Science.gov

Sample records for adequate daylight illumination

  1. Design tools for daylighting illumination and energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.

    1982-07-01

    The problems and potentials for using daylighting to provide illumination in building interiors are reviewed. It describes some of the design tools now or soon to be available for incorporating daylighting into the building design process. It also describes state-of-the-art methods for analyzing the impacts daylighting can have on selection of lighting controls, lighting energy consumption, heating and cooling loads, and peak power demand.

  2. Chromatic Illumination Discrimination Ability Reveals that Human Colour Constancy Is Optimised for Blue Daylight Illuminations

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D.; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed. PMID:24586299

  3. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed. PMID:24586299

  4. Calculating interior daylight illumination with a programmable hand calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, H.J.; Clear, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    A procedure is described for calculating interior daylight illumination using an inexpensive programmable hand calculator. The proposed procedure calculates illumination at any point within a room utilizing sky luminance distribution functions that are consistent with the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Overcast and Clear Sky functions. This procedure separates the light reaching the point being considered into three components, these being (a) light directly from the sky, (b) light after being reflected from external, and (c) internal surfaces. Finally, two examples are presented in order to demonstrate the proposed procedure and indicate the speed with which the calculations may be performed.

  5. Optimizing indoor illumination quality and energy efficiency using a spectrally tunable lighting system to augment natural daylight.

    PubMed

    Hertog, W; Llenas, A; Carreras, J

    2015-11-30

    This article demonstrates the benefits of complementing a daylight-lit environment with a spectrally tunable illumination system. The spectral components of daylight present in the room are measured by a low-cost miniature spectrophotometer and processed through a number of optimization algorithms, carefully trading color fidelity for energy efficiency. Spectrally-tunable luminaires provide only those wavelengths that ensure that either the final illumination spectrum inside the room is kept constant or carefully follows the dynamic spectral pattern of natural daylight. Analyzing the measured data proves that such a hybrid illumination system brings both unprecendented illumination quality and significant energy savings. PMID:26698804

  6. Students' Perception of Daylight Illumination in the School Workshop as a Determinant for Effective Students' Task Performance in Workshop Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amasuomo, Japo Oweikeye Morto; Alio, Abigail Ngozi

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated daylight illumination in the school workshop as a determinant for effective students' task performance in workshop practice. 183 NCE Technical students in 300 Level which comprised of 73 and 112 students from Federal Colleges of Education (Technical), Asaba and Omoku, Nigeria respectively during the 2008/2009 academic…

  7. Momentary adjusting methods for simulating the color temperature, hues and brightness of daylight illumination with RGB LEDs for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing

    2011-07-01

    Methods for simulating the color temperature, hue and brightness of daylight illumination for indoor lighting simply by adjusting the intensity of red, green, and blue light emitting diodes are proposed. We obtain uniform color mixing with a light box by adjusting the ratios between the intensities of red, green and blue LEDs. The intensity can be found by measuring the CIE chromaticity coordinates (x, y) and the luminance Y of the daylight with a chroma meter. After the chromaticity coordinates (x, y) and the luminance Y are found, the tristimulus values can be calculated and then transferred to red, green, and blue primaries by linear transformation. With the correct ratio of red, green, and blue intensities, the color temperature, hues and brightness of daylight can be rebuilt by red, green, and blue light emitting diodes. PMID:21747561

  8. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Lerche, Catharina M.; Heerfordt, Ida M.; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor “daylight PDT” and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. PMID:26938525

  9. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy--Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor "daylight PDT" and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. PMID:26938525

  10. Controlling daylight illumination in cultural heritage buildings by using thin-film and thermographic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, D.; Muñoz de Luna, J.; Alvarez, A.; Mayorga, S.; Hernández, G.; Garcia, A.; Laborde, A.; Herráez, J. A.; del Egido, M.

    2012-12-01

    There are many master pieces of the cultural heritage which cańt be correctly contemplated if daylight is not part of the exhibition environment, since they were made with the sun light as essential element of them. The Pórtico de la Gloria and the Cloister and paintings of Santa María de El Paular monastery are ones of these cases. The Pórtico de la Gloria (Gate of the Glory) is probably the most relevant masterpiece of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral. It is located at the narthex of the west gate. It is a masterwork of Romanesque sculpture built between 1168 and 1188 by Master Mateo. During the XVIII century a new Baroque façade was placed in front of it replacing the middle ages wall. Daylight entering through the windows of the facade makes possible to see the art work but the sun can generate serious problems since it heats the stone and evaporates the humidity. Thermal imagers have been used to test the thermal performance of the antireflection treatment located in the windows in the actual temperature of the stone sculptures. The cloister of the monastery of Santa María de El Paular, housed until the confiscation of 1835 a collection of 54 paintings of Vincente Carducho called Carthusian series. When in 2006 the restoration of the 52 still preserved paintings was completed, began a refurbishment of the cloister to return the paintings to their original place. We conducted a study of the incidence of the Sun in the cloister and how to avoid direct sunlight on Carducho's paintings.

  11. HORIZONTAL HYBRID SOLAR LIGHT PIPE: AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF DAYLIGHT AND ELECTRIC LIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will test the feasibility of an advanced energy efficient perimeter lighting system that integrates daylighting, electric lighting, and lighting controls to reduce electricity consumption. The system is designed to provide adequate illuminance levels in deep-floor...

  12. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  13. Daylighting: six Aalto libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, F. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes six libraries designed by the Finnish architect, Alvar Aalto (1898-1976) to illustrate the principles of daylighting. Aalto used vertical clerestories, roof monitors with 'scoops', and skylights with wells to minimize direct sunlight penetration. However, most of his buildings were designed during a time of abundant energy with little regard for problems of excessive heat loss or gain. For contemporary architects, the most valuable principle to be gleaned from Aalto is the use of white surfaces as diffuse, secondary illumination sources.

  14. THE DAYLIGHTING SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Johnson, Richard

    1980-08-01

    The topic of daylighting, particularly in commercial buildings, is discussed, including economic aspects, control of daylight, fenestration functions, data gathering, design tools and methods, and lighting controls.

  15. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  16. The elusive challenge of daylighted buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Steve

    1998-02-01

    As we approach the end of the decade of the 1990s, daylighting is increasingly promoted as a design strategy and building solution that can save energy and improve human performance and satisfaction in indoor spaces. Similar claims were made in the 1970s in the aftermath of the oil embargo. Twenty-five years later, in a world newly concerned about carbon emissions, global warming, and sustainable design, daylighted buildings are again proposed as a ''solution.'' While it is possible to find some examples of well daylighted buildings that have been built in the last 25 years, the fact that there are so few suggests that the optimistic outlook for daylighting needs to be critically (re)examined. In 1978 and again in 1986 the author examined [Selkowitz 1979, Selkowitz 1986] the gap between the potential benefits claimed for daylighted buildings and the actual achievements in building practice. That gap remains in 1998. The first challenge is to define performance expectations for a daylighted space. Many definitions of daylighted buildings and the associated performance expectations are used interchangeably: Architectural definition: the interplay of natural light and building form to provide a visually stimulating, healthful, and productive interior environment; Lighting Energy Savings definition: the replacement of indoor electric illumination needs by daylight, resulting in reduced annual energy consumption for lighting; Building Energy Consumption definition: the use of fenestration systems and responsive electric lighting controls to reduce overall building energy requirements (heating, cooling, lighting); Load Management definition: dynamic control of fenestration and lighting to manage and control building peak electric demand and load shape; Cost definition: the use of daylighting strategies to minimize operating costs and maximize output, sales, or productivity. Each of these (and others) is a legitimate perspective, but it is important to be clear about

  17. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, Jonathan G.; Friedman, Peter S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  18. Energy 101: Daylighting

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    Daylighting?the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation?is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.

  19. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  20. Ray tracing study for non-imaging daylight collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wittkopf, Stephen; Oliver Grobe, Lars; Geisler-Moroder, David; Compagnon, Raphael; Kaempf, Jerome; Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel method to study how well non-imaging daylight collectors pipe diffuse daylight into long horizontal funnels for illuminating deep buildings. Forward ray tracing is used to derive luminous intensity distributions curves (LIDC) of such collectors centered in an arc-shaped light source representing daylight. New photometric characteristics such as 2D flux, angular spread and horizontal offset are introduced as a function of such LIDC. They are applied for quantifying and thus comparing different collector contours. (author)

  1. Energy 101: Daylighting

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Daylighting—the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation—is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.

  2. Efficient Halogen Lamp Daylight Simulator for Color Vision Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samu, K.; Szakaly-Molnar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in the selection of product colors for design engineering purposes and for quality control. The selection is generally based on color samples and the quality control is carried out with specific measurement instruments. In low quantity production it is common to avoid instrumental color measurement using human control personnel instead. For such subjective color judgment it is necessary to have standardized illumination that is usually produced by high cost daylight simulator lamps. Our aim was to build a cost effective daylight simulator with halogen incandescent light sources that can match the parameters (CCT, CRI, MIvis and Illumination) of the similar but more expensive products.

  3. Monte Carlo modelling of daylight activated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Wood, K.; Valentine, R. M.; Brown, C. T. A.; Moseley, H.

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of superficial skin lesions via daylight activated photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been explored theoretically with three dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations. For similar parameters and conditions, daylight activated PDT was compared to conventional PDT using a commercially available light source. Under reasonable assumptions for the optical properties of the tissue, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) concentration and a treatment dose of 75 J cm-2, it was found that during a clear summer day an effective treatment depth of over 2 mm can be achieved after 30 min of daylight illumination at a latitude of 56 degrees North. The same light dose would require 2.5 h of daylight illumination during an overcast summer day where a treatment depth of about 2 mm can be achieved. For conventional PDT the developed model suggests that 15 min of illumination is required to deliver a light dose of 75 J cm-2, which would result in an effective treatment depth of about 3 mm. The model developed here allows for the determination of photo-toxicity in skin tissue as a function of depth for different weather conditions as well as for conventional light sources. Our theoretical investigation supports clinical studies and shows that daylight activated PDT has the potential for treating superficial skin lesions during different weather conditions.

  4. Daylighting and Electric Lighting Analysis for Complex Spaces

    1995-06-07

    SUPERLITE is a powerful lighting analysis program designed to accurately predict interior illuminance in complex building spaces due to daylight and electric lighting systems. The program enables users to model interior daylight levels for any sun and sky condition in spaces having windows, skylights or other standard fenestration systems. SUPERLITE Version 2.0 includes the capability to calculate electric lighting levels in addition to the daylighting prediction, allowing lighting performance simulation for integrated lighting systems. Themore » program calculates lighting levels on all interior surfaces, as well as on planes that can be arbitrarily positioned to represent work surfaces or other locations of interest. SUPERLITE is intended to be used by researchers and lighting designers who require detailed analysis of the illuminance distribution in architecturally complex spaces.« less

  5. The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitoredperformance of the daylighting control system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2006-02-24

    A nine-month monitored field study of the performance of automated roller shades and daylighting controls was conducted in a 401 m{sup 2} unoccupied, furnished daylighting mockup. The mockup mimicked the southwest corner of a new 110 km{sub 2} commercial building in New York, New York, where The New York Times will be the major tenant. This paper focuses on evaluating the performance of two daylighting control systems installed in separate areas of an open plan office with 1.2-m high workstation partitions: (1) Area A had 0-10 V dimmable ballasts with an open-loop proportional control system and an automated shade controlled to reduce window glare and increase daylight, and (2) Area B had digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) ballasts with a closed-loop integral reset control system and an automated shade controlled to block direct sun. Daylighting control system performance and lighting energy use were monitored. The daylighting control systems demonstrated very reliable performance after they were commissioned properly. Work plane illuminance levels were maintained above 90% of the maximum fluorescent illuminance level for 99.9{+-}0.5% and 97.9{+-}6.1% of the day on average over the monitored period, respectively, in Areas A and B. Daily lighting energy use savings were significant in both Areas over the equinox-to-equinox period compared to a non-daylit reference case. At 3.35 m from the window, 30% average savings were achieved with a sidelit west-facing condition in Area A while 50-60% were achieved with a bilateral daylit south-facing condition in Area B. At 4.57-9.14 m from the window, 5-10% and 25-40% savings were achieved in Areas A and B, respectively. Average savings for the 7-m deep dimming zone were 20-23% and 52-59% for Areas A and B, respectively, depending on the lighting schedule. The large savings and good reliability can be attributed to the automatic management of the interior shades. The DALI-based system exhibited faulty behavior that

  6. Delight2 Daylighting Analysis in Energy Plus: Integration and Preliminary User Results

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, William L.; Hitchcock, Robert J.

    2005-04-26

    DElight is a simulation engine for daylight and electric lighting system analysis in buildings. DElight calculates interior illuminance levels from daylight, and the subsequent contribution required from electric lighting to meet a desired interior illuminance. DElight has been specifically designed to integrate with building thermal simulation tools. This paper updates the DElight capability set, the status of integration into the simulation tool EnergyPlus, and describes a sample analysis of a simple model from the user perspective.

  7. Design and evaluation of daylighting applications of holographic glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Ehrlich, C.; Ward, G.

    1996-12-01

    According to the contractual agreement, BTP would develop a computer model of the POC holographic structures and then simulate the performance of alternative designs using the RADIANCE lighting and rendering computer program [Ward 1990]. The RADIANCE model would then be used to evaluate the daylight performance of alternative designs of holographic glazings in a prototypical office space. The simulation process would be validated against actual photometric measurements of holographic glazing samples developed by POC. The results would be used to evaluate the potential for increased electric lighting savings through increased daylight illuminance levels at distances more than 15 ft--20 ft (4.6 m--6.1 m ) from the window wall.

  8. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  9. New tools for the evaluation of daylighting strategies and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Hitchcock, R.; Ehrlich, C.; Carroll, B.

    1998-03-01

    The use of daylight for the illumination of building interiors has the potential to enhance the quality of the environment while providing opportunities to save energy by replacing or supplementing electric lighting. Moreover, it has the potential to reduce heating and cooling loads, which offer additional energy saving opportunities as well as reductions in HVAC equipment sizing and cost. All of these benefits, however, assume proper use of daylighting strategies and technologies, whose performance depends on the context of their application. On the other hand, improper use can have significant negative effects on both comfort and energy requirements, such as increased glare and cooling loads. To ensure proper use, designers need design tools that model the dynamic nature of daylight and accurately predict performance with respect to a multitude of performance criteria, extending beyond comfort and energy to include aesthetics, cost, security, safety, etc.

  10. Daylighting simulation: methods, algorithms, and resources

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, William L.

    1999-12-01

    This document presents work conducted as part of Subtask C, ''Daylighting Design Tools'', Subgroup C2, ''New Daylight Algorithms'', of the IEA SHC Task 21 and the ECBCS Program Annex 29 ''Daylight in Buildings''. The search for and collection of daylighting analysis methods and algorithms led to two important observations. First, there is a wide range of needs for different types of methods to produce a complete analysis tool. These include: Geometry; Light modeling; Characterization of the natural illumination resource; Materials and components properties, representations; and Usability issues (interfaces, interoperability, representation of analysis results, etc). Second, very advantageously, there have been rapid advances in many basic methods in these areas, due to other forces. They are in part driven by: The commercial computer graphics community (commerce, entertainment); The lighting industry; Architectural rendering and visualization for projects; and Academia: Course materials, research. This has led to a very rich set of information resources that have direct applicability to the small daylighting analysis community. Furthermore, much of this information is in fact available online. Because much of the information about methods and algorithms is now online, an innovative reporting strategy was used: the core formats are electronic, and used to produce a printed form only secondarily. The electronic forms include both online WWW pages and a downloadable .PDF file with the same appearance and content. Both electronic forms include live primary and indirect links to actual information sources on the WWW. In most cases, little additional commentary is provided regarding the information links or citations that are provided. This in turn allows the report to be very concise. The links are expected speak for themselves. The report consists of only about 10+ pages, with about 100+ primary links, but with potentially thousands of indirect links. For purposes of

  11. Simulating the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity: The IDC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.

    1993-04-01

    A new method to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces is presented. This new method, named IDC (Integration of Directional Coefficients), allows the simulation of the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity, under any sun, sky, and ground conditions. The IDC method is based on the combination of scale model photometry and computer-based simulation. Physical scale models are used to experimentally determine a comprehensive set of 'directional illuminance coefficients' at reference points of interest, which are then used in analytical, computer-based routines, to determine daylight factors or actual daylight illuminance values under any sun, sky, and ground conditions. The main advantage of the IDC method is its applicability to any optically complex environment. Moreover, the computer-based analytical routines are fast enough to allow for hourly simulation of the daylight performance over the course of an entire year. However, the method requires appropriate experimental facilities for the determination of the Directional Coefficients. The IDC method has been implemented and used successfully in inter-validation procedures with various daylight simulation computer programs. Currently, it is used to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically complex components, such as Venetian blinds, optically treated light shelves and light pipes.

  12. Performance of Integrated Systems of Automated Roller Shade Systems and Daylight Responsive Dimming Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byoung-Chul; Choi, An-Seop; Jeong, Jae-Weon; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2010-07-08

    Daylight responsive dimming systems have been used in few buildings to date because they require improvements to improve reliability. The key underlying factor contributing to poor performance is the variability of the ratio of the photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance in accordance with sun position, sky condition, and fenestration condition. Therefore, this paper describes the integrated systems between automated roller shade systems and daylight responsive dimming systems with an improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm, and the relative performance of the integrated systems and single systems. The concept of the improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm for the integrated systems is to predict the varying correlation of photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance according to roller shade height and sky conditions for improvement of the system accuracy. In this study, the performance of the integrated systems with two improved closed-loop proportional control algorithms was compared with that of the current (modified) closed-loop proportional control algorithm. In the results, the average maintenance percentage and the average discrepancies of the target illuminance, as well as the average time under 90percent of target illuminance for the integrated systems significantly improved in comparison with the current closed-loop proportional control algorithm for daylight responsive dimming systems as a single system.

  13. Energy and daylight performance of angular selective glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Beltran,; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy and daylight performance of anisotropic angular selective glazings. The DOE-2.1E energy simulation program was used to determine the annual cooling, lighting and total electricity use, and peak electric demand. RADIANCE, a lighting simulation program, was used to determine daylight illuminance levels and distribution. We simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Blythe, California. We chose three hypothetical conventional windows for comparison: a single-pane tinted window, a double-pane low-E window, and a double-pane spectrally selective window. Daylighting controls were used. No interior shades were modeled in order to isolate the energy effects of the angular selective glazing. Our results show that the energy performance of the prototype angular selective windows is about the same as conventional windows for a 9.14 m (30 ft) deep south-facing perimeter zone with a large-area window in the hot, sunny climate of Blythe. It is theoretically possible to tune the angular selectivity of the glazing to achieve annual cooling energy reductions of 18%, total electricity use reductions of 15%, and peak electric demand reductions of 11% when compared to a conventional glazing with the same solar-optical properties at normal incidence. Angular selective glazings can provide more uniformly distributed daylight, particularly in the area next to the window, which will result in a more visually comfortable work environment.

  14. Analysis of Daylighting Requirements within ASHRAE Standard 90.1

    SciTech Connect

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides support to the ASHRAE/IES/IESNA Standard 90.1(Standard 90.1) Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC 90.1) and its subcommittees. In an effort to provide the ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 with data that will improve the daylighting and fenestration requirements in the Standard, PNNL collaborated with Heschong Mahone Group (HMG), now part of TRC Solutions. Combining EnergyPlus, a whole-building energy simulation software developed by DOE, with Radiance, a highly accurate illumination modeling software (Ward 1994), the daylighting requirements within Standard 90.1 were analyzed in greater detail. The initial scope of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fraction of window area compared to exterior wall area (window-to-wall ratio (WWR)) on energy consumption when daylighting controls are implemented. This scope was expanded to study the impact of fenestration visible transmittance (VT), electric lighting controls and daylighted area on building energy consumption.

  15. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  16. A spatially augmented reality sketching interface for architectural daylighting design.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yu; Yapo, Theodore C; Young, Christopher; Cutler, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of interactive global illumination and spatially augmented reality to architectural daylight modeling that allows designers to explore alternative designs and new technologies for improving the sustainability of their buildings. Images of a model in the real world, captured by a camera above the scene, are processed to construct a virtual 3D model. To achieve interactive rendering rates, we use a hybrid rendering technique, leveraging radiosity to simulate the interreflectance between diffuse patches and shadow volumes to generate per-pixel direct illumination. The rendered images are then projected on the real model by four calibrated projectors to help users study the daylighting illumination. The virtual heliodon is a physical design environment in which multiple designers, a designer and a client, or a teacher and students can gather to experience animated visualizations of the natural illumination within a proposed design by controlling the time of day, season, and climate. Furthermore, participants may interactively redesign the geometry and materials of the space by manipulating physical design elements and see the updated lighting simulation. PMID:21071786

  17. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  18. Daylighting performance evaluation of a bottom-up motorized roller shade

    SciTech Connect

    Kapsis, K.; Athienitis, A.K.; Zmeureanu, R.G.; Tzempelikos, A.

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental and simulation study for quantifying the daylighting performance of bottom-up roller shades installed in office spaces. The bottom-up shade is a motorized roller shade that opens from top to bottom operating in the opposite direction of a conventional roller shade, so as to cover the bottom part of the window, while allowing daylight to enter from the top part of the window, reaching deeper into the room. A daylighting simulation model, validated with full-scale experiments, was developed in order to establish correlations between the shade position, outdoor illuminance and work plane illuminance for different outdoor conditions. Then, a shading control algorithm was developed for application in any location and orientation. The validated model was employed for a sensitivity analysis of the impact of shade optical properties and control on the potential energy savings due to the use of daylighting. The results showed that Daylight Autonomy for the bottom-up shade is 8-58% higher compared to a conventional roller shade, with a difference of 46% further away from the facade, where the use of electric lighting is needed most of the time. The potential reduction in energy consumption for lighting is 21-41%. (author)

  19. Daylighting Strategies Promote Healthy High Performance Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons to incorporate daylighting into the building or renovation of K-16 learning facilities. Benefits include increased productivity for students and staff, improved health, a better connection to the outdoors, energy savings and better quality of light. Add the role daylighting can play in LEED certification and it's clear that…

  20. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  1. Effect of Daylight on Melatonin and Subjective General Health Factors in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    KARAMI, Zohre; GOLMOHAMMADI, Rostam; HEIDARIPAHLAVIAN, Ahmad; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; HEIDARIMOGHADAM, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper investigated the effect of daylight on morning and night melatonin, subjective general health using GHQ questionnaire, sleepiness and alertness on elderly who lived in nursing houses. Methods: Nineteen nursing home residents participated voluntarily. They exposed to daylight from 9 to 10 a.m. and from 4 to 5 p.m. for 6 wk. The level of melatonin in the morning and at night was measured. General health of all participants was evaluated using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) as well. Results: Daylight exposure significantly affected morning melatonin from 25.39 pg/ml to 59.77 pg/ml (P=0.001) and night melatonin were changed from 40.30pg/ml to 34.41pg/ml (P=0.081). Mean score of general health changed 36.31 to 29.89 (P=0.003). Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) showed increase sleepiness and decrease alertness from 3:00 to 7:00 a.m. Sleepiness decreased and alertness increased during 1:00 p.m. and 20:00 p.m. Conclusions: Daylight exposure could delay sleep phase and correction of circadian rhythm in elderly. Anxiety and insomnia could be improved with daylight exposure. It suggests that elders should be exposed to scheduled daylight in morning and evening for prevention and improvement of mental disorders. Adequate light should be provided for elder’s homes and nursing house. PMID:27398336

  2. Chromaticity space for illuminant invariant recognition.

    PubMed

    Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; McGinnity, T Martin

    2012-08-01

    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to extract two illuminant invariant chromaticity features from three image sensor responses. The algorithm extracts these chromaticity features at pixel level and therefore can perform well in scenes illuminated with non-uniform illuminant. An approach is proposed to use the algorithm with cameras of unknown sensitivity. The algorithm was tested for separability of perceptually similar colours under the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) standard illuminants and obtained a good performance. It was also tested for colour based object recognition by illuminating objects with typical indoor illuminants and obtained a better performance compared to other existing algorithms investigated in this paper. Finally, the algorithm was tested for skin detection invariant to illuminant, ethnic background and imaging device. In this investigation, daylight scenes under different weather conditions and scenes illuminated by typical indoor illuminants were used. The proposed algorithm gives a better skin detection performance compared to widely used standard colour spaces. Based on the results presented, the proposed illuminant invariant chromaticity space can be used for machine vision applications including illuminant invariant colour based object recognition and skin detection. PMID:22481826

  3. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. PMID:24529766

  4. Technology reviews: Daylighting optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends.Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  5. Efficient daylighting in thermally controlled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeman, E.; Selkowitz, S.

