Science.gov

Sample records for adequate clean water

  1. The clean water handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, J.G.; Randle, R.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors offer an explanation of how the clean water laws and regulations affect business operations. This book includes chapters on: Introduction and overview of the Clean Water Act; Enforcement: the power behind the word; toxics water quality standards for industrial and municipal discharges: development and application; Effluent limitations for toxic pollutant discharges from industrial sources: development and application; National pollutant elimination system; Control of stormwater and nonpoint source discharges of water pollution; Reporting and cleanup requirements for releases, spills, or discharges of oil and hazardous substances; Oil spill liability legislation; and Special issues facing publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and their effect on industrial pretreatment obligations and expenses.

  2. The Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), was adopted on 18 October 1972. Since then it has been amended 18 times, the last amendments were adopted on 4 February 1987. As established, its objective is: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation`s waters. And has, as an interim goal: water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water. It should be noted that Congress established as the Act`s ultimate goal: the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. The Act set out to meet this lofty objective and goal through the development and implementation of controls on the point source discharges and the nonpoint source release of pollutants. The regulation of point and nonpoint sources as well as future requirements are discussed.

  3. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  4. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  5. Clean Water Act amendments debated

    SciTech Connect

    Deland, M.R.

    1982-08-01

    A short discussion of the debate taking place between Congress, industry and environmental groups with respect to the amendments to the Clean Water Act is presented. The discussion considers the EPA proposal, the reaction to it, and the prognosis for passage. (KRM)

  6. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits. PMID:26247291

  7. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  8. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  9. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2016-07-12

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  10. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  11. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  12. Fuel cell clean waste water discharge system

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, A.P.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes a fuel cell power plant having a power section, and having a water circulating system for cooling the power section. The water circulating system comprising: a water storage tank for storing water used in the circulating system; decontaminating means for cleaning water in the circulating system; first means for carrying water from the storage tank to the decontaminating means; second means for carrying water from the decontaminating means to the power section for cooling the latter; third means for carrying only clean water from the decontaminating means to the storage tank; fourth means for carrying contaminated water from the power section to the storage tank; and discharge means for releasing water to ambient surrounding from the third means when the amount of water in the storage tank exceeds a predetermined volume whereby only clean water is discharged into the ambient surroundings from the power plant.

  13. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  14. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  15. Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

  16. Making markets work for clean water.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, G

    2003-01-01

    Part of the solution to close the gap to meet the UN Millennium safe water goal lies in the domestic consumer marketplace. Multinational corporations must design products for low income consumers to deliver clean water at a household level. The future of business is linked to improving the lives of developing country consumers and to the improved economic status of those consumers.

  17. Providing clean water, keeping water clean: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Thompson, T; Sobsey, M; Bartram, J

    2003-06-01

    Millions of people, most of whom are children in developing countries, die of basic hygiene-related diseases every year. Interventions in hygiene, sanitation and water supply have been shown to control disease burden. Universal access to improved water sources and basic sanitation remains elusive but is an important long-term goal. Studies have shown that improving the microbiological quality of household water by on-site or point-of-use treatment and safe storage in improved vessels reduces diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases in communities and households of developing and developed countries. The extent to which improving drinking water quality at the household level reduces diarrhoeal disease probably depends on a variety of technology-related and site-specific environmental and demographic factors that require further investigation, characterisation and analyses.

  18. CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

  19. Clean Water for Remote Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center engineers are working on creating the Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System, a complex system of devices intended to sustain the astronauts living on the ISS and, in the future, sustain those who are blasting off to the Moon or Mars. The devices make use of the available resources, by turning wastewater from respiration, sweat, and urine into drinkable water. One of the devices that Marshall has been working on is the Water Recovery System (WRS). Marshall has teamed with long-time NASA contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc., of Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Hamilton Sundstrand, the original designer of the life support devices for the space suits, developed the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). It, along with the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) developed by Marshall, combines to make up the total system, which is about the size of two refrigerators, and will support up to a six-member crew. The system is currently undergoing final testing and verification. "The Water Processor Assembly can produce up to about 28 gallons of potable recycled water each day," said Bob Bagdigian, Marshall Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System project manager. After the new systems are installed, annual delivered water to the ISS should decrease by approximately 15,960 pounds, or about 1,600 gallons.

  20. THE FIGHT FOR CLEAN WATER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THIS PUBLICATION DISCUSSES IN DEPTH THE PROBLEM OF WATER POLLUTION AS SEEN BY THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. DOMESTIC SEWAGE, INDUSTRIAL WASTES, AND ALLEVIATION ACTIVITIES OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH AND COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS ARE DESCRIBED. SIX APPENDIXES PRESENT CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTS REGARDING THE PROBLEM. THIS IS AN ISSUE OF…

  1. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  2. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  3. Clean Water Act 20 years later

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    This volume explores the issues associated with the complex subject of water quality protection in an assessment of the successes and failures of the Clean Water Act over the past twenty years. In addition to examining traditional indicators of water quality, the authors consider how health concerns of the public have been addressed, and present a detailed examination of the ecological health of the waters. Taken together, these measures present a far more complete and balanced picture than raw water quality data alone. As well as reviewing past effectiveness, the book includes specific recommendations for the reauthorization of the Act, which is to be considered by Congress in 1995. This balanced and insightful account will surely shape the debate among legislative and policy experts and citizen activists at all levels who are concerned with issues of water quality.

  4. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  5. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  6. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  7. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  8. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  9. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and...

  10. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water...

  11. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

  12. Evaluation of surfactant-water mixtures as cleaning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1993-02-01

    Water solutions of several common surfactants were tested for their capabilities as cleaners in an ultrasonic cleaning process. Glass and stainless steel test specimens were soiled with organic materials, cleaned in a test solution, and evaluated for cleanliness by the water-break test. No surfactant was able to clean all of the specimens sufficiently to pass the test.

  13. Research to support Clean Water Act reauthorization

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, A. )

    1993-05-01

    The forest products industry is supporting a program of investigations to assemble and evaluate existing information of forest management and water quality. Preliminary conclusions from the projects include the following: relative to other land uses, the quality of water from forests is the best in the nation; all states with significant commercial timber harvest activity already have nonpoint-source control programs for forestry. Noncompliance with Best Management Practices by some landowners and loggers is perceived to be the most common cause of forest water quality problems in most areas. Future research will include two high-priority items: determination of costs and benefits of regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to controlling forestry nonpoint sources and developing information and management systems adequate to support site-specific prescriptions that achieve water quality objectives at minimum cost.

  14. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, Gordon D

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  15. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34... Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award... (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319(c)), and is...

  16. Clean water bill wins house approval

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-24

    Last week`s house passage of a Clean Water Act rewrite marks the biggest advance so far of the risk and cost-benefit agenda in an environmental law. It requires cost-benefit analyses of all major water regulations. {open_quotes}This is the first major environmental statute to incorporate those principles,{close_quotes} says a CMA-spokesperson. CMA praises the bill for encouraging pollution prevention and innovative technology by making it easier to obtain permit variances; eliminating overlapping federal and state pretreatment requirements; and making the Great Lakes Initiative a guidance document instead of a mandatory requirement. The bill`s future is uncertain, since the chairman of the Senate Environment Committee sees little wrong with the current law and is uninterested in pursuing a broad reauthorization, and President Clinton`s environmental aides are recommending a veto.

  17. Clean water provision in rural areas of less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Roundy, R W

    1985-01-01

    The decade of the 1980s is declared as a time to solve global domestic water supply problems. By 1990 international goals include the provision of adequate quantities of clean water to every person on earth. Such goals are justified on the basis of human health, economic well being, political development and equity and public safety. Drawing upon observations from Ethiopia, Malaysia and Liberia, cases where attempts to provide domestic water to villagers and rural town dwellers are presented. In all cited cases attempts to provide safe water have failed or are in jeopardy. Conclusions drawn from these cases include acknowledgement that global goals will best be achieved by approaching local problems one-by-one and recognizing the technical, environmental and human constraints upon safe water provision interact differently from one site to another. To properly plan, implement and maintain safe water systems the current technical solutions must be combined with the contributions of social and environmental scientists on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Clean hydrogen and power from impure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Canan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Naterer, Greg F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new photoelectrochemical (PEC) H2 production system which is capable of providing clean energy and water, and multi-generation of H2, electricity, heat and industrial chemicals from a single clean, abundant and renewable source: sun. This novel system maximizes solar spectrum utilization and increases system efficiencies by generating more outputs from solar energy alone. The hybrid PEC-chloralkali system, coupled with PV/T (Photovoltaic Thermal), is capable of producing H2, Cl2, electricity, and heat simultaneously. Incoming solar light is split into high-energy photons (with wavelengths lower than 400 nm) and low-energy photons. The high-energy portion is used to generate photocurrent in the reactor, and the remaining part is sent to the PV/T. This PV/T supports the electricity needs of the system and also provides electricity output for the end user. Moreover, the heat recovered from PV/T is a system output. The findings suggest that this system is capable of producing H2 and Cl2 as well as heat and electricity with higher efficiencies than the reported PV electrolysis and PEC-based H2 production efficiencies in the literature.

  19. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... existing technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State...

  20. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean...

  1. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and relevant state law at facilities formerly owned by PolyOne...

  2. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  3. 75 FR 10503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act... Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q, the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, the Emergency...

  4. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act; and the... Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

  5. Clean Water Action Plan: The first year -- the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President asked the federal agencies to develop and implement a comprehensive plan that would help revitalize the nation's commitment to valuable water resources. The result was the Clean Water Action Plan, which was released on February 19, 1998. This report marks the first anniversary of the Clean Water Action Plan. It highlights the progress that has been made toward implementing this ambitious plan and outlines the agenda for the coming year.

  6. Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Sutomo, Sumengen

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of water problems faces nations and individuals around the world. These problems include international and regional disputes over water, water scarcity and contamination,unsustainable use of groundwater, ecological degradation,and the threat of climate change. At the heart of the world's water problems, however, is the failure to provide even the most basic water services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure. In 2000, the World Health Organization reported about regularly monitoring access to water and sanitation of 89%of the world's population, in which about 1.1 billion people lacked access to "improved water supply" and more than 2.4 billion lacked access to "improved sanitation". The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades.The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia.

  7. Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Sutomo, Sumengen

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of water problems faces nations and individuals around the world. These problems include international and regional disputes over water, water scarcity and contamination,unsustainable use of groundwater, ecological degradation,and the threat of climate change. At the heart of the world's water problems, however, is the failure to provide even the most basic water services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure. In 2000, the World Health Organization reported about regularly monitoring access to water and sanitation of 89%of the world's population, in which about 1.1 billion people lacked access to "improved water supply" and more than 2.4 billion lacked access to "improved sanitation". The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades.The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia. PMID:23095182

  8. F-specific RNA bacteriophages are adequate model organisms for enteric viruses in fresh water.

    PubMed Central

    Havelaar, A H; van Olphen, M; Drost, Y C

    1993-01-01

    Culturable enteroviruses were detected by applying concentration techniques and by inoculating the concentrates on the BGM cell line. Samples were obtained from a wide variety of environments, including raw sewage, secondary effluent, coagulated effluent, chlorinated and UV-irradiated effluents, river water, coagulated river water, and lake water. The virus concentrations varied widely between 0.001 and 570/liter. The same cell line also supported growth of reoviruses, which were abundant in winter (up to 95% of the viruses detected) and scarce in summer (less than 15%). The concentrations of three groups of model organisms in relation to virus concentrations were also studied. The concentrations of bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms and fecal streptococci) were significantly correlated with virus concentrations in river water and coagulated secondary effluent, but were relatively low in disinfected effluents and relatively high in surface water open to nonhuman fecal pollution. The concentrations of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNA phages) were highly correlated with virus concentrations in all environments studied except raw and biologically treated sewage. Numerical relationships were consistent over the whole range of environments; the regression equations for FRNA phages on viruses in river water and lake water were statistically equivalent. These relationships support the possibility that enteric virus concentrations can be predicted from FRNA phage data. PMID:8215367

  9. Clean water and energy from hyacinths

    SciTech Connect

    Duffer, W.; Kellogg, J.

    1981-04-01

    Studies in 15 US cities and Japan on the water hyacinth show that the same characteristics which make it a nuisance - its ability to thrive in a variety of water systems - can make it a source of animal feed, soil mulch, energy, and water purification. The plant prefers slow-moving water enriched with the waste water from fields, factories, and residences. A water-hyacinth treatment facility is less expensive and uses less energy than conventional facilities. (DCK)

  10. In situ sampling in coastal waters - in search for an adequate spatial resolution for chlorophyll monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolvanen, H.; Suominen, T.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow coastal archipelagos give rise to highly dynamic water quality patterns. In situ sampling inevitably loses detail of this spatio-temporal variation, regardless of the spatial and temporal resolution of the monitoring. In the shallow coastal areas of SW Finland in the Baltic Sea, the spatio-temporal variation of water properties is especially high due to the complexity of the archipelago environment and its bathymetry. Water quality monitoring is traditionally carried out in situ on a point network with 5-20 km distance between the sampling stations. Also the temporal coverage is irregular and often focused to the high summer (late July to early August) to capture the highest algal occurrences resulting from eutrophication. The amount of phytoplankton may have irregular vertical variation caused by local prevailing conditions, and therefore the biomass within the productive layer is usually measured by the amount of chlorophyll as a collective sample of the single vertical profile per station. However, the amount of phytoplankton varies also horizontally over short distances in the coastal water that may be homogenous in temperature and salinity. We tested the representativeness of the traditional single sampling station method by expanding the measurement station into six parallel sampling points within a 0.25 km2 area around the station. We measured the chlorophyll content in depth profiles from 1 m to 10 m depth using an optical water quality sonde. This sampling scheme provides us with a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of phytoplankton in the water mass. The data include three six-point stations in different parts of the coastal archipelago. All stations were sampled several times during the growing season of 2007. In this paper, we compare the results of the established one-point collective depth sampling with the locally extended sampling scheme that portrays also the small-scale horizontal variation of phytoplankton. We

  11. Reauthorization of Clean Water Act remains debatable, raises objections

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J. )

    1994-06-13

    With the full Senate poised to begin work on legislation rewriting the Clean Water Act, the House Public Works and Transportation Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment has jumped back into the debate after a yearlong hiatus. Late last month, the subcommittee held two days of hearings to get input from a number of diverse groups concerning proposed revisions to the Clean Water Quality Act of 1994, H.R. 3948. As the subcommittee once again found out, many groups and organizations have a stake in clean water, and most do not think currently proposed legislation meets their requirements. H.R. 3948 touches on three issues that are currently causing a backlash to environmental laws in general. The issues are unfunded mandates, wetland designations, and risk assessment.

  12. Evaluation of pressurized water cleaning systems for hardware refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, Terry W.; Deweese, Charles D.; Hoppe, David T.; Vickers, John H.; Swenson, Gary J.; Hutchens, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, refurbishment processes for RSRM motor cases and components have employed environmentally harmful materials. Specifically, vapor degreasing processes consume and emit large amounts of ozone depleting compounds. This program evaluates the use of pressurized water cleaning systems as a replacement for the vapor degreasing process. Tests have been conducted to determine if high pressure water washing, without any form of additive cleaner, is a viable candidate for replacing vapor degreasing processes. This paper discusses the findings thus far of Engineering Test Plan - 1168 (ETP-1168), 'Evaluation of Pressurized Water Cleaning Systems for Hardware Refurbishment.'

  13. Does limited data availability prevent adequate water use estimates on farm scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayatz, Benjamin; Kuster, Benjamin; Percy, Barbara; Hillier, Jonathan; Freese, Dirk; Wattenbach, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Increasing food production for a growing world population and at the same time mitigating climate change as well as adapting to its consequences is one of the key global challenges. Therefore producing crops with fewer resources such as water and fertilizers and less emissions of greenhouse gases is an important question that has to be answered on farm scale. The cool farm tool (CFT) is a farm scale emission calculator and was developed in 2010 to help farmers to reduce their carbon footprint. In order to adapt to future climate change an easy to use and at the same time robust water footprinting tool is needed for the CFT to take a more holistic approach on environmental sustainability. However data on farm level is often scarce. We investigated the effect of limited data on actual evapotranspiration using the FAO56 standard to assess the quality of farm water footprint estimates. Calculations are based on various agricultural sites from the Fluxnet database and estimates are compared to eddy covariance measurements. Results show that higher data availability is not directly linked to more accurate estimates of actual evapotranspiration. Estimates based only on temperature and relative humidity are still able to reproduce daily patterns. However cumulative values over one growing season show a considerable offset to eddy covariance observations for all data input levels. Finding the optimum between data requirements and an accuracy that fulfills farmer needs is crucial. Engagement of farmers and using a global network as the Fluxnet database will help to achieve this goal.

  14. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... waterbodies were added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for... 303(d) List can be obtained at EPA Region 6's Web site at...

  15. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant...

  16. Process for gas cleaning with reclaimed water

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, L.E.; Marion, C.P.; Richter, G.N.

    1980-06-03

    Dispersions comprising of water and particulate solids i.e. carbon and ash are produced in at least one gas cooling or scrubbing zone by quench cooling or scrubbing, or both the raw gas stream from a partial oxidation gas generator with water. Advantageously, the water may be reclaimed by this process. In one embodiment, the carbon-water dispersion containing any ash is mixed with a liquid organic extractant and a liquid aqueous emulsion. The emulsion breaks up, and in a decanting operation a carbon-extractant-water dispersion containing gaseous impurities separates out and floats on a dilute bottoms water layer containing gaseous impurities and some solids. The carbon extractant-water dispersion is mixed with a heavy liquid hydrocarbon and introduced into a distillation column. The overhead from the distillation column is cooled and separated in a separation vessel into an upper layer of liquid organic extractant, an intermediate layer of aqueous emulsion, a bottom layer of water, and an overhead stream of uncondensed gaseous impurities if any. The liquid aqueous emulsion and the liquid extractant are recycled to the decanting operation. The water layer from the separation vessel and the bottoms water from the decanting operation are separately introduced into a flash column where the water is reclaimed. The flash column includes at least one stripping plate and two chambers at the bottom separated by a weir. The overhead from the flash column is cooled below the dew point and is introduced into said separation vessel. In another scheme, the emulsion is mixed with the bottoms water from the decanting operation and fed to a flash column for reclaiming water. Alternately, the aqueous emulsion is broken-up into water and liquid hydrocarbon by heating.

  17. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  18. 75 FR 42130 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; Toxic Substances Control Act; and the Reporting Requirements of the... U.S.C. 6901 to 6992k; Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f to 300j-26;...

  19. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  20. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Wim; Prinsen, Geert.; Hoogewoud, Jacco; Veldhuizen, Ab; Ruijgh, Erik; Kroon, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with? by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses. Regional expertise is welcomed in the calibration phase of NHI. It aims to reduce uncertainties by improving the

  1. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-12

    This document describes some of the accomplishments of the Department of Energy Water Power Program, and how those accomplishments are supporting the advancement of renewable energy generated using hydropower technologies and marine and hydrokinetic technologies.

  2. Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and protecting America`s waters

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    On October 18, 1997, the 25th anniversary of the enactment of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President called for a renewed effort to restore and protect water quality. The Vice President asked that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with other affected agencies, develop a Clean Water Action Plan that builds on clean water successes and addresses three major goals: (1) enhanced protection from public health threats posed by water pollution; (2) more effective control of polluted runoff; and (3) promotion of water quality protection on a watershed basis.

  3. Bioinspired Bifunctional Membrane for Efficient Clean Water Generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lou, Jinwei; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil P; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-13

    Solving the problems of water pollution and water shortage is an urgent need for the sustainable development of modern society. Different approaches, including distillation, filtration, and photocatalytic degradation, have been developed for the purification of contaminated water and the generation of clean water. In this study, we explored a new approach that uses solar light for both water purification and clean water generation. A bifunctional membrane consisting of a top layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), a middle layer of Au NPs, and a bottom layer of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was designed and fabricated through multiple filtration processes. Such a design enables both TiO2 NP-based photocatalytic function and Au NP-based solar-driven plasmonic evaporation. With the integration of these two functions into a single membrane, both the purification of contaminated water through photocatalytic degradation and the generation of clean water through evaporation were demonstrated using simulated solar illumination. Such a demonstration should also help open up a new strategy for maximizing solar energy conversion and utilization. PMID:26646606

  4. Bioinspired Bifunctional Membrane for Efficient Clean Water Generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lou, Jinwei; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil P; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-13

    Solving the problems of water pollution and water shortage is an urgent need for the sustainable development of modern society. Different approaches, including distillation, filtration, and photocatalytic degradation, have been developed for the purification of contaminated water and the generation of clean water. In this study, we explored a new approach that uses solar light for both water purification and clean water generation. A bifunctional membrane consisting of a top layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), a middle layer of Au NPs, and a bottom layer of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was designed and fabricated through multiple filtration processes. Such a design enables both TiO2 NP-based photocatalytic function and Au NP-based solar-driven plasmonic evaporation. With the integration of these two functions into a single membrane, both the purification of contaminated water through photocatalytic degradation and the generation of clean water through evaporation were demonstrated using simulated solar illumination. Such a demonstration should also help open up a new strategy for maximizing solar energy conversion and utilization.

  5. Clean Water: Report to Congress - 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This publication, an annual report to Congress, covers measures taken to implement the objectives of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The report was developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and covers calendar year 1973. A letter introducing and highlighting the report from the EPA Director to the Congress is given at the…

  6. Clean, Safe Water. For How Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenke, Pam

    The document presents research and project-oriented activities at the secondary school level for studying Illinois' streams, water pollution, and methods for controlling pollution. Social, economic, and political issues are examined as part of the planning for pollution prevention. Following six teaching objectives, background information traces…

  7. WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

  8. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  9. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  10. EPA Sees No Economic Blocks to Clean Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Environmental Protection Agency report on the economic impacts of clean water on industries and municipal sewage treatment works. Concludes that the long-term growth of the industry may be slightly impaired, but market trends, technological advances, and productivity will far overshadow these impacts. (CC)

  11. The Public Benefits of Cleaned Water: Emerging Greenway Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Howard

    Highlighted are opportunities for greenway development and protection. It encourages careful management in the use of waterfront land, early planning for public access and enjoyment of cleaned rivers, streams, and harbors, and efforts to ensure that these bodies of water are not repolluted by new, indiscriminate development attracted to their…

  12. An Innovation for Global Clean Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA, Umpqua Research developed the Microbial Check Valve (MCV) iodine-dispensing system for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, introduced in 1979 to purify astronauts' drinking water. In 1989, NASA awarded the company a new contract to develop a system for continuous iodine release over long periods for use in the International Space Station. In 1993, the company demonstrated the Regenerable Biocide Delivery Unit, and NASA granted it an exclusive license.

  13. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  14. Dealing with the Clean Water Act pending reauthorization

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1994-09-01

    This report addresses probable changes in the Clean Water Act that may affect federal facilities such as those under the DOE. These changes will be included in a reauthorization of the act. The author draws upon the 1992 National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress as a source to identify changes in the focus of the reauthorized act on non-point source issues, watershed management, new enforcement mechanisms and an assortment of smaller issues that will have indirect effects on federal facilities.

  15. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  16. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  17. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  18. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  19. 77 FR 52762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR....). The Modified Consent Decree addresses, among other things, alleged violations of the federal Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq., and the Massachusetts Clean Waters Act, Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 21,...

  20. 78 FR 37847 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 18, 2013, the Department of...-00584-JPG-SCW. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States... 301 of the Clean Water Act, at property located approximately five miles east of Johnston City...

  1. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  2. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  3. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  5. 78 FR 34406 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 3, 2013, the Department of... International, Inc. (``Davisco'') for penalties pursuant to Section 309 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319... Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by EPA under Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33...

  6. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. PMID:27070382

  7. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  8. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  9. 78 FR 44599 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 15, 2013, the Department of... United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States' complaint seeks injunctive relief and civil penalties for discharges of pollutants, in violation of Section 301 of the Clean...

  10. 75 FR 68620 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on... Pennsylvania. The United States and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania also filed claims pursuant to the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq, and the Pennsylvania Clean Streams Law, 35 P.S. Sec. Sec. 691.1 et...

  11. 77 FR 75446 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On December 13, 2012, the Department..., Civil Action No. 3:09-cv-1873. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States' complaint seeks injunctive relief and civil penalties for violations of the Clean...

  12. 77 FR 43860 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR...'') violated Sections 301, 311, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1321, and 1342, applicable... and undertake measures to achieve compliance with the above-referenced provisions of the Clean...

  13. 40 CFR 463.20 - Applicability; description of the cleaning water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning... the cleaning water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic product for... equipment, such as molds and mandrels, that contact the plastic material for the purpose of cleaning...

  14. 40 CFR 463.20 - Applicability; description of the cleaning water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning... the cleaning water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic product for... equipment, such as molds and mandrels, that contact the plastic material for the purpose of cleaning...

  15. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... ``Fort Gay'') for permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26; the West Virginia Water Pollution... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is...

  16. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  19. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  20. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  1. Optimisation of water-cannon cleaning for deposit removal on water walls inside waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Graube, Franziska; Grahl, Sebastian; Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Deposits in municipal waste incinerators are very inhomogeneous in structure and constitution. They cause corrosion and reduce the efficiency, so they need to be removed frequently. Among other systems, operators use water cannons for the deposit removal. Two different removal mechanisms of water-cannon cleaning are suggested: A direct shattering of the deposit by the impact of the water jet, as well as the cracking caused by thermal stresses where droplets cool the deposits. As the contribution of each of the aforementioned mechanisms to the overall cleaning efficiency is unknown, we performed empirical investigations to determine the dominating effect. In a first experimental setup focusing on thermal stress, cold droplets were applied onto hot deposits taken from a waste incinerator. Results showed that the cleaning effect strongly depends on the deposit thickness and structure, so that the deposits could be categorised in three different groups. A second measurement campaign focused on the influence of deposit material, deposit temperature and water jet momentum. It could be shown that both deposit material and temperature have a significant effect on the cleaning efficiency, whereas an increase in water jet momentum only led to modest improvements. The combination of these two parameter studies implies that the influence of the thermal stress outweighs that of the momentum. This knowledge is applicable to the cleaning setup by increasing the temperature gradient. PMID:26608897

  2. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's water power research activities. Water power is the nation's largest source of clean, domestic, renewable energy. Harnessing energy from rivers, manmade waterways, and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses can help secure America's energy future. Water power technologies fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower facilities include run-of-the-river, storage, and pumped storage. Most conventional hydropower plants use a diversion structure, such as a dam, to capture water's potential energy via a turbine for electricity generation. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies obtain energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams and ocean thermal gradients to generate electricity. The United States has abundant water power resources, enough to meet a large portion of the nation's electricity demand. Conventional hydropower generated 257 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity in 2010 and provides 6-7% of all electricity in the United States. According to preliminary estimates from the Electric Power Resource Institute (EPRI), the United States has additional water power resource potential of more than 85,000 megawatts (MW). This resource potential includes making efficiency upgrades to existing hydroelectric facilities, developing new low-impact facilities, and using abundant marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. EPRI research suggests that ocean wave and in-stream tidal energy production potential is equal to about 10% of present U.S. electricity consumption (about 400 terrawatt-hours per year). The greatest of these resources is wave energy, with the most potential in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Water Power Program works with industry, universities, other federal agencies, and DOE

  3. Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

  4. Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

    This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water…

  5. Application of magnetic iron-based nanosorbents for water cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Revvo, Anastasya; Byzov, Ilya; Baerner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Iron-based magnetic nanopowders (Fe, γ-Fe2O3, γ-Fe3O4) are effective sorbents for the cleaning of water from heavy metal ions, radionuclides, organic and biological materials. The sorption capacity of the powder is defined by the specific surface which for particle diameter in nanosized range comes up to hundreds of m2/g. However, the small particle size creates difficulties to separate the solid phase from the water suspension using conventional mechanical filtration and sedimentation methods without additional reagents. If the nanoparticles have magnetic moments, their separation from aqueous solution can be enhanced in gradient magnetic fields. This will help to avoid a secondary water pollution by coagulants and flocculants. The sedimentation dynamics of the magnetite (Fe3O4) nanopowders with different particle sizes (10-100 nm) in water in gradient magnetic fields of different configurations ( radial and strip), with the strengths H = 0.5-6 kOe, and gradients up to dH/dz= 2 kOe/cm was studied by optical and by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. . In the gravitation field the suspensions of the small particles (~ 10-20 nm) remain stable for over 20 hours. The sedimentation process can be greatly accelerated by the action of a vertical gradient magnetic field, and the sedimentation time is reduced down to several minutes. In a gradient magnetic field enhanced by a steel grid the sedimentation of the nanopowder (c0= 0.1 g/l) for 180 minutes resulted in the reduction of the iron concentration in water down to 0.4 mg/l. In the flowing water regime the residual iron concentration in water 0.3 mg/l is reached after 80 minutes. This corresponds to the hygienic and environmental standards for drinking water and fishery.

