira Saddia; Fung, Lillia Yan; Jalali, Pegah; Salit, Irving Elliot; Allard, Johane Pierette

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV and metabolic abnormalities and to compare the data to Canadian recommendations. Sixty-five HIV-infected men with at least one feature associated with the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, or lipodystrophy) were enrolled. Results from 7-day food records and activity logs were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and recommendations of Canada's Physical Activity Guide, respectively. Anthropometric data were also measured. Fifty-two percent of the subjects were overweight, another 15% were obese. However, energy intake (mean+/-SEM) (2153+/-99 kcal/d) was lower than the estimated requirement (2854+/-62 kcal/d; p<0.0001), and 84.5% of the patients reached the recommended minimum of 60 min of mild or 30 min of moderate daily exercise. Intake was adequate for protein, but high for fat and cholesterol in 40% of patients. No patient reached the recommendation for fiber. Intake from diet alone was suboptimal for most micronutrients. Prevalence was highest for low vitamin E (91% of patients) and magnesium (68%) intake, and high sodium intake (72%). In summary, a large proportion of HIV patients with metabolic abnormalities were overweight or obese. However, this was not associated with high energy intake, or reduced physical activity. High fat, low fiber and inadequate micronutrient intakes were prevalent. PMID:18288980

  17. What does the head impulse test versus caloric dissociation reveal about vestibular dysfunction in Ménière's disease?

    PubMed

    McGarvie, Leigh A; Curthoys, Ian S; MacDougall, Hamish G; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-04-01

    In patients with Ménière's disease (MD), caloric testing can show, depending on the stage and activity of the disease, a variety of results. Between attacks, many, or perhaps even most, patients with unilateral early or mild MD have normal caloric tests; late MD can show abnormalities ranging from mild to severe unilateral canal paresis with or without directional preponderance. The explanation of canal paresis in MD is not clear. The most obvious explanation, severe loss of lateral canal hair cells, is not likely to be correct because hair cell loss will not explain the fluctuating canal paresis to caloric stimulation. In contrast, the published evidence is that rotational testing of semicircular canal function in MD patients typically shows little reduction in function and even enhancement of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain, at least in the early stages of the disease. Here, we offer a novel explanation for this dissociation. We propose that hydropic expansion of the lateral canal membranous labyrinth permits convective recirculation within the duct that allows dissipation of the hydrostatic force that would normally cause cupular displacement and nystagmus in the caloric test. PMID:25721760

  18. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  19. The effect of caloric restriction and glycemic load on measures of oxidative stress and antioxidants in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that reduction in oxidative stress and increase in antioxidant defense is one potential mechanism by which caloric restriction (CR) increases longevity in several animal models. To determine whether a short-term CR modulates indices of oxidative stress and antioxidants defense ...

  20. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice. PMID:23833202