    1981-10-01

    Many of the design considerations required to enable a design team to utilize daylight to the maximum possible extent are reviewed in order to reduce electric lighting loads and associated building energy consumption. Among steps that must be taken is a thorough analysis of all heating and cooling loads inside the building and the heat exchange through the building envelope. Data on local climate and sunshine availability must also be considered. Although the energy aspects have recently dominated design considerations, daylight's influence on human well being is gaining importance. In this respect, the variability of daylight, the quality of its spectral composition, the view out, and health effects are along the aspects that should be considered when determining an appropriate role for daylighting in energy efficient buildings.

  6. Colorimetric analysis of outdoor illumination across varieties of atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Peyvandi, Shahram; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Olmo, F J; Nieves, Juan Luis; Romero, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Solar illumination at ground level is subject to a good deal of change in spectral and colorimetric properties. With an aim of understanding the influence of atmospheric components and phases of daylight on colorimetric specifications of downward radiation, more than 5,600,000 spectral irradiance functions of daylight, sunlight, and skylight were simulated by the radiative transfer code, SBDART [Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.79, 2101 (1998)], under the atmospheric conditions of clear sky without aerosol particles, clear sky with aerosol particles, and overcast sky. The interquartile range of the correlated color temperatures (CCT) for daylight indicated values from 5712 to 7757 K among the three atmospheric conditions. A minimum CCT of ∼3600  K was found for daylight when aerosol particles are present in the atmosphere. Our analysis indicated that hemispheric daylight with CCT less than 3600 K may be observed in rare conditions in which the level of aerosol is high in the atmosphere. In an atmosphere with aerosol particles, we also found that the chromaticity of daylight may shift along the green-purple direction of the Planckian locus, with a magnitude depending on the spectral extinction by aerosol particles and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. The data analysis showed that an extremely high value of CCT, in an atmosphere without aerosol particles, for daylight and skylight at low sun, is mainly due to the effect of Chappuis absorption band of ozone at ∼600  nm. In this paper, we compare our data with well-known observations from previous research, including the ones used by the CIE to define natural daylight illuminants. PMID:27409431

  7. Intensified phototherapy using daylight fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; De Carvalho, D; Trzmielina, S; Lopes, J M; Hansen, T W

    1999-07-01

    Jaundice is a common reason for therapeutic intervention in newborn infants and phototherapy is effective treatment if enough light energy is delivered to a skin surface area of sufficient size. Narrow spectrum blue light is superior to white light, but in developing countries fluorescent blue lamps often have to be imported and are much more expensive than white lamps. We developed a phototherapy unit in which seven daylight fluorescent tubes are placed immediately under the floor of a transparent plexiglass crib. The efficacy of this unit, delivering approximately 19 microW/cm2/nm, was compared with that of two conventional phototherapy units using overhead lamps placed 35 cm above the infants. One unit used daylight fluorescent tubes and delivered approximately 4 microW/cm2/nm, the other unit used special blue fluorescent tubes and delivered approximately 22 microW/cm2/nm. Fifty-one infants were included in the analyses, all of them breastfed on demand. Serum bilirubin levels were determined spectrophotometrically at 0, 12 and 24 h. The decrement in serum bilirubin concentrations was significantly greater in infants undergoing phototherapy with the new device or with special blue lamps compared to conventional overhead daylight lamps (p < 0.001 both at 12 and at 24 h). We conclude that highly efficient phototherapy may be delivered with daylight fluorescent lamps placed in very close proximity to the patient. Thus, lack of access to expensive imported special blue lamps does not preclude delivery of effective phototherapy in developing countries. PMID:10447138

  8. Availability of Solar Energy and Influence of Ultraviolet Radiation on Functionally Graded Material: Variations of Daylight and Solar Radiation Against Solar Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higa, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Shigeo; Hayashi, Niichi; Uchida, Yoshiyuki

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports and discusses some measurements of daylight and solar radiation during the period from December 1993 to November 1998. To obtain data of daylight and solar radiation, measurements have been taken of illuminance and irradiance on horizontal (global and diffuse) and four vertical planes facing north, east, south and west. Instantaneous values of illuminance and irradiance at one-minute intervals have been recorded in these measurements. The two horizontal diffuse sensors were each fitted with a shading ring which was adjusted manually every day. The data presented in this paper were calculated from the average of ten-minute readings of illuminance and irradiance. Direct solar illuminance and irradiance were calculated by subtracting diffuse from global, and each luminous efficacy was calculated as the ratio of average direct solar illuminance to irradiance.

  9. Variations in daylight as a contextual cue for estimating season, time of day, and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Valsecchi, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Experience and experiments on human color constancy (i.e., Arend & Reeves, 1986; Craven & Foster, 1992) tell us that we are capable of judging the illumination. However, when asked to make a match of the illuminant's color and brightness, human observers seem to be quite poor (Granzier, Brenner, & Smeets, 2009a). Here we investigate whether human observers use (rather than match) daylight for estimating ecologically important dimensions: time of year, time of day, and outdoor temperature. In the first three experiments we had our observers evaluate calibrated color images of an outdoor urban scene acquired throughout a year. Although some observers could estimate the month and the temperature, overall they were quite poor at judging the time of day. In particular, observers were not able to discriminate between morning and afternoon pictures even when they were allowed to compare multiple images captured on the same day (Experiment 3). However, observers could distinguish between midday and sunset and sunrise daylight. Classification analysis showed that, given a perfect knowledge of its variation, an ideal observer could have performed the task over chance only considering the average chromatic variation in the picture. Instead, our observers reported using shadows to detect the position of the sun in order to estimate the time of day. However, this information is highly unreliable without knowledge of the orientation of the scene. In Experiment 4 we used an LED chamber in order to present our observers with lights whose chromaticity and illuminance varied along the daylight locus, thus isolating the light cues from the sun position cue. We conclude that discriminating the slight variations in chromaticity and brightness, which potentially distinguish morning and afternoon illuminations, lies beyond the ability of human observers. PMID:24464161

  10. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the

  11. Liquid filled prismatic louver façade for enhanced daylighting in high-rise commercial buildings.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, A; Madamopoulos, N

    2015-07-27

    A liquid filled prismatic louver (LFPL) façade that can perform daylight and thermal energy harvesting with the potential to offer enhanced natural illumination levels to office spaces and thermally assist secondary thermal driven applications is proposed and analyzed. We focus the present simulation study on the evaluation of daylight enhancement in indoor space by redirecting light from a window opening to the ceiling of the room, and then-after a diffusive reflection from the ceiling-onward to the work plane of the room. Illumination simulations using LightTools, a forward ray tracing illumination simulation software, are performed for an office building space located in New York City. We show that the LFPL system achieves deeper natural light penetration, better uniformity and higher illuminance levels compared to an office space without the LFPL system. We further extend our study to a number of other representative cities in the continental US, covering different climatic zones. The LFPL system achieves good daylight harvesting performance. Finally, we discuss the potential of the LFPL system to capture solar infrared radiation heat within the liquid (e.g., water) volume and use it to assist in secondary thermal energy applications. PMID:26367682

  12. The challenge of meteor daylight observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egal, A.; Kwon, M.-K.; Colas, F.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the FRIPON network is to perform the daylight detection of fireballs. If the cameras used are adapted to these observations, the reduction method still needs to be improved in order to reduce the high number of false detections. To deeply check the daylight reduction software, the FRIPON team is looking for observations of fireballs and atmospheric reentries during the day. For this purpose, the team has organized in emergency (in less than 10 days) an observation campaign of the reentry of the WT1190F space debris in November 2015. Although the bad weather conditions have hampered the success of the mission, it remains a great example of the value of the collaboration between scientists and amateurs, without whom this challenge wouldn't have been overcome.

  13. Illuminating Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through the support of the NASA SBIR program, Control Vision, Inc. developed novel video techniques for clear, high resolution, real-time imaging of high temperature, high-energy industrial processes, such as welding, plasma arc spraying (coating), arc furnaces, metal casting and refractories (ceramics) melting. The Control Vision systems use reflected laser or strobe illumination, combined with ultra-short exposure times to create video, including the allowance of particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) of fast moving powder particles buried within a plasma stream.

  14. [Procedure for daylight methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy to treat actinic keratoses].

    PubMed

    Girard, C; Adamski, H; Basset-Séguin, N; Beaulieu, P; Dreno, B; Riboulet, J-L; Lacour, J-P

    2016-04-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK), also known as solar keratosis or pre-cancerous keratosis, is frequently observed in areas of skin exposed to sunlight, particularly in light-skinned patients. In France, photodynamic therapy using red light (conventional PDT) and methylamino 5-levulinate (MAL) is indicated in the treatment of thin or non-hyperkeratotic and non-pigmented multiple AK lesions or large zones covered with AK lesions. It is well-known for its efficacy but also for its side effects, especially pain during illumination, which can limit its use. An alternative to PDT using natural daylight has recently been proposed to treat actinic keratosis lesions, and results in greater flexibility as well as significant reduction in pain. The lesions are prepared as for conventional PDT, with MAL cream being applied by the physician or the patient, after which they are exposed to natural daylight for 2hours. The lesions are then gently cleansed and protected from natural light for 24hours. This paper seeks to provide a precise description of the daylight PDT procedure for the treatment of AK. PMID:27016200

  15. NIR daylight acquisition sensor improves mission capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesser, Douglas E.; Vunck, Darius; Born, Terry; Axelson, Wayne; Rehder, Karl; Medrano, Robert S.

    2003-08-01

    The US Air Force Maui Space Surveillance System includes a 1.6 meter telescope located at the summit of Haleakala. This telescope has long played a key role in Space Object Identification (SOI) and other scientific research projects. The unique configuration of the 1.6m telescope and its suite of instruments make it ideally suited for high speed, extra-atmospheric Satellite and Missile tracking. However, because of the uniquely designed narrow field of the 1.6m telescope, acquisition of daytime objects presents a challenge. In the past, the 1.6 meter system relied primarily on offsite radar handoffs to provide FOV object placement. This reliance on radar based handoffs increased system operational complexity and decreased system reliability. Recognizing the value of improving mission operational availability and success the US Air Force Research Laboratory and contractor Boeing worked together to design a low cost system to improve the wide field acquisition of daylight objects. This instrument, known as the Daylight Acquisition Sensor (DAS), was developed using a COTS NIR Camera with custom NIR optics assemblies controlled with an integrated COTS embedded computer interface. The design that was implemented is a modification to the existing 0.56 meter nighttime only acquisition telescope, which now, because of the new NIR imaging sensor is capable of both daytime and nighttime acquisition. The system has been in operation for over 1 year and has significantly improved the acquisition capabilities of the 1.6m telescope while at the same time greatly reducing dependency on radar handoff. This paper discusses the design of the NIR Daylight Acquisition Sensor and some of the results from missions it has supported.

  16. Daylight coloring for monochrome infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabura, James

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of infrared imagery in poor visibility situations is well established and the range of applications is expanding as we enter a new era of inexpensive thermal imagers for mobile phones. However there is a problem in that the counterintuitive reflectance characteristics of various common scene elements can cause slowed reaction times and impaired situational awareness-consequences that can be especially detrimental in emergency situations. While multiband infrared sensors can be used, they are inherently more costly. Here we propose a technique for adding a daylight color appearance to single band infrared images, using the normally overlooked property of local image texture. The simple method described here is illustrated with colorized images from the visible red and long wave infrared bands. Our colorizing process not only imparts a natural daylight appearance to infrared images but also enhances the contrast and visibility of otherwise obscure detail. We anticipate that this colorizing method will lead to a better user experience, faster reaction times and improved situational awareness for a growing community of infrared camera users. A natural extension of our process could expand upon its texture discerning feature by adding specialized filters for discriminating specific targets.

  17. Daylight vision repair by cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ferreira, Tiago; Postel, Kai; Stutzki, Henrike; Kurth, Thomas; Zeck, Günther; Ader, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Human daylight vision depends on cone photoreceptors and their degeneration results in visual impairment and blindness as observed in several eye diseases including age-related macular degeneration, cone-rod dystrophies, or late stage retinitis pigmentosa, with no cure available. Preclinical cell replacement approaches in mouse retina have been focusing on rod dystrophies, due to the availability of sufficient donor material from the rod-dominated mouse retina, leaving the development of treatment options for cone degenerations not well studied. Thus, an abundant and traceable source for donor cone-like photoreceptors was generated by crossing neural retina leucine zipper-deficient (Nrl(-/-) ) mice with an ubiquitous green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter line resulting in double transgenic tg(Nrl(-/-); aGFP) mice. In Nrl(-/-) retinas, all rods are converted into cone-like photoreceptors that express CD73 allowing their enrichment by CD73-based magnetic activated cell sorting prior transplantation into the subretinal space of adult wild-type, cone-only (Nrl(-/-)), or cone photoreceptor function loss 1 (Cpfl1) mice. Donor cells correctly integrated into host retinas, acquired mature photoreceptor morphology, expressed cone-specific markers, and survived for up to 6 months, with significantly increased integration rates in the cone-only Nrl(-/-) retina. Individual retinal ganglion cell recordings demonstrated the restoration of photopic responses in cone degeneration mice following transplantation suggesting, for the first time, the feasibility of daylight vision repair by cell replacement in the adult mammalian retina. PMID:25183393

  18. Derivation of the photometric flux of daylight from filtered measurements of global (sun and sky) radiant energy.

    PubMed

    Drummond, A J; Angström, A K

    1971-09-01

    The study reported on here is a continuation of an earlier investigation by the same authors into the relationship between natural illumination and shortwave solar radiation. Whereas the initial approach treated the illumination of sunlight as derived from the corresponding filtered direct radiation component, the results now given extend this work to parallel determination of the (more generally applicable) illumination of integral daylight on the basis of similarly filtered global (sun and sky) radiation. Characteristics are outlined of the instrumentation employed in the investigation undertaken at different locations, viz., Newport, Jerusalem (Israel), and Mauna Loa (Hawaii), as compared with the basic work that utilized data assembled at Pretoria (South Africa). Included is an extension to recent solar radiation measurements obtained on high-altitude aircraft. In general, it is established that it is possible to derive such estimates of natural illumination from radiometric measurements with an accuracy comparable with that obtainable in the best direct photometric efforts. PMID:20111265

  19. Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights

    PubMed Central

    Baraas, Rigmor C.; Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Deuteranomalous trichromacy, which affects medium-wavelength-sensitive cones, is more common than protanomalous trichromacy, which affects long-wavelength-sensitive cones. The aim of the present work was to test the extent to which these two kinds of anomalous trichromacy affect surface-color judgments in the natural world. Simulations of eighteen natural scenes under different daylight illuminants were presented on a high-resolution color monitor to seven deuteranomalous, seven protanomalous, and twelve normal trichromatic observers, who had to discriminate between reflectance and illuminant changes in the images. Observers' ability to judge surface color was quantified by a standard color-constancy index. Deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as normal trichromats, but protanomalous trichromats performed more poorly than both. The results are considered in relation to the spectral coverage of cones, rod intrusion, and the characterization of anomalous trichromacy by the Rayleigh match. PMID:16962006

  20. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  1. Light Moves: Integrating Daylight into School Design from the Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossy de Dios, Eric; Rogic, Tinka; Vaughn, Wendell

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of daylight on the learning environment. Enhanced student performance and mood, increased teacher and student attendance, reduced energy costs, as well as a positive effect on the environment are some of the improvements seen in school buildings that use well-planned daylighting concepts. Looking at…

  2. Color rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-02-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. Based on state-of-the-art colorimetric methods we present a modern approach for calculating color rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: firstly, we use the CIELAB color space, secondly, we apply a Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation, and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda1 have shown for the cube model that interreflections can influence the CRI of an illuminant. We analyze how color rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  3. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution.

    PubMed

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K; Brainard, David H; Sweeney, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky. PMID:27272736

  4. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.; Sweeney, Alison M.

    2016-06-01

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky.

  5. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.; Sweeney, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky. PMID:27272736

  6. Hotsphere illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes at all spatial and temporal scales. Importance of the hotspheres such as rhizosphere, detritusphere, porosphere (including drilosphere and biopores), hyphasphere and spermosphere, calls for spatially explicit methods to illuminate distribution of microbial activities in these hotspheres (Kuzyakov and Blagodatskaya, 2015). Zymography technique has previously been adapted to visualize the spatial dynamics of enzyme activities in rhizosphere (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2014). Here, we further developed soil zymography to obtain a higher resolution of enzyme activities by enabling direct contact of substrate-saturated membranes with soil. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in various hotspheres. We calculated and compared percentage of enzymatic hotspots of five hotspheres: spermosphere, rhizosphere, detritusphere, drilosphere and biopores. Spatial distribution of activities of two enzymes: β-glucosidase and leucine amino peptidase were analyzed in the spermosphere, rhizosphere and detritusphere of maize and lentil. Zymography has been done 3 days (spermosphere), 14 days (rhizosphere) after sowing and 21 days after cutting plant (detritusphere). Spatial resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application fluorogenically labelled substrates on the soil surface. Such improvement enabled to visualize enzyme distribution of mycorrhiza hypha on the rhizobox surface. Further, to visualize the 2D distribution of the enzyme activities in porosphere, we placed earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris), (drilosphere) and ground beetle species Platynus dorsalis Pont. (Coleoptera; Carabidae), (biopore), in transparent boxes for 2weeks. The developed in situ zymography visualized the heterogeneity of enzyme activities along and across the roots. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance along the

  7. Omnidirectional scene illuminant estimation using a multispectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating an omnidirectional distribution of the scene illuminant spectral distribution, including spiky fluorescent spectra. First, we show a measuring apparatus, consisting of the mirrored ball system and the imaging system using a LCT filter (or color filters), a monochrome CCD camera, and a personal computer. Second, the measuring system is calibrated and images representing the omnidirectional light distribution are created. Third, we present an algorithm for recovering the illuminant spectral-power distribution from the image data. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated in an experiment on a classroom scene with different illuminant sources such as fluorescent light, incandescent light, and daylight. The accuracy of the estimated scene illuminants is shown in the cases of the 6-channel multi-band camera, 31-channel spectral camera, and 61-channel spectral camera.

  8. Daylighting and Cooling of Atrium Buildings in Warm Climates: Impact of the Top-Fenestration and Wall Mass Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Morad Rachid

    1992-01-01

    Sun-lighting and daylighting contribute greatly to the aesthetic value of an atrium. However, today's atria are often found either over-lit with extensive cooling loads, or under-lit requiring increased artificial lighting loads. The increase of the top-glazing area increases the cooling loads and decreases the lighting loads. The increase of the mass in the atrium walls decreases the maximum atrium temperature and the cooling loads. Furthermore, the mass distribution and its reflectance affect the lighting levels at the atrium floor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the simultaneous impact of the top-fenestration and the mass and reflectance of atrium walls on the cooling and daylighting performance of atria in warm climates. It attempts to determine the optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting and low cooling loads. The daylighting performance was evaluated through illumination measurements in physical models in a sky simulator. The cooling performance was evaluated using the software TRNSYS 13.1. Two types of top-fenestration were tested: horizontal and vertical south-facing, each with three alternate areas. The variations of the atrium walls included materials (standard frame and heavyweight concrete) and percentage and reflectance of the solid area. Two and four-story atria were considered, each with square and linear configuration. The performance was evaluated for three warm climates. The optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting was determined. The daylighting prediction algorithm was extended to include the effective reflectance of the atrium walls. The increase of mass in the atrium walls significantly decreased the atrium temperature range, the maximum atrium temperature, and the cooling loads. This impact decreased from horizontal to vertical south-facing top-glazing. The vertical south-facing top-glazing and, to a lesser degree, the reduction of the glazed atrium cover by 50% had more cooling benefits than increasing the

  9. FREE-SPACE QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY IN DAYLIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.

  10. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  11. Lights illuminate surfaces superluminally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Zhong, Qi; Lilleskov, Elias

    2016-07-01

    When a light bulb is turned on, light moves away from it at speed c, by definition. When light from this bulb illuminates a surface, however, this illumination front is not constrained to move at speed c. A simple proof is given that this illumination front always moves faster than c. Generalized, when any compact light source itself varies, this information spreads across all of the surfaces it illuminates at speeds faster than light.

  12. Illumination pupilgram control using an intelligent illuminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Mizuno, Yasushi; Mori, Masakazu; Kita, Naonori; Matsui, Ryota; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Nikon's Intelligent Illuminator, a freeform pupilgram generator, realizes a high flexibility for pupilgram control by using more than 10,000 degrees-of-freedom for pupilgram adjustment. In this work, an Intelligent Illuminator was integrated into an ArF scanner, the Nikon NSR-S621D. We demonstrate the pupilgram setting accuracy by direct correlation between on-body measured pupilgram and desired target pupilgram. We show that the Intelligent Illuminator is used for fine tuning of the pupilgram to match optical proximity effect (OPE) characteristics. We experimentally confirmed that a global source optimization software realized an improvement of lithographic process window without changing OPE characteristics by using optimized pupilgram made by Intelligent Illuminator.

  13. The daylight sky and Avogadro’s number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenza, Marco A. C.

    2015-11-01

    Two methods for estimating Avogadro’s number from the observation of the daylight sky are presented, both suitable for undergraduate students. One is very simple and based on simple naked-eye observation, and the other exploits a common digital camera as a photometer.