  6. The Clean Water Act, Flow, and the Quest for Integrity of U. S. Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    The federal Clean Water Act (Public Law 92-500, amended in 1977 and 1987) contains one of the broadest goals for ecological protection found in American environmental legislation: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of U.S. waters. The act also refers to attaining water quality sufficient to propagate fish and wildlife and provides for a wide array of regulatory and non-regulatory protection tools. Despite the broad ecological connotations of its goals, its diverse toolbox, and its many successes, the Clean Water Act is not uniformly applicable to all forms of aquatic impairment because its most potent regulations are highly oriented toward controlling pollutants. Flow alterations and their biotic impacts are common examples of non-pollutant impairments that fit the Clean Water Act goal, but not its tools. Nevertheless, the lack of authority to regulate flow under the act has stimulated innovative, indirect approaches to the restoration of flow-related impairments. The presentation will address the limits of the Clean Water Act in addressing flow as well as a variety of examples of working within the scope of the act to overcome those limits.

  7. 76 FR 26768 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The Federal Pipeline Safety Laws Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. BP... relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, as amended by the Oil...

  8. [Clean water. What are the Kempische Steenkoolmijnen doing for this?].

    PubMed

    Michiels, J

    1980-01-01

    Social obligations about the environment have always been a point of major concern at the N.V. Kempense Steenkoolenmijnen; so the company could not ignore environmental standards and existing regulations. This paper focusses attention on the importance of clean water for human health and civilization. Natural water occurs as rainwater, groundwater, surface water and seawater. Waterpollution, its measurement and the possible sources of this pollution are briefly discussed. Attention is also paid to existing regulations which implicate the introduction of discharge conditions. The N.V. Kempense Steenkoolenmijnen can't deny being a polluter. The company produces five types of wastewater, which are discharged into several surface waters. This is a specific contamination containing salts and coal particles. Flow rates are high but variable. To fight this pollution the N.V. Kempense Steenkoolenmijnen has worked out an investment program for each of its five collieries. The treatment of wastewater at a settling basin of the Zolder-colliery is described as an example.

  9. 75 FR 52735 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... EPA's decision identifying 12 water quality limited waterbodies and associated pollutants in South Dakota to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public...

  10. UTILIZING INFORMATION COLLECTED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act was established to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters". Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency collects information from each state regarding the intended ...

  11. 77 FR 1948 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... violations of Sections 301, 308, and 402(p) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (the ``Clean Water Act'' or the ``Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1318 & 1342(p), and implementing regulations. See 40... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  13. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  15. 78 FR 23957 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... establish a Storm Water Pollution Protection Plan (``SWPPP'') addressing all elements specified in the CD... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of...) and (d) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA'' or ``Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d). The United...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  17. 77 FR 71633 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Sections 301, 309, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq. and under the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Law (``MAWPCL'') (Miss. Code Ann. Sec. Sec. 49-17-1 through 49-17-45... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On November 20, 2012, the...

  18. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  19. 78 FR 35315 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Miami-Dade County on December 13, 2012 pursuant to Clean Water Act (``CWA'') Sections 309(b) and (d) and 504, 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d) and 1364, and the Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Fla... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act On June 6, 2013, the Department...

  20. 76 FR 51397 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...., at its sewer system and water pollution control plant. To resolve the United States' claims, the... pollution control plant to eliminate violations of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Justice will... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 11,...

  1. 75 FR 60452 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Water... standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Interested persons may submit comments on this intended...

  2. 76 FR 74057 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... action identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires...

  3. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  4. Should the Clean Water Act Follow Stream Water Underground? Managing Beyond the Stream Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taptich, M. N.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Clean Water Act was designed to protect the integrity of surface waters of the United States. Originally limited to solely waters that were traditionally navigable, the jurisdictional bounds of the Clean Water Act have been expanded to include many other ‘waters of the United States,’ some of which are in fact unnavigable. This expansion of the definition of ‘navigable waters’ has brought many litigative challenges to the true jurisdictional limits of the Act. The recent Supreme Court opinions in Rapanos v. United States (2006) and the subsequent interpretation by lower federal courts have set the precedent for a new approach to jurisdictional determinations, where considerations of function and effect act as gatekeepers for inclusion under the CWA. Justice Kennedy’s significant nexus standard from Rapanos (2006) limits jurisdictional coverage under the Clean Water Act to ‘waters that have a significant nexus with traditional navigable waters.’ Thus, establishing a ‘significant nexus’ between a water body in question and traditionally navigable waters satisfies the requisites needed for inclusion within the scope of the Clean Water Act. By and large there has been a lack of consideration for the near subsurface components of streams when discussing the application of the significant nexus standard. We propose that hyporheic zones, a volume of alluvial aquifer that hosts the exchange of stream water, should be covered under the Clean Water Act, since these zones are intimately connected with their adjoining surface waters and facilitate many processes that are key to supporting healthy stream ecosystems and good water quality. Given the opinions rendered in Rapanos (2006) and the guidance offered by the EPA and Corps following the decision, we demonstrate that the hyporheic zone fulfills each of the functional and ecological example factors used to establish a significant nexus. The implications of this argument include the conversion of our

  5. Improvements in biosolids quality resulting from the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Cox, Albert; Zhang, Heng; Granato, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Promulgation of the Clean Water Act (CWA) authorized the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to regulate quality standards for surface waters and establish regulations limiting the amounts and types of pollutants entering the nation's waters. U.S. EPA imposed national pretreatment standards on industrial wastes discharged to the collection systems of publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and promulgated General Pretreatment Regulations in 1978. This study analyzed trace metals data from the National Sewage Sludge Surveys conducted by U.S. EPA and the American Metropolitan Sewage Agencies (AMSA) to evaluate the effect of implementation of the national industrial pretreatment standards on concentrations of trace metals in sludges generated by POTWs in the United States. The data showed that implementation of pretreatment programs has been highly effective in reducing the amount of pollutants that enter POTWs and has resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of trace metals in the municipal sludges. Concentrations of chromium, lead, and nickel in sludge declined by 78, 73, and 63%, respectively, within a year after promulgation of General Pretreatment Regulations. Resulting from these measures, metal concentrations in the sludges generated by a majority of POTWs in the United States are sufficiently low that the sludges can be classified as biosolids and also meet the U.S. EPA's exceptional quality criteria for trace metals in biosolids. This improvement gives POTWs the option to use their biosolids beneficially through land application. PMID:24645543

  6. 77 FR 25750 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April 19, 2012... the Clean Water Act and Kansas state law. The proposed Consent Decree settles these claims in...

  7. 77 FR 37439 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 6... City of Perth Amboy's (Perth Amboy) Clean Water Act (CWA) violations stemming from its failure...

  8. 75 FR 43206 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on July 20, 2010... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit issued under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251,...

  9. 75 FR 26275 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April... Sites throughout the country. The Consent Decree addresses Hovnanian's violations of the Clean Water...

  10. 78 FR 40769 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 1, 2013, the Department of... projects. The complaint alleged violations of Section 301(a) and 402 of the Clean Water Act...

  11. 76 FR 10390 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice... violations of the federal Clean Water Act and state permits issued in North Carolina and South...

  12. 77 FR 43860 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed... claims under Sections 301, 309 and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq., against the...

  13. 77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on... under Section 311(b) of the Clean Water Act, ] 33 U.S.C. 1321(b), against multiple parties,...

  14. 77 FR 38084 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 20, 2012... (``NPDES'') permits which are federally-enforceable under Section 309 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''),...

  15. 77 FR 25751 - Amended Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Amended Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act On April 24, 2012, at Federal... Section 301, 309, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, and 1342; and Tenn. Code...

  16. 78 FR 20140 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On March 28, 2013, the Department of... against Marisco, Ltd. for injunctive relief and civil penalties based on violations of the Clean Water...

  17. 78 FR 46369 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 23, 2013, the Department of... to Sections 301 and 309 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. Sec. Sec. 1311 and 1319,...

  18. 78 FR 21150 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 20... Authority''), violated various provisions of a permit issued under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, 33...

  19. 77 FR 36575 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on May 29, 2012, a... of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, stemming from three discharges of...

  20. 75 FR 79390 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 13...Kalb County for the Clean Water Act violations involving its sanitary sewer system, alleged in...

  1. 76 FR 27350 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April 27, 2011... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit issued under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251,...

  2. 75 FR 37837 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 2, 2010, a..., pursuant to Section 309(b) and (d) of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d), for civil...

  3. 76 FR 63954 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on September 21... the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1319 and 1342. The United States alleged that by failing...

  4. 78 FR 57176 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On September 9, 2013, the Department... violations of Sections 301 and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1342, and Sections 48-1-50...

  5. 77 FR 50531 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR...) and (d) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1309(b) and (d), and applicable regulations... works (``POTW'') to collect and treat sanitary sewage and industrial wastes. The consent decree...

  6. 78 FR 62931 - Pacific Clean Water Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Pacific Clean Water Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading October 11, 2013. It... concerning the securities of Pacific Clean Water Technologies, Inc. (``PCWT'') because of questions...

  7. 78 FR 62629 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Clean Water Act Section 404 State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Clean Water Act Section 404 State... Environmental Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Clean Water Act... information collection as described below. This is a proposed extension of the ICR, which is...

  8. 77 FR 809 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 29... injunctive relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., Title 13 of the Indiana Code... requires South Bend to pay a total civil penalty of $88,200 split equally between the United States and...

  9. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. Unless the Administrator...

  10. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. Unless the Administrator...

  11. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. Unless the Administrator...

  12. Analysis of UV filters in tap water and other clean waters in Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Llorca, Marta; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the simultaneous determination of five hormonally active UV filters namely benzophenone-3 (BP3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) by means of solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, this methodology achieved low method limits of detection (needed for clean waters, especially drinking water analysis), between 0.02 and 8.42 ng/L, and quantitative recovery rates higher than 73% in all cases. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds were lower than 7% and 11%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to perform the first survey of UV absorbing compounds in tap water from the metropolitan area and the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). In addition, other types of clean water matrices (mineral bottled water, well water and tap water treated with an ion-exchange resin) were investigated as well. Results evidenced that all the UV filters investigated were detected in the water samples analyzed. The compounds most frequently found were EHMC and OC. Maximum concentrations reached in tap water were 290 (BP3), 35 (4MBC), 110 (OD-PABA), 260 (EHMC), and 170 ng/L (OC). This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of UV filter residues in tap water in Europe.

  13. Water Motion in a Water Curtain Head for Cleaning a Large Glass Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Yoshii, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Hattori, Nozomi; Ikuma, Shingo; Kato, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Water motion in a water curtain head, which generates a thin and wide water screen to clean a large, thin and flat glass plate, is studied using numerical calculations based on fluid dynamics and experimental observation of the motion of colored water and small air bubbles in the water channel of the water curtain head. The colored water motion, the observed position of the remaining small air bubbles, and the time required to completely remove the air bubbles were in agreement with the behavior derived from the calculations, such as the water flow pattern and the region having low pressure. In conclusion, the most important factor for the design of the water curtain head is the direction of the water recirculation, which is governed by the distance between the small water-ejection pipes arranged along the wall of the water channel. The entire design of a very wide water curtain head can be performed by considering the water flow in a local region.

  14. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean...

  15. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean...

  16. 76 FR 15999 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act Notice is hereby...' claims on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'') for violations of the Clean...

  17. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.; and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On December 31, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent...

  18. 75 FR 55577 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... of section 308 of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Some information being transferred from the pulp, paper... manufacturing; pulp, paper, and paperboard manufacturing; steam electric power generation; textile mills;...

  19. 78 FR 79484 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... the treatment plant, including measures involving the pretreatment of wastewater. The Consent Decree... Crawfordsville (``City'') has violated the Clean Water Act, because discharges from the City's wastewater treatment plant have violated conditions of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  20. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in Massachusetts by discharging pollutants in storm water associated with construction activity without a permit, failing to timely ]...

  1. Bioinspired Multifunctional Paper-Based rGO Composites for Solar-Driven Clean Water Generation.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jinwei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zhongyong; Zhao, Dengwu; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-06-15

    Reusing polluted water through various decontamination techniques has appeared as one of the most practical approaches to address the global shortage of clean water. Rather than relying on single decontamination mechanism, herein we report the preparation and utilization of paper-based composites for multifunctional solar-driven clean water generation that is inspired by the multiple water purification approaches in biological systems. The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets within such composites can efficiently remove organic contaminants through physical adsorption mechanism. Under solar irradiation, the floating rGO composites can instantly generate localized heating, which not only can directly generate clean water through distillation mechanism but also significantly enhance adsorption removal performance with the assistance of upward vapor flow. Such porous-structured paper-based composites allow for facile incorporation of photocatalysts to regenerate clean water out of contaminated water with combined adsorption, photodegradation, and interfacial heat-assisted distillation mechanisms. Within a homemade all-in-one water treatment device, the practical applicability of the composites for multifunctional clean water generation has been demonstrated.

  2. Bioinspired Multifunctional Paper-Based rGO Composites for Solar-Driven Clean Water Generation.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jinwei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zhongyong; Zhao, Dengwu; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-06-15

    Reusing polluted water through various decontamination techniques has appeared as one of the most practical approaches to address the global shortage of clean water. Rather than relying on single decontamination mechanism, herein we report the preparation and utilization of paper-based composites for multifunctional solar-driven clean water generation that is inspired by the multiple water purification approaches in biological systems. The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets within such composites can efficiently remove organic contaminants through physical adsorption mechanism. Under solar irradiation, the floating rGO composites can instantly generate localized heating, which not only can directly generate clean water through distillation mechanism but also significantly enhance adsorption removal performance with the assistance of upward vapor flow. Such porous-structured paper-based composites allow for facile incorporation of photocatalysts to regenerate clean water out of contaminated water with combined adsorption, photodegradation, and interfacial heat-assisted distillation mechanisms. Within a homemade all-in-one water treatment device, the practical applicability of the composites for multifunctional clean water generation has been demonstrated. PMID:27228106

  3. Chemical cleaning of potable water membranes: The cost benefit of optimisation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Nicandro; Judd, Simon

    2010-03-01

    A study of the variability in chemical cleaning factors on permeability recovery for potable water microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) systems has been carried out employing a cost model simulating plant fouling and cleaning regimes. The impact of a range of operating and cleaning factors on operating cost variation was computed using algorithms describing operational and cleaning factor relationships with permeability recovery data measured from bench scale tests on fibres sampled from full-scale operational plants. The model proceeded through sequencing of the cleaning and backwashing operations to generate transmembrane pressure (TMP), and so head loss, transients. A number of cleaning scenarios were considered for each plant, based on employing either a threshold TMP or fixed chemical cleaning intervals. The resulting TMP profiles were then converted to operational costs. The effect of the variability in permeability recovery on annual operating costs was calculated for each of the simulations. It was evident that significant operating cost reductions were possible from optimisation of the cleaning protocol. Cost benefit varied according to facets of plant design and operation; the innate variability in permeability recovery precluded the correlation of cleaning efficacy with fouling characteristics.

  4. 75 FR 27580 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... with the Surface Water Treatment Rule (``SWTR''), at three Water Treatment Plants (``WTPs'') owned and... treatment plant improvement projects over the next 15 years valued at $195 million. These projects are... of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on May 3,...

  5. 76 FR 68788 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...) Sections 301(a), 309(b) and (d), and 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the... of Water Pollution, 7 Del. Admin. Code Sec. 7201. The United States and Delaware contend that Dupont... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on October...

  6. 75 FR 67088 - Clean Water Act (CWA) and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Common...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act (CWA) and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Common... Development (ORD) to develop common characterizations of effects from pesticides on fish, other aquatic... for water quality that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge. Water quality criteria...

  7. Keeping clean water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, L.; Chartier, Y.; Chartier, O.; Malenga, G.; Toole, M.; Rodka, H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the ability of a water container with a cover and a spout to prevent household contamination of water in a Malawian refugee camp. METHODS: A randomized trial was conducted in a refugee population that had experienced repeated outbreaks of cholera and diarrhoea and where contamination of water in the home was found to be a significant cause of cholera. Four hundred Mozambican refugee households were systematically identified and followed over a 4-month period, one fourth of the households were randomly assigned to exclusively use the improved container for water collection. FINDINGS: Water flowing from the source wells had little or no microbial contamination although the water collectors quickly contaminated their water, primarily through contact with their hands. Analysis of water samples demonstrated that there was a 69% reduction in the geometric mean of faecal coliform levels in household water and 31% less diarrhoeal disease (P = 0.06) in children under 5 years of age among the group using the improved bucket. Regression models examining diarrhoea among under 5-year-olds confirmed the protective effect of the bucket and found that visible faeces in the family latrine and the presence of animals were significantly associated with an increased diarrhoeal incidence in children. CONCLUSION: Household contamination of drinking-water significantly contributed to diarrhoea in this population. Proper chlorination is a less expensive and more effective means of water quality protection in comparison with the improved bucket, but was unpopular and rarely utilized by the camp inhabitants. PMID:11357205

  8. Navigating the Clean Water Act: Connectivity and Legal Protection of Aquatic Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, D. M.; Raanan Kiperwas, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Clean Water Act is the principal federal law protecting the integrity of waters in the United States (e.g., rivers, streams, wetlands, lakes). Clean Water Act protection after U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) (2001) and Rapanos (2006) is determined based on case-by-case analyses of connections among waters. Determining a water's status as a "water of the US" protected by the Act typically requires data and analysis of characteristics such as its flow, and biological and chemical relationships with downstream waters. When such data is not available, the Clean Water Act might not protect the quality and integrity of the water in question. This raises a number of legal and technical challenges for implementation, as well as questions regarding underlying aquatic sciences. In addition, many of the terms used by the court are not fully consistent with similar scientific terms, potentially causing confusion among policymakers and scientists alike. This presentation will discuss the Clean Water Act, and how currently its protections for aquatic resources are dependent on connectivity with larger downstream waters, particularly for those that do not flow perennially. The presentation will focus on the role science has played in forming and informing policy making, areas where science and policy may not be fully consistent, areas where research is still needed, and provide a policy "dictionary" for scientists interested in working on this evolving issue.

  9. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  10. Making the operational cleaning of hot-water boilers more efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshcheryakov, I. M.; Vasilenko, G. V.; Bovina, G. M.; Borovkov, V. M.

    2007-09-01

    We present the results of operations for chemically cleaning hot-water boilers with solutions of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids with a specific contamination of up to 3000 4000 g/m2 or more and content of organic compounds in deposits of up to 20%. Limits for advisable use of these acids were determined, and a positive effect from exposing the surfaces to preliminary alkalization for a longer time was found. The admissible level of residual specific contamination after cleaning is substantiated.

  11. A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianbin; Zhong, Yujiang; Cha, Dongkyu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Oil-water separation has recently become a global challenging task because of the frequent occurrence of oil spill accidents due to the offshore oil production and transportation, and there is an increasing demand for the development of effective and inexpensive approaches for the cleaning-up of the oily pollution in water system. In this study, a self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh that can be used for oil-water separation is prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of sodium silicate and TiO2 nanoparticles on the stainless steel mesh. The integration of the self-cleaning property into the all-inorganic separation mesh by using TiO2 enables the convenient removal of the contaminants by ultraviolet (UV) illumination, and allows for the facile recovery of the separation ability of the contaminated mesh, making it promising for practial oil-water separation applications.

  12. A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lianbin; Zhong, Yujiang; Cha, Dongkyu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Oil–water separation has recently become a global challenging task because of the frequent occurrence of oil spill accidents due to the offshore oil production and transportation, and there is an increasing demand for the development of effective and inexpensive approaches for the cleaning-up of the oily pollution in water system. In this study, a self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh that can be used for oil-water separation is prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of sodium silicate and TiO2 nanoparticles on the stainless steel mesh. The integration of the self-cleaning property into the all-inorganic separation mesh by using TiO2 enables the convenient removal of the contaminants by ultraviolet (UV) illumination, and allows for the facile recovery of the separation ability of the contaminated mesh, making it promising for practial oil-water separation applications. PMID:23900109

  13. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  14. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  15. A cross-sectional survey of water and clean faces in trachoma endemic communities in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Face washing is important to interrupt the transmission of trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to assess the household and personal factors that affected water use and face washing practices in Kongwa, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a household water use survey in 173 households (329 children) in January, 2010. Self reported data on water use practices, observed water in the household, and observed clean faces in children were collected. Contingency table analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to measure associations between unclean faces and risk factors. Results We found that women are recognized as primary decision makers on water use in a household, and respondents who reported laziness as a reason that others do not wash children's faces were significantly more likely to have children with clean faces. Washing was reported as a priority for water use in most households. Sixty four percent (95% Confidence Interval = 59%-70%) of children had clean faces. Conclusions Attitudes toward face washing and household water use appear to have changed dramatically from 20 years ago when clean faces were rare and men made decisions on water use in households. The sources of these attitudinal changes are not clear, but are positive changes that will assist the trachoma control program in strengthening its hygiene efforts. PMID:21702954

  16. 77 FR 40084 - Notice of Lodging of Modification of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ..., implement injunctive relief measures at 126 water treatment plants (WTPs) over a 15 year period throughout... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Modification of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that...

  17. 76 FR 62061 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Register at 76 FR 20664-20665 providing the public the opportunity to review its decision to partially... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for...

  18. 40 CFR 463.20 - Applicability; description of the cleaning water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY.... Processes in the cleaning water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic... shaping equipment, such as molds and mandrels, that contact the plastic material for the purpose...

  19. Role of Advisory Groups. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Presented is an instructor's manual for conducting a learning session about public participation in water quality planning. Participants in the session learn about the purpose, organization, and activities of citizen advisory groups. The manual, a component of the Working for Clean Water Project, is designed for use in conjunction with a…

  20. 77 FR 20020 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved oxygen was not attained in these segments... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 303(d) List can be obtained at EPA Region 6's Web site at...

  1. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN WATER ACT TO PROTECT A NATIONAL TREASURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inh...

  2. 75 FR 26098 - Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Under Water Clean Up of Copper Canyon, Lake... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Havasu in the Copper Canyon in support of the underwater cleanup of Copper Canyon. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  3. A NOVEL USE FOR DATA COLLECTED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collects information on intended stream use and impairment. We hypothesized that counties with impaired drinking water environments will also have higher rates of gastrointestinal infections (01) and gastr...

  4. 77 FR 52060 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Massachusetts in Conservation Law Foundation, Inc. and United States v. Boston Water and Sewer Commission, et al... Conservation Law Foundation's claims of violations under Section 301 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311..., DC 20044-7611. The comments should refer to Conservation Law Foundation, Inc. and United States...

  5. President Clinton's clean water initiative: Analysis of benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    ;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Controls; Storm Water; Combine Sewer Overflows; Toxics Controls; Comprehensive Watershed Management; Permit Discharge Fee; Groundwater Protection; Pollution Prevention Plans; Domestic Sewage Exclusion/Pretreatment; Permits/Enforcement/Water Quality Standards; State Revolving Fund/Construction Grants; Monitoring; Abandoned Mines; Market Incentives-Effluent Trading; Aggregate Benefit Estimates; Nonpoint Source Case Studies; Storm and Surface Water Utility, Bellvue, Washington; Benefits of Toxic Reduction Case Studies; and Detailed Aggregate Benefit Analysis.

  6. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Water power technologies harness energy from rivers and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses, and can help the United States meet its pressing energy, environmental, and economic challenges. Water power technologies; fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower uses dams or impoundments to store river water in a reservoir. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients.

  7. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act On September 28, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Eastern District...

  8. Clean Water for the 1970's, A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Quality Administration.

    This report describes the past activities and future plans of the Federal Water Quality Administration (FWQA). The first of the four sections in the report provides general discussion about these forms of water pollution: municipal wastes, industrial wastes, thermal pollution, oil and hazardous substances, mine drainage, sedimentation and erosion,…

  9. Toward Clean Water: A Guide to Citizen Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outen, Ronald, Ed.; Lawson, Simpson, Ed.

    This guide identifies the major opportunities for participation under the 1976 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments for citizens concerned with the improvement of water quality. The book is aimed primarily at fulfilling the direct needs of citizens at all levels. In addition to an explanation of the law and implementing regulations, this…

  10. 77 FR 18809 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Proposed Withdrawal of Nine Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Proposed Withdrawal of Nine Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs..., Sulfate, TDS. The 2008 Arkansas Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d) list of impaired waters is the... not affect seven final TMDLs published under the same Federal Register notice (see 76 FR 52947)...

  11. 75 FR 20351 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Arkansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Arkansas...) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This TMDL was completed in response to the lawsuit styled Sierra Club... Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6,...

  12. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL... Arkansas, under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This TMDL was completed in response to the.../region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diane Smith at (214) 665-2145....

  13. Glufosinate ammonium clean-up procedure from water samples using SPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb M., A.; Ismail B., S.; Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ta, Goh Choo; Agustar, Hani Kartini

    2015-09-01

    For the determination of glufosinate ammonium residue in soil and water samples, different solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent efficiency was studied. Four different SPE sorbents i.e.: CROMABOND PS-H+, CROMABOND PS-OH-, ISOLUTE ENV+, Water Sep-Pak and OASIS HLB were used. Sample clean-up performance was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1220 infinity LC) with fluorescence detector. Detection of FMO-derivatives was done at λ ex = 260 nm and λ em= 310 nm. OASIS HLB column was the most suitable for the clean-up in view of the overall feasibility of the analysis.

  14. Quality control for federal clean water act and safe drinking water act regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Askew, Ed

    2013-01-01

    QC sample results are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests. Some of the AOAC water methods include specific QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria. These are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform the method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those in 40 CFR Part 136.7, require additional QC or have alternative acceptance limits. Essential QC measures include method calibration, reagent standardization, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, determination of the method's sensitivity (method detection level or quantification limit), and daily evaluation of bias, precision, and the presence of laboratory contamination or other analytical interference. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected ranges of results are set out in this manuscript. The specific regulatory requirements of 40 CFR Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of 40 CFR Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the ISO 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are listed. PMID:23513974

  15. Spring cleaning: rural water impacts, valuation, and property rights institutions.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Michael; Leino, Jessica; Miguel, Edward; Zwane, Alix Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized evaluation in Kenya, we measure health impacts of spring protection, an investment that improves source water quality. We also estimate households' valuation of spring protection and simulate the welfare impacts of alternatives to the current system of common property rights in water, which limits incentives for private investment. Spring infrastructure investments reduce fecal contamination by 66%, but household water quality improves less, due to recontamination. Child diarrhea falls by one quarter. Travel-cost based revealed preference estimates of households' valuations are much smaller than both stated preference valuations and health planners' valuations, and are consistent with models in which the demand for health is highly income elastic. We estimate that private property norms would generate little additional investment while imposing large static costs due to above-marginal-cost pricing, private property would function better at higher income levels or under water scarcity, and alternative institutions could yield Pareto improvements. PMID:21853618

  16. Impact of cleaning regimes on dental water unit contamination.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Soad A; Khalil, Ahmed I

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms that have been identified in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) are of concern because they can cause infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence of microbial contamination in DUWLs before and after intervention to reduce contamination, and to investigate the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Water samples were collected aseptically from the waterlines. The high-speed hand-piece and dental chair units were served by one distillation apparatus, which was fed by the potable tap water of four dental clinics. Different interventions were used: chlorination, flushing before clinics and between patients, draining at the end of the day, and freshly distilled water on a daily basis. There was a significant difference between the level of contamination in the high-speed hand-piece (1.5-2.7 log CFU/ml) and dental chair unit water (2.0-3.5 log CFU/ml). Coliforms (0.9%) E. coli (0.9%) and Pseudomonas (1.8%) were detected during 2008. This study indicates the need to monitor water quality regularly and prevent stagnation in DUWLs to reduce the number of viable bacteria to <100 CFU/ml. We recommend flushing the DUWL for 2 min before the first patient and for 10-20 s between patients, flushing the dental unit at the end of the day and draining it overnight to reduce the development of biofilms, and chlorination of the DUWLs.