  14. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene. PMID:24323269

  15. Illumination Under Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2002-08-19

    This paper is a survey of the author's work on illumination and shadows under trees, including the effects of sky illumination, sun penumbras, scattering in a misty atmosphere below the trees, and multiple scattering and transmission between leaves. It also describes a hierarchical image-based rendering method for trees.

  16. Development of daylighting systems with non-imaging concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Ngoc Hai; Shin, Seoyong

    2015-08-01

    We present a cost-effective and large scale optical fiber daylighting system using non-imaging optics device such as array of linear Fresnel lenses and stepped-thickness waveguide as concentrator. The stepped-thickness waveguide is an optical component that can redirect focused sunlight from vertical to horizontal and guide light to the optical fiber. Our simulation results demonstrate an optical efficiency of up to 56.4% when the concentration ratio of the system is fixed at 100. The simulation also shows that this design has high tolerance for input angle of sunlight. The high tolerance allows replacing a dual axis sun tracking system with a single axis sun-tracking system as a cost-effective solution. Therefore, our results provide an important breakthrough for the commercialization of optical fiber daylighting systems that are faced with challenges related to high costs.

  17. Naked-eye observations of Venus in daylight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. L.

    1995-12-01

    It is not easy to find Venus with the naked eye in broad daylight. Trying to locate a small white point of light in a light blue background without optical aid is extremely difficult. However under ideal conditions, when the sky is a deep blue and Venus is at or near its maximum brilliancy, it should not be too difficult for a skilled observer with good eyesight to spot Venus at midday, with the naked eye.

  18. Shackleton Crater Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions near the lunar South Pole. The 30km x 30km region highlights the Shackleton crater. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, ...

  19. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  20. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  1. Illumination in diverse codimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper derives a model of diffuse and specular illumination in arbitrarily large dimensions, based on a few characteristics of material and light in three-space. It then describes how to adjust for the anomaly of excess brightness in large codimensions. If a surface is grooved or furry, it can be illuminated with a hybrid model that incorporates both the one dimensional geometry (the grooves or fur) and the two dimensional geometry (the surface).

  2. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  3. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  4. Bright field illumination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A Bright Field Illumination system for inspecting a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface. The system has an illumination source placed near a first focus of an elliptical reflector. In addition, a camera facing the inspected area is placed near the illumination source and the first focus. The second focus of the elliptical reflector is located at a distance approximately twice the elliptical reflector's distance above the inspected surface. The elliptical reflector directs the light from the source onto the inspected surface. Due to the shape of the elliptical reflector, light that is specularly reflected from the inspected surface is directed into the camera is which located at the position of the reflected second focus of the ellipse. This system creates a brightly lighted background field against which damage sites appear as high contrast dark objects which can be easily detected by a person or an automated inspection system. In addition, the Bright Field Illumination system and method can be used in combination with a vision inspection system providing for multiplexed illumination and data handling of multiple kinds of surface characteristics including abrupt and gradual surface variations and differences between measured characteristics of different kinds and prior instruments.

  5. Novel technique for solar power illumination using plastic optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munisami, J.; Kalymnios, D.

    2008-09-01

    Plastic Optical Fibres (POF) were developed almost 3 decades ago. They are mainly used for short haul data communications (up to 1 km with data rates up to 1 Gbps). Over the years, POF has found applications in many other areas including solar energy transport for illumination. In such an application, light is collected from the sun and is directed into a space which needs to be illuminated. The use of fibres and more specifically POF, in daylighting systems, started only a few years ago. Several approaches have been investigated and we have seen the development of a few commercial products. The market however, has not really taken off for these technologies simply because of their enormous price tags. It is important to note that the use of POF in these designs has been limited to the function of POF as the transmission medium only. We propose a novel solar illumination technique using POF as both the light collecting/concentrating mechanism and the transmission medium. By modifying the structure of the fibre, solar light can be directed into the fibre by using an analogous process to fibre side emission but, in the reverse. We shall report on the solar light capturing efficiency of POF as modified by several types of external imperfections introduced onto the fibre. One major advantage of our proposed approach lies in the fact that we aim to eliminate at least one of the two axes of sun tracking that is currently used in existing solar illumination systems.

  6. Color-rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources that are used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. On the basis of state-of-the-art colorimetric methods, we present a modern approach for the calculation of color-rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: first, we use the CIELAB color space; second, we apply a linearized Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation; and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda [Proc. CGIV'06 Conf., Leeds, UK, pp. 283-286 (2006)] have shown for the cube model that diffuse interreflections can influence the CRI of a light source. We analyze how color-rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB-based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  7. Background illumination simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Towry, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

  8. OLED area illumination source

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  9. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1998-10-06

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  10. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1996-12-17

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  11. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  12. The twilight envelope: a user-centered approach to describing roadway illumination at night.

    PubMed

    Andre, J; Owens, D A

    2001-01-01

    Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education. PMID:12002010

  13. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  14. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  15. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  16. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 × 1026 W of radiation, of which ≈37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather. Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types. Ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range were obtained from the United Kingdom Meteorology Office. Based on available weather reports, five days of clear sky observations were selected. These data are compared to the predictions of the two models. We find that neither of the models provide an accurate treatment during twilight conditions when the Sun is at or a few degrees below the horizon. When the Sun is above the horizon, the Shapiro model straddles the observed data, ranging between 90% and 120% of the recorded illuminance. During the same times, the Brown model is between 70% and 90% of the

  17. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    2000-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  18. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1998-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  19. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  20. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1994-02-22

    A nonimaging illumination or concentration optical device. An optical device is provided having a light source, a light reflecting surface with an opening and positioned partially around the light source which is opposite the opening of the light reflecting surface. The light reflecting surface is disposed to produce a substantially uniform intensity output with the reflecting surface defined in terms of a radius vector R.sub.i in conjunction with an angle .phi..sub.i between R.sub.i, a direction from the source and an angle .theta..sub.i between direct forward illumination and the light ray reflected once from the reflecting surface. R.sub.i varies as the exponential of tan (.phi..sub.i -.theta..sub.i)/2 integrated over .phi..sub.i.

  1. Daylighting practices of the architectural industry (baseline results of a national survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1990-05-01

    A national survey of over 300 commercial design architects was conducted to develop baseline information on their knowledge, perceptions, and use of daylighting in commercial building designs. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted the survey for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). In the survey daylighting was defined as the intentional use of natural light as a partial substitute for artificially generated light. The results suggested that architects need to be educated about the true benefits of daylighting and the impacts it can have on a building's energy performance. Educational programs that will increase the architects' understanding and awareness of modern daylighting technologies and practices should be developed by utilities, stage agencies, and the federal government. If more architects can be made aware of the true effectiveness and positive attributes of daylighting systems and technologies, daylighting may be used in more commercial buildings. The results of the survey show that the more familiar architects feel they are with daylighting, the more they use daylighting. 3 refs., 19 tabs.

  2. Daylighting Concepts for University Libraries and Their Influences on Users' Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Didem Kan; Hasirci, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Daylighting, a controlled architectural tool that influences users' perception and behavior, in university libraries and their influences on users' preference and satisfaction was examined in this study. The effects of daylighting in coordination with visual comfort, on university library users were measured in relation to four environmental…

  3. Illuminant spectrum estimation using a digital color camera and a color chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junsheng; Yu, Hongfei; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Chen, Zaiqing; Tai, Yonghang

    2014-10-01

    Illumination estimation is the main step in color constancy processing, also an important prerequisite for digital color image reproduction and many computer vision applications. In this paper, a method for estimating illuminant spectrum is investigated using a digital color camera and a color chart under the situation when the spectral reflectance of the chart is known. The method is based on measuring CIEXYZ of the chart using the camera. The first step of the method is to gain camera's color correction matrix and gamma values by taking a photo of the chart under a standard illuminant. The second step is to take a photo of the chart under an estimated illuminant, and the camera's inherent RGB values are converted to the standard sRGB values and further converted to CIEXYZ of the chart. Based on measured CIEXYZ and known spectral reflectance of the chart, the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the illuminant is estimated using the Wiener estimation and smoothing estimation. To evaluate the performance of the method quantitatively, the goodnessfitting coefficient (GFC) was used to measure the spectral match and the CIELAB color difference metric was used to evaluate the color match between color patches under the estimated and actual SPDs. The simulated experiment was carried to estimate CIE standard illuminant D50 and C using X-rite ColorChecker 24-color chart, the actual experiment was carried to estimate daylight and illuminant A using two consumergrade cameras and the chart, and the experiment results verified feasible of the investigated method.

  4. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  5. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  6. Building integrated semi-transparent photovoltaics: energy and daylighting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsis, Konstantinos; Athienitis, Andreas K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and evaluation of semi-transparent photovoltaic technologies integrated into a coolingdominated office building façade by employing the concept of three-section façade. An energy simulation model is developed, using building simulation software, to investigate the effect of semi-transparent photovoltaic transmittance on the energy performance of an office in a typical office building in Montreal. The analysis is performed for five major façade orientations and two façade configurations. Using semi-transparent photovoltaic integrated into the office façade, electricity savings of up to 53.1% can be achieved compared to a typical office equipped with double glazing with Argon filling and a low emissivity coating, and lighting controlled based on occupancy and daylight levels.e.c

  7. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1994-08-02

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing selected intensity output over an angular range. The device includes a light reflecting surface (24, 26) around a light source (22) which is disposed opposite the aperture opening of the light reflecting surface (24, 26). The light source (22) has a characteristic dimension which is small relative to one or more of the distance from the light source (22) to the light reflecting surface (24, 26) or the angle subtended by the light source (22) at the light reflecting surface (24, 26).

  8. ILLUMINATION RESPONSE OF CDZNTE

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, L.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.

    2011-08-02

    CdZnTe (CZT) semiconducting crystals are of interest for use as room temperature X- and {gamma}-ray spectrometers. Several studies have focused on understanding the various electronic properties of these materials, such as the surface and bulk resistivities and the distribution of the electric field within the crystal. Specifically of interest is how these properties are influenced by a variety of factors including structural heterogeneities, such as secondary phases (SPs) and line defects as well as environmental effects. Herein, we report the bulk current, surface current, electric field distribution and performance of a spectrometer-grade CZT crystal exposed to above band-gap energy illumination.

  9. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy. PMID:25768743

  10. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  11. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  12. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  13. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  14. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  15. The saga of sigma: influences of illumination throughout optical generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-04-01

    The optimization of illumination in optical lithography has been central to the progress toward λ/5 resolution now commonplace. The tailoring of source shapes to meet increasing demands of imaging has been commercially practiced for over twenty years. The influence of illumination in microscopy and micrography had been explored for centuries before an adequate description was developed in the late nineteenth century. By the mid-twentieth century, the mathematical foundation for the dependency of resolution on illumination was presented, leading to the parameterization of illumination through a partial coherence factor (σ). The role of partial coherence in microscopy, micrography, and microlithography has been critical to the extension of resolution in each of these fields and has allowed for the application of optical lithography toward sub-50nm resolution. Today, source customization, polarized illumination, and source/mask domain co-optimization have become critical tools used to achieve manufacturable lithography resolution at the edge of physical limits. This paper will provide a historical look into how illumination, partial coherence, and source shaping has influenced optical lithography. Aspects relative to future lithography generations are also explored, including illumination influences with 3D effects especially important for EUV wavelength applications.

  16. Split-illumination electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  17. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  18. Performance of Anidolic Daylighting Systems in tropical climates - Parametric studies for identification of main influencing factors

    SciTech Connect

    Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Wittkopf, Stephen K.

    2010-07-15

    Making daylight more available in buildings is highly desirable, not only for reasons of energy-efficiency, but also for improvement of occupants' health and well-being. Core-daylighting, that is daylight provision in areas situated at considerable distances from facades and windows, is currently one of the main challenges in sustainable building design. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADSs) are one very promising technology in the field of core-daylighting, but commercial solutions that are not only well-performing but also financially competitive are not yet widely available. This article presents results of parametric studies on Anidolic Integrated Ceilings (AICs), a special type of ADS, for identification of main influencing factors. The article describes a reliable method for simulating ADS and AIC performance under given sky conditions. Various simulation results for the example location Singapore are discussed in detail, it is concluded that the main influencing factors are coating material, system dimensions and external obstruction, and those influencing factors' potential impacts are quantified. It is shown that AIC overall efficiencies can reach up to almost 50% in Singapore. The essentially new results presented in this article can be of great help to architects, engineers and scientists in the future, when it comes to precisely dimensioning ADS for various buildings and daylight conditions. (author)

  19. Solar illumination device

    SciTech Connect

    Eijadi, D.; Bennett, D.J.

    1986-06-10

    A solar concentrator is described for illuminating the interior of a building through a side wall thereof. The concentrator consists of: a stationary reflective collector located to view the sky and having discrete planar collector surfaces mounted in abutting relationship, the collector surface installed at an angle with respect to the vertical different from the angle of installation of the abutting collector surfaces; a stationary reflective reflector positioned to receive direct solar energy reflected by the collector and oriented to reflect such energy toward a target within the building, the reflector having a plurality of discrete planar reflector surfaces the reflector surface mounted in abutting relationship, the reflector surface installed at an angle with respect to the vertical different from the angle of installation of the abutting reflector surfaces; a low angle shield means for preventing direct solar rays from entering unreflected into the building between the collector and the reflector and penetrating a horizontal plane above the floor of the building, the horizontal plane spaced from the floor a distance substantially equal to the height of the eye of an occupant standing on the floor of the building, the low angle shield means including an opaque material and being affixed to the reflector; and a shield means for preventing rays reflected by the collector and the reflector from penetrating the horizontal plane, the shield means affixed to the building and extending in a generally horizontal direction.

  20. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  1. Do humans discount the illuminant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2005-03-01

    In constancy experiments, humans report very small changes in appearance with substantial illumination changes. Hermann von Helmholtz introduced the term "discounting the illuminant" to describe 19th century thinking about underlying mechanisms of constancy. It uses an indirect approach. Since observers see objects as constant, observers "must" be able to detect the spatial and spectral changes in illumination and automatically compensate by altering the signals from the quanta catches of retinal receptors. Instead of solving the problem directly by calculating an object"s reflectance from the array of scene radiances, Helmholtz chose to solve the problem of identifying the illumination. Twentieth century experiments by Hubel and Wiesel, Campbell, Land, and Gibson demonstrate the power of mechanisms using spatial comparisons. This paper analyses a series of different experiments looking for unequivocal evidence that either supports "discounting the illuminant" or supports spatial comparisons as the underlying mechanism of constancy.

  2. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  3. Structured illumination temporal compressive microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xin; Pang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a compressive video microscope based on structured illumination with incoherent light source. The source-side illumination coding scheme allows the emission photons being collected by the full aperture of the microscope objective, and thus is suitable for the fluorescence readout mode. A 2-step iterative reconstruction algorithm, termed BWISE, has been developed to address the mismatch between the illumination pattern size and the detector pixel size. Image sequences with a temporal compression ratio of 4:1 were demonstrated. PMID:27231586

  4. Illumination of interior spaces by bended hollow light guides: Application of the theoretical light propagation method

    SciTech Connect

    Darula, Stanislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kittler, Richard; Kundracik, Frantisek

    2010-12-15

    To ensure comfort and healthy conditions in interior spaces the thermal, acoustics and daylight factors of the environment have to be considered in the building design. Due to effective energy performance in buildings the new technology and applications also in daylight engineering are sought such as tubular light guides. These allow the transport of natural light into the building core reducing energy consumption. A lot of installations with various geometrical and optical properties can be applied in real buildings. The simplest set of tubular light guide consists of a transparent cupola, direct tube with high reflected inner surface and a ceiling cover or diffuser redistributing light into the interior. Such vertical tubular guide is often used on flat roofs. When the roof construction is inclined a bend in the light guide system has to be installed. In this case the cupola is set on the sloped roof which collects sunlight and skylight from the seen part of the sky hemisphere as well as that reflected from the ground and opposite facades. In comparison with the vertical tube some additional light losses and distortions of the propagated light have to be expected in bended tubular light guides. Recently the theoretical model of light propagation was already published and its applications are presented in this study solving illuminance distributions on the ceiling cover interface and further illuminance distribution on the working plane in the interior. (author)

  5. Daylight Operable PIV for Use in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Larry; Sheng, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is widely used in laboratory scale studies, however, has considerable difficulties for application in the field. The issue mainly arise due to the presence of background sunlight and undesirable environmental conditions. To overcome the strong ambient light during the double exposure PIV operation, one must reduce substantially the total ambient illuminations to the tracer particle scattering. To achieve the above mentioned objective, we increase the scattering by using a pulsed laser with short pulse width (<7ns) at the same time shortening the image exposure. The laser light is introduced via fiber optic cable where the laser is located in a remote location and delivered to the encapsulated pod to form a thin collimated 50 x 1mm sheet, latter being the thickness. The sheet is then reflected between a series of mirrors to create a light-in-flight. The light sheet is overlapped slightly between the reflections and illuminates the entire field of view in the time of camera exposure (e.g. 1us). The DOPIV system is capable of measuring 2D velocity in a .5 m X .5 m field of view with 0.2 mm spatial resolution and 7.6 mm vector spacing. The bench-top and fields experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the systems in understanding near surface transport phenomenon such as wake in a wind farm, atmospheric/oceanic boundary layer, etc.

  6. Hourly Illumination of Shackleton Crater

    NASA Video Gallery

    Illumination of Shackleton crater, a 21-km-diameter (12.5 mile-diameter) structure situated adjacent to the Moon’s south pole. The resolution is 30 meters (approximately 100 feet) per pixel. Fra...

  7. Laser sources for object illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, G.F.

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  8. Binary complementary white LED illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John K.

    2001-12-01

    For widespread adoption in general-purpose illumination applications, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) must reliably produce a substantial amount of white light at a reasonable cost. While several white LED technologies appear capable of meeting the implicit technical requirements for illumination, their high purchase price (relative to traditional light sources) has heretofore impeded their market advancement. Binary complementary white (BCW) LED illuminators, first introduced commercially in late 1997, appear to offer great potential for addressing the commercial and technical demands of general-purpose illumination applications. Many properties of BCW LED systems derive from AlInGaP LED chips, the source of up to 80% of the luminous flux projected from BCW devices. This configuration yields a number of benefits, relative to other white LED approaches, including high luminous efficacy, low cost per lumen, and high luminous flux per discrete component. This document describes BCW illumination systems in detail, beginning with a review of generic LED attributes, basic illumination requirements and applied photometric and colorimetric techniques.

  9. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements. PMID:22034331

  10. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  11. Specimen illumination apparatus with optical cavity for dark field illumination

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, Daniel; Sudar, Damir; Albertson, Donna

    1999-01-01

    An illumination apparatus with a specimen slide holder, an illumination source, an optical cavity producing multiple reflection of illumination light to a specimen comprising a first and a second reflective surface arranged to achieve multiple reflections of light to a specimen is provided. The apparatus can further include additional reflective surfaces to achieve the optical cavity, a slide for mounting the specimen, a coverslip which is a reflective component of the optical cavity, one or more prisms for directing light within the optical cavity, antifading solutions for improving the viewing properties of the specimen, an array of materials for analysis, fluorescent components, curved reflective surfaces as components of the optical cavity, specimen detection apparatus, optical detection equipment, computers for analysis of optical images, a plane polarizer, fiberoptics, light transmission apertures, microscopic components, lenses for viewing the specimen, and upper and lower mirrors above and below the specimen slide as components of the optical cavity. Methods of using the apparatus are also provided.

  12. Estimation of illuminator scintillation in laser-illuminated imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Lasche, James B.

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that atmospheric turbulence corrupts the phase front of laser beam propagation. The phase distortions manifest themselves as intensity fluctuations when the beam is propagated over some distance. This intensity fluctuation is often referred to as scintillation. Laser illuminated imaging systems are used for a variety of applications including night time imaging and tracking. The illuminator intensity fluctuation is often considered a noise effect on the imagery, however if an estimate of the scintillation can be separated from the images, it would be useful in estimating atmospheric turbulence parameters. In past work we have used a Bayesian estimation approach to separate the illuminator fluctuations from the target images. In this paper we extend that approach to included calculations of the spatial and temporal statistics of the scintillation estimate to extract atmospheric turbulence parameters

  13. Consensus recommendations on the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream for actinic keratoses in Australia.

    PubMed

    See, Jo-Ann; Shumack, Stephen; Murrell, Dedee F; Rubel, Diana M; Fernández-Peñas, Pablo; Salmon, Robert; Hewitt, Daniel; Foley, Peter; Spelman, Lynda

    2016-08-01

    Australia has the highest prevalence of actinic keratoses (AK) worldwide. Because of the risk of transformation of AK to invasive squamous cell carcinomas, consensus guidelines recommend that AK are removed using appropriate therapies to prevent progression to invasive disease. Daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as an efficacious treatment for AK, particularly for patients who require treatment of large areas of chronic actinic damage that can be exposed easily to daylight. Daylight PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream is a simple treatment for AK, almost painless, well tolerated and convenient, requiring minimal time in the clinic. Randomised controlled studies from northern Europe and Australia support the use of daylight PDT as an effective therapy for grade I and II AK on the face and scalp. There is sufficient daylight to conduct daylight PDT in Australia at any time of the year and during most weather conditions. Hence, daylight PDT with MAL can be included as an effective and well-tolerated new treatment option for the treatment of AK in Australia. These consensus recommendations provide guidelines for Australian clinicians on the use of daylight PDT in the treatment of diagnosed AK. PMID:26033230

  14. Laser fusion target illumination system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C E

    1975-06-01

    Laser fusion experiments require the focusing of very intense pulsed laser beams onto very small fuel pellets. All reported experiments to date have used lenses to focus one or more laser beams onto the target. This paper describes a combined refractive/reflective illumination system that provides nearly uniform irradiance with nearly orthogonal incidence over the complete spherical target, with only two laser beams. This illumination system was used in the experiments that produced the first known symmetric target implosions. Furthermore, these experiments produced what we believe were the first thermonuclear neutrons generated by a laser-driven implosion. PMID:20154815

  15. Statistical characterization of real-world illumination.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ron O; Willsky, Alan S; Adelson, Edward H

    2004-09-28

    Although studies of vision and graphics often assume simple illumination models, real-world illumination is highly complex, with reflected light incident on a surface from almost every direction. One can capture the illumination from every direction at one point photographically using a spherical illumination map. This work illustrates, through analysis of photographically acquired, high dynamic range illumination maps, that real-world illumination possesses a high degree of statistical regularity. The marginal and joint wavelet coefficient distributions and harmonic spectra of illumination maps resemble those documented in the natural image statistics literature. However, illumination maps differ from typical photographs in that illumination maps are statistically nonstationary and may contain localized light sources that dominate their power spectra. Our work provides a foundation for statistical models of real-world illumination, thereby facilitating the understanding of human material perception, the design of robust computer vision systems, and the rendering of realistic computer graphics imagery. PMID:15493972

  16. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR. CANAL HAS RISEN TO DAYLIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR. CANAL HAS RISEN TO DAYLIGHT AND THE GROUND FLOOR. CAMERA FACES SOUTH. FRAMING AND SIDING FOR ETR BUILDING HAVE NOT BEEN COMPLETED. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1537. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 5/15/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Change in the Classroom Deportment of Children Following Change From Daylight Saving Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The deportment of each student in a third-grade classroom was rated by the teacher before and after the fall change from daylight savings time, to see if this disruption in circadian rhythms alters behavior. The deportment of boys improved significantly while the deportment of girls was significantly disrupted. (Author/SJL)

  18. 78 FR 70046 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Board) has revised part II of the Federal Reserve Policy on Payment System Risk (PSR policy) to... Risk The Federal Reserve Policy on Payment System Risk, section II.A., under the heading...