  17. Underwater self-cleaning scaly fabric membrane for oily water separation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Guo, Zhenyan; Tian, Dongliang; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Wenxian; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-25

    Oily wastewater is always a threat to biological and human safety, and it is a worldwide challenge to solve the problem of disposing of it. The development of interface science brings hope of solving this serious problem, however. Inspired by the capacity for capturing water of natural fabrics and by the underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property of fish scales, a strategy is proposed to design and fabricate micro/nanoscale hierarchical-structured fabric membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity, by coating scaly titanium oxide nanostructures onto fabric microstructures, which can separate oil/water mixtures efficiently. The microstructures of the fabrics are beneficial for achieving high water-holding capacity of the membranes. More importantly, the special scaly titanium oxide nanostructures are critical for achieving the desired superwetting property toward water of the membranes, which means that air bubbles cannot exist on them in water and there is ultralow underwater-oil adhesion. The cooperative effects of the microscale and nanoscale structures result in the formation of a stable oil/water/solid triphase interface with a robust underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property. Furthermore, the fabrics are common, commercially cheap, and environmentally friendly materials with flexible but robust mechanical properties, which make the fabric membranes a good candidate for oil/water separation even under strong water flow. This work would also be helpful for developing new underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related devices.

  18. Underwater self-cleaning scaly fabric membrane for oily water separation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Guo, Zhenyan; Tian, Dongliang; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Wenxian; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-25

    Oily wastewater is always a threat to biological and human safety, and it is a worldwide challenge to solve the problem of disposing of it. The development of interface science brings hope of solving this serious problem, however. Inspired by the capacity for capturing water of natural fabrics and by the underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property of fish scales, a strategy is proposed to design and fabricate micro/nanoscale hierarchical-structured fabric membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity, by coating scaly titanium oxide nanostructures onto fabric microstructures, which can separate oil/water mixtures efficiently. The microstructures of the fabrics are beneficial for achieving high water-holding capacity of the membranes. More importantly, the special scaly titanium oxide nanostructures are critical for achieving the desired superwetting property toward water of the membranes, which means that air bubbles cannot exist on them in water and there is ultralow underwater-oil adhesion. The cooperative effects of the microscale and nanoscale structures result in the formation of a stable oil/water/solid triphase interface with a robust underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property. Furthermore, the fabrics are common, commercially cheap, and environmentally friendly materials with flexible but robust mechanical properties, which make the fabric membranes a good candidate for oil/water separation even under strong water flow. This work would also be helpful for developing new underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related devices. PMID:25643170

  19. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption. PMID:23905796

  20. Clean Reliable Water for the 21st Century (Paper#69880)

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Hudson, G B; Maxwell, R M

    2003-02-25

    It is well recognized that half the countries in the world will face significant fresh water shortages in the next 20 years, due largely to growing populations and increased agricultural and industrial demands. These shortages will significantly limit economic growth, decrease the quality of life and human health for billions of people, and could potentially lead to violence and conflict over securing scarce supplies of water. These concerns are not limited to the water-poor countries, of course, as many parts of China and the US face similar problems. Such problems can be exacerbated by fluctuating imbalances between need and supply, poor management practices, and pollution. The future is one that will require significant scientific and technological advances in conservation, preservation, and movement of fresh water, as well as in the development of new or alternative supplies. As an example, these issues are discussed in terms of California, and a case study related to the scientific issues associated with a groundwater banking project in Southern California is provided.

  1. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  2. 76 FR 15998 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on March 14, 2011, a proposed consent decree in United States v. Consol Energy, Inc., et al., Civil Action No....

  3. 76 FR 12369 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on March 1, 2011, a proposed consent decree in United States, et al. v. Arch Coal, Inc., et al., Civil Action No....

  4. 76 FR 36577 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., a proposed Consent Decree in United States and the State of Nebraska v. Swift Beef Company, Civil... violations of the Clean Water Act (``CWA'') by Swift Beef Company (``Swift'') at a beef processing plant it..., Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. Swift Beef Company, Civil Action No....

  5. 78 FR 4168 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Granite Construction Company, No. 3:13-cv-00012-ST. The...' claims against Granite for civil penalties and injunctive relief pursuant to the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319. Under the terms of the Consent Decree, Granite will pay the United States a civil...

  6. 77 FR 5570 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on January 30... Consent Decree to provide for construction of a Kaneohe-Kailua Tunnel and an associated influent pump... be needed following completion of the tunnel project. The Department of Justice will receive, for...

  7. Land Treatment. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Presented is an instructor's manual for a learning session centered on the methodology and feasibility of land treatment of municipal wastewater. A supplementary slide-tape program is available. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project, which is intended to educate advisory groups who are interested in improving…

  8. 76 FR 40723 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Clean Water Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Clean Water Act... is planning to submit a request to renew an existing approved Information Collection Request (ICR) to... of the proposed information collection as described below. DATES: Comments must be submitted on...

  9. 76 FR 709 - Guidelines for Awarding Clean Water Act Section 319 Base Grants to Indian Tribes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et seq., generally provides that before certain actions may take effect..., Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, TexasGeorge Craft; mailing address: U.S. EPA Region VI, 1445 Ross Avenue... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Guidelines for Awarding Clean Water Act Section 319 Base Grants to Indian...

  10. 76 FR 61384 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree (the ``Consent Decree'') in United States of America v. Trident Seafoods Corporation, Civil Action No. 11-1616,...

  11. 75 FR 53342 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 25, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree (``Consent Decree'') in United States v. City of Revere, Massachusetts, Civil Action No. 1:10-cv-11460...

  12. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.302 Special rules governing certain information...

  13. 77 FR 42332 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Modification Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Modification Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on July 2, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree Modification (``Modification'') in United States and State of New Hampshire v. City of Portsmouth,...

  14. A numerical study on high-pressure water-spray cleaning for CSP reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglani, Francesco; Barry, John; Dekkers, Willem

    2016-05-01

    Mirror cleaning for concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems is an important aspect of operation and maintenance (O&M), which affects solar field efficiency. The cleaning process involves soil removal by erosion, resulting from droplet impingement on the surface. Several studies have been conducted on dust accumulation and CSP plant reflectivity restoration, demonstrating that parameters such as nozzle diameter, jet impingement angle, interaxial distance between nozzles, standoff distance, water velocity, nozzle pressure and others factors influence the extent of reflectance restoration. In this paper we aim at identifying optimized cleaning strategies suitable for CST plants, able to restore mirror reflectance by high-pressure water-spray systems through the enhancement of shear stress over reflectors' surface. In order to evaluate the forces generated by water-spray jet impingement during the cleaning process, fluid dynamics simulations have been undertaken with ANSYS CFX software. In this analysis, shear forces represent the "critical phenomena" within the soil removal process. Enhancing shear forces on a particular area of the target surface, varying the angle of impingement in combination with the variation of standoff distances, and managing the interaxial distance of nozzles can increase cleaning efficiency. This procedure intends to improve the cleaning operation for CST mirrors reducing spotted surface and increasing particles removal efficiency. However, turbulence developed by adjacent flows decrease the shear stress generated on the reflectors surface. The presence of turbulence is identified by the formation of "fountain regions" which are mostly responsible of cleaning inefficiency. By numerical analysis using ANSYS CFX, we have modelled a stationary water-spray system with an array of three nozzles in line, with two angles of impingement: θ = 90° and θ = 75°. Several numerical tests have been carried out, varying the interaxial distance of

  15. Self-Propelled Micromotors for Cleaning Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of catalytically self-propelled microjets (dubbed micromotors) for degrading organic pollutants in water via the Fenton oxidation process. The tubular micromotors are composed of rolled-up functional nanomembranes consisting of Fe/Pt bilayers. The micromotors contain double functionality within their architecture, i.e., the inner Pt for the self-propulsion and the outer Fe for the in situ generation of ferrous ions boosting the remediation of contaminated water.The degradation of organic pollutants takes place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as a reagent for the Fenton reaction and as main fuel to propel the micromotors. Factors influencing the efficiency of the Fenton oxidation process, including thickness of the Fe layer, pH, and concentration of hydrogen peroxide, are investigated. The ability of these catalytically self-propelled micromotors to improve intermixing in liquids results in the removal of organic pollutants ca. 12 times faster than when the Fenton oxidation process is carried out without catalytically active micromotors. The enhanced reaction–diffusion provided by micromotors has been theoretically modeled. The synergy between the internal and external functionalities of the micromotors, without the need of further functionalization, results into an enhanced degradation of nonbiodegradable and dangerous organic pollutants at small-scale environments and holds considerable promise for the remediation of contaminated water. PMID:24180623

  16. 77 FR 7182 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act (``CWA'') Notice is hereby given that on... and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, resulting...

  17. 78 FR 41803 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 5, 2013, the... with the Clean Water Act, including constructing and implementing specific combined sewer...

  18. 78 FR 35315 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Third Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 5, 2013... Indiana, and the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, which resolved various alleged violations of the Clean Water Act. The Consent Decree obligated the City of Indianapolis to implement certain combined...

  19. 78 FR 47411 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, Emergency Planning and Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on July 31, 2013, a proposed Consent Decree...'') alleging violations of Sections 311(c) and (j) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1321(c) and...

  20. Purification of contaminated paddy fields by clean water irrigation over two decades.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yiping; Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Zhuang, Ping; Zou, Bi; Xia, Hanping; Wang, Faming; Wang, Gang; Duan, Jun; Zhang, Jianxia

    2013-10-01

    Paddy fields near a mining site in north part of Guangdong Province, PR China, were severely contaminated by heavy metals as a result of wastewater irrigation from the tailing pond. The following clean water irrigation for 2 decades produced marked rinsing effect, especially on Pb and Zn. Paddy fields continuously irrigated with wastewater ever since mining started (50 years) had 1,050.0 mg kg−1 of Pb and 810.3 mg kg−1 of Zn for upper 20 cm soil, in comparison with 215.9 mg kg−1 of Pb and 525.4 mg kg−1 of Zn, respectively, with clean water irrigation for 20 years. Rinsing effect mainly occurred to a depth of upper 40 cm, of which the soil contained highest metals. Copper and Cd in the farmlands were also reduced due to clean water irrigation. Higher availability of Pb might partly account for more Pb transferred from the tailing pond to the farmland and also more Pb removal from the farmland as a result of clean water irrigation. Neither rice in the paddy field nor dense weeds in the uncultivated field largely took up the metals. However, they might contribute to activate metals differently, leading to a different purification extent. Rotation of rice and weed reduced metal retention in the farmland soil, in comparison with sole rice growth. Harvesting of rice grain (and partially rice stalk) only contributed small fraction of total amount of removed metal. In summary, heavy metal in paddy field resulting from irrigation of mining wastewater could be largely removed by clean water irrigation for sufficient time.

  1. The effect of water spray upon incineration flue gas clean-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haigang; Li, Bin; Liu, Shi; Pan, Zhonggang; Yan, Guizhang

    2000-06-01

    The existence of liquid water was found very important in incineration flue gas clean-up systems for enhancing the absorption of acid components contained. In a newly developed incineration flue gas clean-up tower, which works in a semi-dry mode, the water is injected in the form of spray to maximum its contact surface with the gas. The criteria for the design of the water nozzles would be high water concentration but no liquid impinging on the solid wall and complete evaporation inside the tower. In order to optimize the atomizer design, the effects of the spray type (hollow or solid cone), their initial droplet size distribution and water flow rate on the performance of the acid gas absorption were investigated. The liquid behaviour was studied with a fluid dynamic simulation code, and the overall performance was checked experimentally. This paper presents the use of a commercial CFD code, FLUENT, and some modifications made during such investigation. The modification includes the viscosity of the flue gas defined as a function of the temperature, and the initial mass fraction of different droplet size group described with an exponential distribution formula of Rosin-Rammler. The investigation results (the optimal spray parameters) were used to guide the water nozzle design. The general performance of the flue gas clean-up system measured during the plant operation complied with the design criteria.

  2. RECOVERY POTENTIAL AS A MEANS OF PRIORITIZING RESTORATION OF WATERS IDENTIFIED AS IMPAIRED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sheer number of waterbodies identified as impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act presents states with challenging decisions on which sites to address, in what order, and with what fraction of limited restoration resources. Our goal was to demonstrate a systemat...

  3. Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone - harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream.

    PubMed

    Birkin, P R; Offin, D G; Vian, C J B; Howlin, R P; Dawson, J I; Secker, T J; Hervé, R C; Stoodley, P; Oreffo, R O C; Keevil, C W; Leighton, T G

    2015-08-28

    In the absence of sufficient cleaning of medical instruments, contamination and infection can result in serious consequences for the health sector and remains a significant unmet challenge. In this paper we describe a novel cleaning system reliant on cavitation action created in a free flowing fluid stream where ultrasonic transmission to a surface, through the stream, is achieved using careful design and control of the device architecture, sound field and the materials employed. Cleaning was achieved with purified water at room temperature, moderate fluid flow rates and without the need for chemical additives or the high power consumption associated with conventional strategies. This study illustrates the potential in harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream to remove biological contamination including brain tissue from surgical stainless steel substrates, S. epidermidis biofilms from glass, and fat/soft tissue matter from bone structures with considerable basic and clinical applications.

  4. Cold water cleaning of brain proteins, biofilm and bone - harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream.

    PubMed

    Birkin, P R; Offin, D G; Vian, C J B; Howlin, R P; Dawson, J I; Secker, T J; Hervé, R C; Stoodley, P; Oreffo, R O C; Keevil, C W; Leighton, T G

    2015-08-28

    In the absence of sufficient cleaning of medical instruments, contamination and infection can result in serious consequences for the health sector and remains a significant unmet challenge. In this paper we describe a novel cleaning system reliant on cavitation action created in a free flowing fluid stream where ultrasonic transmission to a surface, through the stream, is achieved using careful design and control of the device architecture, sound field and the materials employed. Cleaning was achieved with purified water at room temperature, moderate fluid flow rates and without the need for chemical additives or the high power consumption associated with conventional strategies. This study illustrates the potential in harnessing an ultrasonically activated stream to remove biological contamination including brain tissue from surgical stainless steel substrates, S. epidermidis biofilms from glass, and fat/soft tissue matter from bone structures with considerable basic and clinical applications. PMID:26200694

  5. Cleaning Genesis Solar Wind Collectors with Ultrapure Water: Residual Contaminant Particle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Additional experience has been gained in removing contaminant particles from the surface of Genesis solar wind collectors fragments by using megasonically activated ultrapure water (UPW)[1]. The curatorial facility has cleaned six of the eight array collector material types to date: silicon (Si), sapphire (SAP), silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), diamond-like carbon-on-silicon (DOS), gold-on-sapphire (AuOS), and germanium (Ge). Here we make estimates of cleaning effectiveness using image analysis of particle size distributions and an SEM/EDS reconnaissance of particle chemistry on the surface of UPW-cleaned silicon fragments (Fig. 1). Other particle removal techniques are reported by [2] and initial assessment of molecular film removal is reported by [3].

  6. Toward the development of erosion-free ultrasonic cavitation cleaning with gas-supersaturated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In ultrasonic cleaning, contaminant particles attached at target surfaces are removed by liquid flow or acoustic waves that are induced by acoustic cavitation bubbles. However, the inertial collapse of such bubbles often involve strong shock emission or water hammer by re-entrant jets, thereby giving rise to material erosion. Here, we aim at developing an erosion-free ultrasonic cleaning technique with the aid of gas-supersaturated water. The key idea is that (gaseous) cavitation is triggered easily even with low-intensity sonication in water where gases are dissolved beyond Henry's saturation limit, allowing us to buffer violent bubble collapse. In this presentation, we report on observations of the removal of micron/submicron-sized particles attached at glass surfaces by the action of gaseous cavitation bubbles under low-intensity sonication.

  7. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling.

    PubMed

    Makinson, Keith; Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A; Bentley, Michael J; Smith, Andrew M; Tranter, Martyn; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John; Siegert, Martin J

    2016-01-28

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets.

  8. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Smith, Andrew M.; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  9. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling.

    PubMed

    Makinson, Keith; Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A; Bentley, Michael J; Smith, Andrew M; Tranter, Martyn; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John; Siegert, Martin J

    2016-01-28

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  10. Clean boiler systems chemically

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.O. )

    1993-04-01

    Internal surfaces of steam generator systems are cleaned to remove contaminants that impair heat transfer and may ultimately cause tube failure. One method of doing so is chemical cleaning. All new steam generators should be chemically cleaned to remove construction contaminants. The degree of cleaning required depends on the initial condition of the boiler and on its operating requirements. This paper discusses: key considerations; pre-operational cleaning; post-operational cleaning; water flushing and steam blowing; alkaline cleaning; and solvent cleaning.

  11. Cleaning conveyor belts in the chicken-cutting area of a poultry processing plant with 45°c water.

    PubMed

    Soares, V M; Pereira, J G; Zanette, C M; Nero, L A; Pinto, J P A N; Barcellos, V C; Bersot, L S

    2014-03-01

    Conveyor belts are widely used in food handling areas, especially in poultry processing plants. Because they are in direct contact with food and it is a requirement of the Brazilian health authority, conveyor belts are required to be continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. The use of water in this procedure has been questioned based on the hypothesis that water may further disseminate microorganisms but not effectively reduce the organic material on the surface. Moreover, reducing the use of water in processing may contribute to a reduction in costs and emission of effluents. However, no consistent evidence in support of removing water during conveyor belt cleaning has been reported. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the bacterial counts on conveyor belts that were or were not continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. Superficial samples from conveyor belts (cleaned or not cleaned) were collected at three different times during operation (T1, after the preoperational cleaning [5 a.m.]; T2, after the first work shift [4 p.m.]; and T3, after the second work shift [1:30 a.m.]) in a poultry meat processing facility, and the samples were subjected to mesophilic and enterobacterial counts. For Enterobacteriaceae, no significant differences were observed between the conveyor belts, independent of the time of sampling or the cleaning process. No significant differences were observed between the counts of mesophilic bacteria at the distinct times of sampling on the conveyor belt that had not been subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. When comparing similar periods of sampling, no significant differences were observed between the mesophilic counts obtained from the conveyor belts that were or were not subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. Continuous cleaning with water did not significantly reduce microorganism counts, suggesting the possibility of discarding this procedure in chicken processing

  12. Ultrafast oleophobic-hydrophilic switching surfaces for antifogging, self-cleaning, and oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Brown, P S; Atkinson, O D L A; Badyal, J P S

    2014-05-28

    Smooth copolymer-fluorosurfactant complex film surfaces are found to exhibit fast oleophobic-hydrophilic switching behavior. Equilibration of the high oil contact angle (hexadecane = 80°) and low water contact angle (<10°) values occurs within 10 s of droplet impact. These optically transparent surfaces display excellent antifogging and self-cleaning properties. The magnitude of oleophobic-hydrophilic switching can be further enhanced by the incorporation of surface roughness to an extent that it reaches a sufficiently high level (water contact angle <10° and hexadecane contact angle >110°), which, when combined with the inherent ultrafast switching speed, yields oil-water mixture separation efficiencies exceeding 98%. PMID:24786299

  13. Ultrafast oleophobic-hydrophilic switching surfaces for antifogging, self-cleaning, and oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Brown, P S; Atkinson, O D L A; Badyal, J P S

    2014-05-28

    Smooth copolymer-fluorosurfactant complex film surfaces are found to exhibit fast oleophobic-hydrophilic switching behavior. Equilibration of the high oil contact angle (hexadecane = 80°) and low water contact angle (<10°) values occurs within 10 s of droplet impact. These optically transparent surfaces display excellent antifogging and self-cleaning properties. The magnitude of oleophobic-hydrophilic switching can be further enhanced by the incorporation of surface roughness to an extent that it reaches a sufficiently high level (water contact angle <10° and hexadecane contact angle >110°), which, when combined with the inherent ultrafast switching speed, yields oil-water mixture separation efficiencies exceeding 98%.

  14. Potential Implications of Approaches to Climate Change on the Clean Water Rule Definition of "Waters of the United States".

    PubMed

    Faust, Derek R; Moore, Matthew T; Emison, Gerald Andrews; Rush, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    The 1972 Clean Water Act was passed to protect chemical, physical, and biological integrity of United States' waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers codified a new "waters of the United States" rule on June 29, 2015, because several Supreme Court case decisions caused confusion with the existing rule. Climate change could affect this rule through connectivity between groundwater and surface waters; floodplain waters and the 100-year floodplain; changes in jurisdictional status; and sea level rise on coastal ecosystems. Four approaches are discussed for handling these implications: (1) "Wait and see"; (2) changes to the rule; (3) use guidance documents; (4) Congress statutorily defining "waters of the United States." The approach chosen should be legally defensible and achieved in a timely fashion to provide protection to "waters of the United States" in proactive consideration of scientifically documented effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26979963

  15. Potential Implications of Approaches to Climate Change on the Clean Water Rule Definition of "Waters of the United States".

    PubMed

    Faust, Derek R; Moore, Matthew T; Emison, Gerald Andrews; Rush, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    The 1972 Clean Water Act was passed to protect chemical, physical, and biological integrity of United States' waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers codified a new "waters of the United States" rule on June 29, 2015, because several Supreme Court case decisions caused confusion with the existing rule. Climate change could affect this rule through connectivity between groundwater and surface waters; floodplain waters and the 100-year floodplain; changes in jurisdictional status; and sea level rise on coastal ecosystems. Four approaches are discussed for handling these implications: (1) "Wait and see"; (2) changes to the rule; (3) use guidance documents; (4) Congress statutorily defining "waters of the United States." The approach chosen should be legally defensible and achieved in a timely fashion to provide protection to "waters of the United States" in proactive consideration of scientifically documented effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  17. Precision cleaning verification of fluid components by air/water impingement and total carbon analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 sq m. Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging/diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg/sq ft of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVRs impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 sq m.

  18. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  19. Microbiological water methods: quality control measures for Federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Root, Patsy; Hunt, Margo; Fjeld, Karla; Kundrat, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) data are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests and the equipment used to produce those results. Some AOAC water methods include specific QA/QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria, but these are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform a microbiological method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those at Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 136.7 for chemistry methods, require additional QA/QC measures beyond those listed in the method, which can also apply to microbiological methods. Essential QA/QC measures include sterility checks, reagent specificity and sensitivity checks, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, and evaluation of the presence of laboratory contamination and instrument calibration and checks. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected results are set out in this report as they apply to microbiological methods. The specific regulatory requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the International Organization for Standardization 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are also discussed. PMID:24830168

  20. Precision Cleaning Verification of Nonvolatile Residues by Using Water, Ultrasonics, and Turbidity Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1991-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) in the atmosphere are believed to present a major environmental problem because they are able to interact with and deplete the ozone layer. NASA has been mandated to replace chlorinated solvents in precision cleaning, cleanliness verification, and degreasing of aerospace fluid systems hardware and ground support equipment. KSC has a CFC phase-out plan which provides for the elimination of over 90 percent of the CFC and halon use by 1995. The Materials Science Laboratory and KSC is evaluating four analytical methods for the determination of nonvolatile residues removal by water: (1) infrared analyses using an attenuated total reflectance; (2) surface tension analyses, (3) total organic content analyses, and (4) turbidity analyses. This research project examined the ultrasonic-turbidity responses for 22 hydrocarbons in an effect to determine: (1) if ultrasonics in heated water (70 C) will clean hydrocarbons (oils, greases, gels, and fluids) from aerospace hardware; (2) if the cleaning process by ultrasonics will simultaneously emulsify the removed hydrocarbons in the water; and (3) if a turbidimeter can be used successfully as an analytical instrument for quantifying the removal of hydrocarbons. Sixteen of the 22 hydrocarbons tested showed that ultrasonics would remove it at least 90 percent of the contaminated hydrocarbon from the hardware in 10 minutes or less giving a good ultrasonic-turbidity response. Six hydrocarbons had a lower percentage removal, a slower removal rate, and a marginal ultrasonic-turbidity response.

  1. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  2. Polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures: Effective use or improper abuse of citizen suits under the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.S. )

    1991-01-01

    In 1970, recognizing the cumbersome and often ineffective enforcement mechanisms in existing federal water and air pollution statutes, Congress passed the first citizen suit provision. This provision of the Clean Water Act was the subject of intense debate and underwent several transitions before it was finally adopted. With the advent of citizen suits in environmental legislation, Congress opened the courts to the public. Citizen suit provisions allowed private citizens to serve as watch-dogs of both industry and government, creating an additional check in the enforcement schemes established by Congress. But the provisions allowed only for enforcement, not for the right to sue for damages. The remedies available to citizen-plaintiffs were injunctive relief and, in the case of the Clean Water Act, civil penalties payable to the US Treasury. Focusing on the Clean Water Act, this Comment explores the use of alternative payments as settlement of Clean Water Act citizen suits: polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures. As established through consent decrees, these expenditures go to local cleanup, research, and educational projects in the area of Clean Water Act violations, in lieu of or in addition to civil penalties. While the US Department of Justice has objected to the use of such settlements, one apellate court has ratified their use. This essay postulates that environmentally beneficial expenditures established through consent decrees are an important and effective use of the Clean Water Act's citizen suit provision, serving the dual goals of deterring polluters and mitigating the effects of past violations.

  3. Evaluating exposure of pedestrians to airborne contaminants associated with non-potable water use for pavement cleaning.

    PubMed

    Seidl, M; Da, G; Ausset, P; Haenn, S; Géhin, E; Moulin, L

    2016-04-01

    Climate change and increasing demography press local authorities to look after affordable water resources and replacement of drinking water for city necessities like street and pavement cleaning by more available raw water. Though, the substitution of drinking by non-drinking resources demands the evaluation of sanitary hazards. This article aims therefore to evaluate the contribution of cleaning water to the overall exposure of city dwellers in case of wet pavement cleaning using crossed physical, chemical and biological approaches. The result of tracer experiments with fluorescein show that liquid water content of the cleaning aerosol produced is about 0.24 g m(-3), rending possible a fast estimation of exposure levels. In situ analysis of the aerosol particles indicates a significant increase in particle number concentration and particle diameter, though without change in particle composition. The conventional bacterial analysis using total coliforms as tracer suggests that an important part of the contamination is issued from the pavement. The qPCR results show a more than 20-fold increase of background genome concentration for Escherichia coli and 10-fold increase for Enterococcus but a negligible contribution of the cleaning water. The fluorescence analysis of the cleaning aerosol confirms the above findings identifying pavement surface as the major contributor to aerosol organic load. The physical, chemical and microbiological approaches used make it possible to describe accurately the cleaning bioaerosol and to identify the existence of significantly higher levels of all parameters studied during the wet pavement cleaning. Though, the low level of contamination and the very short time of passage of pedestrian in the zone do not suggest a significant risk for the city dwellers. As the cleaning workers remain much longer in the impacted area, more attention should be paid to their chronic exposure. PMID:26233734

  4. Evaluating exposure of pedestrians to airborne contaminants associated with non-potable water use for pavement cleaning.

    PubMed

    Seidl, M; Da, G; Ausset, P; Haenn, S; Géhin, E; Moulin, L

    2016-04-01

    Climate change and increasing demography press local authorities to look after affordable water resources and replacement of drinking water for city necessities like street and pavement cleaning by more available raw water. Though, the substitution of drinking by non-drinking resources demands the evaluation of sanitary hazards. This article aims therefore to evaluate the contribution of cleaning water to the overall exposure of city dwellers in case of wet pavement cleaning using crossed physical, chemical and biological approaches. The result of tracer experiments with fluorescein show that liquid water content of the cleaning aerosol produced is about 0.24 g m(-3), rending possible a fast estimation of exposure levels. In situ analysis of the aerosol particles indicates a significant increase in particle number concentration and particle diameter, though without change in particle composition. The conventional bacterial analysis using total coliforms as tracer suggests that an important part of the contamination is issued from the pavement. The qPCR results show a more than 20-fold increase of background genome concentration for Escherichia coli and 10-fold increase for Enterococcus but a negligible contribution of the cleaning water. The fluorescence analysis of the cleaning aerosol confirms the above findings identifying pavement surface as the major contributor to aerosol organic load. The physical, chemical and microbiological approaches used make it possible to describe accurately the cleaning bioaerosol and to identify the existence of significantly higher levels of all parameters studied during the wet pavement cleaning. Though, the low level of contamination and the very short time of passage of pedestrian in the zone do not suggest a significant risk for the city dwellers. As the cleaning workers remain much longer in the impacted area, more attention should be paid to their chronic exposure.

  5. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  6. Federal Clean Water Act legislative and regulatory developments impacting the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lesniak, K.Z.

    1995-12-31

    Although the 103rd Congress made substantial progress towards passage of Clean Water Act amendments and reauthorization legislation and other environmental bills, including Safe Drinking Water Act reauthorization, 1994 resulted in no substantial new environmental legislation. Regulatory developments proceeded slowly as well, the most significant water regulatory issues on the federal level potentially impacting oil and gas operations being the anticipated issuance of a multi-sector storm water general permit and continuing EPA study of effluent limitations for coastal oil and gas extraction. The several Oil Pollution Act regulatory developments over the last year, including vessel financial responsibility, oil spill response planning, and revisions to the National Contingency Plan are not addressed in this paper.

  7. Clean Water Act assessment processes in relation to changing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cooter, William S

    2004-10-15

    During the 1970s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) devised a multiscale system of basin planning and regional implementation that encouraged a balanced mixture of monitoring and modeling-based assessments. By the 1980s, this goal had not been achieved. Modeling and monitoring assessment approaches became largely decoupled. To a significant degree, modeling was viewed as too inaccurate to handle issues such as setting permit limits involving toxics. During the 1980s, EPA also encouraged the idea that monitoring approaches were adequate to document water quality problems, guide the development of management plans, and demonstrate the achievement of management goals. By the late 1990s, large numbers of waters listed under the Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) provisions showed the widespread nature of pollutant concerns, but the uneven nature of the listing information also revealed fundamental problems in the ability of state monitoring programs to achieve credible and comprehensive assessments. Statistics are presented from the 1998 and the most current publicly available 2000 baseline periods showing the limitations in the scope of state assessments. There are significant opportunities for the increased use of relatively simple modeling systems that can be flexibly implemented over a variety of spatial scales. In addition to conventional modeling frameworks, the value of bioassessment monitoring techniques is stressed. Bioassessment indicators can often be combined with landscape modeling methods, as well as analyses from conventional modeling outputs, to help target small area monitoring by use of tiered approaches. These findings underscore the value of integrated monitoring and modeling approaches to build properly balanced assessment systems. PMID:15543725

  8. Clean Water Act assessment processes in relation to changing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cooter, William S

    2004-10-15

    During the 1970s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) devised a multiscale system of basin planning and regional implementation that encouraged a balanced mixture of monitoring and modeling-based assessments. By the 1980s, this goal had not been achieved. Modeling and monitoring assessment approaches became largely decoupled. To a significant degree, modeling was viewed as too inaccurate to handle issues such as setting permit limits involving toxics. During the 1980s, EPA also encouraged the idea that monitoring approaches were adequate to document water quality problems, guide the development of management plans, and demonstrate the achievement of management goals. By the late 1990s, large numbers of waters listed under the Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) provisions showed the widespread nature of pollutant concerns, but the uneven nature of the listing information also revealed fundamental problems in the ability of state monitoring programs to achieve credible and comprehensive assessments. Statistics are presented from the 1998 and the most current publicly available 2000 baseline periods showing the limitations in the scope of state assessments. There are significant opportunities for the increased use of relatively simple modeling systems that can be flexibly implemented over a variety of spatial scales. In addition to conventional modeling frameworks, the value of bioassessment monitoring techniques is stressed. Bioassessment indicators can often be combined with landscape modeling methods, as well as analyses from conventional modeling outputs, to help target small area monitoring by use of tiered approaches. These findings underscore the value of integrated monitoring and modeling approaches to build properly balanced assessment systems.

  9. Ultra Pure Water Cleaning Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Burkett, P. J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sample return missions will require strict protocols and procedures for reducing inorganic and organic contamination in isolation containment systems. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs [1, 2]. As part of this in-depth organic study, the current curatorial technical support procedure (TSP) 23 was used for cleaning the gloveboxes with ultra pure water (UPW) [3-5]. Particle counts and identification were obtained that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs that require glovebox decontamination. The UPW baseline study demonstrates that TSP 23 works well for gloveboxes that have been thoroughly degreased. However, TSP 23 could be augmented to provide even better glovebox decontamination. JSC 03243 could be used as a starting point for further investigating optimal cleaning techniques and procedures. DuPont Vertrel XF or other chemical substitutes to replace Freon- 113, mechanical scrubbing, and newer technology could be used to enhance glovebox cleanliness in addition to high purity UPW final rinsing. Future sample return missions will significantly benefit from further cleaning studies to reduce inorganic and organic contamination.

  10. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  11. Cleaning of the Moscow SIA ``Radon`` surface water runoff: Problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Barinov, A.S.; Volkov, A.S.; Karlin, Y.V.; Kropotov, V.N.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a three-barrier system of engineered safety features for the cleaning of the Moscow SIA ``Radon`` surface water runoff. The three-barrier system is under development, but several components have been put into operation. For example, in 1995 more than 400 cubic meters of radioactive water (containing 1,500 Bk/l initial specific activity of beta-emitting nuclides and 30 Bk/l initial specific activity of alpha-emitting nuclides) was purified using the ``Aqua-express`` filtration and ultrafiltration modules. Since 1990, solid particles have been removed from the surface water runoff by the two pond settlers. It is hoped that the entire system will be put into operation not later than the year 2000.

  12. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Gerba, Charles P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-03-31

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms.

  13. Clean Water Act's Section 404 permit program enters its adolescence: an institutional and programmatic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Blumm, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Section 404 of the Clean Water Act deals with permit requirements and has become a major Federal regulatory program. The program's scope and procedures are reviewed, with emphasis given to the responsibilities of the agencies involved and the opportunities for discharging these duties with the maximum efficiency. Interagency and intergovernmental cooperation are crucial to the effectiveness of the broad ranging 404 program. The Environmental Protection Agency's role is seen as one of oversight and guidance, as well as issuing criteria and monitoring enforcement. The appropriate roles for other Federal and state agencies, state governments, Congress, and the public are outlined and also depend on cooperation for effective implementation. 333 references. (DCK)

  14. Do low standing biomass and leaf area index of sub-tropical coastal dunes ensure that plants have an adequate supply of water?

    PubMed

    Ripley, Brad S; Pammenter, Norman W

    2004-05-01

    Water status in relation to standing biomass and leaf area indices (LAI) of the subtropical foredune species Arctotheca populifolia, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Scaevola plumieri were studied in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The plants showed little evidence of water stress, never developing leaf water potentials more negative than -1.55 MPa, a value which is typical of mesophytes rather than xerophytes. The plants showed no seasonal changes in osmotic potential, an indication that they did not need to osmoregulate, nor were there significant alterations in tissue elasticity. Turgor potential for the most part remained positive throughout the day or recovered positive values at night, a condition suitable for the maintenance of growth that may be essential to cope with sand accretion. All three species show relatively high transpiration rates and only I. pes-caprae showed any evidence of strong limitations of transpiration rate through reductions in midday stomatal conductance. All three species had relatively high instantaneous water use efficiencies as a result of high assimilation rates rather than low transpiration rates. Simple water budgets, accounting for losses by transpiration and inputs from rainfall, suggest that the water stored in the dune sands is sufficient to meet the requirements of the plants, although water budgets calculated for I. pes-caprae suggest that this species may on occasion be water limited. The results suggest that it is the low biomass and LAI that lead to these favourable water relations. PMID:15042456

  15. Clean Sampling and Analysis of River and Estuarine Waters for Trace Metal Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiann, Kuo-Tung; Wen, Liang-Saw; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Most of the trace metal concentrations in ambient waters obtained a few decades ago have been considered unreliable owing to the lack of contamination control. Developments of some techniques aiming to reduce trace metal contamination in the last couple of decades have resulted in concentrations reported now being orders of magnitude lower than those in the past. These low concentrations often necessitate preconcentration of water samples prior to instrumental analysis of samples. Since contamination can appear in all phases of trace metal analyses, including sample collection (and during preparation of sampling containers), storage and handling, pretreatments, and instrumental analysis, specific care needs to be taken in order to reduce contamination levels at all steps. The effort to develop and utilize "clean techniques" in trace metal studies allows scientists to investigate trace metal distributions and chemical and biological behavior in greater details. This advancement also provides the required accuracy and precision of trace metal data allowing for environmental conditions to be related to trace metal concentrations in aquatic environments. This protocol that is presented here details needed materials for sample preparation, sample collection, sample pretreatment including preconcentration, and instrumental analysis. By reducing contamination throughout all phases mentioned above for trace metal analysis, much lower detection limits and thus accuracy can be achieved. The effectiveness of "clean techniques" is further demonstrated using low field blanks and good recoveries for standard reference material. The data quality that can be obtained thus enables the assessment of trace metal distributions and their relationships to environmental parameters. PMID:27404762

  16. Clean Sampling and Analysis of River and Estuarine Waters for Trace Metal Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiann, Kuo-Tung; Wen, Liang-Saw; Santschi, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Most of the trace metal concentrations in ambient waters obtained a few decades ago have been considered unreliable owing to the lack of contamination control. Developments of some techniques aiming to reduce trace metal contamination in the last couple of decades have resulted in concentrations reported now being orders of magnitude lower than those in the past. These low concentrations often necessitate preconcentration of water samples prior to instrumental analysis of samples. Since contamination can appear in all phases of trace metal analyses, including sample collection (and during preparation of sampling containers), storage and handling, pretreatments, and instrumental analysis, specific care needs to be taken in order to reduce contamination levels at all steps. The effort to develop and utilize "clean techniques" in trace metal studies allows scientists to investigate trace metal distributions and chemical and biological behavior in greater details. This advancement also provides the required accuracy and precision of trace metal data allowing for environmental conditions to be related to trace metal concentrations in aquatic environments. This protocol that is presented here details needed materials for sample preparation, sample collection, sample pretreatment including preconcentration, and instrumental analysis. By reducing contamination throughout all phases mentioned above for trace metal analysis, much lower detection limits and thus accuracy can be achieved. The effectiveness of "clean techniques" is further demonstrated using low field blanks and good recoveries for standard reference material. The data quality that can be obtained thus enables the assessment of trace metal distributions and their relationships to environmental parameters.

  17. Effect of Pattern Layout and Dissolved Oxygen in CO2 Rinse Water on Cu Corrosion during Post-Etch Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentaro Tokuri,; Yukinari Yamashita,; Morio Shiohara,; Noriaki Oda,; Seiichi Kondo,; Shuichi Saito,

    2010-05-01

    When post-etch cleaning was carried out in Cu dual-damascene process, Cu at the bottom of isolated via was etched out especially in the wafer edge, and this would become a critical issue as device scale is shrunk. The corrosion was caused in the rinse step rather than chemical cleaning step because dissolved oxygen in rinse water from the air increased oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and CO2 included in the rinse water for preventing wafer electrification decreased pH. The corrosion was found to be suppressed by increasing dummy pattern density and by controlling atmosphere and pH of the rinse water.

  18. Process for gas cleaning with reclaimed water and apparatus for water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, L.E.; Marion, C.P.; Richter, G.N.

    1980-06-03

    Dispersions comprising of water and particulate solids i.e. carbon and ash are produced in at least one gas cooling or scrubbing zone by quench cooling or scrubbing the raw gas stream from a partial oxidation gas generator with water. The dispersions are resolved by liquid extraction in a decanting zone to produce a water layer containing carbon, dissolved gas, and ash, and also a separate dispersion comprising carbon, extractant, and water. Solids-free water, liquid extractant and uncondensed gases are then separated from each other in a distillation and separation operation. Water is removed from a separation vessel in said operation and introduced on to a stripping plate of a flash column containing at least one stripping plate. The solids containing water from the decanting zone is flashed below said stripping plate and a portion is converted into steam. The steam passes up through holes or bubble caps in the stripping plate and is dispersed through the water contained on said plate. If desired, a portion of the water obtained from blowing-down a gas cooler may be flashed to steam below the stripping plate. Unvaporized water falls to the bottom of the column where a vertical weir separates the flash column into two chambers. Solids settle out of the water in the first chamber and clarified water flows over the weir into the second chamber. Overflow water from the bottom stripping plate is discharged below the waterlevel in the second chamber by way of a downcomer. Reclaimed water is pumped to said gas cooling and scrubbing zones from the second chamber, and waste water containing solids in the first chamber is discharged from the system. The overhead from the flash column is cooled below the dew point and introduced into said separation vessel.

  19. Putting Regulatory Data to Work at the Service of Public Health: Utilizing Data Collected Under the Clean Water Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collects information from states on intended use and impairment of each water body. We explore the feasibility of using these data, collected for regulatory purposes, for public health analyses. Combining E...

  20. 75 FR 8698 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Ten Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Ten Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana..., Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6, 1445 Ross Ave., Dallas... within Louisiana: Subsegment Waterbody name Pollutant 010301 West Atchafalaya Basin Dissolved...

  1. 76 FR 80366 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Louisiana...: Comments on the one TMDL should be sent to Diane Smith, Environmental Protection Specialist, Water Quality... Waterbody name Pollutant 041401 New Orleans East Leveed Dissolved oxygen. Waterbodies (Estuarine). The...

  2. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  3. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  4. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  5. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  6. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  7. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  8. 75 FR 2860 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Call for Data for the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Call for Data for the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma and Arkansas AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for data. SUMMARY: EPA Region 6 is... water quality related data and information that may be relevant to the development of the Illinois...

  9. 76 FR 549 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... budget for nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment ] necessary to meet water quality standards in the Bay... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL... (Bay) TMDL on December 29, 2010 for nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment for the Chesapeake Bay and...

  10. Towards a better hydraulic cleaning strategy for ultrafiltration membrane fouling by humic acid: Effect of backwash water composition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haiqing; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ma, Jun; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    As a routine measurement to alleviate membrane fouling, hydraulic cleaning is of great significance for the steady operation of ultrafiltration (UF) systems in water treatment processes. In this work, a comparative study was performed to investigate the effects of the composition of backwash water on the hydraulic cleaning performance of UF membranes fouled by humic acid (HA). Various types of backwash water, including UF permeate, Milli-Q water, NaCl solution, CaCl2 solution and HA solution, were compared in terms of hydraulically irreversible fouling index, total surface tension and residual HA. The results indicated that Milli-Q water backwash was superior to UF permeate backwash in cleaning HA-fouled membranes, and the backwash water containing Na(+) or HA outperformed Milli-Q water in alleviating HA fouling. On the contrary, the presence of Ca(2+) in backwash water significantly decreased the backwash efficiency. Moreover, Ca(2+) played an important role in foulant removal, and the residual HA content closely related to the residual Ca(2+) content. Mechanism analysis suggested that the backwash process may involve fouling layer swelling, ion exchange, electric double layer release and competitive complexation. Ion exchange and competitive complexation played significant roles in the efficient hydraulic cleaning associated with Na(+) and HA, respectively.

  11. Towards a better hydraulic cleaning strategy for ultrafiltration membrane fouling by humic acid: Effect of backwash water composition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haiqing; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ma, Jun; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    As a routine measurement to alleviate membrane fouling, hydraulic cleaning is of great significance for the steady operation of ultrafiltration (UF) systems in water treatment processes. In this work, a comparative study was performed to investigate the effects of the composition of backwash water on the hydraulic cleaning performance of UF membranes fouled by humic acid (HA). Various types of backwash water, including UF permeate, Milli-Q water, NaCl solution, CaCl2 solution and HA solution, were compared in terms of hydraulically irreversible fouling index, total surface tension and residual HA. The results indicated that Milli-Q water backwash was superior to UF permeate backwash in cleaning HA-fouled membranes, and the backwash water containing Na(+) or HA outperformed Milli-Q water in alleviating HA fouling. On the contrary, the presence of Ca(2+) in backwash water significantly decreased the backwash efficiency. Moreover, Ca(2+) played an important role in foulant removal, and the residual HA content closely related to the residual Ca(2+) content. Mechanism analysis suggested that the backwash process may involve fouling layer swelling, ion exchange, electric double layer release and competitive complexation. Ion exchange and competitive complexation played significant roles in the efficient hydraulic cleaning associated with Na(+) and HA, respectively. PMID:27155423

  12. Recreational demand for clean water: Evidence from geotagged photographs by visitors to lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, B.; Wood, S.; Polasky, S.; Kling, C.; Filstrup, C.; Downing, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    More than 41,000 waters are listed as impaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Water Act. Regulations designed to address these impairments can be costly, raising questions about the value of the public benefits that would result from additional investments in improving surface water quality. Benefit studies often rely on costly surveys or other detailed data collection, limiting the ability to apply nonmarket valuation methods to address policy needs. We assessed the recreational value of changes in water quality using freely-available geotagged photographs as a proxy for recreational visits to lakes. We find that improved water clarity is associated with greater lake photo-visitation and that lake users are willing to travel further to visit clearer lakes. We estimate a one-meter increase in lake clarity in Minnesota and Iowa lakes is associated with $22 in increased willingness-to-pay per trip and generates 1,400 additional annual visits per lake, holding all other lake attributes constant. Our approach demonstrates the potential of data from social media to inform human responses to environmental change.

  13. A comparison of ultrasonically activated water stream and ultrasonic bath immersion cleaning of railhead leaf-film contaminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodes, L. R.; Harvey, T. J.; Symonds, N.; Leighton, T. G.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf-film adhered to the railway track is a major issue during the autumn/fall season, as leaves fall onto the track and are entrained into the wheel-rail interface. This results in the development of a smooth, black layer. Presently, pressure washers must be used to clean the residue to prevent loss of traction, which can cause crashes or delays by forcing a reduced speed. These pressure washers consume large amounts of water and energy. In this study, use of an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus equipped with a 100 W transducer is investigated, using a low volume of water in the order of 1 l min‑1. This was applied to leaf-film samples generated in the laboratory, whose surface properties and thickness were confirmed with optical and stylus profilometry methods. Cleaning achieved by an ultrasonically activated water stream was compared to (a) non-activated water and (b) an ultrasonic bath with comparable power consumption. Cleaning efficacy was found to be much greater than that afforded by the ultrasonic bath; a rate of 14.3 mm2 s‑1 compared to 0.37 mm2 s‑1, and the ultrasonic bath only cleaned off around 20% of the leaf-film coverage even after 3 min of exposure.

  14. A comparison of ultrasonically activated water stream and ultrasonic bath immersion cleaning of railhead leaf-film contaminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodes, L. R.; Harvey, T. J.; Symonds, N.; Leighton, T. G.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf-film adhered to the railway track is a major issue during the autumn/fall season, as leaves fall onto the track and are entrained into the wheel-rail interface. This results in the development of a smooth, black layer. Presently, pressure washers must be used to clean the residue to prevent loss of traction, which can cause crashes or delays by forcing a reduced speed. These pressure washers consume large amounts of water and energy. In this study, use of an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus equipped with a 100 W transducer is investigated, using a low volume of water in the order of 1 l min-1. This was applied to leaf-film samples generated in the laboratory, whose surface properties and thickness were confirmed with optical and stylus profilometry methods. Cleaning achieved by an ultrasonically activated water stream was compared to (a) non-activated water and (b) an ultrasonic bath with comparable power consumption. Cleaning efficacy was found to be much greater than that afforded by the ultrasonic bath; a rate of 14.3 mm2 s-1 compared to 0.37 mm2 s-1, and the ultrasonic bath only cleaned off around 20% of the leaf-film coverage even after 3 min of exposure.

  15. Clean hot water drilling for exploration of the Antarctic deep subglacial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinson, K.; Pearce, D.; Hodgson, D.; Bentley, M.; Smith, A.; Tranter, M.; Rose, M. C.; Ross, N.; Mowlem, M. C.; Parnell, J.; Siegert, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Overlain by several kilometres of ice, the subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet are regarded as extreme habitats for microbial life and repositories of important paleoclimate records. Of significant scientific interest, yet remaining largely unexplored, accessing and sampling these environments presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, much of it part of a hydrological drainage network, accessing of this environment must conform to international environmental contamination protocols. This makes hot water drilling the most viable option for clean, fast, access through thick ice. After two decades of planning, involving the development of drilling techniques for subglacial access, instrument design and logistics set up, significant progress has been made in attempts to directly access, measure, and sample subglacial lakes and sediments. Combining the experiences from the notable setbacks and successes, as well as recent field testing for this drilling technique, the most practical technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into Subglacial Lake Ellsworth and other deep (>3000 m) access targets will be presented.

  16. Cleaning of Oil Fouling with Water Enabled by Zwitterionic Polyelectrolyte Coatings: Overcoming the Imperative Challenge of Oil-Water Separation Membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Duan, Haoran; Chen, George Y; Liu, Xiaokong; Yang, Wensheng; Wang, Dayang

    2015-09-22

    Herein we report a self-cleaning coating derived from zwitterionic poly(2-methacryloyloxylethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) brushes grafted on a solid substrate. The PMPC surface not only exhibits complete oil repellency in a water-wetted state (i.e., underwater superoleophobicity), but also allows effective cleaning of oil fouled on dry surfaces by water alone. The PMPC surface was compared with typical underwater superoleophobic surfaces realized with the aid of surface roughening by applying hydrophilic nanostructures and those realized by applying smooth hydrophilic polyelectrolyte multilayers. We show that underwater superoleophobicity of a surface is not sufficient to enable water to clean up oil fouling on a dry surface, because the latter circumstance demands the surface to be able to strongly bond water not only in its pristine state but also in an oil-wetted state. The PMPC surface is unique with its described self-cleaning performance because the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine groups exhibit exceptional binding affinity to water even when they are already wetted by oil. Further, we show that applying this PMPC coating onto steel meshes produces oil-water separation membranes that are resilient to oil contamination with simply water rinsing. Consequently, we provide an effective solution to the oil contamination issue on the oil-water separation membranes, which is an imperative challenge in this field. Thanks to the self-cleaning effect of the PMPC surface, PMPC-coated steel meshes can not only separate oil from oil-water mixtures in a water-wetted state, but also can lift oil out from oil-water mixtures even in a dry state, which is a very promising technology for practical oil-spill remediation. In contrast, we show that oil contamination on conventional hydrophilic oil-water separation membranes would permanently induce the loss of oil-water separation function, and thus they have to be always used in a completely water-wetted state, which significantly

  17. Cleaning of Oil Fouling with Water Enabled by Zwitterionic Polyelectrolyte Coatings: Overcoming the Imperative Challenge of Oil-Water Separation Membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Duan, Haoran; Chen, George Y; Liu, Xiaokong; Yang, Wensheng; Wang, Dayang

    2015-09-22

    Herein we report a self-cleaning coating derived from zwitterionic poly(2-methacryloyloxylethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) brushes grafted on a solid substrate. The PMPC surface not only exhibits complete oil repellency in a water-wetted state (i.e., underwater superoleophobicity), but also allows effective cleaning of oil fouled on dry surfaces by water alone. The PMPC surface was compared with typical underwater superoleophobic surfaces realized with the aid of surface roughening by applying hydrophilic nanostructures and those realized by applying smooth hydrophilic polyelectrolyte multilayers. We show that underwater superoleophobicity of a surface is not sufficient to enable water to clean up oil fouling on a dry surface, because the latter circumstance demands the surface to be able to strongly bond water not only in its pristine state but also in an oil-wetted state. The PMPC surface is unique with its described self-cleaning performance because the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine groups exhibit exceptional binding affinity to water even when they are already wetted by oil. Further, we show that applying this PMPC coating onto steel meshes produces oil-water separation membranes that are resilient to oil contamination with simply water rinsing. Consequently, we provide an effective solution to the oil contamination issue on the oil-water separation membranes, which is an imperative challenge in this field. Thanks to the self-cleaning effect of the PMPC surface, PMPC-coated steel meshes can not only separate oil from oil-water mixtures in a water-wetted state, but also can lift oil out from oil-water mixtures even in a dry state, which is a very promising technology for practical oil-spill remediation. In contrast, we show that oil contamination on conventional hydrophilic oil-water separation membranes would permanently induce the loss of oil-water separation function, and thus they have to be always used in a completely water-wetted state, which significantly

  18. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  19. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  20. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  1. Consecutive chemical cleaning of fouled PVC membrane using NaOH and ethanol during ultrafiltration of river water.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jia-yu; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yang, Yan-ling; Liang, Heng; Nan, Jun; Li, Gui-bai

    2010-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of fouled hollow-fiber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane with the consecutive use of NaOH and ethanol during ultrafiltration of river water was investigated in the study. Results showed that through the chemical cleaning with 1% NaOH for 30min, a negative cleaning efficiency of -14.6% was observed for the PVC membrane. This might be due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity, which was reflected by the increase of contact angle from 69.7 degrees to 87.6 degrees . On the other hand, the cleaning efficiency of 85.1% was obtained by the consecutive cleaning with 30min of 1% NaOH and 30min of ethanol. Individual ethanol cleaning could remove 48.5% of the irreversible resistance, indicating that NaOH cleaning also made its contribution (36.6%) to the removal of membrane foulants. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses demonstrated that both NaOH and ethanol were not only able to eliminate the foulants on membrane surface, but also able to remove the in-pore fouling of the PVC membrane. The synergetic effects for removing membrane foulants were observed between the NaOH and ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol could also restore the hydrophilicity of the membrane by decreasing the contact angle from 87.6 degrees to 71.4 degrees . Considering that ethanol is easy to be used and reclaimed, the consecutive chemical cleaning by alkali and ethanol is recommended for PVC membrane in filtration of surface water.

  2. Regulation of toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act: EPA's ten-year rulemaking nears completion

    SciTech Connect

    Wyche, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    Whether it's footdragging, or compliance is impossible, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) usually fails to meet its deadlines for issuing regulations. The best-known case is probably EPA's 10-year struggle to establish regulatory controls on toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act. The developmental process is reviewed from the initial statutory framework (enacted in 1948) and the effluent limitations amendments (legislated in 1972), through its litigation history, to an analysis of the federal district court's three substantive opinions delivered during 1982. The author considers the possibility of legislative intervention because deadlines for compliance have been issued but the regulations have not. He concludes that without Toxics Consent Decree litigation, the toxic pollutant control program might have become a reality. EPA's toxic pollutant control regulations as of April 1, 1983, are tabulated. 129 references, 4 tables.

  3. Cleaning Surface Particle Contamination with Ultrapure Water (UPW) Megasonic Flow on Genesis Array Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Calaway, Michael J.; Hittle, J. D.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The hard landing experienced by the Genesis sample return capsule breached the science canister containing the solar wind collectors. This impact into the damp lakebed contaminated collector surfaces with pulverized collector and spacecraft materials and Utah sediment and brine residue. The gold foil, polished aluminum, and bulk metallic glass remained intact, but the solar wind bulk and regime-specific array collectors were jarred loose from their frames and fractured into greater than 10,000 specimens. After a year of investigation and cleaning experimentation, the Genesis Science Team determined that array collectors had 4 classes of contaminants: particles, molecular film, submicron inorganic particulate ("aerosol"), and pre-launch surface contamination. We discuss here use of megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW) for removing particulate debris from array collector fragments.

  4. 76 FR 18548 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on Three Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...This notice announces final agency action on three TMDLs prepared by EPA Region 6 for waters listed in Louisiana's Mississippi River Basin, under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Documents from the administrative record file for the three TMDLs, including TMDL calculations and responses to comments, may be viewed at http://www.epa.gov/region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm. The......

  5. Consequences of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Moses, D.O.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes three studies that examined the economic and environmental impact on the power industry of (1) limiting thermal mixing zones to 1,000 feet, and (2) eliminating the Clean Water Act (CWA) {section}316(1) variance. Both of these proposed changes were included in S. 1081, a 1991 Senate bill to reauthorize the CWA. The bill would not have provided for grandfathering plants already using the variance or mixing zones larger than 1000 feet. Each of the two changes to the existing thermal discharge requirements were independently evaluated. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two changes were imposed. Most plants affected by the proposed changes would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants ranges from $21.4 to 24.4 billion. Both cooling towers and diffusers exert a 1%-5.8% energy penalty on a plant`s output. Consequently, the power companies must generate additional power if they install those technologies. The estimated cost of the additional power ranges from $10 to 18.4 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation. Neither the restricted mixing zone size nor the elimination of the {section}316(1) variance was adopted into law. More recent proposed changes to the Clean Water Act have not included either of these provisions, but in the future, other Congresses might attempt to reintroduce these types of changes.

  6. Decade of clean water. [Declaration of 1980s as International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.

    1980-11-06

    A 10-year United Nations program will attempt to improve drinking water quality for 1.8 billion people and sanitation facilities for 2.4 billion people who represent an increasing share of Third World populations that lacks these necessities. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD) addresses issues of both moral and economic implications if it succeeds in developing a social framework in which population growth can be controlled. Obstacles to this massive undertaking include its high cost, a stubborn adherence to expensive sewerage systems, poor understanding of how a community organizes to maintain and operate water-supply and sanitation systems, difficulty in linking the two programs, and the lack of institutions and skilled labor to carry out the program. A strategy adaptable to urban areas can use existing institutions to develop the system on a paid basis, while a free or easy-access concept should be adopted for rural areas. (DCK)

  7. Clean Water Act (section 319): An evaluation of program implementation in region 10

    SciTech Connect

    Barfeld, E.