  19. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  20. Multiple-illumination photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Quinn M.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    Previously we described the potential for multiple illumination photoacoustic tomography to provide quantitative reconstructions, however this work used only simulated data. We have developed a custom photoacoustic-ultrasound tomography system capable of multiple illuminations and parallel acquisition from a 256 element 5 MHz transducer ring array with 8-cm diameter. The multiple illumination scheme uses a free-space light delivery geometry where a rotational stage scans a pulsed laser beam onto different incident locations around the sample. For each illumination location a photoacoustic image is reconstructed using a modified backprojection algorithm. Images from different source locations have the potential to be combined to form an improved deep-tissue image using our previously developed iterative algorithms. We complement the photoacoustic imaging data with unique ultrasound imaging data. Most previous ultrasound tomography methods have used migration algorithms, iterative ray-based analysis, wave-equation modeling, or frequency-based algorithms that all demand large amounts of data and computational power. We propose a new UST method that offers isotropic resolution, provides scattering contrast, as well as the potential for measuring ultrasound scattering anisotropy and decoupling density and compressibility contributions. The imaging system is driven by a Verasonics scan engine and programmed for both ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging modes. Resolution has been measured to be 150 μm for ultrasound and 200 μm for photoacoustic images. Imaging capabilities are demonstrated on phantoms with custom-tailored ultrasound scattering and optical properties, as well as in murine models.

  1. ColorDazl/Daylight Dazzler and eye protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, James Pierre; Hamadani, Siavosh; Fine, Kevin; Edrich, David A.; Eagan, Justin

    2009-05-01

    The "ColorDazl" is a device designed to be used for testing eye and sensor dazzling, at modest range, in a package that can be carried, and with a projector that could be mounted to a lethal weapon (or if desired, to another type of non-lethal device such as a "stinger"). The Tri-Laser Module (TLM) is a completely self contained subsystem of the device containing functional 3 color (RGV) laser sources. The laser beams are transmitted to the projector by an optical fiber. A 2" or larger diameter projector produces an eye-safe beam throughout its range, yet one of sufficient Irradiance or Illuminance to potentially dazzle sensors, and the unaided eye at ranges between 20' and 200' under night-time or twilight conditions. The TLM is a single pulse laser source, which can be fired every few seconds, with computer controls which keep it eye-safe at the exit aperture, and throughout the range. The output is adjustable with varying power levels and varying pulse duration of the three colors, allowing a flickering output. The system is operated from a LapTop computer which controls the total power, and pulse lengths of each individual laser, so that the total power is below 500 mW, and the energy per pulse for all 3 beams is kept below 30 mJ per pulse. This mode of operation ensures that the device is a Class 3b source as determined by ANSI Z136 classification, and is therefore free from the limitations of Class 4 which include key lock, emission delay, audible warning, etc. With simple refinements to the ColorDazl laser controller software and new projector and receiver combinations currently being considered, a higher power dazzler could be designed in the near future that will be effective and relatively safe under brighter ambient lighting and longer range conditions.

  2. Study on illuminance and visual properties of flammable illumination.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, K; Nagai, Y

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate the physical, economical, physiological and psychological aspects regarding ancient lighting, two series of experiment were performed. At first a darkroom (1.3 x 4.5 m, Ht: 2.7 m) was constructed. In experiment I, illuminance and consumption rate of fuel were measured. The Japanese classic candle, plant oil and animal fat yield 1.12, 0.30-0.62 and 0.05 lux at 1.0 m distance, respectively. The illuminance was reduced to about 50% by and on which was a lighting tool of folkcraft. The burning duration of plant oil was about two weeks to 180 ml when it burned 4 hours per one day. In experiment II, 15 young females were examined regarding the visual properties such as visual acuity, readability of newspaper and discrimination of color under the simulated illumination of candle. The visual acuity was 0.42 under 0.16 lux. It needed more than 1.44 lux to read a newspaper. In the color discrimination test, yellowish green was most difficult, silver or long wave range colors were easy. PMID:9431706

  3. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  4. Structured illumination microscopy for superresolution.

    PubMed

    Allen, John R; Ross, Stephen T; Davidson, Michael W

    2014-03-17

    The ability to image beyond the diffraction limit is the central tenet of the burgeoning field of superresolution fluorescence microscopy, also referred to as optical nanoscopy. The advent of superresolution has revolutionized biological fluorescence microscopy and the field at large. However, much of that excitement has been tempered by prohibitive imaging requirements. Achieving superresolution entails certain sacrifices, namely imaging speed, choice of fluorophore, ease of multicolor and three-dimensional imaging, and generally more complex instrumentation as compared to standard widefield imaging techniques. Several techniques utilizing structured illumination occupy an intriguing middle ground between the ease of use associated with traditional fluorescence microscopies and the unprecedented resolving power of modern superresolution methods, resulting in undeniably robust imaging techniques. Presented here is a review of the conceptual basis of structured illumination and its implementation, including its performance in comparison to other nanoscopies and the most recent developments in the field. PMID:24497374

  5. DARK-FIELD ILLUMINATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1962-07-24

    A means was developed for viewing objects against a dark background from a viewing point close to the light which illuminates the objects and under conditions where the back scattering of light by the objects is minimal. A broad light retro-directing member on the opposite side of the objects from the light returns direct light back towards the source while directing other light away from the viewing point. The viewing point is offset from the light and thus receives only light which is forwardly scattered by an object while returning towards the source. The object is seen, at its true location, against a dark background. The invention is particularly adapted for illuminating and viewing nuclear particle tracks in a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber through a single chamber window. (AEC)

  6. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  7. Repetitively pulsed plasma illumination sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.; Falkos, Paul

    1997-12-01

    The acoustic environment created by turbulence in aircraft flight tests demands that illumination sources for high speed photography of munitions drops be extremely rugged. A repetitive pulsed surface discharge system has been developed to provide wide angle illumination in a bomb bay for photography at 250 - 500 Hertz. The lamp has a simple construction suitable for adverse environments and produces 100 mJ of visible light per pulse. The discharge parameters were selected to minimize the size and complexity of the power supply. The system is also capable of operating at high repetition rates; preliminary tests demonstrated 1000 pulses at 1 kHz, 200 pulses at 1.5 kHz, and 13 pulses at 2 kHz. A simple power supply capable of providing several amperes at 450 V is being completed; it will be used to extend the run times and to explore extensions to higher repetition rate.

  8. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  9. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  10. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  13. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  14. Daylighting with Mirror Light Pipes and with Fluorescent Planar Concentrators. First Results from the Demonstration Project Stuttgart-Hohenheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrow, Armin; Wittwer, Volker

    1987-02-01

    Efficient daylighting systems have recently attracted increasing interest due to their potential for saving a condiderable amount of electrical energy used for lighting purposes. In this paper we discuss the properties of daylighting systems based on either fluorescent planar concentrators (FPC's) and transparent light guiding plates or light pipes coated with a highly reflective silver coated plastic film (3M Silverlux film). First results on daylighting systems in the students' living quarters in Stuttgart-Hohenheim will be presented. This is a demonstration project which is supported by the Commission of the European Communities.

  15. Daylighting with Fluorescent Concentrators and Highly Reflective Silver-Coated Plastic Films: A New Application for New Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrow, Armin; Wittwer, Volker

    1986-09-01

    The interest in efficient daylighting systems has grown recently, due to their potential for saving a considerable amount of electrical energy used for lighting purposes. In this paper we discuss the properties of daylighting systems based on either fluorescent planar concentrators and transparent light guiding plates or light pipes coated with highly reflective silver coated plastic films. Finally we give first results from a demonstration project, daylighting systems in the students' living quarters in Stuttgart-Hohenheim, which is supported by the Commission of the European Communities.

  16. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at “designated... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at “designated... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at “designated... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at “designated... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at “designated... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active...

  1. Daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl-aminolevulinate for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Fai, Dario; Romanello, Eugenio; Brumana, Marta Benedetta; Fai, Carlotta; Vena, Gino Antonio; Cassano, Nicoletta; Piaserico, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a common premalignant condition that requires an effective treatment to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been recently added to the armamentarium available for AC treatment. Daylight PDT (D-PDT) is a novel PDT modality in which the activation of the topical photosensitizer is induced by the exposure to natural daylight instead of artificial light sources without preliminary occlusion. This simplified procedure was found to be more tolerated as compared to conventional PDT. We report our preliminary experience on the use of D-PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate cream in 10 patients with refractory AC of the lower lip. Patients received two consecutive D-PDT sessions with an interval of 7-14 days. At 3 months after therapy, a complete response was observed in seven patients, with sustained results in five patients over an observational period of 6-12 months. Treatment was well tolerated. PMID:26179312

  2. Myopia and daylight in schools: a neglected aspect of public health?

    PubMed

    Hobday, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A century ago, it was widely believed that high levels of daylight in classrooms could prevent myopia, and as such, education departments built schools with large windows to try to stop children becoming short-sighted. This practice continued until the 1960s, from which time myopia was believed to be an inherited condition. In the years that followed, less emphasis was placed on preventing myopia. It has since become more common, reaching epidemic levels in east Asia. Recent research strongly suggests that the amount of light children get as they grow determines whether they will develop short sight; however, evidence that daylight in classrooms prevents myopia is lacking. Given the rapid increase in prevalence among school children worldwide, this should be investigated. PMID:25800796

  3. Flight directions of passerine migrants in daylight and darkness: A radar and direct visual study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthreaux, S. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The application of radar and visual techniques to determine the migratory habits of passerine birds during daylight and darkness is discussed. The effects of wind on the direction of migration are examined. Scatter diagrams of daytime and nocturnal migration track directions correlated with wind direction are presented. It is concluded that migratory birds will fly at altitudes where wind direction and migratory direction are nearly the same. The effects of cloud cover and solar obscuration are considered negligible.

  4. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2013-05-23

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

  5. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market returns and stock market volatility: rebuttal.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2013-02-01

    In a 2011 reply to our 2010 comment in this journal, Berument and Dogen maintained their challenge to the existence of the negative daylight-saving effect in stock returns reported by Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi in 2000. Unfortunately, in their reply, Berument and Dogen ignored all of the points raised in the comment, failing even to cite the Kamstra, et al. comment. Berument and Dogen continued to use inappropriate estimation techniques, over-parameterized models, and low-power tests and perhaps most surprisingly even failed to replicate results they themselves reported in their previous paper, written by Berument, Dogen, and Onar in 2010. The findings reported by Berument and Dogen, as well as by Berument, Dogen, and Onar, are neither well-supported nor well-reasoned. We maintain our original objections to their analysis, highlight new serious empirical and theoretical problems, and emphasize that there remains statistically significant evidence of an economically large negative daylight-saving effect in U.S. stock returns. The issues raised in this rebuttal extend beyond the daylight-saving effect itself, touching on methodological points that arise more generally when deciding how to model financial returns data. PMID:23654029

  6. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than the Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.

  7. Energy and daylighting: A correlation between quality of light and energy consciousness

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, N.

    1997-12-31

    Energy and Daylighting, an advanced topics graduate/professional elective has been established to help the student develop a deeper understanding of Architectural Daylighting, Energy Conserving Design, and Material/Construction/Methods through direct application. After a brief survey of the principles and applications of current and developing attitudes and techniques in energy conservation and natural lighting strategies is conducted (in order to build upon previous courses), an extensive exercise follows which allows the student the opportunity for direct applications. Both computer modeling/analysis and physical modeling (light box simulation with photographic documentation) are employed to focus attention on the interrelationships between natural lighting and passive energy conserving design--all within the context of establishing environmental (interior) quality and (exterior) design direction. As a result, students broaden their understanding of natural light and energy conservation as design tools; the importance of environmental responsibility, both built and natural environments; and using computer analysis as a design tool. This presentation centers around the activities and results obtained from explorations into Energy and Daylighting. Discussion will highlight the course objectives, the methodology involved in the studies, specific requirements and means of evaluation, a slide show of befores and afters (results), and a retrospective look at the course`s value, as well as future directions and implications.

  8. Trapped in the darkness of the night: thermal and energetic constraints of daylight flight in bats

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Christian C.; Lewanzik, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Bats are one of the most successful mammalian groups, even though their foraging activities are restricted to the hours of twilight and night-time. Some studies suggested that bats became nocturnal because of overheating when flying in daylight. This is because—in contrast to feathered wings of birds—dark and naked wing membranes of bats efficiently absorb short-wave solar radiation. We hypothesized that bats face elevated flight costs during daylight flights, since we expected them to alter wing-beat kinematics to reduce heat load by solar radiation. To test this assumption, we measured metabolic rate and body temperature during short flights in the tropical short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata at night and during the day. Core body temperature of flying bats differed by no more than 2°C between night and daytime flights, whereas mass-specific CO2 production rates were higher by 15 per cent during daytime. We conclude that increased flight costs only render diurnal bat flights profitable when the relative energy gain during daytime is high and risk of predation is low. Ancestral bats possibly have evolved dark-skinned wing membranes to reduce nocturnal predation, but a low degree of reflectance of wing membranes made them also prone to overheating and elevated energy costs during daylight flights. In consequence, bats may have become trapped in the darkness of the night once dark-skinned wing membranes had evolved. PMID:21208959

  9. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than themore » Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.« less

  10. Lightness constancy and illumination discounting.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2011-08-01

    effect of articulation. This leads to the conclusion that inexperienced observers are unable to estimate both the brightness and the luminance contrast of the light reflected from real objects lit by real lights. None of our observers perceived illumination edges purely as illumination edges: A partial Gelb effect ("partial illumination discounting") always took place. The lightness inconstancy in our experiment resulted from this partial illumination discounting. We propose an account of our results based on the two-dimensionality of achromatic colour. We argue that large interindividual variations and the effect of articulation are caused by the large ambiguity of luminance ratios in the stimulus displays used in laboratory conditions. PMID:21688072

  11. Applications of TM polarized illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bruce; Zhou, Jianming; Xie, Peng

    2008-03-01

    The use of transverse electric (TE) polarization has dominated illumination schemes as selective polarization is used for high-NA patterning. The benefits of TE polarization are clear - the interference of diffracted beams remains absolute at oblique angles. Transverse magnetic (TM) polarization is usually considered less desirable as imaging modulation from interference at large angle falls off rapidly as the 1/cosθ. Significant potential remains, however, for the use of TM polarization at large angles when its reflection component is utilized. By controlling the resist/substrate interface reflectivity, high modulation for TM polarization can be maintained for angles up to 90° in the resist. This can potentially impact the design of illumination away from most recent TE-only schemes for oblique imaging angles (high NA). We demonstrate several cases of TM illumination combined with tuned substrate reflectivity for 0.93NA, 1.20NA, and 1.35NA and compare results to TE and unpolarized cases. The goal is to achieve a flat response through polarization at large imaging angles. An additional application of TM illumination is its potential use for double patterning. As double patterning and double exposure approaches are sought in order to meet the needs of 32nm device generations and beyond, materials and process engineering challenges become prohibitive. We have devised a method for frequency doubling in a single exposure using an unconventional means of polarization selection and by making use of the reflective component produced at the photoresist/substrate interface. In doing so, patterns can be deposited into a photoresist film with double density. As an example, using a projection system numerical aperture of 1.20, with water as an immersion fluid, and a conventional polyacrylate 193nm photoresist, pattern resolution at 20nm half-pitch are obtainable (which is 0.125lambda/NA). The process to transfer this geometry into a hardmask layer uses conventional materials

  12. High-nitrogen-based pyrotechnics: perchlorate-free red- and green-light illuminants based on 5-aminotetrazole.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Moretti, Jared D

    2013-09-16

    Prototype testing of perchlorate-free hand-held signal illuminants for the US Army's M126 A1 red-star and M195 green-star parachute illuminants are described. Although previous perchlorate-free variants for these items have been developed based on high-nitrogen compounds that are not readily available, the new formulations consist of anhydrous 5-aminotetrazole as the suitable perchlorate replacement. Compared to the perchlorate-containing control, the disclosed illuminants exhibited excellent stabilities toward various ignition stimuli and had excellent pyrotechnic performance. The illuminants are important from both military and civil fireworks perspectives, as the perchlorate-free nature of the illuminants adequately address environmental concerns associated with perchlorate-containing red- and green-light-emitting illuminants. PMID:23950104

  13. Synchrotron-based EUV lithography illuminator simulator

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2004-07-27

    A lithographic illuminator to illuminate a reticle to be imaged with a range of angles is provided. The illumination can be employed to generate a pattern in the pupil of the imaging system, where spatial coordinates in the pupil plane correspond to illumination angles in the reticle plane. In particular, a coherent synchrotron beamline is used along with a potentially decoherentizing holographic optical element (HOE), as an experimental EUV illuminator simulation station. The pupil fill is completely defined by a single HOE, thus the system can be easily modified to model a variety of illuminator fill patterns. The HOE can be designed to generate any desired angular spectrum and such a device can serve as the basis for an illuminator simulator.

  14. Advanced mask aligner lithography: new illumination system.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bich, Andreas; Pernet, Pascal; Weible, Kenneth J; Hornung, Michael; Zoberbier, Ralph; Cullmann, Elmar; Stuerzebecher, Lorenz; Harzendorf, Torsten; Zeitner, Uwe D

    2010-09-27

    A new illumination system for mask aligner lithography is presented. The illumination system uses two subsequent microlens-based Köhler integrators. The second Köhler integrator is located in the Fourier plane of the first. The new illumination system uncouples the illumination light from the light source and provides excellent uniformity of the light irradiance and the angular spectrum. Spatial filtering allows to freely shape the angular spectrum to minimize diffraction effects in contact and proximity lithography. Telecentric illumination and ability to precisely control the illumination light allows to introduce resolution enhancement technologies (RET) like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC) and source-mask optimization (SMO) in mask aligner lithography. PMID:20940992

  15. Atmospheric effects on active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Scot E. J.; Kansky, Jan E.

    2005-08-01

    For some beam-control applications, we can rely on the cooperation of the target when gathering information about the target location and the state of the atmosphere between the target and the beam-control system. The typical example is a cooperative point-source beacon on the target. Light from such a beacon allows the beam-control system to track the target accurately, and, if higher-order adaptive optics is to be employed, to make wave-front measurements and apply appropriate corrections with a deformable mirror. In many applications, including directed-energy weapons, the target is not cooperative. In the absence of a cooperative beacon, we must find other ways to collect the relevant information. This can be accomplished with an active-illumination system. Typically, this means shining one or more lasers at the target and observing the reflected light. In this paper, we qualitatively explore a number of difficulties inherent to active illumination, and suggest some possible mitigation techniques.

  16. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  17. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  18. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  19. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  4. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  7. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  8. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  9. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  12. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  13. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  14. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  16. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  17. Intense broadband illumination for ultrahigh-speed photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.

    2003-07-01

    The MegaSun high intensity illumination system has been developed for ultrahigh-speed imaging applications that previously required argon candles (argon bombs) for adequate illumination. This plasma discharge system has produced excellent color images of explosive tests taken by various Cordin cameras operating up to two million frames per second with small stops (125 ns exposure). Exposure times of 10 ns to 50 ns were easily achieved with a variety of intensified electronic cameras. For tests involving explosives, the non-destructive nature of the lamps facilitates new test arrangements -- for example, the large standoff distances associated with destructive argon candles are no longer necessary. For the wider test community that does not use explosives, this benign, yet intense, light source generates the illumination necessary to use these ultrahigh-speed cameras to acquire superb color images. This paper will briefly review the mechanical, electrical, and optical characteristics of the MegaSun system, and then illustrate its capabilities with a variety of images from live tests.

  18. Free-form illumination optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Hernández, Maikel

    2016-04-01

    In many illumination problems, the beam pattern needed and/or some geometrical constraints lead to very asymmetric design conditions. These asymmetries have been solved in the past by means of arrangements of rotationally symmetric or linear lamps aimed in different directions whose patterns overlap to provide the asymmetric prescriptions or by splitting one single lamp into several sections, each one providing a part of the pattern. The development of new design methods yielding smooth continuous free-form optical surfaces to solve these challenging design problems, combined with the proper CAD modeling tools plus the development of multiple axes diamond turn machines, give birth to a new generation of optics. These are able to offer the performance and other advanced features, such as efficiency, compactness, or aesthetical advantages, and can be manufactured at low cost by injection molding. This paper presents two examples of devices with free-form optical surfaces, a camera flash, and a car headlamp.

  19. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOEpatents

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  20. Automotive headlighting: effect of foreground illumination.

    PubMed

    Olson, P L; Sivak, M

    1983-12-01

    Described are studies of the relationship between the level of foreground illumination provided by automotive headlamps and the driver's eye-fixation pattern and ability to identify objects ahead of the car. Analysis indicates that the driver's eye fixations tended to move further from the car at high levels of foreground illumination. There were no differences in distance of target identification as a function of level of foreground illumination. PMID:6664782

  1. Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.

    1997-12-31

    Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high-speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high-speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High-power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high-resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high-resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.

  2. Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.

    1997-06-01

    Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.

  3. Polarimetric target detection under uneven illumination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bingjing; Liu, Tiegen; Han, Jiahui; Hu, Haofeng

    2015-09-01

    In polarimetric imaging, the uneven illumination could cause the significant spatial intensity fluctuations in the scene, and thus hampers the target detection. In this paper, we propose a method of illumination compensation and contrast optimization for Stokes polarimetric imaging, which allows significantly increasing the performance of target detection under uneven illumination. We show with numerical simulation and real-world experiment that, based on the intensity information contained in the polarization information, the contrast can be effectively enhanced by proper approach, which is of particular importance in practical applications with spatial illumination fluctuations, such as remote sensing. PMID:26368458

  4. Fenestration guideline for energy and daylight efficiency: Evaluation and prediction of performance in office buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Dong-Hwan

    The primary significance of this paper is the development of guidelines that can help in defining fenestration properties and design factors to increase building performances. Since the influence of fenestration on energy consumption is well known and proved, in order to encourage the development of appropriate designs to ensure high performance office buildings, fenestration guidelines have been developed. This research consisted of the following two parts. First, in relation to window design of typical office buildings, the main design parameters were considered for (1) daylight simulation using RADIANCE and (2) energy performance using eQUEST, based on the characteristics of the typical office building. Second, window area and properties such as U-factor, SHGC, and VT were considered, because building performance depends on a good configuration of fenestration factors. The main results of this research provide the necessary criteria with respect to fenestration in order to meet daylight requirements and conserve energy. These fenestration criteria are targeted at architects and designers to facilitate them in the selection of the U-factor, SHGC, VT, and window-to-wall ratio (WWR). Further, the application of the abovementioned method can result in more energy-efficient buildings, which, in turn, can assist in attaining an LEED green building rating system certification. In sum, in this research, guidelines to estimate energy conservation and daylight performance have been presented. Further, the use of the simplified method developed in this study can help in designing green buildings and obtaining more LEED credits. It is hoped that these criteria will enable architects to achieve better fenestration designs and ensure that they consider window properties and local climate types in the design process.

  5. Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard J.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Derkacs, Derek; Peterson, Charles G.

    2002-07-01

    We have demonstrated quantum key distribution (QKD) (Bennett C H and Brassard G 1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) p 175) over a 10 km, 1-airmass atmospheric range during daylight and at night. Secret random bit sequences of the quality required for the cryptographic keys used to initialize secure communications devices were transferred at practical rates with realistic security. By identifying the physical parameters that determine the system's secrecy efficiency, we infer that free-space QKD will be practical over much longer ranges under these and other atmospheric and instrumental conditions.

  6. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  7. On the Use of Integrated Daylighting and Energy Simulations to Drive the Design of a Large Net-Zero Energy Office Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, R.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper illustrates the challenges of integrating rigorous daylight and electric lighting simulation data with whole-building energy models, and defends the need for such integration to achieve aggressive energy savings. Through a case study example, we examine the ways daylighting -- and daylighting simulation -- drove the design of a large net-zero energy project. We give a detailed review of the daylighting and electric lighting design process for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Research Support Facility (RSF), a 220,000 ft2 net-zero energy project the author worked on as a daylighting consultant. A review of the issues involved in simulating and validating the daylighting performance of the RSF will be detailed, including daylighting simulation, electric lighting control response, and integration of Radiance simulation data into the building energy model. Daylighting was a key strategy in reaching the contractual energy use goals for the RSF project; the building's program, layout, orientation and interior/furniture design were all influenced by the daylighting design, and simulation was critical in ensuring these many design components worked together in an integrated fashion, and would perform as required to meet a very aggressive energy performance goal, as expressed in a target energy use intensity.

  8. Secure communication via quantum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Zhang, Zheshen; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2014-10-01

    In the quantum illumination protocol for secure communication, Alice prepares entangled signal and idler beams via spontaneous parametric downconversion. She sends the signal beam to Bob, while retaining the idler. Bob imposes message modulation on the beam he receives from Alice, amplifies it, and sends it back to her. Alice then decodes Bob's information by making a joint quantum measurement on the light she has retained and the light she has received from him. The basic performance analysis for this protocol—which demonstrates its immunity to passive eavesdropping, in which Eve can only listen to Alice and Bob's transmissions—is reviewed, along with the results of its first proof-of-principle experiment. Further analysis is then presented, showing that secure data rates in excess of 1 Gbps may be possible over 20-km-long fiber links with technology that is available or under development. Finally, an initial scheme for thwarting active eavesdropping, in which Eve injects her own light into Bob's terminal, is proposed and analyzed.

  9. Illuminating the life of GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Böhme, Ilka; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of biological systems highly depends on the possibilities that allow scientists to visualize and quantify biomolecules and their related activities in real-time and non-invasively. G-protein coupled receptors represent a family of very dynamic and highly regulated transmembrane proteins that are involved in various important physiological processes. Since their localization is not confined to the cell surface they have been a very attractive "moving target" and the understanding of their intracellular pathways as well as the identified protein-protein-interactions has had implications for therapeutic interventions. Recent and ongoing advances in both the establishment of a variety of labeling methods and the improvement of measuring and analyzing instrumentation, have made fluorescence techniques to an indispensable tool for GPCR imaging. The illumination of their complex life cycle, which includes receptor biosynthesis, membrane targeting, ligand binding, signaling, internalization, recycling and degradation, will provide new insights into the relationship between spatial receptor distribution and function. This review covers the existing technologies to track GPCRs in living cells. Fluorescent ligands, antibodies, auto-fluorescent proteins as well as the evolving technologies for chemical labeling with peptide- and protein-tags are described and their major applications concerning the GPCR life cycle are presented. PMID:19602276

  10. Illuminating dissertation supervision through reflection.

    PubMed

    Snowball, J; Ross, K; Murphy, K

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes a small research study designed to explore the role of the dissertation supervisor and to examine the potential of using reflection as a tool for learning and for enhancing professional educational practice. The authors met to discuss and reflect upon the processes of supervision and the role of the supervisor throughout the period of supervising three dissertation students. Each author maintained individual reflective written accounts of supervisory meetings with students. These accounts and the transcribed tape-recordings of the group meetings provided two sets of data which were analysed using qualitative techniques. From the data analysis the authors were able to identify various phases in dissertation supervision--partnership; setting the learning contract; signposting; ownership of the dissertation; letting go; the rush at the end; maintaining the balance--and also contextual issues of humanness; time; and energy, which were needed to sustain the supervisory processes. The role of the dissertation supervisor was illuminated and the potential of using reflection as a tool for developing professional educational practice was realized. The importance of constructive support while engaged in processes of reflection cannot be underestimated. PMID:7930105

  11. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a* shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b* shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  12. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings. PMID:25247394

  13. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination. 1926.56 Section 1926.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.56 Illumination. (a) General....

  14. Reflectance and Illumination Recovery in the Wild.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Stephen; Nishino, Ko

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of an object in an image encodes invaluable information about that object and the surrounding scene. Inferring object reflectance and scene illumination from an image would help us decode this information: reflectance can reveal important properties about the materials composing an object; the illumination can tell us, for instance, whether the scene is indoors or outdoors. Recovering reflectance and illumination from a single image in the real world, however, is a difficult task. Real scenes illuminate objects from every visible direction and real objects vary greatly in reflectance behavior. In addition, the image formation process introduces ambiguities, like color constancy, that make reversing the process ill-posed. To address this problem, we propose a Bayesian framework for joint reflectance and illumination inference in the real world. We develop a reflectance model and priors that precisely capture the space of real-world object reflectance and a flexible illumination model that can represent real-world illumination with priors that combat the deleterious effects of image formation. We analyze the performance of our approach on a set of synthetic data and demonstrate results on real-world scenes. These contributions enable reliable reflectance and illumination inference in the real world. PMID:26656582

  15. Light-scattering properties of a Venetian blind slat used for daylighting applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Annica M.; Jonsson, Jacob C.

    2010-12-15

    The low cost, simplicity, and aesthetic appearance of external and internal shading devices, make them commonly used for daylighting and glare-control applications. Shading devices, such as Venetian blinds, screens, and roller shades, generally exhibit light scattering and/or light redirecting properties. This requires the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) of the material to be known in order to accurately predict the daylight distribution and energy flow through the fenestration system. Acquiring the complete BSDF is not a straightforward task, and to complete the process it is often required that a model is used to complement the measured data. In this project, a Venetian blind slat with a white top surface and a brushed aluminum bottom surface was optically characterized. A goniophotometer and an integrating sphere spectrophotometer were used to determine the angle resolved and hemispherical reflectance of the sample, respectively. The acquired data were fitted to a scattering model providing one Lambertian and one angle dependent description of the surface properties. These were used in combination with raytracing to obtain the complete BSDFs of the Venetian blind system. (author)

  16. Optoelectronic aid for patients with severely restricted visual fields in daylight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez-Coca, María Dolores; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Vargas-Martín, Fernando

    2011-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the immediate effectiveness of an optoelectronic visual field expander in a sample of subjects with retinitis pigmentosa suffering from a severe peripheral visual field restriction. The aid uses the augmented view concept and provides subjects with visual information from outside their visual field. The tests were carried out in daylight conditions. The optoelectronic aid comprises a FPGA (real-time video processor), a wide-angle mini camera and a transparent see-through head-mounted display. This optoelectronic aid is called SERBA (Sistema Electro-óptico Reconfigurable de Ayuda para Baja Visión). We previously showed that, without compromising residual vision, the SERBA system provides information about objects within an area about three times greater on average than the remaining visual field of the subjects [1]. In this paper we address the effects of the device on mobility under daylight conditions with and without SERBA. The participants were six subjects with retinitis pigmentosa. In this mobility test, better results were obtained when subjects were wearing the SERBA system; specifically, both the number of contacts with low-level obstacles and mobility errors decreased significantly. A longer training period with the device might improve its usefulness.

  17. Susceptible period of socio-emotional development affected by constant exposure to daylight.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Ozawa, Simpei; Tanaka, Ikuko; Honda, Yoshiko; Usui, Setsuo; Kodama, Tohru; Mimura, Koki; Nakamura, Shun; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    As a diurnal experimental primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has recently contributed to numerous kinds of studies of neurobiological psychiatry as an essential pre-clinical model. The marmoset matures sexually within one or two years after birth. Thus, we can observe how the primate learns and develops psycho-cognitive functions through experiences in experimental environment for a much shorter period compared to that of humans. Longer daylight exposure may affect psychological development of children. In our research, we focus on raising marmosets under constant daylight from birth until various ages. In order to quantitatively evaluate the development of higher-ordered psychological functions, we designed a system of socio-behavioral tests and multivariate correlation analysis methods based on principal component analysis. With reference to the call and typical body movement expressed during a particular social context, we statistically inferred the emotional features of the subjects. In the current literature, we review our published results showing increased alert behaviors by constant light, and then, attempted to extend our additional analysis to seek age-dependent susceptibility to constant light. We then present the neurobiological mechanisms with reference to previous research reports. The current review suggests possible existence of a susceptible period earlier than three to five month-old in the environment-induced developmental disorder model, supposedly like attention deficit hyperactive disorders (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). PMID:25305341

  18. Wavelet Algorithms for Illumination Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroder, Peter

    One of the core problems of computer graphics is the computation of the equilibrium distribution of light in a scene. This distribution is given as the solution to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind involving an integral over all surfaces in the scene. In the general case such solutions can only be numerically approximated, and are generally costly to compute, due to the geometric complexity of typical computer graphics scenes. For this computation both Monte Carlo and finite element techniques (or hybrid approaches) are typically used. A simplified version of the illumination problem is known as radiosity, which assumes that all surfaces are diffuse reflectors. For this case hierarchical techniques, first introduced by Hanrahan et al. (32), have recently gained prominence. The hierarchical approaches lead to an asymptotic improvement when only finite precision is required. The resulting algorithms have cost proportional to O(k^2 + n) versus the usual O(n^2) (k is the number of input surfaces, n the number of finite elements into which the input surfaces are meshed). Similarly a hierarchical technique has been introduced for the more general radiance problem (which allows glossy reflectors) by Aupperle et al. (6). In this dissertation we show the equivalence of these hierarchical techniques to the use of a Haar wavelet basis in a general Galerkin framework. By so doing, we come to a deeper understanding of the properties of the numerical approximations used and are able to extend the hierarchical techniques to higher orders. In particular, we show the correspondence of the geometric arguments underlying hierarchical methods to the theory of Calderon-Zygmund operators and their sparse realization in wavelet bases. The resulting wavelet algorithms for radiosity and radiance are analyzed and numerical results achieved with our implementation are reported. We find that the resulting algorithms achieve smaller and smoother errors at equivalent work.

  19. LED illuminant on the ambient light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Anqing; Sandipan, Mishra; Shur, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We develop an approach for combining illuminance and spectral power distribution of the LED and ambient light and apply our technique for developing an LED camera flashlight balancing the illuminance contrast between object and background. Our method uses the closed loop, multiobjective optimization comprising: (1) characterizing the lighting task by illuminance, correlated color temperature (CCT), and statistical color quality indices that include a set of Statistical Color Quality Metrics and the Color Rendition Index (CRI) implemented with indexes of S (saturation) or D (dulling); (2) measuring the illuminance and the spectrum of the ambient light on the target lighting surface, which might depend on all the sources proving illumination and on the reflected light; (3) determining the desired illuminance of the LED source on the target lighting surface; (4) calculating the desired luminous flux of the LED source according to the desired illuminance; (5) constituting the SPD of the LED source; (6) calculating the relative spectra counts of the LED source and the ambient light on the target lighting surface (7) calculating the CCT and statistical color quality indexes of the combined light; (8) repeating the above steps until the resulting SPD is close enough to the expectation. Using the above method, an LED camera flashlight has been designed, which works together with usual fluorescent ambient light and generates working lighting environment with high fidelity and high CCT (6000K). The spectrum and luminous flux of the LED lamp is automatically tunable with a change of the ambient light.

  20. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  1. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  2. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  4. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  5. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  6. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  7. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  8. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  9. Illumination control apparatus for compensating solar light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An illumination control apparatus is presented for supplementing light from solar radiation with light from an artificial light source to compensate for periods of insufficient levels of solar light. The apparatus maintains a desired illumination level within an interior space comprising an artificial light source connected to an electrical power source with a switch means for selectively energizing said light source. An actuator means for controlling the on-off operation of the switch means is connected to a light sensor which responses to the illumination level of the interior space. A limit switch carried adjacent to the actuator limits the movement of the actuator within a predetermined range so as to prevent further movement thereof during detection of erroneous illumination conditions.

  10. Confocal imaging with orthogonally polarized illumination beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Ranjan; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-03-01

    In confocal microscopy the polarization of the illumination beam plays an important role in determining the orientation of the fluorescent molecules being illuminated. The efficiency of the excitation depends on the angle between the excitation electric field and the direction of the molecular dipole. In order to determine the orientation of the fluorescent molecules in the focal plane the molecules are to be excited using two mutually orthogonal electric fields. In this paper we show how a computer generated holography technique can be implemented using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator to conveniently obtain two images of the same target once with an X polarized illumination beam and another with a Y polarized illumination beam.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... work is in progress: Table D-3—Minimum Illumination Intensities in Foot-Candles Foot-candles Area or... underground work areas: (Exception: minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... work is in progress: Table D-3—Minimum Illumination Intensities in Foot-Candles Foot-candles Area or... underground work areas: (Exception: minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... work is in progress: Table D-3—Minimum Illumination Intensities in Foot-Candles Foot-candles Area or... underground work areas: (Exception: minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... work is in progress: Table D-3—Minimum Illumination Intensities in Foot-Candles Foot-candles Area or... underground work areas: (Exception: minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading...

  15. Color constancy by characterization of illumination chromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, Jarno T.

    2011-05-01

    Computational color constancy algorithms play a key role in achieving desired color reproduction in digital cameras. Failure to estimate illumination chromaticity correctly will result in invalid overall colour cast in the image that will be easily detected by human observers. A new algorithm is presented for computational color constancy. Low computational complexity and low memory requirement make the algorithm suitable for resource-limited camera devices, such as consumer digital cameras and camera phones. Operation of the algorithm relies on characterization of the range of possible illumination chromaticities in terms of camera sensor response. The fact that only illumination chromaticity is characterized instead of the full color gamut, for example, increases robustness against variations in sensor characteristics and against failure of diagonal model of illumination change. Multiple databases are used in order to demonstrate the good performance of the algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art color constancy algorithms.

  16. Improved methods for adjusting the UV content of measurement instrument illumination for papermaking industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Optical brightening agents (OBAs) or fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are often used additives in paper and board products as they improve both whiteness and brightness of the products. When printed, OBAs can even contribute to colour tone reproduction. Fluorescent emissions of OBAs depend on the UV content of the illuminant (light source). Adequate adjustment (control or adjustment) of UV content of measurement apparatus (e.g. spectrophotometer) is essential for accurate colour measurement and printing colour reproduction. We proposed a method to adjust the UV content against assigned spectra rather than, as adopted in current ISO standards, against single assigned values. Demonstrations of applying this method to the CIE standard illuminants used in papermaking and graphic industries, D65, C and D50 have been given. Thanks to the well-established traceability of reference standards (IRs), the UV contents of a spectrophotometer corresponding to the standard CIE illuminants have been achieved.

  17. Intense illumination in the morning hours improved mood and alertness but not mental performance.

    PubMed

    Leichtfried, Veronika; Mair-Raggautz, Maria; Schaeffer, Viktoria; Hammerer-Lercher, Angelika; Mair, Gerald; Bartenbach, Christian; Canazei, Markus; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance and alertness are two determinants for work efficiency, varying throughout the day and depending on bright light. We conducted a prospective crossover study evaluating the impacts of exposure to an intense, early morning illumination on sustained attention, alertness, mood, and serum melatonin levels in 33 healthy individuals. Compared with a dim illumination, the intense illumination negatively impacted performance requiring sustained attention; however, it positively impacted subjective alertness and mood and had no impact on serum melatonin levels. These results suggest that brief exposure to bright light in the morning hours can improve subjective measures of mood and alertness, but can also have detrimental effects on mental performance as a result of visual distraction. Therefore, it is important that adequate lighting should correspond to both non-visual and visual demands. PMID:25106786

  18. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram

    2015-11-03

    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  19. Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David T; Barnes, Christopher M; Lim, Vivien K G; Ferris, D Lance

    2012-09-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool that has changed the way people work. However, the ubiquity of the Internet has led to a new workplace threat to productivity-cyberloafing. Building on the ego depletion model of self-regulation, we examine how lost and low-quality sleep influence employee cyberloafing behaviors and how individual differences in conscientiousness moderate these effects. We also demonstrate that the shift to Daylight Saving Time (DST) results in a dramatic increase in cyberloafing behavior at the national level. We first tested the DST-cyberloafing relation through a national quasi-experiment, then directly tested the relation between sleep and cyberloafing in a closely controlled laboratory setting. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory, practice, and future research. PMID:22369272

  20. Full-color see-through daylight-readable goggle-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean

    2011-06-01

    See-through near-to-eye displays offer an opportunity to present visual information laid on top of the view of the real world. The information presented can be used to augment or annotate the scene the user sees. Microvision has developed a see-through, full-color, daylight-readable, monocular display in a goggle form factor. The image source for the display is a Pico Display Engine (PDE) that uses modulated red, green, and blue lasers reflecting off a MEMS based bi-axial scanning mirror to create an image. This image is relayed to the eye through a pupil-expanding substrateguiding optic. The low Lagrange invariant laser-based display engine is an excellent match for the substrate guided optics for presenting the user with an infinite conjugate image. This paper discusses design considerations and performance characteristics of the eyewear display.

  1. The Daylight Bolide of 1996 April 25th , over Mt. Bruce, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, G.; McBeath, A.

    On Thursday, 1996 April 25th (ANZAC Day in New Zealand) a bright daylight bolide with possible -22m end point, was seen from Newtown, Wellington, New Zealand at 02h20m12s. Its end-point altitude was calculated to be app. 15-20km over Mt. Bruce, some 80km NE of Wellington. A smoky train, initially 42deg long, was visible to the naked eye for 28 minutes afterwards. Sonics were heard by the New Zealand author, around 265s after the end point, suggesting a direct-line distance of 88km from the author's location. The impact point was probably several kilometers off Foxton Beach in the Tasman Sea. The bolide passed about 5deg above the first quarter Moon, and two photographs were secured, showing how the train began to drift, ultimately app. 17deg, to the south, before dissipating.

  2. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  3. Re-Analysis Report: Daylighting in Schools, Additional Analysis. Tasks 2.2.1 through 2.2.5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heschong, Lisa; Elzeyadi, Ihab; Knecht, Carey

    This study expands and validates previous research that found a statistical correlation between the amount of daylight in elementary school classrooms and the performance of students on standardized math and reading tests. The researchers reanalyzed the 19971998 school year student performance data from the Capistrano Unified School District…

  4. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-OpenDaylight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Act on July 1, 2013 (78 FR 39326). The last notification was filed with the Department on August 14... 16, 2013 (78 FR 56939). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...Daylight Project, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 13, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of...

  5. Mesospheric temperature soundings with the new, daylight-capable IAP RMR lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerding, Michael; Kopp, Maren; Höffner, Josef; Baumgarten, Kathrin; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2016-08-01

    Temperature measurements by lidar are an important tool for the understanding of the mean state of the atmosphere as well as the propagation of gravity waves and thermal tides. Though, mesospheric lidar soundings are often limited to nighttime conditions (e.g., solar zenith angle > 96°) due to the low signal-to-noise ratio during the day. By this, examination of long-period gravity waves and tides is inhibited, as well as soundings in summer at polar latitudes. We developed a new daylight-capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at our site in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E), that is in routine operation since 2010 for temperature soundings up to 90 km or ˜ 75 km (night or day) and soundings of noctilucent clouds. Here we describe the setup of the system with special emphasis on the daylight suppression methods like spatial and spectral filtering. The small bandwidth of the Fabry-Pérot etalons for spectral filtering of the received signal induces an altitude-dependent transmission of the detector. As a result, the signal is no longer proportional to the air density and the hydrostatic integration of the profile results in systematic temperature errors of up to 4 K. We demonstrate a correction method and the validity of correction by comparison with data obtained by our co-located, nighttime-only RMR lidar where no etalon is installed. As a further example a time series of temperature profiles between 20 and 80 km is presented for day and night of 9-10 March 2014. Together with the other data of March 2014 these profiles are used to calculate tidal amplitudes. It is found that tidal amplitudes vary between ˜ 1 and 5 K depending on altitude.

  6. Adverse Effects of Daylight Saving Time on Adolescents' Sleep and Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Diana; Ebben, Matthew; Milrad, Sara; Atkinson, Brianna; Krieger, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Daylight saving time (DST) has been established with the intent to reduce energy expenditure, however unintentional effects on sleep and vigilance have not been consistently measured. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that DST adversely affects high school students' sleep and vigilance on the school days following its implementation. Methods: A natural experiment design was used to assess baseline and post-DST differences in objective and subjective measures of sleep and vigilance by actigraphy, sleep diary, sleepiness scale, and psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT). Students were tested during school days immediately preceding and following DST. Results: A total of 40 high school students were enrolled in this study; 35 completed the protocol. Sleep duration declined by an average of 32 minutes on the weeknights post-DST, reflecting a cumulative sleep loss of 2 h 42 min as compared to the baseline week (p = 0.001). This finding was confirmed by sleep diary analyses, reflecting an average sleep loss of 27 min/night (p = 0.004) post-DST. Vigilance significantly deteriorated, with a decline in PVT performance post-DST, resulting in longer reaction times (p < 0.001) and increased lapses (p < 0.001). Increased daytime sleepiness was also demonstrated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The early March DST onset adversely affected sleep and vigilance in high school students resulting in increased daytime sleepiness. Larger scale evaluations of sleep impairments related to DST are needed to further quantify this problem in the population. If confirmed, measures to attenuate sleep loss post-DST should be implemented. Citation: Medina D, Ebben M, Milrad S, Atkinson B, Krieger AC. Adverse effects of daylight saving time on adolescents' sleep and vigilance. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):879–884. PMID:25979095

  7. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  8. Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Joong Nam; Shevell, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates color perception in a scene with two different illuminants. The two illuminants, in opposite corners, simultaneously shine on a (simulated) scene with an opaque dividing wall, which controls how much of the scene is illuminated by each source. In the first experiment, the height of the dividing wall was varied. This changed the amount of each illuminant reaching objects on the opposite side of the wall. Results showed that the degree of color constancy decreased when a region on one side of the wall had cues to both illuminants, suggesting that cues from the second illuminant are detrimental to color constancy. In a later experiment, color constancy was found to improve when the specular highlight cues from the second illuminant were altered to be consistent with the first illuminant. This corroborates the influence of specular highlights in surface color perception, and suggests that the reduced color constancy in the first experiment is due to the inconsistent, though physically correct, cues from the two illuminants.