    1992-09-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, long overlooked in federal water pollution regulation, has now become a centerpiece of pollution control efforts. Congress added Section 319 -- the nonpoint source management programs section -- to the Clean Water Act in the 1987 Amendments to demonstrate federal commitment to nonpoint source control activities. Section 319(h) grant money, provided by EPA to individual states, forms an integral part of the federal nonpoint source program. EPA national and regional guidance give direction to the Section 319(h) grant program. As an evolving federal program Section 319 must carve out a niche for itself in relation to ongoing statewide nonpoint source control efforts. This paper provides an analysis of the Section 319 program and the effectiveness of Section 319(h)-funded projects in protecting water quality in Region 10 states, which include Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Alaska. The report identifies characteristics of successful Section 319 projects, reviews selected Section 319 projects, highlights several important issues surrounding the Section 319 program, and makes recommendations for program improvement.

  8. Electrospun N-Substituted Polyurethane Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Self-Cleaning and Oil/Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wenyuan; Liu, Libin; Li, Ting; Dang, Zhao; Qiao, Congde; Xu, Jinku; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-01-18

    Membranes with special functionalities, such as self-cleaning, especially those for oil/water separation, have attracted much attention due to their wide applications. However, they are difficult to recycle and reuse after being damaged. Herein, we put forward a new N-substituted polyurethane membrane concept with self-healing ability to address this challenge. The membrane obtained by electrospinning has a self-cleaning surface with an excellent self-healing ability. Importantly, by tuning the membrane composition, the membrane exhibits different wettability for effective separation of oil/water mixtures and water-in-oil emulsions, whilst still displaying a self-healing ability and durability against damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate a self-healing membrane for oil/water separation, which provides the fundamental research for the development of advanced oil/water separation materials.

  9. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer.

  10. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer. PMID:26608758

  11. A plea for patience and research on surface water connectivity in the U.S. Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Richard J

    2014-01-22

    While winter has proven to be one of the coldest and snowiest seasons on record throughout much of the United States, the coming summer could be unseasonably warm in Washington, DC if the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) successfully implements its reinterpretation of one of the nation's proudest environmental regulatory accomplishments, the Clean Water Act (CWA). In 2013, USEPA and the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) bypassed the traditional scientific review and public comment process by submitting to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a proposed rule establishing a broad interpretation of the scope of the forty year old CWA. In the US, the OMB is tasked, among other duties, with evaluating the significance of agency policies and proposed regulations on the national economy. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24449162

  12. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. PMID:26923044

  13. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain.

  14. 78 FR 42108 - Notice of Extension to Public Comment Period for Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Extension to Public Comment Period for Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 6, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court...

  15. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  16. 75 FR 69704 - Notice of Lodging of Second Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... of Lodging of Second Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on November 8, 2010, a proposed Second Amendment to 2006 Consent Decree, pertaining to United..., the proposed Second Amendment is much more extensive, and would authorize the modification of...

  17. Facility Planning in the Construction Grants Program. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.; Cole, Charles A.

    Wastewater facility planning is an essential component of the federal construction grants process. Presented in this instructor's guide is a one-hour presentation on facility planning intended for citizen advisory groups. The guide is part of the Working for Clean Water Project, which also includes a supplementary audiovisual presentation.…

  18. 77 FR 29757 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... preamble to the proposal (75 FR 58026, Sept. 23, 2010), EPA encourages that future delistings cite ``Method... Clean Water Act programs (see 76 FR 77742). This method, ASTM D-7575-10, uses a different extractant (a... microbiological methods on March 26, 2007 (72 FR 14220), EPA inadvertently omitted fecal coliform, total...

  19. 77 FR 30280 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Withdrawal of Nine Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Withdrawal of Nine Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) AGENCY... to the discovery of inconsistencies in the values used to derive the flow and load duration curves... (see 76 FR 52947) which pertain to segments 08040203-010, 08040204-006, and 08040206-015, -016,...

  20. 76 FR 15341 - Notice of Lodging of a Stipulated Order for Preliminary Relief Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Stipulated Order for Preliminary Relief Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed Stipulated Order for Preliminary Relief was lodged on March 15, 2011, with the United States District Court for...

  1. 75 FR 11911 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e- mailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov... Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... Division. In this action under Sections 301 and 311 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1321,...

  2. Water, moisture and ash content of mechanically cleaned greige cotton, naturally colored brown cotton, flax and rayon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This exploratory research evaluated the Karl Fischer Titration reference method (KFT, ASTM D7785) to accurately measure water content of mechanically cleaned greige cotton, a naturally colored brown cotton, flax and rayon at moisture equilibrium. Each sample was analyzed by KFT, standard oven dryin...

  3. Fabrication of polydopamine-coated superhydrophobic fabrics for oil/water separation and self-cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Miyazaki, Koji; Hori, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    We report a fabric coating method inspired the superhydrophobic properties of lotus leaves and the strong adhesion of the adhesive proteins in mussels. Dopamine, which mimics the single units of the adhesive mussel proteins, was polymerized in an alkaline aqueous solution to coat the surface of fabrics. The versatile reactivity of polydopamine allows subsequent Ag deposition to form a lotus-leaf-like rough structure on the fabric surface. The composite fabric exhibited high water repellence after fluorination. Because dopamine can adhere to all kinds of materials, this method can be applied to many fabrics regardless of their properties and chemical compositions using a universal process. The modified fabrics exhibited excellent anti-wetting and self-cleaning properties with contact angles of >150° and sliding angles lower than 9°. The fabrics also efficiently separated oil from oil/water mixtures under various conditions. Our method is versatile and simple compared with other hydrophobic treatment methods, which usually only work on one type of fabric.

  4. Nanosheet-structured boron nitride spheres with a versatile adsorption capacity for water cleaning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Yu, Jie; Ji, Xixi; Qian, Muqi

    2015-01-28

    Here, we report the synthesis of nanosheet-structured boron nitride spheres (NSBNSs) by a catalyzing thermal evaporation method from solid B powders. The NSBNSs consist of radially oriented ultrathin nanosheets with the sheet edges oriented on the surface. Formation of this unique structure occurs only at a certain reaction temperature. The diameter from 4 μm to 700 nm and the nanosheet thickness from 9.1 to 3.1 nm of the NSBNSs can be well-controlled by appropriately changing the mass ratio of boron powders and catalyst. The NSBNSs possess versatile adsorption capacity, exhibiting excellent adsorption performance for oil, dyes, and heavy metal ions from water. The oil uptake reaches 7.8 times its own weight. The adsorption capacities for malachite green and methylene blue are 324 and 233 mg/g, while those for Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+) are 678.7, 536.7, and 107.0 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption capacities of the NSBNSs for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) are higher or much higher than those of the adsorbents reported previously. These results demonstrate the great potential of NSBNSs for water treatment and cleaning. PMID:25552343

  5. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness.

  6. Butoxyethoxyacetic acid, a biomarker of exposure to water-based cleaning agents.

    PubMed

    Göen, Thomas; Korinth, Gintautas; Drexler, Hans

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the suitability of butoxyethoxyacetic acid (BEAA) as a biomarker of exposure to water-based cleaning agents containing diethylene glycol mono butyl ether (DEGBE). The study was performed in two printing plants where water-based products containing 10-15% DEGBE were used for rubber and blanket washes. Thirty nine newspaper pressroom workers (exposed) and 19 employees of newspaper despatch departments (controls) were investigated. By questionnaire, the workers were asked about the use of personal protective measures. BEAA was determined in post-shift urine using GC-MS. The BEAA concentration in the urine of exposed workers ranged up to 75.1 mg/l (median 6.3 mg/l), whereas in urine samples of the controls the BEAA level was below or around the determination limit of 0.5 mg/l. A protective effect on DEGBE uptake was observed with the use of protective gloves. This observation implies that dermal penetration of DEGBE may be important in exposure monitoring. PMID:12191891

  7. Assessing the US Clean Water Act 303(d) listing process for determining impairment of a waterbody.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Cavallaro, Lindsey

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated the US Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d) listing and delisting processes, based on historical and current federal and state guidelines, to determine whether there are regional differences in water quality assessment criteria used by various states to determine impairment of a waterbody for inclusion in the 303(d) list. A review of almost 50 total maximum daily load (TMDL) and delisting documents revealed that the basis for listing or delisting a waterbody varies considerably and that, in many cases, determination of impairment was based on insufficient water quality information. Historical USEPA guidance on the 303(d) listing and delisting processes has been generally broad, resulting in wide interpretation of the assessment criteria by various states. This has led to unclear or conflicting listing methodologies among states, leading to inconsistencies in impairment determination. Common problems include inconsistent data quality and quantity, differences in frequency of monitoring, variable interpretation of narrative water quality standards, and differences in specificity of implementation and monitoring plans, resulting in significant difference in the basis for listing and delisting waterbodies. In response, several states have taken the initiative to provide much more specific guidance for their internal agencies. Listing and delisting criteria are generally clearer at the state level, but the development of differing state guidance documents has resulted in diversity in the development of the 303(d) lists and in the process of delisting a waterbody. While state guidelines are better able to address local considerations, such as variations in climate, landuse, and water quality objectives, as well as social and economic preferences, the variation in listing criteria has led to inconsistencies across state boundaries in the levels of attainment of national water quality objectives. For stakeholders that participate in the 303(d) listing

  8. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-11-01

    Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation.Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and

  9. Knack for reticle cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masumi; Handa, Hitoshi; Shirai, Hisatsugu

    2000-07-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important processes in mask making, because it decides final quality. In cleaning process, it is necessary for reticle cleanliness to not only remove particles from reticle but also prevent adsorption and re-deposition onto reticle. There is the knack for reticle cleaning, and we introduce three keys in this paper. The first key is the rinse after chemical treatment. By the rinse sequence modification, the cleaner was refined and the particle removal ability was improved. The second key is quality control to grasp the situation of cleaner. By the daily check, cleaner's abnormal condition is found at an early stage, quick action is taken, and then stable cleaning quality is kept every day. And the third key is proper choice of cleaners. We have adopted pre-cleaning process and selected the adequate cleaner for each cleaning level and improved cleaning yield and quality.

  10. Plants + microbes: Innovative food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. It is known that most biogeochemical cycles have a microbial link, and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, have long been established. Wetland plants and soil/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of all kinds of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and root microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an extraordinary adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. It is known that tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and machines enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes can are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors which operate without the need for human direction. We will

  11. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  12. Resistance of cyanobacterial fouling on architectural paint films to cleaning by water jet.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Marcia Aiko; Loh, Kai; John, Vanderley Moacir; Gaylarde, Christine Claire

    2012-04-01

    Mortar panels painted with three different white acrylic coatings were exposed to the environment in urban (São Paulo) and rural (Pirassununga) sites in Brazil for 7 years. After this time, all panels were almost equally discoloured, and paint detachment was observed to only a small degree. The biofilms were composed mainly of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi, principal genera being Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis of the cyanobacteria, and Cladosporium and Alternaria of the fungi. Two of the three paints in Pirassununga became covered by a pink film that contained red-encapsulated Gloeocapsa and clay particles. The third, an 800% elastomeric matt formulation, became discoloured with a grey, only slightly pink, film, although the same cyanobacteria were present. The levels of paint detachments from all films in both locations were low, with rating range of 0-1 of a maximum 5 (100% detachment). After high-pressure water jetting, paint detachments increased at both locations, up to 2 in Pirassununga and 3 in São Paulo. Discoloration decreased; L*A*B* analysis of surface discoloration showed that ΔE (alteration in colour from the original paint film) changed from 28-39 before cleaning to 13-16 afterwards. The pink coloration was not entirely removed from Pirassununga samples, suggesting that cyanobacterial cells are difficult to detach, and microscopic analysis of the biofilms confirmed that Gloeocapsa was still present as the principal contaminant on all surfaces, with Chroococcidiopsis being present as the second most common. Almost no fungi were detected after water jet application. PMID:22215483

  13. Resistance of cyanobacterial fouling on architectural paint films to cleaning by water jet.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Marcia Aiko; Loh, Kai; John, Vanderley Moacir; Gaylarde, Christine Claire

    2012-04-01

    Mortar panels painted with three different white acrylic coatings were exposed to the environment in urban (São Paulo) and rural (Pirassununga) sites in Brazil for 7 years. After this time, all panels were almost equally discoloured, and paint detachment was observed to only a small degree. The biofilms were composed mainly of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi, principal genera being Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis of the cyanobacteria, and Cladosporium and Alternaria of the fungi. Two of the three paints in Pirassununga became covered by a pink film that contained red-encapsulated Gloeocapsa and clay particles. The third, an 800% elastomeric matt formulation, became discoloured with a grey, only slightly pink, film, although the same cyanobacteria were present. The levels of paint detachments from all films in both locations were low, with rating range of 0-1 of a maximum 5 (100% detachment). After high-pressure water jetting, paint detachments increased at both locations, up to 2 in Pirassununga and 3 in São Paulo. Discoloration decreased; L*A*B* analysis of surface discoloration showed that ΔE (alteration in colour from the original paint film) changed from 28-39 before cleaning to 13-16 afterwards. The pink coloration was not entirely removed from Pirassununga samples, suggesting that cyanobacterial cells are difficult to detach, and microscopic analysis of the biofilms confirmed that Gloeocapsa was still present as the principal contaminant on all surfaces, with Chroococcidiopsis being present as the second most common. Almost no fungi were detected after water jet application.

  14. Fast formation of superhydrophobic octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) coating for self-cleaning and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunai; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Chen, Yuning; Lu, Fei; Feng, Lin

    2014-10-28

    A simple and fast method to prepare robust superhydrophobic octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) coating on oxidized copper mesh for self-cleaning and oil/water separation is reported here. The substrate of the copper mesh was first oxidized by simple immersion in an aqueous solution of 1.0 M NaOH and 0.05 M K2S2O8 at room temperature for 30 min, which was then covered with micro- and nanoscale Cu(OH)2 on the surface. Subsequently, the oxidized copper mesh was immersed in 2 × 10(-4) M octadecylphosphonic acid/tetrahydrofuran (ODPA/THF) solution, an ODPA coating formed on the oxidised copper mesh. The ODPA coating formation process takes place rapidly, almost in 1 second, which makes the as-prepared mesh exhibit superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of approximately 158.9° and superoleophilicity with the oil contact angle of 0°. Moreover, the as-prepared mesh has self-cleaning effect and can be repeatedly used to efficiently separate a series of oil/water mixtures like gasoline/water and diesel/water. Interestingly, straightforward oxidation of a copper substrate produces a "water-removing" type oil/water separation mesh with underwater superoleophobicity, whereas ODPA coating on the oxidized copper mesh produces an "oil-removing" type oil/water separation mesh with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. This interesting conversion results from a small amount of ODPA and takes place very rapidly.

  15. Surface Modification for Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity: Applications in Antifog, Underwater Self-Cleaning, and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang-Ting; Yeh, Shiou-Bang; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2015-09-30

    A facile yet effective surface modification strategy for superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity was developed by silanization of zwitterionic sulfobetaine silane (SBSi) on oxidized surfaces. The coatings exhibit excellent wetting properties, as indicated by static contact angles of <5°, and long-term stability under exposure to heat and UV irradiation. The SBSi-modified surfaces were employed for applications in antifog, self-cleaning, and oil-water separation. The SBSi glasses retained their optical transmittance because of the rapid formation of coalesced water thin films on surfaces in contact with water vapor and moisture. In addition, the underwater-oil contact-angle measurements verified the underwater superoleophobicity of the zwitterionic SBSi coatings. The oil spills on the SBSi coating could be readily removed in contact with water to realize the self-cleaning property. Besides, we modified stainless steel wire meshes with SBSi for oil-water separation. The optimal oil recovery rate for the oil-water mixtures reached >99.5% when using the SBSi-coated meshes with a pore size of 17 μm. More importantly, the water flux with modified meshes achieved 6.5 × 10(7) L/m(2)·h·bar, enabling gravity-driven and energy-saving separation. Consequently, we demonstrated the superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity of SBSi, offering promise in solving technological problems of interfacial fog, oil spills, and oil-water separation and thereby showing great potential in large-scale commercial applications.

  16. [Development of a photoperiod-controllable clean rack for rats: circadian rhythms of water intake and blood corticosterone levels].

    PubMed

    Torii, R; Shimoda, K; Hanada, K; Takahashi, K

    1985-01-01

    We have experimentally developed a photoperiod-controllable clean rack for SPF rats. The effectiveness of this clean rack in preventing the infection was attested to by the fact that the SPF rats and nude mice housed in this rack maintained SPF conditions after six months. And we investigated circadian rhythms of water intake and blood corticosterone levels in rats kept in the rack under various lighting conditions. Both rat groups under diurnal and reversed lighting conditions manifested significant increase in both water and blood corticosterone levels, showing a reversed phase relationship of the circadian rhythms between the two groups. These facts indicate the usefulness of the rack newly developed in the studies on circadian rhythms, reproductive physiology and behavior. PMID:3157592

  17. Evaluation of six aerator modules built on venturi air injectors using clean water test.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Zhu, J; Miller, C F

    2009-01-01

    Six aerator modules constructed using venturi air injectors connected in either series or parallel were evaluated and compared for their oxygen transfer coefficients (OTC), standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR), and standard oxygenation efficiency (SOE) determined by clean water tests. Modules in series (module a, b, c) included one, two, and three venturi injectors, respectively. The aerator module with two (module d) and three (module e, f) venturi injectors in parallel were used, while module f had less friction and more even flow rate in each line compared with module e. The results showed that the OTC, SOTR, and SOE for the six different module configurations (module a, b, c, d, e, f) were 4.54, 3.79, 3.58, 8.37, 5.93 and 11.87 h(-1); 0.10, 0.09, 0.09, 0.18, 0.15, and 0.31 kgO(2)/h; and 0.07, 0.06, 0.06, 0.12, 0.10, and 0.21 kgO(2)/kWh, respectively. The observations indicate that a 3-fold increase in SOTR and 3.5-fold increase in SOE can be obtained by simply changing the way that venturi air injectors are connected, which suggests that it is possible to improve the aeration efficiency of a venturi type aeration system by innovative aerator module designs. In view of the situation that the venturi aeration systems currently used for swine manure lagoons need significant improvement in their performance in order to match the cost-effective requirement, more research in aerator module development is needed so that effective control of odor from liquid swine manure lagoons can be achieved at an affordable cost. The technology such developed can also be applied to other livestock species. PMID:19717924

  18. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  19. Removal of 16 pesticide residues from strawberries by washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczynski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The effects of washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling on 16 pesticide (ten fungicides and six insecticides) residue levels in raw strawberries were investigated at different processing times (1, 2 and 5 min). An analysis of these pesticides was conducted using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorous and electron capture detection (GC-NPD/ECD). The processing factor (PF) for each pesticide in each processing technique was determined. Washing with ozonated water was demonstrated to be more effective (reduction from 36.1 to 75.1 %) than washing with tap water (reduction from 19.8 to 68.1 %). Boiling decreased the residues of the most compounds, with reductions ranging from 42.8 to 92.9 %. Ultrasonic cleaning lowered residues for all analysed pesticides with removal of up to 91.2 %. The data indicated that ultrasonic cleaning and boiling were the most effective treatments for the reduction of 16 pesticide residues in raw strawberries, resulting in a lower health risk exposure. Calculated PFs for alpha-cypermethrin were used to perform an acute risk assessment of dietary exposure. To investigate the relationship between the levels of 16 pesticides in strawberry samples and their physicochemical properties, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26694708

  20. Removal of 16 pesticide residues from strawberries by washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczynski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The effects of washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling on 16 pesticide (ten fungicides and six insecticides) residue levels in raw strawberries were investigated at different processing times (1, 2 and 5 min). An analysis of these pesticides was conducted using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorous and electron capture detection (GC-NPD/ECD). The processing factor (PF) for each pesticide in each processing technique was determined. Washing with ozonated water was demonstrated to be more effective (reduction from 36.1 to 75.1 %) than washing with tap water (reduction from 19.8 to 68.1 %). Boiling decreased the residues of the most compounds, with reductions ranging from 42.8 to 92.9 %. Ultrasonic cleaning lowered residues for all analysed pesticides with removal of up to 91.2 %. The data indicated that ultrasonic cleaning and boiling were the most effective treatments for the reduction of 16 pesticide residues in raw strawberries, resulting in a lower health risk exposure. Calculated PFs for alpha-cypermethrin were used to perform an acute risk assessment of dietary exposure. To investigate the relationship between the levels of 16 pesticides in strawberry samples and their physicochemical properties, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. Enabling clean access into Subglacial Lake Whillans: development and use of the WISSARD hot water drill system.

    PubMed

    Rack, Frank R

    2016-01-28

    Clean hot water drill systems (CHWDSs) are used with clean access protocols for the exploration of subglacial lakes and other subglacial aquatic environments (e.g. ice-shelf cavities) in Antarctica. A CHWDS developed for the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project by the Science Management Office at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL-SMO), USA, was specifically designed for use in West Antarctica, where the US Antarctic Program's South Pole Traverse could assist with logistical support. The initial goal was to provide clean access holes through ice up to 1000 m thick following environmental stewardship guidelines; however, the existing design allows this CHWDS to be used for ice thicknesses up to 2000 m following modifications to accommodate longer hose lengths. In January 2013, the WISSARD CHWDS successfully provided for the first time a clean access borehole through 800 m of ice into Subglacial Lake Whillans beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for the deployment of scientific instruments and sampling tools. The development and initial use of the WISSARD CHWDS required the project team to address a number of constraints while providing contingencies to meet the defined project scope, schedule and budget.

  2. Modeling complex dispersed energy and clean water systems for the United States/Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    and distribution of it in El Paso/Juarez region. More precisely, the goals were the conversion of brines and waste-waters to hydrogen via electrolysis, and the generation of electricity through fuel cells. Thereafter, the specific objectives were to (1) design a simulation model for hydrogen generation, (2) design and simulate a model of photovoltaic (PV) array capable to generate the required energy for the process, (3) simulate fuel cells in order to be used as electricity power supply in remote houses, and (4) simulate a complete remote house hybrid system. The results of this research gave us information about the feasibility of high-volume hydrogen generation with the diverse resources of the region. On the other hand, this research has shown the alternatives of local energy generation, and efficiency of a remote house hybrid system located in El Paso/Juarez area. Experiences obtained from this research will also provide information for future investigations in the field of alternate energy sources, in order to get a clean environment through sustainable development.

  3. Fourier transform profilometry for water waves: how to achieve clean water attenuation with diffusive reflection at the water surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przadka, A.; Cabane, B.; Pagneux, V.; Maurel, A.; Petitjeans, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present a study of the damping of capillary-gravity waves in water containing pigments. The practical interest comes from a recent profilometry technique (FTP for Fourier Transform Profilometry) using fringe projection onto the liquid-free surface. This experimental technique requires diffusive reflection of light on the liquid surface, which is usually achieved by adding white pigments. It is shown that the use of most paint pigments causes a large enhancement of the damping of the waves. Indeed, these paints contain surfactants which are easily adsorbed at the air-water interface. The resulting surface film changes the attenuation properties because of the resonance-type damping between capillary-gravity waves and Marangoni waves. We study the physicochemical properties of coloring pigments, showing that particles of the anatase (TiO2) pigment make the water surface light diffusive while avoiding any surface film effects. The use of the chosen particles allows to perform space-time resolved FTP measurements on capillary-gravity waves, in a liquid with the damping properties of pure water.

  4. Non-steady state partitioning of dry cleaning surfactants between tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water in porous media.

    PubMed

    Hoggan, James L; Bae, Keonbeom; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2007-08-15

    Trapped organic solvents, in both the vadose zone and below the water table, are frequent sources of environmental contamination. A common source of organic solvent contamination is spills, leaks, and improper solvent disposal associated with dry cleaning processes. Dry cleaning solvents, such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are typically enhanced with the addition of surfactants to improve cleaning performance. The objective of this work was to examine the partitioning behavior of surfactants from PCE in contact with water. The relative rates of surfactants partitioning and PCE dissolution are important for modeling the behavior of waste PCE in the subsurface, in that they influence the interfacial tension of the PCE, and how (or if) interfacial tension changes over time in the subsurface. The work described here uses a flow-through system to examine simultaneous partitioning and PCE dissolution in a porous medium. Results indicate that both nonylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and a sulfosuccinate anionic surfactant partition out of residual PCE much more rapidly than the PCE dissolves, suggesting that in many cases interfacial tension changes caused by partitioning may influence infiltration and distribution of PCE in the subsurface. Non-steady-state partitioning is found to be well-described by a linear driving force model incorporating measured surfactant partition coefficients.

  5. Non-steady state partitioning of dry cleaning surfactants between tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggan, James L.; Bae, Keonbeom; Kibbey, Tohren C. G.

    2007-08-01

    Trapped organic solvents, in both the vadose zone and below the water table, are frequent sources of environmental contamination. A common source of organic solvent contamination is spills, leaks, and improper solvent disposal associated with dry cleaning processes. Dry cleaning solvents, such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are typically enhanced with the addition of surfactants to improve cleaning performance. The objective of this work was to examine the partitioning behavior of surfactants from PCE in contact with water. The relative rates of surfactants partitioning and PCE dissolution are important for modeling the behavior of waste PCE in the subsurface, in that they influence the interfacial tension of the PCE, and how (or if) interfacial tension changes over time in the subsurface. The work described here uses a flow-through system to examine simultaneous partitioning and PCE dissolution in a porous medium. Results indicate that both nonylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and a sulfosuccinate anionic surfactant partition out of residual PCE much more rapidly than the PCE dissolves, suggesting that in many cases interfacial tension changes caused by partitioning may influence infiltration and distribution of PCE in the subsurface. Non-steady-state partitioning is found to be well-described by a linear driving force model incorporating measured surfactant partition coefficients.

  6. Non-steady state partitioning of dry cleaning surfactants between tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water in porous media.

    PubMed

    Hoggan, James L; Bae, Keonbeom; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2007-08-15

    Trapped organic solvents, in both the vadose zone and below the water table, are frequent sources of environmental contamination. A common source of organic solvent contamination is spills, leaks, and improper solvent disposal associated with dry cleaning processes. Dry cleaning solvents, such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are typically enhanced with the addition of surfactants to improve cleaning performance. The objective of this work was to examine the partitioning behavior of surfactants from PCE in contact with water. The relative rates of surfactants partitioning and PCE dissolution are important for modeling the behavior of waste PCE in the subsurface, in that they influence the interfacial tension of the PCE, and how (or if) interfacial tension changes over time in the subsurface. The work described here uses a flow-through system to examine simultaneous partitioning and PCE dissolution in a porous medium. Results indicate that both nonylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and a sulfosuccinate anionic surfactant partition out of residual PCE much more rapidly than the PCE dissolves, suggesting that in many cases interfacial tension changes caused by partitioning may influence infiltration and distribution of PCE in the subsurface. Non-steady-state partitioning is found to be well-described by a linear driving force model incorporating measured surfactant partition coefficients. PMID:17303284

  7. 78 FR 42942 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Resource... publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other..., Correction and Prevention of Violations (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19618 (Apr. 11, 2000), regarding 88...

  8. HAVE U.S. SURFACE WATERS RESPONDED TO THE 1990 CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set target reductions for sulfur and nitrogen emissions from industrial sources as a means of reducing the acidity in deposition. One of the intended effects of the reductions was to decrease the acidity of low alkalinity wate...

  9. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-12-14

    Two important properties-the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation.

  10. Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A.; Gill, G.A.

    1999-10-15

    To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for Cu, 55--89% for Cd, 53--85% for Ni, and 53--90% for Zn over a period of 23 years. These reductions appear to reflect improvements in controlling discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants since the Clean Water Act was enacted in 1972. In contrast, levels of dissolved nutrients (PO{sub 4}) have remained relatively constant during the same period of time, suggesting that wastewater treatment plant improvements in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan area have not been as effective at reducing nutrient levels within the estuary. While more advanced wastewater treatment could potentially reduce the levels of Ag and PO{sub 4} along the estuary, these improvements would have a more limited effect on the levels of other trace metals.

  11. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-12-14

    Two important properties-the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation. PMID:26530425

  12. Innovative hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating p(HEMA)/PVP networks for the cleaning of water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Joana A L; Bonelli, Nicole; Giorgi, Rodorico; Fratini, Emiliano; Gorel, Florence; Baglioni, Piero

    2013-02-26

    Water-based detergent systems offer several advantages, over organic solvents, for the cleaning of cultural heritage artifacts in terms of selectivity and gentle removal of grime materials or aged varnish, which are known to alter the readability of the painting. Unfortunately, easel paintings present specific characteristics that make the usage of water-based systems invasive. The interaction of water with wood or canvas support favors mechanical stresses between the substrate and the paint layers leading to the detachment of the pictorial layer. In order to avoid painting loss and to ensure a fine control (layer by layer) of grime removal, water-based cleaning systems have been confined into innovative chemical hydrogels, specifically designed for cleaning water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts. The synthesized hydrogels are based on semi-interpenetrating chemical poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) networks with suitable hydrophilicity, water retention properties, and required mechanical strength to avoid residues after the cleaning treatment. Three different compositions were selected. Water retention and release properties have been studied by quantifying the amount of free and bound water (from differential scanning calorimetry); mesoporosity was obtained from scanning electron microscopy; microstructure from small angle X-ray scattering. To demonstrate both the efficiency and versatility of the selected hydrogels in confining and modulating the properties of cleaning systems, a representative case study is presented. PMID:23331023

  13. Innovative hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating p(HEMA)/PVP networks for the cleaning of water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Joana A L; Bonelli, Nicole; Giorgi, Rodorico; Fratini, Emiliano; Gorel, Florence; Baglioni, Piero

    2013-02-26

    Water-based detergent systems offer several advantages, over organic solvents, for the cleaning of cultural heritage artifacts in terms of selectivity and gentle removal of grime materials or aged varnish, which are known to alter the readability of the painting. Unfortunately, easel paintings present specific characteristics that make the usage of water-based systems invasive. The interaction of water with wood or canvas support favors mechanical stresses between the substrate and the paint layers leading to the detachment of the pictorial layer. In order to avoid painting loss and to ensure a fine control (layer by layer) of grime removal, water-based cleaning systems have been confined into innovative chemical hydrogels, specifically designed for cleaning water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts. The synthesized hydrogels are based on semi-interpenetrating chemical poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) networks with suitable hydrophilicity, water retention properties, and required mechanical strength to avoid residues after the cleaning treatment. Three different compositions were selected. Water retention and release properties have been studied by quantifying the amount of free and bound water (from differential scanning calorimetry); mesoporosity was obtained from scanning electron microscopy; microstructure from small angle X-ray scattering. To demonstrate both the efficiency and versatility of the selected hydrogels in confining and modulating the properties of cleaning systems, a representative case study is presented.

  14. How to clean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jean M.

    2004-06-01

    Various cleaning methods are available depending on the sizes of the parts, mounted or unmounted, and purpose of the cleaning. Dust and other particle contamination affect scattering and act as nuclei for defects in optical coatings. In some cases, these defects can initiate laser damage. Noncontact cleaning methods to eliminate particle contamination include blowing large particles from surfaces with an air bulb, "canned air," or a nitrogen gas jet, for a gentle cleaning and CO2 snow for more aggressive particle removal. Laser assisted particle removal is a new high tech method. A strip coating material applied to the surface and subsequently removed will remove large fresh particles and often fingerprints. Contamination films affect the quality and adherence of optical coatings. These are usually removed (from unmounted optics) by cleaning the surface in a detergent and water bath followed by extensive rinsing and non-contact drying. Alternate methods when immersion in water is not possible are drag wiping, or spraying or squirting organic solvents over the surface. Before cleaning, surfaces must be visually inspected to determine the type and location of the contamination, to decide if cleaning is necessary, and what type of cleaning technique to use. Finally, bad cleaning is much worse than no cleaning! Illustrations of the cleaning methods described above will be given.

  15. Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper surface on various substrates for roll-off, self-cleaning, and water/oil separation.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Mondal, Chanchal; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Gauri, Samiran Sona; Pal, Jaya; Aditya, Teresa; Ganguly, Mainak; Dey, Satyahari; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-24

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent percolation of water droplets and thus render roll-off, self-cleaning, corrosion protection, etc., which find day-to-day and industrial applications. In this work, we developed a facile, cost-effective, and free-standing method for direct fabrication of copper nanoparticles to engender superhydrophobicity for various flat and irregular surfaces such as glass, transparency sheet (plastic), cotton wool, textile, and silicon substrates. The fabrication of as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces was accomplished using a simple chemical reduction of copper acetate by hydrazine hydrate at room temperature. The surface morphological studies demonstrate that the as-prepared surfaces are rough and display superhydrophobic character on wetting due to generation of air pockets (The Cassie-Baxter state). Because of the low adhesion of water droplets on the as-prepared surfaces, the surfaces exhibited not only high water contact angle (164 ± 2°, 5 μL droplets) but also superb roll-off and self-cleaning properties. Superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle coated glass surface uniquely withstands water (10 min), mild alkali (5 min in saturated aqueous NaHCO3 of pH ≈ 9), acids (10 s in dilute HNO3, H2SO4 of pH ≈ 5) and thiol (10 s in neat 1-octanethiol) at room temperature (25-35 °C). Again as-prepared surface (cotton wool) was also found to be very effective for water-kerosene separation due to its superhydrophobic and oleophilic character. Additionally, the superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle (deposited on glass surface) was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  16. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  17. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  18. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  19. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. 77 FR 27770 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... identifying certain water quality limited waterbodies, and the associated pollutant, in Utah to be listed... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water quality standards and for... applicable water quality criterion for total dissolved solids (TDS) for these waters is being exceeded....

  3. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  4. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  5. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  6. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  7. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  8. 75 FR 5807 - Notice of Lodging of a Modified Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... January 27, 2010, a proposed Modified Consent Decree in United States v. Sewerage & Water Board of New..., and the Sewerage & Water Board of New Orleans (``Board''), the City of New Orleans (``City''), and the.... Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. Sewerage & Water...

  9. 78 FR 13706 - Notice of Lodging of Second Modified Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... League of Women Voters of New Orleans, et al. v. Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans, et al., C.A. No... District of Louisiana. The Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans (``Board'') is currently implementing.... Sewerage and Water Board of New Orleans, et al., Department of Justice No. 90-5-1-1-4032. During...

  10. 76 FR 20664 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... action identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed... controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water quality standards and for which total... because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved oxygen was...

  11. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  12. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  13. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  14. SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGES FOR ENSURING CLEAN AND RELIABLE WATER FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A B

    2004-08-17

    Many areas in the world are experiencing significant fresh water shortages due to drought, growing populations, increased agricultural and industrial demands, and extensive forms of pollution or water quality degradation. Many more are expected to face similar predicaments in the next 20 years. Water shortages will significantly limit economic growth, decrease the quality of life and human health for billions of people, degrade the ecologic health of natural environments, and could potentially lead to violence and conflict over securing scarce supplies of water. These concerns are not limited to the economically poor countries, of course, as many parts of the United States face similar dilemmas. These problems can be exacerbated by fluctuating imbalances between need and supply, poor water management or land use practices, social, economic, political, and trans-boundary disputes, as well as factors related to climate change. The future is one that will require significant technological advances to support the conservation, preservation, and movement of fresh water, as well as in the development of new or alternative supplies. It is also one that will also require concomitant improvements in the use of practical solutions and the ways in which the broader scientific and technical community interacts with policy-makers, water-related agencies, the educational community, as well the public in the solution process. This presentation will review several aspects of these issues and proposed or implemented solutions for new and reliable water in the context of an example water situation in the US.

  15. Addition of surfactants in ozonated water cleaning for the suppression of functional group formation and particle adhesion on the SiO2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jahyun; Im, Kyungtaek; Lim, Sangwoo

    2011-04-01

    Various kinds of surfactants were added to a cleaning solution and deionized (DI) water, and their effect on the suppression of organic function group formation and particle adhesion to a SiO2 surface was analyzed using multi-internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results implied that attached organic functional groups are affected by the chemical structure of a surfactant in DI water. Furthermore, the addition of anionic glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-tert-butylphenyl ether (GAE4E) is the most effective in terms of preventing organic group attachment and particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface, whether it was added to the cleaning solution or post-cleaning rinse water, with or without polystyrene latex particles. Moreover, it was possible to completely prevent particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface with the proper addition of GAE4E in DIO3 solution.

  16. Case History of a Clean Water Act Compliance Agreement at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A major Clean Water Act (CWA) Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement was signed on March 25, 1991 by the US Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE, RFFO) and the Water Enforcement Division of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VIII. The agreement revised the Rocky Flats Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and arose from pemittee-requested changes in effluent monitoring points and permit violations, most notably the February 22, 1989 Chromic Acid Incident. The Rocky Flats Plant, now called the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) near Golden Colorado was operated at that time by Rockwell International Corporation, who later plead guilty to six misdemeanor and felony counts of the CWA (the aforementioned NPDES permit violations) and paid a $4 million fine on March 26, 1992. The Compliance Agreement, hereafter referred to as the NPDES FFCA, called for three separate remedial action plans and contained a schedule for their submittal to the EPA. The compliance plans focussed on: (1) Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) performance upgrades, (2) source control and surface water protection, and (3) characterization of the impacts from past sludge disposal practices. Projects that implemented the compliance plans were initiated soon after submittal to the EPA and are forecast to complete in 1997 at a total cost of over $35 million. This paper presents a case history of NPDES FFCA compliance projects and highlights the successes, failures, and lessons learned.

  17. Environmental Assessment. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Described is an hour-long learning session on environmental assessment that is designed to help citizen advisory groups improve decision making in water quality planning. The instructor's guide addresses: (1) environmental considerations in water quality planning, and (2) the identification of primary and secondary impacts of wastewater projects.…

  18. Cleaning Water Contaminated with Heavy Metal Ions Using Pyrolyzed Biochar Adsorbents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extraction of pollutants from water using activated biochar materials is a low cost, sustainable approach for providing safe water in developing countries. The adsorption of copper ions, Cu (II), onto banana peels that were dried, pyrolyzed and activated was studied and compa...

  19. 75 FR 39041 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... waste into waters of the United States, causing two fish kills. The Complaint further alleges that, on... conveys that wastewater to its wastewater treatment plant. The Consent Decree further obligates JBS to... 2008.\\1\\ The Complaint alleged that, by discharging pollutants into the navigable waters of the...

  20. A Human Rights Approach for Access to Clean Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kanaaneh; McKay; Sims

    1995-01-01

    In northern and central Israel are some 70 villages that are not recognized by the state of Israel. At least half of these villages are not connected to the national drinking water networks and lack sufficient quality and quantity of water. Outbreaks of diseases associated with contaminated water supply have occurred, as well as substantial environmental distress. An outbreak of hepatitis A led to the cooperation of a public health physician, a nurse, an environmental engineer, and a human rights lawyer in successfully taking a case to the International Water Tribunal to get access to safe drinking water for these communities. This case study provides a model for cooperation between proponents and practitioners of health and human rights.

  1. Biological sand filters: low-cost bioremediation technique for production of clean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrheal-related diseases amounts to ∼2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water. Most of them are children under 5 years of age--250 deaths an hour from microbiologically contaminated water. There is conclusive evidence that one low-cost household bioremediation intervention, use of biological sand filters, is capable of dramatically improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. This unit will describe this relatively new and proven bioremediation technology's ability to empower at-risk populations to use naturally occurring biological principles and readily available materials as a sustainable way to achieve the health benefits of safe drinking water.

  2. Biological sand filters: low-cost bioremediation technique for production of clean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrheal-related diseases amounts to approximately 2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water. Most of them are children under 5 years of age-250 deaths an hour from microbiologically contaminated water. There is conclusive evidence that one low-cost household bioremediation intervention, biological sand filters, are capable of dramatically improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. This unit will describe this relatively new and proven bioremediation technology's ability to empower at-risk populations to use naturally occurring biology and readily available materials as a sustainable way to achieve the health benefits of safe drinking water.

  3. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology.

  4. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. PMID:25540943

  5. Sedimentation on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa: cleaning efficiency from natural sediments and drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Purser, Autun

    2011-06-01

    Anthropogenic threats to cold-water coral reefs are trawling and hydrocarbon drilling, with both activities causing increased levels of suspended particles. The efficiency of Lophelia pertusa in rejecting local sediments and drill cuttings from the coral surface was evaluated and found not to differ between sediment types. Further results showed that the coral efficiently removed deposited material even after repeated exposures, indicating an efficient cleaning mechanism. In an experiment focusing on burial, fine-fraction drill cuttings were deposited on corals over time. Drill cutting covered coral area increased with repeated depositions, with accumulation mainly occurring on and adjacent to regions of the coral skeleton lacking tissue cover. Tissue was smothered and polyp mortality occurred where polyps became wholly covered by material. Burial of coral by drill cuttings to the current threshold level used in environmental risk assessment models by the offshore industry (6.3mm) may result in damage to L. pertusa colonies.

  6. Sedimentation on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa: cleaning efficiency from natural sediments and drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Purser, Autun

    2011-06-01

    Anthropogenic threats to cold-water coral reefs are trawling and hydrocarbon drilling, with both activities causing increased levels of suspended particles. The efficiency of Lophelia pertusa in rejecting local sediments and drill cuttings from the coral surface was evaluated and found not to differ between sediment types. Further results showed that the coral efficiently removed deposited material even after repeated exposures, indicating an efficient cleaning mechanism. In an experiment focusing on burial, fine-fraction drill cuttings were deposited on corals over time. Drill cutting covered coral area increased with repeated depositions, with accumulation mainly occurring on and adjacent to regions of the coral skeleton lacking tissue cover. Tissue was smothered and polyp mortality occurred where polyps became wholly covered by material. Burial of coral by drill cuttings to the current threshold level used in environmental risk assessment models by the offshore industry (6.3mm) may result in damage to L. pertusa colonies. PMID:21529851

  7. Recovery of Small Quantities of Viruses from Clean Waters on Cellulose Nitrate Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gerald; Dahling, Daniel R.; Berman, Donald

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for quantitatively recovering small amounts of viruses from large volumes of buffered, distilled water. Development of the method was motivated by the anticipated need for testing large volumes of renovated sewage for viruses. The method consists of adsorbing viruses onto cellulose nitrate membrane filters (0.45 μm pore size) from water containing sufficient Na2HPO4 to produce a molarity of 0.05 and sufficient citric acid to produce a pH of 7, and eluting the adsorbed viruses in 3% beef extract under extended sonic treatment. Complete recovery of poliovirus 1, echovirus 7, and coxsackievirus B3 resulted when less than 100 plaque-forming units were added to 1-liter quantities of water. Recoveries of reovirus 1 were almost as good. Preliminary studies indicate that good recoveries can be made from 25-gal quantities of water. The method described is efficient in waters of high quality and may be useful for recovering viruses in renovated, and perhaps in tap waters, but not in waters containing certain organic matter unless that matter is first removed. PMID:4331770

  8. Cattle, clean water, and climate change: policy choices for the Brazilian Agricultural Frontier.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew Reid; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Scavia, Donald

    2010-11-15

    In the Amazonian agricultural frontier, pasture for cattle ranching is an important and potentially hazardous form of land use because of sediment erosion as pastures degrade. This relationship between ranching, sediment load, and water quality is likely to further exacerbate environmental impacts, particularly in the context of climate change. We examine the role that river basin councils (RBCs) - a water governance option of Brazil's 1997 National Water Act - might play in managing this nonpoint-source pollution in the Amazônian state of Rondônia. We implement a simple coupled rancher-water system model to compare two potential governance options: a bulk water cleanup charge (BWC) implemented by RBCs and a land-use fine (LUF) for failing to maintain riparian buffers. We find no significant advantage of BWC over LUF in reducing sediment loading while keeping ranching profitable, under a changing climate. We also fail to find in Rondônia the important stake in water issues that has driven water reform elsewhere in Brazil. Moreover, the comparative success of reforestation programs suggests these programs may, in fact, have the potential to manage nonpoint-source agricultural pollution in the region. PMID:20961050

  9. Evaluation of clean solid phases for extraction of nitroaromatics and nitramines from water. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, T.F.; Thorne, P.G.; Myers, K.F.; McCormick, E.F.; Parker, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    Salting-out solvent extraction (SOE) was compared with cartridge and membrane solid-phase extraction (SPE) for preconcentration of nitroaromatics, nitramines, and aminonitroaromatics prior to determination by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The solid phases used were manufacturer-cleaned materials, Porapak RDX for the cartridge method and Empore SDB-RPS for the membrane method. Thirty-three groundwater samples from the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana, were analyzed using the direct analysis protocol specified in SW846 Method 8330, and the results were compared with analyses conducted after preconcentration using SOE with acetonitrile, cartridge-based SPE, and membrane-based SPE. For high-concentration samples, analytical results from the three preconcentration techniques were compared with results from the direct analysis protocol; good recovery of all target analytes was achieved by all three pre-concentration methods. For low-concentration samples, results from the two SPE methods were correlated with results from the SOE method; very similar data was obtained by the SOE and SPE methods, even at concentrations well below 1 microgram/L.

  10. 76 FR 3159 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...) discharging untreated sewage from the combined sewer collection system during dry weather into ``waters of the... wastewater treatment plants, known as the ``East Plant'' and the ``West Plant,'' during wet weather...

  11. An Evaluation of Common Cleaning Methods for the Removal of a Clinical Isolate of Escherichia coli in Personal Hydration System Water Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Stephanie; Blythe, Jauchia; Guevara, Peter; Washington, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Personal hydration packs have been used by military personnel since the Gulf War and are now a common issue item. Since military personnel tend to operate under austere conditions and may use a variety of water sources, preventing the acquisition of waterborne infections is extremely important. Further, since hydration pack water reservoir replacements may not be available during combat operations, the development of a reliable cleaning protocol for use in the field is essential. Several methods for cleaning have been described. In the current study, three common cleaning methodologies-bleach treatment, baking soda treatment, and proprietary CAMELBAK Cleaning Tabs™-were evaluated for the ability to remove Escherichia coli contamination from hydration pack water reservoirs. The study results suggest that the use of bleach and proprietary CAMELBAK tablets should be encouraged since they both operate by releasing bactericidal chlorine compounds into solution, which is more effective at reducing post-treatment bacterial burden. It should be noted that no method was 100% effective at completely eliminating bacteria from the reservoirs and that mechanical cleaning was not attempted. PMID:27450612

  12. An Evaluation of Common Cleaning Methods for the Removal of a Clinical Isolate of Escherichia coli in Personal Hydration System Water Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Stephanie; Blythe, Jauchia; Guevara, Peter; Washington, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Personal hydration packs have been used by military personnel since the Gulf War and are now a common issue item. Since military personnel tend to operate under austere conditions and may use a variety of water sources, preventing the acquisition of waterborne infections is extremely important. Further, since hydration pack water reservoir replacements may not be available during combat operations, the development of a reliable cleaning protocol for use in the field is essential. Several methods for cleaning have been described. In the current study, three common cleaning methodologies-bleach treatment, baking soda treatment, and proprietary CAMELBAK Cleaning Tabs™-were evaluated for the ability to remove Escherichia coli contamination from hydration pack water reservoirs. The study results suggest that the use of bleach and proprietary CAMELBAK tablets should be encouraged since they both operate by releasing bactericidal chlorine compounds into solution, which is more effective at reducing post-treatment bacterial burden. It should be noted that no method was 100% effective at completely eliminating bacteria from the reservoirs and that mechanical cleaning was not attempted.

  13. Efficiency of Silver Impregnated Porous Pot (SIPP) Filters for Production of Clean Potable Water

    PubMed Central

    Mahlangu, Oranso; Mamba, Bhekie; Momba, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    The Silver Impregnated Porous Pot (SIPP) filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology manufactured for the production of safe drinking water at a household (home) level. Two SIPP devices were assessed for the reduction efficiency of chemical contaminants such as calcium, magnesium, iron, arsenic, fluorides and total organic carbon (TOC) as well as microbial contaminants from environmental samples. Turbidity change after filtration, together with correlation between chlorophyll a in the feed water and SIPP’s flow rates were also evaluated in order to give comprehensive guidelines on the quality of intake water that could be filtered through the filter without causing a significant decrease in flow rate. The SIPP filters removed contaminants from environmental water samples as follows: 70% to 92% iron, 36% to 68% calcium, 42% to 82% arsenic, 39% to 98% magnesium, 39% to 95% fluorides, 12% to 35% TOC and 45% to 82% turbidity. The SIPP filters had initial flow rates of 1 L/h to 4 L/h but the flow rates dropped to 0.5 L/h with an increase in cumulative volume of intake water as the filter was used. Turbidity and chemical contaminant reduction rates decreased with accumulating volume of intake water but the filter removed Ca, Fe and Mg to levels that comply with the South African National Standards (SANS 241) and the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values. However, the SIPP filters cannot produce enough water to satisfy the daily drinking water requirement of a typical household (25 L/p·d). Chlorophyll a was associated with a decrease in the flow rate through the SIPP filters. PMID:23202668

  14. Water cleaning systems improves the water quality in dental unit water lines (DUWL). A report from the Public Dental Health of Västra Götaland region, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Hjort, Gunilla; Spencer, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are formed in the dental unit waterlines, which leads to unacceptable high levels of bacteria in the water used for dental treatment. Public Dental Health in Västra Götaland, Sweden, decided in 2010 to install water cleaning systems in all dental units. This report shows the effect of this water-cleaning program comprising 841 dental units. The 841 dental units in 111 clinics in the Public Dental Health Service of Västra Götaland region participated in the study. 50 ml water was sampled from the air-water syringe after 2-3 hrs of use and were analyzed for the number of fast-growing (2 days incubation) and slow-growing (7 days incubation) bacteria calculated as colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Approved water quality was set to <100 CFU/ml accordingto the recommendations from the Board of Health and Wellfare (Socialstyrelsen). Altogether 77.3% of the dental units reached approved levels, which was considerable higher than the 25.2% that were approved in a similar study at FTV in the city of Göteborg 4 years earlier when no water cleaning systems were installed. Further, 474 dental units using the Alpron/ Bilpron weekend system 83.4% were approved, 136 units using Unit Clean system 87.5% were approved and 15 using the Sterilox system all reached below 100 CFU/ml. The 199 dental units with inbuilt cleanings systems by the manufacturers based on hydrogen peroxide only 56.3% were approved. A number of 45 (22.6%) showed very high levels (> 10 000 CFU/ml) indicating serious problems with the practical procedures or installation of the systems that needs further attention. The study showed generally improved conditions of the water in the dental units after the introduction of water cleaning systems in the clinics of Public Dental Health Service of Västra Götaland Region, Sweden although the problem still remains in many units.

  15. Reaching Part Per Trillion Clean-Up Criteria for Mercury in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K. T.; Kosny, K.; Drescher, S. R.; Southworth, G. R.; Hensley, J. F.

    2003-02-24

    In the last couple of years, emphasis on environmental mercury contamination and elimination of mercury use has increased. The U.S. Department of Energy has for many decades maintained a stockpile of elemental mercury for operations and, as a consequence of its routine use, spills have occurred. These historical spills have resulted in some contamination of water streams and soils. In this work we examine a newly developed technique for removal of mercury from contaminated groundwater. In this application the mercury concentration was approximately 2.3 parts per billion and the treatment criterion was 200 parts per trillion. Several forms of mercury species contributed to the contamination. The treatment technique developed for this water was to convert all forms of mercury, through a series of fast chemical reactions, to elemental mercury, which was air-stripped from the water. This paper presents preliminary laboratory work on the method.

  16. Clean Water in the Pacific. [Videotape]. PRELSTAR: A Pacific Islands Distance Learning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This 11-minute videotape and poster can be used for interactive instruction in grades 6-12 science classes. Issues examined in this videotape include preserving precious water resources, protecting the environment from pollutants caused by urban and agricultural development and industry within changing lifestyles, and ensuring the availability of…

  17. Financial Management. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auker, Dennis; And Others

    The implementation of water quality programs in the face of rising costs raises many questions for states and local communities, including: How much can taxpayers afford to pay? Who will pay? How can they pay? Described is an hour-long learning session on financial management that is designed to help citizen advisory groups play an integral role…

  18. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  19. 75 FR 49949 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ..., a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Plains All American Pipeline, L.P., et al., (Civil No.... 1251 et seq., against Plains All American Pipeline, L.P. and several of its operating subsidiaries (collectively referred to as ``Plains'') for ten unauthorized discharges of crude oil into navigable waters...

  20. Innovative and Alternative Technologies. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles A.

    Innovative and alternative methods of wastewater treatment can improve the efficiency and lower the cost of waste treatment procedures. Described in this instructor's guide is a one-hour learning session for citizens interested in improving water quality planning and decision making. Among the topics covered are the need for alternative wastewater…

  1. Algal turf scrubbing: cleaning surface waters with solar energy while producing a biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the long period of human expansion across the earth, the atmosphere and the earth’s natural waters have been used as low cost sinks or dumps for our human, agricultural and industrial wastes. Despite significant investment, the methods employed for the last half century have largely fail...

  2. Working for Clean Water, 3: Citizen Handbooks. An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltzfus, Lorna Chr., Ed.

    Presented is material from an information program designed to help citizen advisory groups and local officials improve decision-making in water quality planning. The program is designed to help people focus on essential issues and questions by providing materials suitable for people with non-technical backgrounds. Chapter topics include: (1)…

  3. Cleaning up Water? Or Building Rural Community? Community Watershed Organizations in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Richard; Lee, Brian; Brasier, Kathryn; Weigle, Jason L.; Higdon, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Recent initiatives from state and federal government agencies have helped foster the formation of community-based watershed organizations. Although there is a great deal of enthusiasm about the potential of these organizations to enhance water quality, relatively little attention has been paid to the impacts these organizations may have on the…

  4. 76 FR 61738 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Concrete Company, Inc., Civil Action No. 2:11-cv-228, was lodged with the United States District Court for... against Newport Sand & Gravel Company, Inc., and Carroll Concrete Company, Inc. (``Defendants'') for... water at three concrete ready-mix plants in Vermont, one concrete ready-mix plant in New Hampshire,...

  5. Working for Clean Water, 2: Citizen Handbooks. An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltzfus, Lorna Chr., Ed.

    Presented is material from an information program designed to help citizen advisory groups and local officials improve decision-making in water quality planning. This program is aimed at helping people focus on essential issues and questions by providing materials suitable for persons with non-technical backgrounds. The following chapters are…

  6. Urban Stormwater Runoff. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Robert A.

    Urban stormwater runoff collects pollutants from many parts of a city and is an important consideration in water quality planning. Presented is an instructor's guide for a learning session covering various aspects of urban runoff including pollutant sources, management practices, and regulatory programs. Intended for citizen advisory groups, this…

  7. 75 FR 71431 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Register notice that published on November 9, 2010 at 75 FR 68783 announcing the availability of EPA...: Comments on the proposed decisions should be sent to Valentina Cabrera Stagno or Dave Guiliano, Water... 94105, telephone (415) 972-3434 or (415) 947-4133, facsimile (415) 947-3537, e-mail...

  8. 75 FR 68783 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...: Comments on the proposed decisions should be sent to Valentina Cabrera Stagno, Water Division (WTR-2), U.S...-3434, facsimile (415) 947- 3537, e-mail cabrera-stagno.valentina@epa.gov . Oral comments will not be... or calling Valentina Cabrera Stagno. Underlying documentation comprising the record for...