  9. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  10. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  11. Deterministic phase retrieval employing spherical illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carranza, J.; Falaggis, K.; Kozacki, T.

    2015-05-01

    Deterministic Phase Retrieval techniques (DPRTs) employ a series of paraxial beam intensities in order to recover the phase of a complex field. These paraxial intensities are usually generated in systems that employ plane-wave illumination. This type of illumination allows a direct processing of the captured intensities with DPRTs for recovering the phase. Furthermore, it has been shown that intensities for DPRTs can be acquired from systems that use spherical illumination as well. However, this type of illumination presents a major setback for DPRTs: the captured intensities change their size for each position of the detector on the propagation axis. In order to apply the DPRTs, reescalation of the captured intensities has to be applied. This condition can increase the error sensitivity of the final phase result if it is not carried out properly. In this work, we introduce a novel system based on a Phase Light Modulator (PLM) for capturing the intensities when employing spherical illumination. The proposed optical system enables us to capture the diffraction pattern of under, in, and over-focus intensities. The employment of the PLM allows capturing the corresponding intensities without displacing the detector. Moreover, with the proposed optical system we can control accurately the magnification of the captured intensities. Thus, the stack of captured intensities can be used in DPRTs, overcoming the problems related with the resizing of the images. In order to prove our claims, the corresponding numerical experiments will be carried out. These simulations will show that the retrieved phases with spherical illumination are accurate and can be compared with those that employ plane wave illumination. We demonstrate that with the employment of the PLM, the proposed optical system has several advantages as: the optical system is compact, the beam size on the detector plane is controlled accurately, and the errors coming from mechanical motion can be suppressed easily.

  12. Innovative light collimator with afocal lens and total internal reflection lens for daylighting system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Chen, Yin-Ti; Ullah, Irfan; Chou, Chun-Han; Chan, Kai-Cyuan; Lai, Yi-Lung; Lin, Chia-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2015-10-01

    This research presents a novel design of the collimator, which uses total internal reflection (TIR), convex, and concave lenses for the natural light illumination system (NLIS). The concept of the NLIS is to illuminate building interiors with natural light, which saves energy consumption. The TIR lens is used to collimate the light, and convex and concave lenses are used to converge the light to the required area. The results have shown that the efficiency in terms of achieving collimated light using the proposed collimator at the output of the light collector is better than that of a previous system without a collimator. PMID:26479648

  13. Lunar Polar Illumination for Power Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents illumination analyses using the latest Earth-based radar digital elevation model (DEM) of the lunar south pole and an independently developed analytical tool. These results enable the optimum sizing of solar/energy storage lunar surface power systems since they quantify the timing and durations of illuminated and shadowed periods. Filtering and manual editing of the DEM based on comparisons with independent imagery were performed and a reduced resolution version of the DEM was produced to reduce the analysis time. A comparison of the DEM with lunar limb imagery was performed in order to validate the absolute heights over the polar latitude range, the accuracy of which affects the impact of long range, shadow-casting terrain. Average illumination and energy storage duration maps of the south pole region are provided for the worst and best case lunar day using the reduced resolution DEM. Average illumination fractions and energy storage durations are presented for candidate low energy storage duration south pole sites. The best site identified using the reduced resolution DEM required a 62 hr energy storage duration using a fast recharge power system. Solar and horizon terrain elevations as well as illumination fraction profiles are presented for the best identified site and the data for both the reduced resolution and high resolution DEMs compared. High resolution maps for three low energy storage duration areas are presented showing energy storage duration for the worst case lunar day, surface height, and maximum absolute surface slope.

  14. Quantitative phase imaging with programmable illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Edwards, Chris; Goddard, Lynford L.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    Even with the recent rapid advances in the field of microscopy, non-laser light sources used for light microscopy have not been developing significantly. Most current optical microscopy systems use halogen bulbs as their light sources to provide a white-light illumination. Due to the confined shapes and finite filament size of the bulbs, little room is available for modification in the light source, which prevents further advances in microscopy. By contrast, commercial projectors provide a high power output that is comparable to the halogen lamps while allowing for great flexibility in patterning the illumination. In addition to their high brightness, the illumination can be patterned to have arbitrary spatial and spectral distributions. Therefore, commercial projectors can be adopted as a flexible light source to an optical microscope by careful alignment to the existing optical path. In this study, we employed a commercial projector source to a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM), which is an outside module for an existing phase contrast (PC) microscope. By replacing the ring illumination of PC with a ring-shaped pattern projected onto the condenser plane, we were able to recover the same result as the original SLIM. Furthermore, the ring illumination is replaced with multiple dots aligned along the same ring to minimize the overlap between the scattered and unscattered fields. This new method minimizes the halo artifact of the imaging system, which allows for a halo-free high-resolution quantitative phase microscopy system.

  15. Tolerancing free-form optics for illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timinger, A.; Unterhinninghofen, J.; Junginger, S.; Hofmann, A.

    2011-10-01

    Free form surfaces allow elegant solutions in illumination optics. A complex function of the system can be achieved by a single optical element. Free form elements are usually manufactured by reproduction techniques, such as injection moulding of plastic. Manufacturing tolerances are crucial to maintain the required function while at the same time yielding the lowest possible price. We implemented a Monte Carlo tolerancing method for illumination systems. Tolerances include shape deviations of optical elements and assembly tolerances. In the absence of standards for free form tolerances and illumination optics tolerancing, communication between optics design, manufacturing and testing is often inefficient. In order to enable a highly automated evaluation of part measurement data to assess compliance with tolerances, we developed an approach to combine information from optics design, mechanical construction, manufacturing and testing into one continuous data chain. The research project is granted by the German Ministry of Education and Research.

  16. Visible and infrared multispectral illumination concept based on Galilean collimation systems: IACATS illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Restrepo Gómez, René; González Alvarado, Concepción; Laguna Hernández, Hugo; Astolfi Carbonell, Antonio; Moreno Raso, Javier; Argelaguet, Heribert; Serrano, Javier

    2010-07-01

    A LED based illumination system in which five Galilean collimation systems have been used is reported on. It is part of a turbulence simulator for the evaluation of on ground telescopes instrumentation developed by INTA (optics) and LIDAX (opto-mechanics) for the IAC called IACATS. The illumination requirements (some visible and infrared lines) allow the use of five different LEDs (red, green, blue and two infrareds). In order to optimize the illumination level of each wavelength, a Galilean collimating optical configuration was constructed for each wavelength channel. The IACATS instrument simulates a scene consisting of a set of different binary stars simulating the required angular separation between them, ant their spectral characteristics. As a result, a visible and infrared multi-spectral illumination system has been integrated as a part of the turbulence simulator, and the features (opto-mechanical) and illumination characteristics are described in the following lines.

  17. 30 CFR 56.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 56.17001... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 56.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe...

  18. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001... Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe working conditions shall be provided in and on all surface structures, paths, walkways, stairways, switch...

  19. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001... Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe working conditions shall be provided in and on all surface structures, paths, walkways, stairways, switch...

  20. 30 CFR 56.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 56.17001... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 56.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe...

  1. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  2. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  3. Illumination-compensated non-contact imaging photoplethysmography via dual-mode temporally coded illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Non-contact camera-based imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is useful for measuring heart rate in conditions where contact devices are problematic due to issues such as mobility, comfort, and sanitation. Existing iPPG methods analyse the light-tissue interaction of either active or passive (ambient) illumination. Many active iPPG methods assume the incident ambient light is negligible to the active illumination, resulting in high power requirements, while many passive iPPG methods assume near-constant ambient conditions. These assumptions can only be achieved in environments with controlled illumination and thus constrain the use of such devices. To increase the number of possible applications of iPPG devices, we propose a dual-mode active iPPG system that is robust to changes in ambient illumination variations. Our system uses a temporally-coded illumination sequence that is synchronized with the camera to measure both active and ambient illumination interaction for determining heart rate. By subtracting the ambient contribution, the remaining illumination data can be attributed to the controlled illuminant. Our device comprises a camera and an LED illuminant controlled by a microcontroller. The microcontroller drives the temporal code via synchronizing the frame captures and illumination time at the hardware level. By simulating changes in ambient light conditions, experimental results show our device is able to assess heart rate accurately in challenging lighting conditions. By varying the temporal code, we demonstrate the trade-off between camera frame rate and ambient light compensation for optimal blood pulse detection.

  4. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOEpatents

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2012-01-24

    An organic light emitting device an a method of obtaining illumination from such a device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient than an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  5. Structured illumination superresolution imaging of the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Engel, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) with a 3-dimensional illumination pattern allows to double image resolution laterally and axially. For cell biologists, SIM may become an attractive tool for refined colocalization studies and to investigate the assembly of components at higher resolution. In this chapter, we focus on the use of a commercial available SIM setup and provide guidance on sample preparation and image acquisition. We present superresolution images of the cytoskeleton in fixed cells and discuss the potential and limitations for SIM in live imaging. PMID:24974035

  6. Highlight area inpainting guided by illumination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Jiang, Zhiguo; Shi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a two-step algorithm based on the combination of the exemplar-based algorithm and the illumination model to deal with specular images, especially those contain saturated pixels in the highlight areas. First the proposed modified exemplar-based algorithm is employed to process the unsaturated specular pixels under the supervision of illumination model. Then we inpaint the rest regions in which the pixels are saturated with original exemplar-based algorithm to obtain the final result. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better on the images with saturated pixels in the highlight areas compared with classical highlight removal and image inpainting algorithms.

  7. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.

    1985-12-23

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  8. Concentrated and piped sunlight for indoor illumination.

    PubMed

    Fraas, L M; Pyle, W R; Ryason, P R

    1983-02-15

    A concept for indoor illumination of buildings using sunlight is described. For this system, a tracking concentrator on the building roof follows the sun and focuses sunlight into a lightguide. A system of transparent lightguides distributes the sunlight to interior rooms. Recent advances in the transparency of acrylic plastic optical fibers suggest that acrylic lightguides could be successfully used for piping sunlight. The proposed system displaces electricity currently used for indoor lighting. It is argued that using sunlight directly for indoor illumination would be about twenty-five times more cost-effective than using sunlight to generate electricity with solar cells for powering electric lamps for indoor lighting. PMID:18195829

  9. Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jui-Chang; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chen, Hsi-Hsun; Wong, Jau-Min; Matsudaira, Paul; So, Peter T. C.; Barbastathis, George

    2015-01-01

    Optical sectioning techniques offer the ability to acquire three-dimensional information from various organ tissues by discriminating between the desired in-focus and out-of-focus (background) signals. Alternative techniques to confocal, such as active structured illumination, exist for fast optically sectioned images, but they require individual axial planes to be imaged consecutively. In this article, an imaging technique (THIN), by utilizing active Talbot illumination in 3D and multiplexed holographic Bragg filters for depth discrimination, is demonstrated for imaging in vivo 3D biopsy without mechanical or optical axial scanning. PMID:25678936

  10. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  11. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  12. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  13. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  14. The effects on human sleep and circadian rhythms of 17 days of continuous bedrest in the absence of daylight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Billy, B. D.; Kennedy, K. S.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a larger bedrest study involving various life science experiments, a study was conducted on the effects of 17 days of continuous bedrest and elimination of daylight on circadian rectal temperature rhythms, mood, alertness, and sleep (objective and diary) in eight healthy middle-aged men. Sleep was timed from 2300 to 0700 hours throughout. Three 72-hour measurement blocks were compared: ambulatory prebedrest, early bedrest (days 5-7), and late bedrest (days 15-17). Temperature rhythms showed reduced amplitude and later phases resulting from the bedrest conditions. This was associated with longer nocturnal sleep onset latencies and poorer subjectively rated sleep but with no reliable changes in any of the other sleep parameters. Daily changes in posture and/or exposure to daylight appear to be important determinants of a properly entrained circadian system.

  15. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  16. Fused off-axis object illumination direct-to-digital holography with a plurality of illumination sources

    DOEpatents

    Price, Jeffery R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2005-11-08

    Systems and methods are described for rapid acquisition of fused off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording a plurality of off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms, each of the off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes digitally recording, with a first illumination source of an interferometer, a first off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; and digitally recording, with a second illumination source of the interferometer, a second off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis.

  17. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  18. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure. PMID:25546388

  19. Exposure to non-extreme solar UV daylight: spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320-400 nm and UVB, 280-320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure. PMID:25546388

  20. Free-space Quantum Key Distribution over 10 km in Daylight and at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard; Nordholt, Jane; Peterson, Charles

    2002-05-01

    In quantum key distribution (QKD) single-photon transmissions transfer the shared, secret random number sequences, known as cryptographic keys that are used to encrypt and decrypt secret communications. Because the security of QKD is based on principles of quantum physics and information theory an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection. We have performed QKD using the four-state Â"BB84Â" protocol with non-orthogonal photon polarization states across a 10-km line-of-sight path in daylight and at night [1]. We transferred secret, cryptographic quality random numbers at practical rates with security against technologically feasible eavesdropping strategies. By relating the secrecy capacity (secret bits transferred per transmitted bit), which had values up to 10-3, to properties of the atmospheric channel we are able to infer the secrecy capacity of free-space QKD under other atmospheric conditions and over other, longer transmission distances. 1. R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs and C. G. Peterson, Los Alamos report LA-UR-02-449.

  1. Robustness of Circadian Clocks to Daylight Fluctuations: Hints from the Picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri

    PubMed Central

    Thommen, Quentin; Pfeuty, Benjamin; Morant, Pierre-Emmanuel; Corellou, Florence; Bouget, François-Yves; Lefranc, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intringuing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks. PMID:21085637

  2. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, William J.; Snyder, Marvin K.; Harter, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  3. Lit appearance modeling of illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshel, R. John

    2002-09-01

    In illumination systems the look and feel are often more important than objective criterion, such as uniformity and efficiency. The reason for this is two fold: the lit appearance often sells an item and substantial variation in the illumination distribution (up to 50%) over a broad region is not noticeable to an observer. Therefore, subjective criterion, such as the lit appearance, typically plays a crucial role in the development of an illumination system. Additionally, by using computer models to ascertain the lit appearance before manufacture of the system, it allows the designer to modify the system while not demanding investment to produce prototypes. I discuss methods of determining the lit appearance for illumination systems. This modeling includes the inclusion of material and surface properties, such as surface finish, spectral transmission, and internal scattering; the response of the human eye; and the amount of rays that must be traced. By archiving the ray data, animations as a function of position and angle can be developed. Examples are developed to highlight the utility of this technique. These examples include taillights for the automotive industry and a backlit LCD screen for a laptop. Animations of these models demonstrate their luminance.

  4. 29 CFR 1918.92 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions described in the regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard (33 CFR 154.570) exist for specific operations, illumination for cargo transfer operations shall be of a minimum light intensity of five foot-candles (54 lux). Where work tasks require more light to be performed safely, supplemental lighting...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.92 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions described in the regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard (33 CFR 154.570) exist for specific operations, illumination for cargo transfer operations shall be of a minimum light intensity of five foot-candles (54 lux). Where work tasks require more light to be performed safely, supplemental lighting...

  6. Efficient Illumination for Microsecond Tracking Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dulin, David; Barland, Stephane; Hachair, Xavier; Pedaci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to observe microsecond dynamics at the sub-micron scale, opened by recent technological advances in fast camera sensors, will affect many biophysical studies based on particle tracking in optical microscopy. A main limiting factor for further development of fast video microscopy remains the illumination of the sample, which must deliver sufficient light to the camera to allow microsecond exposure times. Here we systematically compare the main illumination systems employed in holographic tracking microscopy, and we show that a superluminescent diode and a modulated laser diode perform the best in terms of image quality and acquisition speed, respectively. In particular, we show that the simple and inexpensive laser illumination enables less than s camera exposure time at high magnification on a large field of view without coherence image artifacts, together with a good hologram quality that allows nm-tracking of microscopic beads to be performed. This comparison of sources can guide in choosing the most efficient illumination system with respect to the specific application. PMID:25251462

  7. 30 CFR 77.207 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination. 77.207 Section 77.207 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 77.207 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illumination. 77.207 Section 77.207 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 77.207 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illumination. 77.207 Section 77.207 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  10. Deconvolution methods for structured illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chakrova, Nadya; Rieger, Bernd; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2016-07-01

    We compare two recently developed multiple-frame deconvolution approaches for the reconstruction of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) data: the pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography algorithm (piFP) and the joint Richardson-Lucy deconvolution (jRL). The quality of the images reconstructed by these methods is compared in terms of the achieved resolution improvement, noise enhancement, and inherent artifacts. Furthermore, we study the issue of object-dependent resolution improvement by considering the modulation transfer functions derived from different types of objects. The performance of the considered methods is tested in experiments and benchmarked with a commercial SIM microscope. We find that the piFP method resolves periodic and isolated structures equally well, whereas the jRL method provides significantly higher resolution for isolated objects compared to periodic ones. Images reconstructed by the piFP and jRL algorithms are comparable to the images reconstructed using the generalized Wiener filter applied in most commercial SIM microscopes. An advantage of the discussed algorithms is that they allow the reconstruction of SIM images acquired under different types of illumination, such as multi-spot or random illumination. PMID:27409703

  11. Gnostic inner illumination and Carl Jung's individuation.

    PubMed

    Pennachio, J

    1992-09-01

    The ancient religious system of Gnosticism argued for the transcendence of the physical world and the divinity of self-knowledge. More recently, a similar argument was made by Carl Jung through his concept of individuation. This paper examines some of the similarities between Gnostic inner illumination and Jung's concept of individuation. PMID:24271053

  12. Selective plane illumination microscopy on a chip.

    PubMed

    Paiè, Petra; Bragheri, Francesca; Bassi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto

    2016-04-26

    Selective plane illumination microscopy can image biological samples at a high spatiotemporal resolution. Complex sample preparation and system alignment normally limit the throughput of the method. Using femtosecond laser micromachining, we created an integrated optofluidic device that allows obtaining continuous flow imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction and high-throughput analysis of large multicellular spheroids at a subcellular resolution. PMID:27030116

  13. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  14. 29 CFR 1926.26 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.26... where work is in progress shall be lighted with either natural or artificial illumination. The...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.92 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions described in the regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard (33 CFR 154.570) exist for specific operations, illumination for cargo transfer operations shall be of a minimum light intensity of five foot-candles (54 lux). Where work tasks require more light to be performed safely, supplemental lighting...

  16. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  17. When the sun never sets: diverse activity rhythms under continuous daylight in free-living arctic-breeding birds

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Silke S.; Valcu, Mihai; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Helm, Barbara; Wikelski, Martin; Kempenaers, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks are centrally involved in the regulation of daily behavioural and physiological processes. These clocks are synchronized to the 24 h day by external cues (Zeitgeber), the most important of which is the light–dark cycle. In polar environments, however, the strength of the Zeitgeber is greatly reduced around the summer and winter solstices (continuous daylight or continuous darkness). How animals time their behaviour under such conditions has rarely been studied in the wild. Using a radio-telemetry-based system, we investigated daily activity rhythms under continuous daylight in Barrow, Alaska, throughout the breeding season in four bird species that differ in mating system and parental behaviour. We found substantial diversity in daily activity rhythms depending on species, sex and breeding stage. Individuals exhibited either robust, entrained 24 h activity cycles, were continuously active (arrhythmic) or showed ‘free-running’ activity cycles. In semipalmated sandpipers, a shorebird with biparental incubation, we show that the free-running rhythm is synchronized between pair mates. The diversity of diel time-keeping under continuous daylight emphasizes the plasticity of the circadian system, and the importance of the social and life-history context. Our results support the idea that circadian behaviour can be adaptively modified to enable species-specific time-keeping under polar conditions. PMID:23782884

  18. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  19. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    PubMed Central

    McCann, John J.; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  20. A Quantitative Measure of Field Illumination.

    PubMed

    Brown, Claire M; Reilly, Andrew; Cole, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a statistically based algorithm to quantify the uniformity of illumination in an optical light microscopy imaging system that outputs a single quality factor (QF) score. The importance of homogeneous field illumination in quantitative light microscopy is well understood and often checked. However, there is currently no standard automatic quantitative measure of the uniformity of the field illumination. Images from 89 different laser-scanning confocal microscopes (LSCMs), which were collected as part of an international study on microscope quality assessment, were used as a "training" set to build the algorithm. To validate the algorithm and verify its robustness, images from 33 additional microscopes, including LSCM and wide-field (WF) microscopes, were used. The statistical paradigm used for developing the quality scoring scale was a regression approach to supervised learning. Three intensity profiles across each image-2 corner-to-corner diagonals and a center horizontal-were used to generate pixel-intensity data. All of the lines passed through the center of the image. The intensity profile data then were converted into a single-field illumination QF score in the range of 0-100, with 0 having extreme variation, and therefore, essentially unusable, and 100 having no deviation, i.e., straight lines with a constant uniform intensity. Empirically, a QF ≥ 83 was determined to be the minimum acceptable value based on manufacturer acceptance tests and reasonably achievable values. This new QF is an invaluable metric to ascertain objectively and easily the uniformity of illumination quality, provide a traceable reference for monitoring field uniformity over time, and make a direct comparison among different microscopes. The QF can also be used as an indicator of system failure and the need for alignment or service of the instrument. PMID:25802488

  1. Illumination optimization in optical projective lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai-bo; Xing, Ting-wen; Du, Meng; Chen, An

    2013-08-01

    As lithography still pushing toward to lower K1 imaging, traditional illumination source shapes may perform marginally in resolving complex layouts, freeform source shapes are expected to achieve better image quality. Illumination optimization as one of inverse lithography techniques attempts to synthesize the input source which leads to the desired output wafer pattern by inverting the forward model from mask to wafer. Usually, inverse lithography problem could be solved by standard numerical methods. Recently, a set of gradient-based numerical methods have been developed to solve the mask optimization problem based on Hopkins' approach. In this study, the same method is also applied to resolve the illumination optimization but based on Abbe imaging formulation for partially coherent illumination. Firstly we state a pixel-based source representation, and analyze the constraint condition for source intensity. Secondly, we propose an objective function which includes three aspects: image fidelity, source smoothness and discretization penalty. Image fidelity is to ensure that the image is as close to the given mask as possible. Source smoothness and discretization penalty are to decrease the source complexity. All of the three items could be described mathematically. Thirdly, we describe the detailed optimization flow, and present the advantages of using Abbe imaging formulation as calculation mode of light intensity. Finally, some simulations were done with initial conventional illumination for 90nm isolated, dense and elbow features separately. As a result, we get irregular dipole source shapes for isolated and dense pattern, and irregular quadrupole for elbow pattern. The results also show that our method could provide great improvements in both image fidelity and source complexity.

  2. A Quantitative Measure of Field Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Claire M.; Reilly, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a statistically based algorithm to quantify the uniformity of illumination in an optical light microscopy imaging system that outputs a single quality factor (QF) score. The importance of homogeneous field illumination in quantitative light microscopy is well understood and often checked. However, there is currently no standard automatic quantitative measure of the uniformity of the field illumination. Images from 89 different laser-scanning confocal microscopes (LSCMs), which were collected as part of an international study on microscope quality assessment, were used as a “training” set to build the algorithm. To validate the algorithm and verify its robustness, images from 33 additional microscopes, including LSCM and wide-field (WF) microscopes, were used. The statistical paradigm used for developing the quality scoring scale was a regression approach to supervised learning. Three intensity profiles across each image—2 corner-to-corner diagonals and a center horizontal—were used to generate pixel-intensity data. All of the lines passed through the center of the image. The intensity profile data then were converted into a single-field illumination QF score in the range of 0–100, with 0 having extreme variation, and therefore, essentially unusable, and 100 having no deviation, i.e., straight lines with a constant uniform intensity. Empirically, a QF ≥ 83 was determined to be the minimum acceptable value based on manufacturer acceptance tests and reasonably achievable values. This new QF is an invaluable metric to ascertain objectively and easily the uniformity of illumination quality, provide a traceable reference for monitoring field uniformity over time, and make a direct comparison among different microscopes. The QF can also be used as an indicator of system failure and the need for alignment or service of the instrument. PMID:25802488

  3. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    PubMed

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  4. Terrane daylight mapping on large dip-slope terrain based on high-resolution DTM and semi-automatic geoprocessing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Lang; Chan, Yu-Chang; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2015-04-01

    "Daylight" in slope engineering means a lineament appearing on the ground surface casued by a internal weak plane of a rock slope. The morphology of the daylight implies the free surface condition of the rock mass upper the weak plane, directly affecting the slope stability and safety. Traditionally, the reconnaissance of daylight employs field investigation and drillings in local dip slope area, but when mapping in large area, it would be subjected to vegetation cover and budget limitation to get a simply result not used for engineering applications. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable mapping program based on high-resolution DTM, and to generate a large-scale daylight map for large dip slope area. The methodology can be divided into two phases: the first is re-mapping terrane boundary lineaments using LiDAR data and 3D GIS mapping technology; the second is automatically mapping daylight tracks by trend surface analysis and python scripts based on above terrane boundary lineaments. This study takes the area of Keelung River north bank, which is mainly cuesta topography, for an example. Recently, in the area, the frequency of dip slope landslide occurrence becomes more higher because of human development. One major reason to cause the daylight appearing on downslope is the slope toe cutting or river incision. Hereby, according to the final results of the daylight map, we can assess where the potential landsides dip slops are, and further differentiate three different risks of dip slope from the daylight's morphology, expecting to provide more detail engineering and geological information for furture engineering site selection and the design and application of disaster prevention.

  5. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  6. A roadmap to global illumination in 3D scenes: solutions for GPU object recognition applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picos, Kenia; Díaz-Ramírez, Victor H.; Tapia, Juan J.

    2014-09-01

    Light interactions with matter is of remarkable complexity. An adequate modeling of global illumination is a vastly studied topic since the beginning of computer graphics, and still is an unsolved problem. The rendering equation for global illumination is based of refraction and reflection of light in interaction with matter within an environment. This physical process possesses a high computational complexity when implemented in a digital computer. The appearance of an object depends on light interactions with the surface of the material, such as emission, scattering, and absorption. Several image-synthesis methods have been used to realistically render the appearance of light incidence on an object. Recent global illumination algorithms employ mathematical models and computational strategies that improve the efficiency of the simulation solution. This work presents a review the state of the art of global illumination algorithms and focuses on the efficiency of the solution in a computational implementation in a graphics processing unit. A reliable system is developed to simulate realistics scenes in the context of real-time object recognition under different lighting conditions. Computer simulations results are presented and discussed in terms of discrimination capability, and robustness to additive noise, when considering several lighting model reflections and multiple light sources.

  7. Fast linear method of illumination classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ted J.; Baqai, Farhan A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple method for estimating the scene illuminant for images obtained by a Digital Still Camera (DSC). The proposed method utilizes basis vectors obtained from known memory color reflectance to identify the memory color objects in the image. Once the memory color pixels are identified, we use the ratios of the red/green and blue/green to determine the most likely illuminant in the image. The critical part of the method is to estimate the smallest set of basis vectors that closely represent the memory color reflectances. Basis vectors obtained from both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) are used. We will show that only two ICA basis vectors are needed to get an acceptable estimate.

  8. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL provide FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  9. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  10. Reflective optics system for uniform spherical illumination.

    PubMed

    Phipps, C R; Bodner, S E; Shearer, J W

    1975-04-01

    A reflective optical system is described that permits nearly uniform illumination of a small sphere with one or two laser beams. The primary application of this device is to studies of laser-driven implosion of small targets. Other applications include the production of plasma by optical breakdown of gases for spectroscopic studies and for optimum light collection in intensity-limited plasma diagnostics. Simple calculations show that the intensity mapping properties of this system are not excessively sensitive to variations in the radial intensity distribution nor to departures from diffraction-limited propagation in the input beams. Optical damage and the illuminated solid angle required at the focus determine the size of the device. PMID:20135009

  11. Insulator Surface Flashover Due to UV Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Javedani, J B; Houck, T L; Lahowe, D A; Vogtlin, G E; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    The surface of an insulator under vacuum and under electrical charge will flashover when illuminated by a critical dose of ultra-violet (UV) radiation - depending on the insulator size and material, insulator cone angle, the applied voltage and insulator shot-history. A testbed comprised of an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm, {approx}16 MW, 30 ns FWHM,), a vacuum chamber, and a negative polarity dc high voltage power supply ({le} -60 kV) were assembled to test 1.0 cm thick angled insulators for surface-flashover. Several candidate insulator materials, e.g. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Rexolite{reg_sign} 1400, Macor{trademark} and Mycalex, of varying cone angles were tested against UV illumination. Commercial energy meters were used to measure the UV fluence of the pulsed laser beam. In-house designed and fabricated capacitive probes (D-dots, >12 GHz bandwidth) were embedded in the anode electrode underneath the insulator to determine the time of UV arrival and time of flashover. Of the tested insulators, the +45 degree Rexolite insulator showed more resistance to UV for surface flashover; at UV fluence level of less than 13 mJ/cm{sup 2}, it was not possible to induce a flashover for up to -60 kV of DC potential across the insulator's surface. The probes also permitted the electrical charge on the insulator before and after flashover to be inferred. Photon to electron conversion efficiency for the surface of Rexolite insulator was determined from charge-balance equation. In order to understand the physical mechanism leading to flashover, we further experimented with the +45 degree Rexolite insulator by masking portions of the UV beam to illuminate only a section of the insulator surface; (1) the half nearest the cathode and subsequently, (2) the half nearest the anode. The critical UV fluence and time to flashover were measured and the results in each case were then compared with the base case of full-beam illumination. It was discovered that the time for the

  12. LED illuminator for a microdisplay projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarill, Simon

    2012-10-01

    An illumination system for a microdisplay projector with a two-step imaging system is described here. In the first step, an imaging condenser creates an image of the LED at the color combiner entrance window. In the second step, we relay the image of the integrator exit window onto the micro-display. The illuminator demonstrates high collection efficiency, small footprint, and efficient mixing of light from RGB LEDs that provides required uniformity. A variety of approaches to collecting light emitted from LEDs of various types are compared, leading to the two-step design. A design example using a 0.55" diagonal DLP-based optical engine is presented with the following characteristics: Footprint: 3.9"x3.3"x2.0" (25.7 cubic inches) Light output: 338 white lumens Efficiency: 4.7 lm/watt

  13. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  14. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  15. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  16. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  17. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  18. Moonbase night power by laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

  19. Pulsed Laser Illumination of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland; Jenkins, Philip; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. The induction FEL and the radio-frequency (RF) FEL both produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work, we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format, producing 50 ps pulses at a frequency of 78 MHz. A variety of Si, GaAs, CaSb and CdInSe2 (CIS) solar cells are tested at average incident powers between 4 mW/sq cm and 425 mW/sq cm. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced by using a pulsed laser source compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. Because the pulse separation is less than or approximately equal to the minority carrier lifetime, the illumination conditions are effectively those of a continuous wave laser. The time dependence of the voltage and current response of the cells are also measured using a sampling oscilloscope equipped with a high frequency voltage probe and current transformer. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments shows that the RF FEL pulse format yields much more efficient photovoltaic conversion of light than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  20. Shape, Illumination, and Reflectance from Shading.

    PubMed

    Barron, Jonathan T; Malik, Jitendra

    2015-08-01

    A fundamental problem in computer vision is that of inferring the intrinsic, 3D structure of the world from flat, 2D images of that world. Traditional methods for recovering scene properties such as shape, reflectance, or illumination rely on multiple observations of the same scene to overconstrain the problem. Recovering these same properties from a single image seems almost impossible in comparison-there are an infinite number of shapes, paint, and lights that exactly reproduce a single image. However, certain explanations are more likely than others: surfaces tend to be smooth, paint tends to be uniform, and illumination tends to be natural. We therefore pose this problem as one of statistical inference, and define an optimization problem that searches for the most likely explanation of a single image. Our technique can be viewed as a superset of several classic computer vision problems (shape-from-shading, intrinsic images, color constancy, illumination estimation, etc) and outperforms all previous solutions to those constituent problems. PMID:26353003

  1. Optical mapping at increased illumination intensities

    PubMed Central

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Martišienė, Irma; Vosyliūtė, Rūta; Navalinskas, Antanas; Treinys, Rimantas; Matiukas, Arvydas; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5  mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ∼30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ∼10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications. PMID:23085908

  2. Two-dimensional structured illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schropp, M; Uhl, R

    2014-10-01

    In widefield fluorescence microscopy, images from all but very flat samples suffer from fluorescence emission from layers above or below the focal plane of the objective lens. Structured illumination microscopy provides an elegant approach to eliminate this unwanted image contribution. To this end a line grid is projected onto the sample and phase images are taken at different positions of the line grid. Using suitable algorithms 'quasi-confocal images' can be derived from a given number of such phase-images. Here, we present an alternative structured illumination microscopy approach, which employs two-dimensional patterns instead of a one-dimensional one. While in one-dimensional structured illumination microscopy the patterns are shifted orthogonally to the pattern orientation, in our two-dimensional approach it is shifted at a single, pattern-dependent angle, yet it already achieves an isotropic power spectral density with this unidirectional shift, which otherwise would require a combination of pattern-shift and -rotation. Moreover, our two-dimensional approach also yields a better signal-to-noise ratio in the evaluated image. PMID:25113075

  3. Chemical instabilities in closed systems with illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Rusheng Li; Ross, J. )

    1991-03-21

    The authors study closed chemical reaction systems with illumination and show theoretically, on an autocatalytic reaction model and a substrate-inhibited enzyme reaction model, that if a photochemical reaction may transform some of the products of the reactions in the mechanism into reactants, the closed system may give rise to chemical instabilities, including multiple stationary states and oscillations, under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. The essential points in the occurrence of these chemical instabilities are the positive feedback provided by the autocatalytic reaction or substrate inhibition and the displacement of the system far from equilibrium by the photochemical reactions. There are functional similarities between the closed, illuminated systems and open systems (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR). Experimental verification of such chemical instabilities in a closed, illuminated system remains to be shown; but the theoretical possibility shown here opens the way to convert radiation energy of the light directly into mechanical energy, in isothermal systems with variable volume and nonisothermal systems at constant volume.

  4. Space-habitat illuminators with nonimaging optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.

    2001-11-01

    The strongest known material, carbon nanotube, has inspired designs of spinning space habitats reaching radii of 1000 km. Known as the Space Ring, a cylinder of such radius, with a 'short' 500 km length, has an 'open sky' geometry that only self-occludes a third of the view of the stars, as they spin around twice per hour. Sunlight is unsuitable for illuminating the Ring interior because it cannot be turned off. Instead, the Ring axis is sideways to the sun, and solar-cell concentrator troughs cover its exterior to provide power for a central illuminator. Because the inside living space is p times the projected cell area, illumination effectiveness is at a premium, even if the electrical efficiency of the cells is 50 percent, and enormous storage capacity accounts for 'night-time' sunlight. Only a quarter of the light output of a central isotropic emitter would fall on the Ring, so that nonimaging optics is called for. Overall luminaire size (and cost) is reduced by increased emitter luminance, but considerations of eye safety oppose this. An ideal CPC of revolution would produce a rectangular 'sun' with 4:1 aspect ratio, fixed overhead in a blue sky, unable to generate rainbows, sunrises, or sunsets.

  5. Optical mapping at increased illumination intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Martišienė, Irma; Jurevičius, Jonas; Vosyliūtė, Rūta; Navalinskas, Antanas; Treinys, Rimantas; Matiukas, Arvydas; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2012-09-01

    Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5 mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ˜30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ˜10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications.

  6. Illumination requirements for orbital SAR - Experience from SIR-B Canadian Shield experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D.; Masuoka, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar illumination requirements for accurate rendition of geological structure in low-relief regions of uniform radar roughness are considered, along with the effect of illumination azimuth biasing. Results of two Shuttle imaging radar Canadian Shield experiments are discussed with emphasis on look azimuth, look direction, and look angle. It is found out that at least two look azimuths, preferably orthogonal, are essential for adequate rendition of regional structure of the area, while four nearly-orthogonal looks are necessary to compensate for slope orientation. This can be accomplished by orbital design with crossing ground tracks or utilizing a squint mode. Attention is given to the acquisition of coverage from look directions 180 deg apart and to multiple look angles desirable for geological applications.

  7. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  8. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  9. S-sequence patterned illumination iterative photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Tyler; Shao, Peng; Zemp, Roger J.

    2014-09-01

    Quantitatively reconstructing optical absorption using photoacoustic imaging is nontrivial. Theoretical hurdles, such as nonuniqueness and numerical instability, can be mitigated by using multiple illuminations. However, even with multiple illuminations, using ANSI-safety-limited fluence for practical imaging may result in poor performance owing to limited signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We demonstrate the use of S-sequence coded patterned illumination to boost SNR while preserving the enhanced stability of multiple-illumination iterative techniques.

  10. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  15. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake. ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section...

  16. Optics, illumination and image sensing for machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on optics, illumination and image sensing for machine vision. Topics included the following; computer vision in industry; mathematical models of human vision for machines; laser light for machine vision illuminations; illumination methods for machine vision; supercomputers and interferometry; and, computers and depth perception.

  17. 10 CFR 429.48 - Illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illuminated exit signs. 429.48 Section 429.48 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.48 Illuminated exit signs. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to illuminated exit...

  18. 10 CFR 429.48 - Illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illuminated exit signs. 429.48 Section 429.48 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.48 Illuminated exit signs. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to illuminated exit...

  19. 10 CFR 429.48 - Illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illuminated exit signs. 429.48 Section 429.48 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.48 Illuminated exit signs. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to illuminated exit...

  20. 10 CFR 431.202 - Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs. 431.202 Section 431.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN... efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency. Face means an illuminated side of an illuminated...

  1. 10 CFR 431.202 - Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs. 431.202 Section 431.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN... efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency. Face means an illuminated side of an illuminated...

  2. 10 CFR 431.202 - Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs. 431.202 Section 431.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN... efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency. Face means an illuminated side of an illuminated...

  3. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  4. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  5. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  6. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  7. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  8. Association of daylight saving time transitions with incidence and in-hospital mortality of myocardial infarction in Finland.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Jussi O T; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Circadian rhythm disturbance increases cardiovascular risk but the effects of daylight saving time (DST) transitions on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are unclear. Methods We studied association of DST transitions in 2001-2009 with incidence and in-hospital mortality of MI admissions nationwide in Finland. Incidence rations (IR) of observed incidences on seven days following DST transition were compared to expected incidences. Results Incidence of MI increased on Wednesday (IR 1.16; CI 1.01-1.34) after spring transition (6298 patients' cohort). After autumn transition (8161 patients' cohort), MI incidence decreased on Monday (IR 0.85; CI 0.74-0.97) but increased on Thursday (IR 1.15; CI 1.02-1.30). The overall incidence of MI during the week after each DST transition did not differ from control weeks. Patient age or gender, type of MI or in-hospital mortality were not associated with transitions. Renal insufficiency was more common among MI patients after spring transition (OR 1.81; CI 1.06-3.09; p < 0.05). Diabetes was less common after spring transition (OR 0.71; CI 0.55-0.91; p = 0.007), but more common after autumn transition (OR 1.21; 1.00-1.46; p < 0.05). Conclusions DST transitions are followed by changes in the temporal pattern but not the overall rate of MI incidence. Comorbidities may modulate the effects DST transitions. KEY MESSAGES Both spring and autumn daylight saving time transitions changed the temporal occurrence pattern but not the overall incidence of myocardial infarction occurrence on the week following the clock shift. The age or gender distribution of patients, ratio of different types of myocardial infarctions or in-hospital mortality were not affected by clock shifts. The effect of daylight saving time transitions on MI incidence may be modified by the presence of diabetes. PMID:26679065

  9. Analysis of daylight performance of solar light pipes influenced by size and shape of sunlight captures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Jin, Rendong; Zhang, Wenming; Liu, Li; Zou, Dachao

    2009-11-01

    Experimental investigations on three different sunlight captures with diameter 150mm, 212mm, 300mm were carried out under different conditions such as sunny conditions, cloudy conditions and overcast conditions and the two different size solar light pipes with diameter 360mm and 160mm under sunny conditions. The illuminance in the middle of the sunlight capture have relationship with its size, but not linear. To improve the efficiency of the solar light pipes, the structure and the performance of the sunlight capture must be enhanced. For example, University of Science and Technology Beijing Gymnasium, Beijing 2008 Olympic events of Judo and Taekwondo, 148 solar light pipes were installed with the diameter 530mm for each light pipe. Two sunlight captures with different shape were installed and tested. From the measuring results of the illuminance on the work plane of the gymnasium, the improvement sunlight captures have better effects with the size of augmenting and the machining of the internal surface at the same time, so that the refraction increased and the efficiency of solar light pipes improved. The better effects of supplementary lighting for the gymnasium have been achieved.

  10. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild−moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex© camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1–3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL

  11. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild-moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex(©) camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1-3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL

  12. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  13. Image Correlation Microscopy for Uniform Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Gaborski, Thomas R.; Sealander, Michael N.; Ehrenberg, Morton; Waugh, Richard E.; McGrath, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Image cross-correlation microscopy (ICM) is a technique that quantifies the motion of fluorescent features in an image by measuring the temporal autocorrelation function decay in a time-lapse image sequence. ICM has traditionally employed laser-scanning microscopes because the technique emerged as an extension of laser-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In this work, we show that image correlation can also be used to measure fluorescence dynamics in uniform illumination or wide-field imaging systems and we call our new approach uniform illumination image correlation microscopy (UI-ICM). Wide-field microscopy is not only a simpler, less expensive imaging modality, but it offers the capability of greater temporal resolution over laser-scanning systems. In traditional laser-scanning ICM, lateral mobility is calculated from the temporal de-correlation of an image, where the characteristic length is the illuminating laser beam width. In wide-field microscopy, the diffusion length is defined by the feature size using the spatial autocorrelation function (SACF). Correlation function decay in time occurs as an object diffuses from its original position. We show that theoretical and simulated comparisons between Gaussian and uniform features indicate the temporal autocorrelation function (TACF) depends strongly on particle size and not particle shape. In this report, we establish the relationships between the SACF feature size, TACF characteristic time and the diffusion coefficient for UI-ICM using analytical, Monte-Carlo and experimental validation with particle tracking algorithms. Additionally, we demonstrate UI-ICM analysis of adhesion molecule domain aggregation and diffusion on the surface of human neutrophils. PMID:20055917

  14. Ultra Deep Wave Equation Imaging and Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander M. Popovici; Sergey Fomel; Paul Sava; Sean Crawley; Yining Li; Cristian Lupascu

    2006-09-30

    In this project we developed and tested a novel technology, designed to enhance seismic resolution and imaging of ultra-deep complex geologic structures by using state-of-the-art wave-equation depth migration and wave-equation velocity model building technology for deeper data penetration and recovery, steeper dip and ultra-deep structure imaging, accurate velocity estimation for imaging and pore pressure prediction and accurate illumination and amplitude processing for extending the AVO prediction window. Ultra-deep wave-equation imaging provides greater resolution and accuracy under complex geologic structures where energy multipathing occurs, than what can be accomplished today with standard imaging technology. The objective of the research effort was to examine the feasibility of imaging ultra-deep structures onshore and offshore, by using (1) wave-equation migration, (2) angle-gathers velocity model building, and (3) wave-equation illumination and amplitude compensation. The effort consisted of answering critical technical questions that determine the feasibility of the proposed methodology, testing the theory on synthetic data, and finally applying the technology for imaging ultra-deep real data. Some of the questions answered by this research addressed: (1) the handling of true amplitudes in the downward continuation and imaging algorithm and the preservation of the amplitude with offset or amplitude with angle information required for AVO studies, (2) the effect of several imaging conditions on amplitudes, (3) non-elastic attenuation and approaches for recovering the amplitude and frequency, (4) the effect of aperture and illumination on imaging steep dips and on discriminating the velocities in the ultra-deep structures. All these effects were incorporated in the final imaging step of a real data set acquired specifically to address ultra-deep imaging issues, with large offsets (12,500 m) and long recording time (20 s).

  15. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOEpatents

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2010-02-16

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient that an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  16. Surface sampling techniques using ultraviolet illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. M.; Aronson, J. R.; Cornish, R. M.; Goodwin, B. E.; Simon, I.

    1984-11-01

    In laboratory and preliminary field tests, a system that uses photography in the presence of a 254 nm UV illumination source has been shown useful for detection of explosives residues on surfaces. Analytes (TNT, 2, 4-DNT, 2, 6-DNT, Tetryl, RDX and DPA) can be detected at 10 to 20 microgram/sq cm on concrete, transite or stainless steel. The method was not successful for wood or brick surfaces or for the analyte PETN. An alternative thermal image radiometric method of detection was unsuccessful.

  17. Thermoelectric Nanowire Arrays Response to Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Tito; Scott, Reum; Johnson, Scott; Brower, Tina; Nikolaeva, Albina; Konopko, Leonid

    Bismuth nanowire arrays configured on devices where they are capped with a transparent indium tin oxide electrode generate electric power when exposed to light. The arrays feature poor optical reflectivity and, possibly, light trapping. We show experimental results that indicate that the arrays respond to illumination owing to the thermoelectric conversion of heat absorbed at the surface. The unique features of the energy pathway are manifested through a strong temporal and photon wavelength dependence of the photoresponse. Energy conversion in thermoelectrics with light trapping surfaces is a path to fast infrared light detection and across-the-spectrum solar energy harvesting.