  9. Effects of Water Hardness on Textile Detergency Performance in Aqueous Cleaning Systems.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Horibe, Kaori; Mei, Yang; Tsujisaka, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous solutions were systematically investigated using four surfactants: sodium oleate (OLNa), linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (AS), and polyoxyethylene (10) dodecyl ether (AE). Water hardness was adjusted according to the standard procedure described in IEC 60734:2012. As expected, by adding hardness salts the surface tension of the OLNa solution increased. Surprisingly, the addition of hardness salts lowers the surface tension for the LAS and AS solutions. In the case of the AE solution, hardness salt did not affect the surface tension. A decrease in transmittance and foamability after adding hardness salts was observed for every anionic surfactant solution, indicating that anionic surfactants can combine with divalent ions to form insoluble precipitates. Detergency experiments were performed using cotton plain-woven and towel fabrics soiled with a carbon black and oleic acid mixture. One piece each of untreated and soiled fabric were stacked and placed horizontally in detergent solution with or without hardness salts. As a mechanical action of soil removal, the shaking of 190 spm was applied. Soil removal and redeposition due to washing were evaluated from changes in values of the Kubelka-Munk function for both fabrics. With increasing water hardness, soil removal decreased and redeposition increased. In order of decreasing detergency, the surfactants were as follows: LAS > OLNa ≈ AS > AE. The results indicate that precipitates, formed by reaction of LAS or AS with hardness salts, are strongly adsorbed on the water surface because of their hydrophobicity, but they have no detergency power. The field emission scanning electron microscopic observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that Ca(LAS)2 precipitation clung to fiber surfaces, and remained on the surfaces after washing. Significant changes in the cotton fabric due to washing were observed in

  10. Effects of Water Hardness on Textile Detergency Performance in Aqueous Cleaning Systems.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Horibe, Kaori; Mei, Yang; Tsujisaka, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water hardness on textile detergency in aqueous solutions were systematically investigated using four surfactants: sodium oleate (OLNa), linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (AS), and polyoxyethylene (10) dodecyl ether (AE). Water hardness was adjusted according to the standard procedure described in IEC 60734:2012. As expected, by adding hardness salts the surface tension of the OLNa solution increased. Surprisingly, the addition of hardness salts lowers the surface tension for the LAS and AS solutions. In the case of the AE solution, hardness salt did not affect the surface tension. A decrease in transmittance and foamability after adding hardness salts was observed for every anionic surfactant solution, indicating that anionic surfactants can combine with divalent ions to form insoluble precipitates. Detergency experiments were performed using cotton plain-woven and towel fabrics soiled with a carbon black and oleic acid mixture. One piece each of untreated and soiled fabric were stacked and placed horizontally in detergent solution with or without hardness salts. As a mechanical action of soil removal, the shaking of 190 spm was applied. Soil removal and redeposition due to washing were evaluated from changes in values of the Kubelka-Munk function for both fabrics. With increasing water hardness, soil removal decreased and redeposition increased. In order of decreasing detergency, the surfactants were as follows: LAS > OLNa ≈ AS > AE. The results indicate that precipitates, formed by reaction of LAS or AS with hardness salts, are strongly adsorbed on the water surface because of their hydrophobicity, but they have no detergency power. The field emission scanning electron microscopic observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that Ca(LAS)2 precipitation clung to fiber surfaces, and remained on the surfaces after washing. Significant changes in the cotton fabric due to washing were observed in

  11. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  12. A holistic look at minimizing adverse environmental impact under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Veil, John A; Puder, Markus G; Littleton, Debra J; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-04-18

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that "the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact." As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase "minimizing adverse environmental impact" in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms "environmental" and "minimizing." Congress chose "environmental" in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like "impingement and entrainment," "water quality," or "aquatic life." In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output

  13. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE PAGES

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore » water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional

  14. Surface force measurements between titanium dioxide surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition in electrolyte solutions reveal non-DLVO interactions: influence of water and argon plasma cleaning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Rick B; Evans, Drew; Craig, Vincent S J

    2014-03-01

    Surface force measurements between titania surfaces in electrolyte solutions have previously revealed an unexplained long-range repulsive force at high pH, not described by Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Here, the surface forces between titania surfaces produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and cleaned using a variety of methods have been measured to determine the influence of the cleaning protocol on the measured forces and test the hypothesis that water plasma cleaning of the surface results in non-DLVO forces at high pH. For argon plasma and water plasma cleaned surfaces, a diffuse double layer repulsion and van der Waals attraction is observed near the isoelectric point. At high pH, the force remained repulsive up until contact, and no van der Waals attraction or adhesion was observed. Differences in the measured forces are explained by modification of the surface chemistry during cleaning, which alters the density of charged groups on the surface, but this cannot explain the observed disagreement with DLVO theory at high pH. PMID:24548170

  15. Dietary potassium diformate did not affect growth and survival but did reduce nutrient digestibility of Pacific white shrimp cultured under clean water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of a dietary supplement potassium diformate (PDF) on growth performance, survival and nutrient digestibility of Pacific white shrimp cultured under clean water conditions. We found that weight gain was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the different levels of ...

  16. Implementation results for automated gas-pulsed cleaning systems of TsKTI on petroleum-heating furnaces, heat-recovery boilers, and hot-water boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnyak, A. P.; Kokorev, V. L.; Kokorev, A. L.; Moiseenko, I. O.; Gul'Tyaev, A. V.; Efimova, N. N.

    2012-03-01

    A description is given on the long-term positive experience of implementation of gas-pulsed cleaning (GPC) systems of TsKTI, development for heating surfaces of heat-exchange apparatuses for various purposes (steam and hot-water boilers, processing furnaces of petroleum refineries, etc.) against external soot-dust, ash, and condensed deposits formed during solid and fluid combustion.

  17. Self-Cleaning Coatings and Materials for Decontaminating Field-Deployable Land and Water-Based Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Underwood, Lauren; Holekamp, Kara; May, George; Spiering, Bruce; Davis, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This technology exploits the organic decomposition capability and hydrophilic properties of the photocatalytic material titanium dioxide (TiO2), a nontoxic and non-hazardous substance, to address contamination and biofouling issues in field-deployed optical sensor systems. Specifically, this technology incorporates TiO2 coatings and materials applied to, or integrated as a part of, the optical surfaces of sensors and calibration sources, including lenses, windows, and mirrors that are used in remote, unattended, ground-based (land or maritime) optical sensor systems. Current methods used to address contamination or biofouling of these optical surfaces in deployed systems are costly, toxic, labor intensive, and non-preventative. By implementing this novel technology, many of these negative aspects can be reduced. The functionality of this innovative self-cleaning solution to address the problem of contamination or biofouling depends on the availability of a sufficient light source with the appropriate spectral properties, which can be attained naturally via sunlight or supplemented using artificial illumination such as UV LEDs (light emitting diodes). In land-based or above-water systems, the TiO2 optical surface is exposed to sunlight, which catalyzes the photocatalytic reaction, facilitating both the decomposition of inorganic and organic compounds, and the activation of superhydrophilic properties. Since underwater optical surfaces are submerged and have limited sunlight exposure, supplementary UV light sources would be required to activate the TiO2 on these optical surfaces. Nighttime operation of land-based or above-water systems would require this addition as well. For most superhydrophilic self-cleaning purposes, a rainwater wash will suffice; however, for some applications an attached rainwater collector/ dispenser or other fresh water dispensing system may be required to wash the optical surface and initiate the removal of contaminates. Deployment of this

  18. Use of wetlands under USEPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) Region 5 Clean Lakes Program. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, J.C.

    1989-05-01

    The EPA's Region V Clean Lakes Program uses several wetlands for controlling degradation of publicly owned, freshwater lakes. The study seeks to determine if the objectives of the Clean Lakes Program are being met by this use of wetlands, and if appropriate institutional arrangements and management techniques are being implemented to manage the wetlands. Conclusions regarding Revion V's use and management of wetlands include: wetland projects are not being monitored adequately for effectiveness and potential negative impacts on ecosystems; other mechanisms which may help to protect wetlands are being employed; management of most wetland projects is decentralized appropriately; most of the wetland projects provide for adequate short-term mass balance studies, prior sedimentation, plant species diversity, water level, retention time, uniform flow of water, and upland pollutant management; and existing evidence suggests that the Clean Lakes wetland projects are instrumental in meeting Program goals and objectives. Based on these conclusions several recommendations for improving wetlands management are reviewed.

  19. A benchmark investigation on cleaning photomasks using wafer cleaning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Burnham, Jay; Marmillion, Pat

    2004-12-01

    As new technologies are developed for smaller linewidths, the specifications for mask cleanliness become much stricter. Not only must the particle removal efficiency increase, but the largest allowable particle size decreases. Specifications for film thickness and surface roughness are becoming tighter and consequently the integrity of these films must be maintained in order to preserve the functionality of the masks. Residual contamination remaining on the surface of the mask after cleaning processes can lead to subpellicle defect growth once the mask is exposed in a stepper environment. Only during the last several years, has an increased focus been put on improving mask cleaning. Over the years, considerably more effort has been put into developing advanced wafer cleaning technologies. However, because of the small market involved with mask cleaning, wafer cleaning equipment vendors have been reluctant to invest time and effort into developing cleaning processes and adapting their toolset to accommodate masks. With the advent of 300 mm processing, wafer cleaning tools are now more easily adapted to processing masks. These wafer cleaning technologies may offer a solution to the difficulties of mask cleaning and need to be investigated to determine whether or not they warrant continued investigation. This paper focuses on benchmarking advanced wafer cleaning technologies applied to mask cleaning. Ozonated water, hydrogenated water, super critical fluids, and cryogenic cleaning have been investigated with regards to stripping resist and cleaning particles from masks. Results that include film thickness changes, surface contamination, and particle removal efficiency will be discussed.

  20. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA.

  1. Feasibility of an environmentally-clean, energy-saving ground-water siphon for supplying heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Clabaugh, B.D. ); Leap, D.I. . Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ground-water gradients as high as 120 ft/mile exist at the edge of a buried glacial sluiceway in northwestern Indiana. A theoretical feasibility study showed that if an upgradient extraction well were connected by siphon pipelines of different diameters to a reinjection well one mile downgradient, with a 10,000 square-foot commercial building using a ground-water heat-pump system between them, then the following could be expected: (1) for a siphon diameters of four and six inches, the siphon/heat pump system would posses the lowest present worth of total life-cycle costs of all other conventional heating and cooling systems and would be the least expensive system to operate each year; (2) the increased capital expenditure of installing a siphon-heat pump system vs. gas, oil, or electric systems would be recovered during the 20-year life-cycle of the system for both siphon diameters. Aquifer systems with high hydraulic gradients in many parts of the world could be utilized thusly to provide cheap and environmentally-clean supplementary energy sources, and therefore, reduce dependence on fossil-fuel supplies.

  2. Physicochemical regeneration of high silica zeolite Y used to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Braschi, I; Blasioli, S; Buscaroli, E; Montecchio, D; Martucci, A

    2016-05-01

    High silica zeolite Y has been positively evaluated to clean-up water polluted with sulfonamides, an antibiotic family which is known to be involved in the antibiotic resistance evolution. To define possible strategies for the exhausted zeolite regeneration, the efficacy of some chemico-physical treatments on the zeolite loaded with four different sulfonamides was evaluated. The evolution of photolysis, Fenton-like reaction, thermal treatments, and solvent extractions and the occurrence in the zeolite pores of organic residues eventually entrapped was elucidated by a combined thermogravimetric (TGA-DTA), diffractometric (XRPD), and spectroscopic (FT-IR) approach. The chemical processes were not able to remove the organic guest from zeolite pores and a limited transformation on embedded molecules was observed. On the contrary, both thermal treatment and solvent extraction succeeded in the regeneration of the zeolite loaded from deionized and natural fresh water. The recyclability of regenerated zeolite was evaluated over several adsorption/regeneration cycles, due to the treatment efficacy and its stability as well as the ability to regain the structural features of the unloaded material. PMID:27155437

  3. Application of Clean Water (CWA) Section 404 compensatory wetland mitigation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.J.; Straub, C.A.

    1994-06-01

    Pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), activities resulting in the discharge of dredge or fill material into waters of the US, including wetlands, require permit authorization from the US Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE). As part of the Section 404 permitting process, compensatory wetland mitigation in the form of wetland enhancement, restoration, or construction may be required to off-set impacts sustained under a Section 404 permit. Under normal circumstances, compensatory mitigation is a relatively straight forward process; however, issues associated with mitigation become more complex at sites undergoing remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), because on-site response/remedial actions involving dredged and fill material are not subject to the formal Section 404 permitting process. These actions are conducted in accordance with the substantive permitting requirements of the ACOE`s Nationwide and individual permitting programs. Wetland mitigatory requirements are determined through application of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (USEPA`s) 040(b) (1) Guidelines promulgated in 40 CFR Part 230 and are implemented through compliance with substantive permitting requirements during the conduct of response/remedial actions. A programmatic approach for implementing wetland mitigatory requirements is being developed at a former US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium refinery undergoing CERCLA remediation in southwestern Ohio. The approach is designed to define the regulatory mechanism that will be used to integrate CWA driven wetland mitigatory requirements into the CERCLA process.

  4. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  5. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

  6. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  7. BEYOND WATER QUALITY: CAN THE CLEAN WATER ACT BE USED TO REDUCE THE QUANTITY OF STORMWATER RUNOFF?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improving water quality by targeting stormwater runoff and the pollutants it carries has become an increasingly important and discussed issue in both environmental policy and urban management literature. Although this is certainly an important concern in both realms of policy, l...

  8. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically 'non-innocent' co-operative ligand.

  9. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically 'non-innocent' co-operative ligand. PMID:23511424

  10. A homogeneous transition metal complex for clean hydrogen production from methanol-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lugo, Rafael E.; Trincado, Mónica; Vogt, Matthias; Tewes, Friederike; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2013-04-01

    The development of an efficient catalytic process that mimics the enzymatic function of alcohol dehydrogenase is critical for using biomass alcohols for both the production of H2 as a chemical energy carrier and fine chemicals under waste-free conditions. Dehydrogenation of alcohol-water mixtures into their corresponding acids with molecular hydrogen as the sole by-product from the reaction can be catalysed by a ruthenium complex with a chelating bis(olefin) diazadiene ligand. This complex, [K(dme)2][Ru(H)(trop2dad)], stores up to two equivalents of hydrogen intramolecularly, and catalyses the production of H2 from alcohols in the presence of water and a base under homogeneous conditions. The conversion of a MeOH-H2O mixture proceeds selectively to CO2/H2 gas formation under neutral conditions, thereby allowing the use of the entire hydrogen content (12% by weight). Isolation and characterization of the ruthenium complexes from these reactions suggested a mechanistic scenario in which the trop2dad ligand behaves as a chemically ‘non-innocent’ co-operative ligand.

  11. Water compatible stir-bar devices imprinted with underivatised glyphosate for selective sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Diaz-Diaz, Goretti; Bengoetxea, Olatz; Quintela, Amaia; Unceta, Nora; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-06-17

    This paper reports the development of stir bars with a new MIP based coating, for the selective sorptive extraction of the herbicide glyphosate (GLYP). Molecular imprinting of the polymer has directly been carried out employing underivatised GLYP as the template molecule. Due to the poor solubility of the target compound in organic solvents, the MIP methodology has been optimised for rebinding in aqueous media, being the synthesis and the rebinding steps carried out in water:methanol mixtures and pure aqueous media. The coating has been developed by radical polymerisation initiated by UV energy, using N-allylthiourea and 2-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate as functional monomers and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. Mechanical stability of the coating has been improved using 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane in the polymerisation mixture. Under the optimised conditions, the MIP has demonstrated excellent selectivity for the target compound in the presence of structural analogues, including its major metabolites. The applicability of the proposed method to real matrices has also been assessed using river water and soil samples. Registered mean recoveries ranged from 90.6 to 97.3% and RSD values were below 5% in all cases, what confirmed the suitability of the described methodology for the selective extraction and quantification of GLYP.

  12. Nanotechnology: a clean and sustainable technology for the degradation of pharmaceuticals present in water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al Fahdi, Tharaya; Al-Wahaibi, Bushra; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Al-Nofli, Kholood; Al-Lawati, Haider

    2016-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals, newly recognized classes of environmental pollutants, are becoming increasingly problematic contaminants of either surface water or ground water around industrial and residential communities. Pharmaceuticals are constantly released into aquatic environments, mainly due to their widespread consumption and complicated removal in wastewater treatment plants. Heterogeneous photocatalysis appear to be one of the most destructive advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for organic contaminants and are possible to obtain complete mineralization of organic pollutants into eco-friendly end products under visible and solar light irradiation. In this study, flower-like In2S3 hierarchical nanostructures were successfully prepared via a facile solution-phase route, using thioacetamide as both sulfur source and capping agent. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of the flowers revealed that the cubic structure of In2S3; morphological studies examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the synthesized In2S3 nanostructure was flower-like hierarchitecture assembled from nanoscale flakes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the stoichiometry of In2S3 nanoflowers. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity studies revealed that the prepared indium(III) sulfide(In2S3) nanoflowers exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance, degrading rapidly the aqueous pharmaceutical solution of Lisinopril under visible light irradiation. These results suggest that In2S3 nanoflowers will be a promising candidate of photocatalyst working in thevisible light range. PMID:26812846

  13. Water compatible stir-bar devices imprinted with underivatised glyphosate for selective sample clean-up.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Diaz-Diaz, Goretti; Bengoetxea, Olatz; Quintela, Amaia; Unceta, Nora; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-06-17

    This paper reports the development of stir bars with a new MIP based coating, for the selective sorptive extraction of the herbicide glyphosate (GLYP). Molecular imprinting of the polymer has directly been carried out employing underivatised GLYP as the template molecule. Due to the poor solubility of the target compound in organic solvents, the MIP methodology has been optimised for rebinding in aqueous media, being the synthesis and the rebinding steps carried out in water:methanol mixtures and pure aqueous media. The coating has been developed by radical polymerisation initiated by UV energy, using N-allylthiourea and 2-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate as functional monomers and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. Mechanical stability of the coating has been improved using 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane in the polymerisation mixture. Under the optimised conditions, the MIP has demonstrated excellent selectivity for the target compound in the presence of structural analogues, including its major metabolites. The applicability of the proposed method to real matrices has also been assessed using river water and soil samples. Registered mean recoveries ranged from 90.6 to 97.3% and RSD values were below 5% in all cases, what confirmed the suitability of the described methodology for the selective extraction and quantification of GLYP. PMID:27207580

  14. Nanotechnology: a clean and sustainable technology for the degradation of pharmaceuticals present in water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al Fahdi, Tharaya; Al-Wahaibi, Bushra; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Al-Nofli, Kholood; Al-Lawati, Haider

    2016-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals, newly recognized classes of environmental pollutants, are becoming increasingly problematic contaminants of either surface water or ground water around industrial and residential communities. Pharmaceuticals are constantly released into aquatic environments, mainly due to their widespread consumption and complicated removal in wastewater treatment plants. Heterogeneous photocatalysis appear to be one of the most destructive advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for organic contaminants and are possible to obtain complete mineralization of organic pollutants into eco-friendly end products under visible and solar light irradiation. In this study, flower-like In2S3 hierarchical nanostructures were successfully prepared via a facile solution-phase route, using thioacetamide as both sulfur source and capping agent. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of the flowers revealed that the cubic structure of In2S3; morphological studies examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the synthesized In2S3 nanostructure was flower-like hierarchitecture assembled from nanoscale flakes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the stoichiometry of In2S3 nanoflowers. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity studies revealed that the prepared indium(III) sulfide(In2S3) nanoflowers exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance, degrading rapidly the aqueous pharmaceutical solution of Lisinopril under visible light irradiation. These results suggest that In2S3 nanoflowers will be a promising candidate of photocatalyst working in thevisible light range.

  15. Status of metal contamination in surface waters of the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California since the implementation of the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Smail, Emily A; Webb, Eric A; Franks, Robert P; Bruland, Kenneth W; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2012-04-17

    In order to establish the status of metal contamination in surface waters in the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California, we determined their dissolved and particulate pools and compared them with levels reported in the 1970s prior the implementation of the Clean Water Act. These measurements revealed a significant reduction in particulate toxic metal concentrations in the last 33 years with decreases of ∼100-fold for Pb and ∼400-fold for Cu and Cd. Despite these reductions, the source of particulate metals appears to be primarily anthropogenic as enrichment factors were orders of magnitude above what is considered background crustal levels. Overall, dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Los Angeles coastal waters were remarkably low with values in the same range as those measured in a pristine coastal environment off Mexico's Baja California peninsula. In order to estimate the impact of metal contamination on regional phytoplankton, the internalization rate of trace metals in a locally isolated phytoplankton model organism (Synechococcus sp. CC9311) was also determined showing a rapid internalization (in the order of a few hours) for many trace metals (e.g., Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb) suggesting that those metals could potentially be incorporated into the local food webs. PMID:22420576

  16. Status of metal contamination in surface waters of the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California since the implementation of the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Smail, Emily A; Webb, Eric A; Franks, Robert P; Bruland, Kenneth W; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2012-04-17

    In order to establish the status of metal contamination in surface waters in the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California, we determined their dissolved and particulate pools and compared them with levels reported in the 1970s prior the implementation of the Clean Water Act. These measurements revealed a significant reduction in particulate toxic metal concentrations in the last 33 years with decreases of ∼100-fold for Pb and ∼400-fold for Cu and Cd. Despite these reductions, the source of particulate metals appears to be primarily anthropogenic as enrichment factors were orders of magnitude above what is considered background crustal levels. Overall, dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Los Angeles coastal waters were remarkably low with values in the same range as those measured in a pristine coastal environment off Mexico's Baja California peninsula. In order to estimate the impact of metal contamination on regional phytoplankton, the internalization rate of trace metals in a locally isolated phytoplankton model organism (Synechococcus sp. CC9311) was also determined showing a rapid internalization (in the order of a few hours) for many trace metals (e.g., Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb) suggesting that those metals could potentially be incorporated into the local food webs.

  17. 100% Clean, Renewable Wind, Water, and Solar Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Significant prior research has focused on the health, climate, and other environmental and social impacts of gas and aerosol particle emissions from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion. Given the magnitude and costs of the impacts, large-scale conversions of these fuels to non-emitting sources of energy are warranted. This talk discusses technical and economic roadmaps to convert the energy infrastructures of each of 139 countries of the world to those powered by 100% non-emitting wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, and agriculture/forestry/fishing, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. These roadmaps are developed with a methodology similar to that recently derived for each of the 50 United States. Reliability of 100% WWS systems is crucial. To that end, results showing the ability of the United States to maintain a 100% reliable grid with a 100% WWS system are discussed as well. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html for more information.

  18. Comparison of fish communities in a clean-water stream and an adjacent polluted stream

    SciTech Connect

    Reash, R.J.; Berra, T.M. )

    1987-10-01

    Fish populations were studied in two parallel tributaries of the Mohican River, Ohio: Clear Fork, relatively undisturbed; and Rocky Fork, which receives industrial discharges and sewage effluent. Water quality in Rocky Fork was significantly worse than the control stream with respect to heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn) and ammonia concentrations. Fish species richness and diversity increased downstream in Clear Fork but decreased downstream in Rocky Fork. Pollution-intolerant species were present in the headwaters of Rocky Fork and at all sites of Clear Fork. Fish community similarity of fish communities between corresponding headwater sites was significantly greater than similarity of corresponding downstream reaches, using polluted and unpolluted sites for comparison. Both headwater sites were dominated numerically by generalized invertebrate-feeding fish. At downstream sites in Clear Fork benthic insectivores became dominant in Rocky Fork, generalized invertebrate-feeding fish were present. Fish communities at polluted sites had comparatively lower variability of both trophic structure rank and relative abundance. The smaller populations of fish in these sites were dominated by a few pollution-tolerant species.

  19. Robust and Superhydrophobic Surface Modification by a "Paint + Adhesive" Method: Applications in Self-Cleaning after Oil Contamination and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyi; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Liang, Ruilu; Feng, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    Conventional superhydrophobic surfaces have always depended on expensive, sophisticated, and fragile roughness structures. Therefore, poor robustness has turned into the bottleneck for large-scale industrial applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces. To handle this problem, a superhydrophobic surface with firm robustness urgently needs to be developed. In this work, we created a versatile strategy to fabricate robust, self-cleaning, and superhydrophobic surfaces for both soft and hard substrates. We created an ethanol based suspension of perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane-mdodified calcium carbonate nanoparticles which can be sprayed onto both hard and soft substrates to form superhydrophobic surfaces. For all kinds of substrates, spray adhesive was directly coated onto abluent substrate surfaces to promote the robustness. These superhydrophobic surfaces showed remarkable robustness against knife scratch and sandpaper abrasion, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 30 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. What is more, the superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising potential applications in self-cleaning and oil-water separation. The surfaces retained their self-cleaning property even immersed in oil. In addition to oil-water separation, the water contents in oil after separation of various mixtures were all below 150 ppm, and for toluene even as low as 55 ppm. Furthermore, the as-prepared device for oil-water separation could be cycled 6 times and still retained excellent oil-water separation efficiency. PMID:27286474

  20. Robust and Superhydrophobic Surface Modification by a "Paint + Adhesive" Method: Applications in Self-Cleaning after Oil Contamination and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyi; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Liang, Ruilu; Feng, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    Conventional superhydrophobic surfaces have always depended on expensive, sophisticated, and fragile roughness structures. Therefore, poor robustness has turned into the bottleneck for large-scale industrial applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces. To handle this problem, a superhydrophobic surface with firm robustness urgently needs to be developed. In this work, we created a versatile strategy to fabricate robust, self-cleaning, and superhydrophobic surfaces for both soft and hard substrates. We created an ethanol based suspension of perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane-mdodified calcium carbonate nanoparticles which can be sprayed onto both hard and soft substrates to form superhydrophobic surfaces. For all kinds of substrates, spray adhesive was directly coated onto abluent substrate surfaces to promote the robustness. These superhydrophobic surfaces showed remarkable robustness against knife scratch and sandpaper abrasion, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 30 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. What is more, the superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising potential applications in self-cleaning and oil-water separation. The surfaces retained their self-cleaning property even immersed in oil. In addition to oil-water separation, the water contents in oil after separation of various mixtures were all below 150 ppm, and for toluene even as low as 55 ppm. Furthermore, the as-prepared device for oil-water separation could be cycled 6 times and still retained excellent oil-water separation efficiency.

  1. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  2. Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources.

    PubMed

    Davies, John-Mark; Mazumder, Asit

    2003-07-01

    Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined by each other. Understanding pathogen ecology and identifying watershed sources remains a priority because of the associated acute risks. Surface water quality changes resulting from inputs of human waste, nutrients and chemicals are associated with higher drinking water risks. Nutrient input can increase primary production and the resulting increase of organic matter results in greater disinfection by-product formation or requires greater treatment intensity. Many drinking water disease outbreaks have resulted from breaches in treatment facilities, therefore, even with greater treatment intensity poor source water quality intrinsically has greater associated health risks. Government and international agencies play a critical role in developing policy. The goal of maintaining water supplies whose availability is maximized and risks are minimized (i.e. sustainable) should be a vital part of such policy. Health risks are discussed in the context of a multi-barrier perspective and it is concluded that both passive (protection) and active (prescriptive management) management is necessary for sustainability. Canadian aboriginal water systems, British Columbian water policy and US EPA policies are given as examples. The basis for developing effective policies includes a strong reliance on sound science and effective instrumentation with careful consideration of stakeholders' interests. Only with such directed policies can the future availability of clean drinking water sources be ensured.

  3. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  4. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  5. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  6. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  7. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  8. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  9. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  10. Chemical cleaning of porous stainless steel cross-flow filter elements for nuclear waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-05-10

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) currently under construction for treatment of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site will rely on cross-flow ultrafiltration to provide solids-liquid separation as a core part of the treatment process. To optimize process throughput, periodic chemical cleaning of the porous stainless steel filter elements has been incorporated into the design of the plant. It is currently specified that chemical cleaning with nitric acid will occur after significant irreversible membrane fouling is observed. Irreversible fouling is defined as fouling that cannot be removed by backpulsing the filter. PNNL has investigated chemical cleaning processes as part of integrated tests with HLW simulants and with actual Hanford tank wastes. To quantify the effectiveness of chemical cleaning, the residual membrane resistance after cleaning was compared against the initial membrane resistance for each test in a series of long-term fouling tests. The impact of the small amount of residual resistance in these tests could not be separated from other parameters and the historical benchmark of >1 GPM/ft2 for clean water flux was determined to be an adequate metric for chemical cleaning. Using the results from these tests, a process optimization strategy is presented suggesting that for the simulant material under test, the value of chemical cleaning may be suspect. The period of enhanced filtration may not be enough to offset the down time required for chemical cleaning, without respect to the other associated costs.

  11. Evaluation of the PotoClean® decontamination technology for reprocessing of water supply lines in dental units during routine work

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Koburger, Torsten; Taube, Lisa-Dorothea; Menzel, Michael; Meyer, Georg; Assadian, Ojan

    2012-01-01

    Background: A frequent problem in dental units is the microbial contamination of water and biofilm formation in the water supply lines. After random identification of a bacterial contaminated dental unit (310 cfu/ml) in a practise with 3 dental units we implemented the present study to evaluate the efficacy of the PotoClean® technology, based on anodic oxidation. Method: The efficacy of a regular low concentrated permanent decontamination (1 mg Cl/L) with an additional intensive decontamination by PotoClean® (three times 20 mg Cl/ml for 2 h) on three dental units was tested over 7 months. Microbial contamination, total chlorine concentration and redox potential have been analyzed. Dental unit A and B was 15 years old, unit C 5 years. Results: After 3 intensive decontaminations, in dental unit A and B the number of bacteria and moulds could be reduced less than 7 d. Thereafter the bacteria counts increased again during the subsequent 7 month period and the amount of moulds was with some exceptions 300 cfu/ml, although PotoClean® was constantly added in the system (1 mg Cl/L). After further 7.5 month only with low concentrated permanent disinfection (1 mg Cl/L) both units were successful decontaminated. Dental unit C represented an object which was easier to decontaminate because of the advanced construction (prevention of water stagnation) and the shorter useful life. At the beginning of the decontamination it was no bacterial contamination, but moulds were contained (300 cfu/ml). Already after the first intensive decontamination, no further bacteria and moulds could be detected. Discussion: An important factor for the efficacy of PotoClean® was the age of the units and their construction. For a new generation of dental units PotoClean® was effective during the whole period of monitoring. For two old types of dental unit with massive biofilm development the successful decontamination needed more than 7 month. Conclusion: The PotoClean® technology has resulted

  12. Steam-oxygen and steam-water-oxygen methods for cleaning, passivation, and conservation of power engineering equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'kina, N. N.; Gol'Din, A. A.; Stolyarov, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    This publication presents results of efficient use of a developed technology for cleaning, passivating, and conservation of the heat-exchange equipment of industrial boilers and steam turbines of thermal power stations.

  13. Comparative study of heavy metals in "soil-wheat" systems between sewage-irrigated areas and clean-water-irrigated areas in suburban Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Han, Sha-Sha; Chen, Zhi-Fan; Liu, Jing; Hu, Honq-Xia

    2015-01-01

    After years of irrigating farmland with wastewater, concern is increasing about health risks from heavy metals contaminating wheat grown in sewage-irrigated soils in suburban areas of Beijing, China. The study discussed in this article aimed to compare the characteristics of heavy metal distribution in a sewage-irrigated "soil-wheat" system with those from a clean-water-irrigated area by collecting and analyzing samples from both areas. The results indicated that the average concentrations of copper, chromium, lead, and zinc in sewage-irrigated soil were higher than the values in the clean-water-irrigated region. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to increased bioconcentration factors. Therefore, issues of food contamination caused by sewage irrigation deserve more attention.

  14. Effect of dissolved gases in water on acoustic cavitation and bubble growth rate in 0.83 MHz megasonic of interest to wafer cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong-Kyun; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Jin-Goo

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the cavitation intensity of gases dissolved in water, including H2, N2, and Ar, have been established in studies of acoustic bubble growth rates under ultrasonic fields. Variations in the acoustic properties of dissolved gases in water affect the cavitation intensity at a high frequency (0.83 MHz) due to changes in the rectified diffusion and bubble coalescence rate. It has been proposed that acoustic bubble growth rates rapidly increase when water contains a gas, such as hydrogen faster single bubble growth due to rectified diffusion, and a higher rate of coalescence under Bjerknes forces. The change of acoustic bubble growth rate in rectified diffusion has an effect on the damping constant and diffusivity of gas at the acoustic bubble and liquid interface. It has been suggested that the coalescence reaction of bubbles under Bjerknes forces is a reaction determined by the compressibility and density of dissolved gas in water associated with sound velocity and density in acoustic bubbles. High acoustic bubble growth rates also contribute to enhanced cavitation effects in terms of dissolved gas in water. On the other hand, when Ar gas dissolves into water under ultrasound field, cavitation behavior was reduced remarkably due to its lower acoustic bubble growth rate. It is shown that change of cavitation intensity in various dissolved gases were verified through cleaning experiments in the single type of cleaning tool such as particle removal and pattern damage based on numerically calculated acoustic bubble growth rates.

  15. Damage by radicals and photons during plasma cleaning of porous low-k SiOCH. II. Water uptake and change in dielectric constant

    SciTech Connect

    Shoeb, Juline; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-07-15

    Porous dielectric materials provide lower capacitances that reduce RC time delays in integrated circuits. Typical low-k materials include porous SiOCH-silicon dioxide with carbon groups, principally CH{sub 3}, lining the pores. With a high porosity, internally connected pores provide pathways for reactive species to enter into the material. Fluorocarbon plasmas are often used to etch SiOCH, a process that leaves a fluorocarbon polymer on the surface that must later be removed. During cleaning using Ar/O{sub 2} or He/H{sub 2} plasmas, reactions of radicals that diffuse into the SiOCH and photons that penetrate into the SiOCH can remove -CH{sub 3} groups. Due to its higher reactivity, cleaning with Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas removes more -CH{sub 3} groups than He/H{sub 2} plasmas, and so produce more free radical sites, such as -SiO{sub 2} Bullet (a -SiO{sub 2}-CH{sub 3} site with the -CH{sub 3} group removed).Upon exposure to humid air, these free radical sites can chemisorb H{sub 2}O to form hydrophilic Si-OH which can further physisorb H{sub 2}O through hydrogen bonding to form Si-OH(H{sub 2}O). With the high dielectric constant of water, even a small percentage of water uptake can significantly increase the effective dielectric constant of SiOCH. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the cleaning of SiOCH using Ar/O{sub 2} or He/H{sub 2} plasmas and subsequent exposure to humid air. The authors found that plasma cleaning with He/H{sub 2} mixtures produce less demethylation than cleaning with Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas, as so results in less water uptake, and a smaller increase in dielectric constant. The water that produces the increase in dielectric constant is roughly half chemisorbed and half physisorbed, the latter of which can be removed with mild heating. Sealing the pores with NH{sub 3} plasma treatment reduces water uptake and helps prevent the increase in dielectric constant.

  16. Minimizing sulfur contamination and rinse water volume required following a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide clean by performing a chemically basic rinse

    SciTech Connect

    Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.; Adkins, C.L.J.

    1997-08-01

    Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.

  17. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  18. Machine Cleans And Degreases Without Toxic Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurguis, Kamal S.; Higginson, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    Appliance uses hot water and biodegradable chemicals to degrease and clean hardware. Spray chamber essentially industrial-scale dishwasher. Front door tilts open, and hardware to be cleaned placed on basket-like tray. During cleaning process, basket-like tray rotates as high-pressure "V" jets deliver steam, hot water, detergent solution, and rust inhibitor as required.

  19. Response of the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) region 5 states to the nonpoint source reporting requirements of the 1987 Clean Water Act amendments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hautman, N.

    1988-01-01

    This report attempts to determine the extent of nonpoint source pollution in Region V. The report analyzes and summarizes the nonpoint source and clean lakes reports required under the Clean Water Act amendments of 1987. The reports share common elements such as a focus on agricultural sources and the use of hard data as well as professional judgment. However, they differ in overall design, definitions of key elements, level of analysis, thoroughness, and effectiveness. The summary considers the reports from two aspects: structure and the extent to which they comply with Sec. 319 and U.S. EPA reports as they are constructed. Information in the 305 (b) reports adds to the scope of each state's nonpoint source program and is referred to here. Following the summary is a discussion, accompanied by appropriate tables, of the nonpoint source pollution extent.

  20. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills.

  1. A review of polymer nanofibres by electrospinning and their application in oil-water separation for cleaning up marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Sarbatly, Rosalam; Krishnaiah, Duduku; Kamin, Zykamilia

    2016-05-15

    The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills. PMID:27016959

  2. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  3. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  4. Cleaning of boiler heating surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maidanik, M. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2006-09-15

    Basic methods and facilities for the external cleaning of the heating surfaces of boilers designed for the combustion of low-grade solid fuels are discussed. Water and steam blastings, which are the basic means of cleaning furnace shields, and semi-radiative and convective heating surfaces have the greatest range of application.

  5. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  6. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  7. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10). Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  8. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  9. Super Clean, Super Safe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas/Liquid Cleaning System (SS-GLCS) has applications ranging from cleaning circuit boards to scouring building exteriors. The system does not abrade the surface of the hardware being cleaned, and it requires much lower levels of pressure while using very little water. An alternative to CFC-based solvents, the system mixes air and water from separate pressurized tanks, ejecting the gas- liquid mixture at supersonic speeds from a series of nozzles at the end of a hand-held wand. The water droplets have the kinetic energy to forcibly remove the contaminant material. The system leaves very little fluid that must be handled as contaminated waste. It can be applied in the aerospace, automotive, and medical industries, as well as to circuit boards, electronics, machinery, metals, plastics, and optics. With a nozzle that can be oriented in any direction, the system is adjustable to allow all sides of a part to be cleaned without reorientation. It requires minimal training and is easily moved on built-in casters

  10. Cleaning Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  11. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    water molecules and form cluster ions which are attracted to airborne particles. The cluster ion surrounds the airborne particle, and the positive and negative ions react to form hydroxyls. These hydroxyls steal the airborne particle’s hydrogen atom, which creates a hole in the particle’s outer protein membrane, thereby rendering it inactive. Because influenza is primarily acquired by large droplets and direct and indirect contact with an infectious person, any in-room air cleaner will have little benefit in controlling and preventing its spread. Therefore, there is no role for the Plasmacluster ion air purifier or any other in-room air cleaner in the control of the spread of influenza. Accordingly, for purposes of this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat presents no further analysis of the Plasmacluster. Review Strategy The objective of the systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of in-room air cleaners with built in UVGI lights and HEPA filtration compared with those using HEPA filtration only. The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, INAHATA (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment), Biosis Previews, Bacteriology Abstracts, Web of Science, Dissertation Abstracts, and NIOSHTIC 2. A meta-analysis was conducted if adequate data was available from 2 or more studies and where statistical and clinical heterogeneity among studies was not an issue. Otherwise, a qualitative review was completed. The GRADE system was used to summarize the quality of the body of evidence comprised of 1 or more studies. Summary of Findings There were no existing health technology assessments on air cleaning technology located during the literature review. The literature search yielded 59 citations of which none were retained. One study was retrieved from a reference list of a guidance document from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which

  12. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  13. Ionic cleaning after wave solder and before conformal coat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguygen, Tochau N.; Sutherland, Thomas H.

    An account is given of efforts made by a military electronics manufacturer to upgrade product reliability in response to the printed writing board (PWB) ionic cleanliness requirements recently set out in MIL-P-28809 Rev. A. These requirements had to be met both after wave soldering, involving the immediate removal of ionically active RA flux, and immediately before conformal coating, in order to remove the less active RMA flux and bonding contaminants. Attention is given to the results of a test program which compared the effectiveness with which five different solvents and two (batch and conveyorized vapor degreasing) cleaning methods cleaned representative PWBs containing many components. Alcohol-containing fluorocarbon blends were adequate, but the most densely packed PWBs required a supplemental water rinse.

  14. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  15. Floatable, Self-Cleaning, and Carbon-Black-Based Superhydrophobic Gauze for the Solar Evaporation Enhancement at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Chen, Jingwei; Guo, Dawei; Cao, Moyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-06-24

    Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation. PMID:26027770

  16. Floatable, Self-Cleaning, and Carbon-Black-Based Superhydrophobic Gauze for the Solar Evaporation Enhancement at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Chen, Jingwei; Guo, Dawei; Cao, Moyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-06-24

    Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation.

  17. Cleaning Genesis Mission Payload for Flight with Ultra-Pure Water and Assembly in ISO Class 4 Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    Genesis mission to capture and return to Earth solar wind samples had very stringent contamination control requirements in order to distinguish the solar atoms from terrestrial ones. Genesis mission goals were to measure solar composition for most of the periodic table, so great care was taken to avoid particulate contamination. Since the number 1 and 2 science goals were to determine the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition, organic contamination was minimized by tightly controlling offgassing. The total amount of solar material captured in two years is about 400 micrograms spread across one sq m. The contamination limit requirement for each of C, N, and O was <1015 atoms/sq cm. For carbon, this is equivalent to 10 ng/cm2. Extreme vigilance was used in pre-paring Genesis collectors and cleaning hardware for flight. Surface contamination on polished silicon wafers, measured in Genesis laboratory is approximately 10 ng/sq cm.

  18. Microbiological Evaluation of the Efficacy of Soapy Water to Clean Hands: A Randomized, Non-Inferiority Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nuhu; Pickering, Amy J.; Ram, Pavani K.; Unicomb, Leanne; Najnin, Nusrat; Homaira, Nusrat; Ashraf, Sania; Abedin, Jaynal; Islam, M. Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority field trial in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh among mothers to compare microbial efficacy of soapy water (30 g powdered detergent in 1.5 L water) with bar soap and water alone. Fieldworkers collected hand rinse samples before and after the following washing regimens: scrubbing with soapy water for 15 and 30 seconds; scrubbing with bar soap for 15 and 30 seconds; and scrubbing with water alone for 15 seconds. Soapy water and bar soap removed thermotolerant coliforms similarly after washing for 15 seconds (mean log10 reduction = 0.7 colony-forming units [CFU], P < 0.001 for soapy water; mean log10 reduction = 0.6 CFU, P = 0.001 for bar soap). Increasing scrubbing time to 30 seconds did not improve removal (P > 0.05). Scrubbing hands with water alone also reduced thermotolerant coliforms (mean log10 reduction = 0.3 CFU, P = 0.046) but was less efficacious than scrubbing hands with soapy water. Soapy water is an inexpensive and microbiologically effective cleansing agent to improve handwashing among households with vulnerable children. PMID:24914003

  19. Microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of soapy water to clean hands: a randomized, non-inferiority field trial.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nuhu; Pickering, Amy J; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne; Najnin, Nusrat; Homaira, Nusrat; Ashraf, Sania; Abedin, Jaynal; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-08-01

    We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority field trial in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh among mothers to compare microbial efficacy of soapy water (30 g powdered detergent in 1.5 L water) with bar soap and water alone. Fieldworkers collected hand rinse samples before and after the following washing regimens: scrubbing with soapy water for 15 and 30 seconds; scrubbing with bar soap for 15 and 30 seconds; and scrubbing with water alone for 15 seconds. Soapy water and bar soap removed thermotolerant coliforms similarly after washing for 15 seconds (mean log10 reduction = 0.7 colony-forming units [CFU], P < 0.001 for soapy water; mean log10 reduction = 0.6 CFU, P = 0.001 for bar soap). Increasing scrubbing time to 30 seconds did not improve removal (P > 0.05). Scrubbing hands with water alone also reduced thermotolerant coliforms (mean log10 reduction = 0.3 CFU, P = 0.046) but was less efficacious than scrubbing hands with soapy water. Soapy water is an inexpensive and microbiologically effective cleansing agent to improve handwashing among households with vulnerable children.

  20. Microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of soapy water to clean hands: a randomized, non-inferiority field trial.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nuhu; Pickering, Amy J; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne; Najnin, Nusrat; Homaira, Nusrat; Ashraf, Sania; Abedin, Jaynal; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-08-01

    We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority field trial in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh among mothers to compare microbial efficacy of soapy water (30 g powdered detergent in 1.5 L water) with bar soap and water alone. Fieldworkers collected hand rinse samples before and after the following washing regimens: scrubbing with soapy water for 15 and 30 seconds; scrubbing with bar soap for 15 and 30 seconds; and scrubbing with water alone for 15 seconds. Soapy water and bar soap removed thermotolerant coliforms similarly after washing for 15 seconds (mean log10 reduction = 0.7 colony-forming units [CFU], P < 0.001 for soapy water; mean log10 reduction = 0.6 CFU, P = 0.001 for bar soap). Increasing scrubbing time to 30 seconds did not improve removal (P > 0.05). Scrubbing hands with water alone also reduced thermotolerant coliforms (mean log10 reduction = 0.3 CFU, P = 0.046) but was less efficacious than scrubbing hands with soapy water. Soapy water is an inexpensive and microbiologically effective cleansing agent to improve handwashing among households with vulnerable children. PMID:24914003

  1. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  2. Are shear force methods adequately reported?

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified. PMID:27107727

  3. Are shear force methods adequately reported?

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Fowler, Stephanie M; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the detail to which shear force (SF) protocols and methods have been reported in the scientific literature between 2009 and 2015. Articles (n=734) published in peer-reviewed animal and food science journals and limited to only those testing the SF of unprocessed and non-fabricated mammal meats were evaluated. It was found that most of these SF articles originated in Europe (35.3%), investigated bovine species (49.0%), measured m. longissimus samples (55.2%), used tenderometers manufactured by Instron (31.2%), and equipped with Warner-Bratzler blades (68.8%). SF samples were also predominantly thawed prior to cooking (37.1%) and cooked sous vide, using a water bath (50.5%). Information pertaining to blade crosshead speed (47.5%), recorded SF resistance (56.7%), muscle fibre orientation when tested (49.2%), sub-section or core dimension (21.8%), end-point temperature (29.3%), and other factors contributing to SF variation were often omitted. This base failure diminishes repeatability and accurate SF interpretation, and must therefore be rectified.

  4. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater.

  5. 77 FR 21557 - Clean Water Act: Final Agency Action on 32 Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Ms. Diane Smith at the address below. Please contact Ms. Smith to schedule an inspection. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diane Smith, Environmental Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division,...

  6. How effective has the Clean Water Act been at reducing pollutant mass emissions to the Southern California Bight over the past 35 years?

    PubMed

    Lyon, Greg S; Stein, Eric D

    2009-07-01

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) has regulated discharges of contaminants since 1972. However, evaluations of the CWA's effectiveness at improving regional water quality are lacking, primarily because integration of monitoring data from multiple dischargers to assess cumulative effects is not required. A rare opportunity exists to assess CWA effectiveness by integrating mass emissions data from all major sources of contaminants to the Southern California Bight from 1971 to 2000. While the coastal population grew by 56% and total effluent volume increased 31% since 1971, mass emissions of nearly all constituents decreased since passage of the CWA, most by greater than 65%. Publicly owned treatment works were the dominant point source of many contaminants, but also accounted for the greatest reductions in pollutant discharge since 1971. As point source treatment has improved, the relative contribution of non-point sources, such as storm water runoff has increased. Despite the increased importance of storm water discharges, regional monitoring and data compilation of this source is lacking, making it difficult to accurately assess trends in non-point source discharge. PMID:18568406

  7. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  8. 75 FR 58023 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... FR 18166, April 6, 2004) requested that EPA allow use of Method 624 for definitive determination of... water analyses (73 FR 31616, June 3, 2008). 11. EPA is proposing to add SM 4500 O B, D, E and F-2001... versions for drinking water use (73 FR 31616, June 3, 2008). 18. EPA is proposing to add SM 4500...

  9. Nonthermal Biological Treatments Using Discharge Plasma Produced by Pulsed Power 4. Cleaning of Lakes and Marshes by Pulsed Power Produced Streamer Discharges in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Hidenori; Katsuki, Sunao; Namihira, Takao; Ishibashi, Kazuo; Kiyosaki, Noriaki

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in atmospheric pressure gases that generate a high electric field at the tips of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, ultraviolet rays, and ozone are produced. These manifestations of streamer discharges have been used in the treatment of exhaust gases, removal of volatile and toxic compounds such as dioxin, and the sterilization of microorganisms. Here, large volume streamer discharges in water are described. These streamer discharges in liquids are able to produce a high electric field, high energy electrons, ozone, chemically active species, ultraviolet rays, and shock waves, which readily sterilize microorganisms and decompose molecules and materials. An application of this phenomenon to the cleaning of lakes and marshes is also described.

  10. 75 FR 39683 - Clean Water Act Section 312(b): Notice Seeking Stakeholder Input on Petition and Other Request To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ...: The universe of vessels operating on navigable waters that use sewage treatment devices; technical... in Alaska, and analyzed the environmental management, including treatment, of those waste streams... its regulations establishing performance standards for vessel sewage treatment devices under the...

  11. 78 FR 63185 - Public Hearing and Request for Comments on Proposed Revisions to Michigan's Clean Water Act (CWA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ..., including wetlands, lakes and streams. In 1984, Michigan assumed Section 404 permitting authority for its inland waters and wetlands. PA 98 amended the wetlands and the inland lakes and streams provisions of...

  12. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution and economic incentive policies. Issues in the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, A.S.; Larson, B.A.; Ribaudo, M.

    1992-11-01

    The limited success of command-and-control policies for reducing nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution mandated under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) has prompted increased interest in economic incentive policies as an alternative control mechanism. No single policy, however, is likely to be effective in reducing all NPS pollution. Economic incentives may be effective in some cases, command-and-control practices in others.

  13. Long-range influence of steps on water adsorption on clean and D-covered Pt surfaces.

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, Angela; van der Niet, Maria J T C; Badan, Cansin; Koper, Marc T M; Juurlink, Ludo B F

    2015-04-01

    We have examined water desorption from Pt(111) terraces of varying width and its dependence on precoverage by deuterium (D) with temperature programmed desorption studies. We observe distinct water desorption from (100) steps and (111) terraces, with steps providing adsorption sites with a higher binding energy than terraces. Preadsorption of D at the steps causes annihilation of water stabilization at the steps, while it also causes an initial stabilization of water on the (111) terraces. When the (111) terraces also become precovered with D, this water stabilization trend reverses on all surfaces. Destabilization continues for stepped surfaces containing up to 8-atom wide (111) terraces with a (100) step type and these become hydrophobic, in contrast to surfaces with a (110) step type and with the infinite (111) terrace. Our results illustrate how surface defects and a delicate balance between intermolecular forces and the adsorption energy govern hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic behavior, and that the influence of steps on the adsorption of water on nano-structured platinum surfaces has a very long-ranged character.

  14. Shewanella sp. O23S as a Driving Agent of a System Utilizing Dissimilatory Arsenate-Reducing Bacteria Responsible for Self-Cleaning of Water Contaminated with Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Stasiuk, Robert; Uhrynowski, Witold; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was a detailed characterization of Shewanella sp. O23S, a strain involved in arsenic transformation in ancient gold mine waters contaminated with arsenic and other heavy metals. Physiological analysis of Shewanella sp. O23S showed that it is a facultative anaerobe, capable of growth using arsenate, thiosulfate, nitrate, iron or manganite as a terminal electron acceptor, and lactate or citrate as an electron donor. The strain can grow under anaerobic conditions and utilize arsenate in the respiratory process in a broad range of temperatures (10–37 °C), pH (4–8), salinity (0%–2%), and the presence of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, V and Zn). Under reductive conditions this strain can simultaneously use arsenate and thiosulfate as electron acceptors and produce yellow arsenic (III) sulfide (As2S3) precipitate. Simulation of As-removal from water containing arsenate (2.5 mM) and thiosulfate (5 mM) showed 82.5% efficiency after 21 days of incubation at room temperature. Based on the obtained results, we have proposed a model of a microbially mediated system for self-cleaning of mine waters contaminated with arsenic, in which Shewanella sp. O23S is the main driving agent. PMID:26121297

  15. Shewanella sp. O23S as a Driving Agent of a System Utilizing Dissimilatory Arsenate-Reducing Bacteria Responsible for Self-Cleaning of Water Contaminated with Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Stasiuk, Robert; Uhrynowski, Witold; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2015-06-25

    The purpose of this study was a detailed characterization of Shewanella sp. O23S, a strain involved in arsenic transformation in ancient gold mine waters contaminated with arsenic and other heavy metals. Physiological analysis of Shewanella sp. O23S showed that it is a facultative anaerobe, capable of growth using arsenate, thiosulfate, nitrate, iron or manganite as a terminal electron acceptor, and lactate or citrate as an electron donor. The strain can grow under anaerobic conditions and utilize arsenate in the respiratory process in a broad range of temperatures (10-37 °C), pH (4-8), salinity (0%-2%), and the presence of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, V and Zn). Under reductive conditions this strain can simultaneously use arsenate and thiosulfate as electron acceptors and produce yellow arsenic (III) sulfide (As2S3) precipitate. Simulation of As-removal from water containing arsenate (2.5 mM) and thiosulfate (5 mM) showed 82.5% efficiency after 21 days of incubation at room temperature. Based on the obtained results, we have proposed a model of a microbially mediated system for self-cleaning of mine waters contaminated with arsenic, in which Shewanella sp. O23S is the main driving agent.

  16. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA.

  17. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  18. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  19. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  20. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  1. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  2. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  3. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  4. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  5. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  6. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  7. Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-09-30

    This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

  8. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  9. Steaming Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoverson, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Schools can provide a cleaner, more healthful school environment by simply combining heat and water. Steam vapor systems use only tap water with no chemicals added. Low-pressure (12 psi to 65 psi) steam vapor sanitizes and deodorizes. This process can then be used safely in many situations, but is especially suited for restrooms and food-service…

  10. Heeding a Call to Action for U.S. Coral Reefs: the Untapped Potential of the Clean Water Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently published call to action by Dodge et al. (2008) identifies nine actions needed to protect coral reefs. The authors identify several management goals that cannot be accomplished with MPAs alone, the traditional approach to coral reef protection. For U.S. waters, the Cle...

  11. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  12. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  13. Incentive analysis for Clean Water Act reauthorization: Point source/nonpoint source trading for nutrient discharge reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Luttner, M.; Kashmanian, R.; Podar, M.

    1992-04-01

    The report examines effluent trading as one option to achieve water quality objectives at least cost. Although it can take many different forms, effluent trading in principle allocates reductions in pollutant loadings across point and nonpoint sources using least cost as the criterion. While several options are discussed, the paper focuses principally on trading schemes in which regulated point sources are allowed to avoid upgrading their pollution control technology to meet water quality-based effluent limits if they pay for equivalent (or greater) reductions in nonpoint source pollution within their watersheds. The report focuses on nutrient trading because trading programs to date have dealt with pollutants of this type and because of the large number of difficult issues specific to trades involving toxic pollutants.

  14. A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara

    2012-01-01

    A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of <20%. The measurement uncertainties of the method for each pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil.

  15. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    PubMed

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen. PMID:24191479

  16. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  17. What is safe and clean water in rural Bolivian communities? A preliminary investigation of heavy metal contamination in rural community water systems in the Bolivian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borella, M.; Guido, Z.; Borella, P.; Ketron, T.

    2009-12-01

    A proliferation of potable water systems utilizing groundwater is currently underway in the Lake Titicaca region of the Bolivian Altiplano. With the aid of national and international organizations, rural communities are developing groundwater sources because the region’s surface water is highly contaminated with waterborne pathogens—the primary factor contributing to high child mortality rates in developing nations. According to UNICEF, 86 percent of Bolivian families have access to “improved” water systems, which predominantly take the form of deep groundwater wells or contained natural springs. While the water systems have worked well to reduce pathogens in drinking water systems that cause illnesses such as dysentery, the water is rarely tested for heavy metal contamination, such as arsenic and lead. While bacteria analysis is essential, it is not the only component of healthy drinking water. Testing for heavy metals is especially important in the Bolivian Altiplano because abundant volcanic deposits and massive sulfide deposits suggest that in some areas it is likely that the water contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, Terra Resource Development International, A California-based 502(c)3 nonprofit organization, partnered with Stanford University, the Technical University of Bolivia, and the Bolivian Geologic and Mining Survey to collect water samples in 36 rural community situated in four watersheds feeding into Lake Titicaca. Water was collected from shallow, hand dug wells, deep groundwater wells, springs, and small rivers in the Tiwanku, Laja, Batallas, Achacachi watersheds and were analyzed for inorganic contaminants. Samples were analyzed at Stanford’s Environmental Measurements Facility using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrometer for major ions and heavy metals. Results will help determine which, if any, community water systems are at risk of heavy metal contamination, where more comprehensive sampling is

  18. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  19. Controls on Water Storage, Mixing and Release in a Nested Catchment Set-up with Clean and Mixed Physiographic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, L.; McDonnell, J.; Hissler, C.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Klaus, J.

    2015-12-01

    With catchment water storage being only rarely determined, storage dynamics remain largely unknown to date. However, storage bears considerable potential for catchment inter-comparison exercises, as well as it is likely to have an important role in regulating catchment functions. Catchment comparisons across a wide range of environments and scales will help to increase our understanding of relationships between storage dynamics and catchment processes. With respect to the potential of catchment storage for bringing new momentum to catchment classification and catchment processes understanding we currently investigate spatial and temporal variability of dynamic storage in a nested catchment set-up (16 catchments) of the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe), covering a wide range of geological settings, catchment areas, contrasted landuse, and hydro-meteorological and tracer series. We define catchment storage as the total amount of water stored in a control volume, delimited by the catchment's topographical boundaries and depth of saturated and unsaturated zones. Complementary storage assessments (via input-output dynamics of natural tracers, geographical sounding, groundwater level measurements, soil moisture measurements, hydrometry) are carried out for comparison purposes. In our nested catchment set-up we have (1) assessed dependencies between geology, catchment permeability and winter runoff coefficients, (2) calculated water balance derived catchment storage and mixing potential and quantified how dynamic storage differs between catchments and scales, and (3) examined how stream baseflow dD (as a proxy for baseflow transit time) and integrated flow measures (like the flow duration curve) relate to bedrock geology. Catchments with higher bedrock permeability exhibited larger storage capacities and eventually lower average winter runoff coefficients. Over a time-span of 11 years, all catchments re-produced the same winter runoff coefficients year after year

  20. The combination of photocatalysis and ozonolysis as a new approach for cleaning 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid polluted water.

    PubMed

    Müller, T S; Sun, Z; Kumar, G; Itoh, K; Murabayashi, M

    1998-04-01

    Treatment of 2,4-D polluted waters with photocatalysis leads to the buildup of high concentrations of the long living intermediate 2,4-DCP. A new approach using a combination of ozonolysis and photocatalysis gave better degradation results with lower intermediate concentrations. The advantages of photocatalysis giving a constant decline in TOC and of ozonolysis giving no buildup of high intermediate concentrations were combined. Degradation data of 2,4-D for photocatalysis, ozonolysis and the combination of both for different pH ranges are given. Data on the main intermediate 2,4-DCP are given for the three different approaches.