  18. An infrared illuminator for a healing bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharekar, Madhu A.; Crowley, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Bio-stimulation by a light is called the Light Therapy (LT) and an Infrared Illuminator (IRI) provides the human sleeping in a Healing Bed (HB) continuously a dose of the IR radiation. General specifications for the IRI given below and its data are discussed in the paper. (1) Use of 60" wide by 80" long queen size bed. (2) A LED providing 1.5 mw at 1550 nm is selected. (3) 60 LED are mounted in series and parallel on a chip and this chip is mounted on top of the HB.

  19. Development of flying spot illumination system for stage lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Hisashi; Ishii, Katsunori; Koshiro, Hikari; Baba, Junko; Wakaki, Moriaki

    2014-02-01

    The system to control the area of illumination is important for the luminaires used for stages and TV studios. Presently the methods to change the distance between a lamp and lenses, or to use a zooming projection of the aperture illuminated by the lamp are used to control the area. However, these methods require many optical components or mechanical components. Moreover, the energy of the light source is partially consumed by the absorption of the shutter on adjusting the illumination area. On the other hand, the control of the illuminance over the illuminated area is not possible by the methods. In this study, we developed the lighting system which enables to control both the illuminated area and the illuminance distribution within the area by scanning the beam from a LED array light source. The area of illumination was expanded along one dimension by scanning the LED beam using a rotating polygon mirror. The selection of the illuminated width and the control of the illuminance distribution were achieved by synchronizing the pulse width modulation (PWM) control of the LED with the rotation of the mirror using a time sharing control. As a result, various illuminance distributions can be realized at real time by using software control for the luminaire. The developed system has the merits of compact and high efficiency.

  20. Decoupling illumination from isosurface generation using 4D light transport.

    PubMed

    Banks, David C; Beason, Kevin M

    2009-01-01

    One way to provide global illumination for the scientist who performs an interactive sweep through a 3D scalar dataset is to pre-compute global illumination, resample the radiance onto a 3D grid, then use it as a 3D texture. The basic approach of repeatedly extracting isosurfaces, illuminating them, and then building a 3D illumination grid suffers from the non-uniform sampling that arises from coupling the sampling of radiance with the sampling of isosurfaces. We demonstrate how the illumination step can be decoupled from the isosurface extraction step by illuminating the entire 3D scalar function as a 3-manifold in 4-dimensional space. By reformulating light transport in a higher dimension, one can sample a 3D volume without requiring the radiance samples to aggregate along individual isosurfaces in the pre-computed illumination grid. PMID:19834238

  1. Multi-illuminant estimation with conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Beigpour, Shida; Riess, Christian; van de Weijer, Joost; Angelopoulou, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Most existing color constancy algorithms assume uniform illumination. However, in real-world scenes, this is not often the case. Thus, we propose a novel framework for estimating the colors of multiple illuminants and their spatial distribution in the scene. We formulate this problem as an energy minimization task within a conditional random field over a set of local illuminant estimates. In order to quantitatively evaluate the proposed method, we created a novel data set of two-dominant-illuminant images comprised of laboratory, indoor, and outdoor scenes. Unlike prior work, our database includes accurate pixel-wise ground truth illuminant information. The performance of our method is evaluated on multiple data sets. Experimental results show that our framework clearly outperforms single illuminant estimators as well as a recently proposed multi-illuminant estimation approach. PMID:24144663

  2. Decoupling Illumination from Isosurface Generation Using 4D Light Transport

    PubMed Central

    Banks, David C.; Beason, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    One way to provide global illumination for the scientist who performs an interactive sweep through a 3D scalar dataset is to pre-compute global illumination, resample the radiance onto a 3D grid, then use it as a 3D texture. The basic approach of repeatedly extracting isosurfaces, illuminating them, and then building a 3D illumination grid suffers from the non-uniform sampling that arises from coupling the sampling of radiance with the sampling of isosurfaces. We demonstrate how the illumination step can be decoupled from the isosurface extraction step by illuminating the entire 3D scalar function as a 3-manifold in 4-dimensional space. By reformulating light transport in a higher dimension, one can sample a 3D volume without requiring the radiance samples to aggregate along individual isosurfaces in the pre-computed illumination grid. PMID:19834238

  3. Effects of illuminants and illumination time on lettuce growth, yield and nutritional quality in a controlled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. Z.; Guo, S. S.; Ai, W. D.; Tang, Y. K.

    2014-07-01

    Effects of illuminants and illumination time on the growth of lettuce were researched. Red-blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, 90% red light +10% blue light) and white light fluorescent (WF) lamps were compared as the illuminants for plant cultivation. Under each type of illuminant, lettuce was grown at 4 illumination times: 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h, with the same light intensity of 600 μmolm-2s-1. The leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the two illuminants was comparable but the shape of lettuce was obviously affected by the illuminant. The WF lamps produced more compact plant, while red-blue LED resulted in less but longer leaves. However, the total leaf area was not significantly affected by the illuminant. The red-blue LED produced nearly same aboveground biomass with far less energy consumption relative to WF lamps. The underground biomass was lowered under red-blue LED in comparison with WF lamps. Red-blue LED could improve the nutritional quality of lettuce by increasing the concentration of soluble sugar and vitamin C (VC) and reducing the concentration of nitrate. Under each type of illuminant, longer illumination time resulted in higher Pn, more leaves and larger leaf area. The total chlorophyll concentration increased while the concentration ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased with the extension of illumination time. Illumination time had highly significant positive correlation with biomass. Moreover, when total daily light input was kept the same, longer illumination time increased the biomass significantly as well. In addition, longer illumination time increased the concentration of crude fiber, soluble sugar and VC and reduced the concentration of nitrate. In summary, red-blue LEDs and 24 h illumination time were demonstrated to be more suitable for lettuce cultivation in the controlled environment.

  4. Construction of an instant structured illumination microscope.

    PubMed

    Curd, Alistair; Cleasby, Alexa; Makowska, Katarzyna; York, Andrew; Shroff, Hari; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-10-15

    A challenge in biological imaging is to capture high-resolution images at fast frame rates in live cells. The "instant structured illumination microscope" (iSIM) is a system designed for this purpose. Similarly to standard structured illumination microscopy (SIM), an iSIM provides a twofold improvement over widefield microscopy, in x, y and z, but also allows much faster image acquisition, with real-time display of super-resolution images. The assembly of an iSIM is reasonably complex, involving the combination and alignment of many optical components, including three micro-optics arrays (two lenslet arrays and an array of pinholes, all with a pitch of 222 μm) and a double-sided scanning mirror. In addition, a number of electronic components must be correctly controlled. Construction of the system is therefore not trivial, but is highly desirable, particularly for live-cell imaging. We report, and provide instructions for, the construction of an iSIM, including minor modifications to a previous design in both hardware and software. The final instrument allows us to rapidly acquire fluorescence images at rates faster than 100 fps, with approximately twofold improvement in resolution in both x-y and z; sub-diffractive biological features have an apparent size (full width at half maximum) of 145 nm (lateral) and 320 nm (axial), using a 1.49 NA objective and 488 nm excitation. PMID:26210400

  5. Backlight illumination design using constant extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Light guiding backlights are a good solution to attain ambient or display illuminations. Generally, they are attained using intended macroscopic defects (dots). Their size, shape and density are designed using ray tracing software. Smaller defects have the fascinating feature that they may not be perceived by the eye. Such a light guide will therefore look transparent and undisturbed. However, such microscopic or even nanoscaled defects are well beyond the limitations of geometrical optics and therefore need other approaches for their design. An interesting alternative to surface defects are particles inside the material or a well-defined surface roughness. In contrast to a defect structure, particle densities or surface roughness cannot be changed without difficulty. These may, however, be much more easily manufactured. In this paper, a simple analytical method for the design of such light guides will be presented. This method is compared to the results of commercial software and will be used to design a homogeneous illumination adopting constant particle density inside the material.

  6. Laser scattering by transcranial rat brain illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2012-06-01

    Due to the great number of applications of Low-Level-Laser-Therapy (LLLT) in Central Nervous System (CNS), the study of light penetration through skull and distribution in the brain becomes extremely important. The aim is to analyze the possibility of precise illumination of deep regions of the rat brain, measure the penetration and distribution of red (λ = 660 nm) and Near Infra-Red (NIR) (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light and compare optical properties of brain structures. The head of the animal (Rattus Novergicus) was epilated and divided by a sagittal cut, 2.3 mm away from mid plane. This section of rat's head was illuminated with red and NIR lasers in points above three anatomical structures: hippocampus, cerebellum and frontal cortex. A high resolution camera, perpendicularly positioned, was used to obtain images of the brain structures. Profiles of scattered intensities in the laser direction were obtained from the images. There is a peak in the scattered light profile corresponding to the skin layer. The bone layer gives rise to a valley in the profile indicating low scattering coefficient, or frontal scattering. Another peak in the region related to the brain is an indication of high scattering coefficient (μs) for this tissue. This work corroborates the use of transcranial LLLT in studies with rats which are subjected to models of CNS diseases. The outcomes of this study point to the possibility of transcranial LLLT in humans for a large number of diseases.

  7. Holography of incoherently illuminated 3D scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Rosen, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We review several methods of generating holograms of 3D realistic objects illuminated by incoherent white light. Using these methods, it is possible to obtain holograms with a simple digital camera, operating in regular light conditions. Thus, most disadvantages characterizing conventional holography, namely the need for a powerful, highly coherent laser and meticulous stability of the optical system are avoided. These holograms can be reconstructed optically by illuminating them with a coherent plane wave, or alternatively by using a digital reconstruction technique. In order to generate the proposed hologram, the 3D scene is captured from multiple points of view by a simple digital camera. Then, the acquired projections are digitally processed to yield the final hologram of the 3D scene. Based on this principle, we can generate Fourier, Fresnel, image or other types of holograms. To obtain certain advantages over the regular holograms, we also propose new digital holograms, such as modified Fresnel holograms and protected correlation holograms. Instead of shifting the camera mechanically to acquire a different projection of the 3D scene each time, it is possible to use a microlens array for acquiring the entire projections in a single camera shot. Alternatively, only the extreme projections can be acquired experimentally, while the middle projections are predicted digitally by using the view synthesis algorithm. The prospective goal of these methods is to facilitate the design of a simple, portable digital holographic camera which can be useful for a variety of practical applications.

  8. Construction of an instant structured illumination microscope

    PubMed Central

    Curd, Alistair; Cleasby, Alexa; Makowska, Katarzyna; York, Andrew; Shroff, Hari; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in biological imaging is to capture high-resolution images at fast frame rates in live cells. The “instant structured illumination microscope” (iSIM) is a system designed for this purpose. Similarly to standard structured illumination microscopy (SIM), an iSIM provides a twofold improvement over widefield microscopy, in x, y and z, but also allows much faster image acquisition, with real-time display of super-resolution images. The assembly of an iSIM is reasonably complex, involving the combination and alignment of many optical components, including three micro-optics arrays (two lenslet arrays and an array of pinholes, all with a pitch of 222 μm) and a double-sided scanning mirror. In addition, a number of electronic components must be correctly controlled. Construction of the system is therefore not trivial, but is highly desirable, particularly for live-cell imaging. We report, and provide instructions for, the construction of an iSIM, including minor modifications to a previous design in both hardware and software. The final instrument allows us to rapidly acquire fluorescence images at rates faster than 100 fps, with approximately twofold improvement in resolution in both x–y and z; sub-diffractive biological features have an apparent size (full width at half maximum) of 145 nm (lateral) and 320 nm (axial), using a 1.49 NA objective and 488 nm excitation. PMID:26210400

  9. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In

  10. Illuminating Chaucer through Poetry, Manuscript Illuminations, and a Critical Rap Album

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tom Liam

    2007-01-01

    Drawing connections between Chaucer, Eminem, and social issues, New York City high school teacher Tom Liam Lynch helped students become familiar with "The Canterbury Tales." Students wrote poems of rhymed couplets about today's social and political issues, created illuminated manuscripts, and recorded a rap CD. A book and album were published for…

  11. Effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal foraging of waders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Carlos D.; Miranda, Ana C.; Granadeiro, José P.; Lourenço, Pedro M.; Saraiva, Sara; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2010-03-01

    Large areas of natural and semi-natural habitats are exposed to artificial illumination from adjacent urban areas and roads. Estuarine and coastal wetlands are particularly exposed to such illumination because shorelines often are heavily utilized by man. However, the impact of artificial illumination on the waders that forage in these highly productive habitats is virtually unknown. We evaluated the effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal habitat selection and foraging behaviour of six wader species with different feeding strategies: three visual foragers, two species that alternate visual and tactile strategies (mixed foragers), and one tactile forager. We quantified the number of birds and their foraging behaviour at sites affected and not affected by streetlights, and also before and after illuminating experimental sites. Areas illuminated by streetlights were used more during the night by visual foragers, and to a lesser extent by mixed foragers, than non-illuminated areas. Visual foragers increased their foraging effort in illuminated areas, and mixed foragers changed to more efficient visual foraging strategies. These behavioural shifts improved prey intake rate by an average of 83% in visual and mixed foragers. We have showed that artificial illumination has a positive effect on the nocturnal foraging of waders, but on the other hand may draw them to degraded areas close to urban centres, and potentially raises their exposure to predators. Our findings suggest that artificial illumination is worth investigation as a tool in the management of intertidal habitats for waders.

  12. Optimal color temperature adjustment for mobile devices under varying illuminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of mobile devices, display color reproduction has become extremely important. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimal color temperature for mobile displays under varying illuminants. The effect of the color temperature and the illuminance of ambient lighting on user preferences were observed. For a visual examination, a total of 19 nuanced whites were examined under 20 illuminants. A total of 19 display stimuli with different color temperatures (2,500 K ~ 19,600 K) were presented on an iPad3 (New iPad). The ambient illuminants ranged in color temperature from 2,500 K to 19,800 K and from 0 lx to 3,000 lx in illuminance. Supporting previous studies of color reproduction, there was found to be a positive correlation between the color temperature of illuminants and that of optimal whites. However, the relationship was not linear. Based on assessments by 56 subjects, a regression equation was derived to predict the optimal color temperature adjustment under varying illuminants, as follows: [Display Tcp = 5138.93 log(Illuminant Tcp) - 11956.59, p<.001, R2=0.94]. Moreover, the influence of an illuminant was positively correlated with the illuminance level, confirming the findings of previous studies. It is expected that the findings of this study can be used as the theoretical basis when designing a color strategy for mobile display devices.

  13. Illuminating Asset Value through New Seismic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsberg-Dahl, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ability to reduce risk and uncertainty across the full life cycle of an asset is directly correlated to creating an accurate subsurface image that enhances our understanding of the geology. This presentation focuses on this objective in areas of complex overburden in deepwater. Marine 3D seismic surveys have been acquired in essentially the same way for the past decade. This configuration of towed streamer acquisition, where the boat acquires data in one azimuth has been very effective in imaging areas in fairly benign geologic settings. As the industry has moved into more complicated geologic settings these surveys no longer meet the imaging objectives for risk reduction in exploration through production. In shallow water, we have seen increasing use of ocean bottom cables to meet this challenge. For deepwater, new breakthroughs in technology were required. This will be highlighted through examples of imaging below large salt bodies in the deep water Gulf of Mexico. GoM - Mad Dog: The Mad Dog field is located approximately 140 miles south of the Louisiana coastline in the southern Green Canyon area in water depths between 4100 feet to 6000 feet. The complex salt canopy overlying a large portion of the field results in generally poor seismic data quality. Advanced processing techniques improved the image, but gaps still remained even after several years of effort. We concluded that wide azimuth acquisition was required to illuminate the field in a new way. Results from the Wide Azimuth Towed Streamer (WATS) survey deployed at Mad Dog demonstrated the anticipated improvement in the subsalt image. GoM - Atlantis Field: An alternative approach to wide azimuth acquisition, ocean bottom seismic (OBS) node technology, was developed and tested. In 2001 deepwater practical experience was limited to a few nodes owned by academic institutions and there were no commercial solutions either available or in development. BP embarked on a program of sea trials designed to both

  14. Dispersive cylindrical cloaks under nonmonochromatic illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Kallos, Efthymios; Hao, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Transformation-based cylindrical cloaks and concentrators are illuminated with nonmonochromatic waves and unusual effects are observed with interesting potential applications. The transient responses of the devices are studied numerically with the finite-difference time-domain method and the results are verified with analytical formulas. We compute the effective bandwidth of several cloaking schemes as well as the effect of losses on the performance of the structures. We also find that narrowband behavior, frequency shift effects, time delays, and spatial disturbances of the incoming waves are dominant due to the inherently dispersive nature of the devices. These effects are important and should be taken into account when designing metamaterial-based devices.

  15. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  16. Nonlinearity calibrating algorithm for structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Shuaijun; Lau, Daniel L.; Barner, Kenneth E.; Kiamilev, Fouad

    2014-05-01

    In structured light illumination (SLI), the nonlinear distortion of the optical devices dramatically ruins accuracy of three-dimensional reconstruction when using only a small number of projected patterns. We propose a universal algorithm to calibrate these device nonlinearities to accurately precompensate the patterns. Thus, no postprocessing is needed to correct for the distortions while the number of patterns can be reduced down to as few as possible. Theoretically, the proposed method can be applied to any SLI pattern strategy. Using a three-pattern SLI method, our experimental results will show a 25× to 60× reduction in surface variance for a flat target, depending upon any surface smoothing that might be applied to remove Gaussian noise.

  17. Achromatic illumination system for small targets

    DOEpatents

    Sigler, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    A pair of light beams is directed to provide illumination that is substantially uniform from all directions on a small target by a system comprising a pair of corrector windows, a pair of planar reflecting surfaces, a pair of paraboloidal mirrors and a reflecting mirror cavity. The components are arranged so that each of the beams passes through a corrector and is reflected from the planar surface to the paraboloidal mirror, from which it is focused through a hole in the planar surface to the interior of the cavity. The surface of the interior portion of the cavity is shaped to reflect the focused beam three times before the focused reflected beam strikes the target.

  18. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  19. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    PubMed Central

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate). By using HPLC, 25(OH) vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3<25 nmol/l (<10 ng/ml); insufficient, D3 25–49.9 nmol/l (10–20 ng/ml); and adequate, D3≥50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Mean (median) level of vitamin D3 was 65.2 (63.6) nmol/l in men and 71.0 (67.7) nmol/l in women. Adequate levels were found in 79.2%, more often in women (82.7%) than in men (75.6%). Only 0.7% of the population were vitamin D3–deficient but 23.1% of men and 17.1% of women had insufficient levels. Levels of vitamin D3 increased with age and insufficient status was most common among those aged 25–34 years, 41.0% in men and 22.3% in women. If subjects using vitamin D-supplementation are excluded, the population level of D3 is 1–2 nmol/l lower than in the general population across sex- and age groups. There were no differences between the northern or the southern parts, between urban or rural living or according to educational attainment. Those subjects born outside of Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men. PMID:25976742

  20. Scene Illumination as an Indicator of Image Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli

    The goal of blind image forensics is to distinguish original and manipulated images. We propose illumination color as a new indicator for the assessment of image authenticity. Many images exhibit a combination of multiple illuminants (flash photography, mixture of indoor and outdoor lighting, etc.). In the proposed method, the user selects illuminated areas for further investigation. The illuminant colors are locally estimated, effectively decomposing the scene in a map of differently illuminated regions. Inconsistencies in such a map suggest possible image tampering. Our method is physics-based, which implies that the outcome of the estimation can be further constrained if additional knowledge on the scene is available. Experiments show that these illumination maps provide a useful and very general forensics tool for the analysis of color images.

  1. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  2. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  6. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  12. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  13. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. Considerations on Daylight Operation of 1.6-VERSUS 3.7-µm Channel on NOAA and Metop Satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cattani, Elsa; Melani, Samantha; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2004-06-01

    The transition from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)/2 to AVHRR/3 on NOAA polar orbiters was associated with a switching from daylight operations of the 3.7- to 1.6-µm wave band, while retaining 3.7 µm for nighttime operations. Investigations of the daylight applicability of the two channels suggest that the 1.6-µm wave band for daylight operations does not prove to be the better choice, at least for cloud applications. The 3.7-µm wave band is much less affected by surface contamination, and measures more faithfully and unambiguously the particle effective radius near cloud tops. The 1.6-µm radiation penetrates deeper into the cloud, supplying an integrated signal throughout the inner portions of the cloud, including surface contribution. Therefore, a synergetic use of the two wave bands can provide an improved retrieval of cloud microstructure and precipitation than from any of the channels alone. However, when one channel must be selected for the AVHRR/3, 3.7 µm performs much better for these applications. Both wave bands identify equally well microphysical features in the anvils of severe storms. For other applications, such as detection of ice and snow over vegetated surfaces and desert dust aerosols, the 1.6-µm wave band does not present clear advantages with respect to 3.7 µm, except that it can be used directly as is, whereas the 3.7-µm wave band has to be corrected for the thermal emission and water vapor absorption. Anyway, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can be used instead for the applications to the relatively slowly changing surface properties, while prioritizing the AVHRR for the faster varying atmospheric applications. Finally, the 3.7-mm wave band is more effective in detecting fog, fires, and hot spots. All these factors need to be considered by the operators of AVHRR/3 making a justifiable choice of the channels for the maximum benefit of the user community.

  18. Space power by ground-based laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Reducing energy storage requirements of space power systems by illuminating the photovoltaic arrays with a remotely located laser system is addressed. It is proposed that large lasers be located on cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations and that large lenses or mirrors with adaptive optical correction be used to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. During the eclipse periods or lunar night, the lasers illuminate the solar arrays to a level sufficient to provide operating power. Two applications are discussed: illumination of geosynchronous orbit satellites and illumination of a moonbase power system. Issues for photovoltaic receivers for such a system are discussed.

  19. Optimal illumination for visual enhancement based on color entropy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junfei; Chang, Shengqian; Wang, Huihui; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2016-08-22

    Object visualization is influenced by the spectral distribution of an illuminant impinging upon it. In this paper, we proposed a color entropy evaluation method to provide the optimal illumination that best helps surgeons distinguish tissue features. The target-specific optimal illumination was obtained by maximizing the color entropy value of our sample tissue, whose spectral reflectance was measured using multispectral imaging. Sample images captured under optimal light were compared with that under commercial white light emitting diodes (3000K, 4000K and 5500K). Results showed images under the optimized illuminant had better visual performance such as more subtle details exhibited. PMID:27557255

  20. Effect of lens aberration on oblique-illumination stepper system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pei-yang; Qian, Qi-De; Langston, Joseph C.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, detailed simulation and some experimental studies on stepper lens aberration effect in the case of oblique illumination source are presented. The results are compared to that of conventional illumination source. Due to the unique feature of oblique illumination source imaging, i.e., imaging by using only zero and first diffraction order light, both stepper resolution limit and depth of focus (DOF) are extended. As a result, the effect of lens aberration in resist printing are also different from that of conventional illumination source. Unlike the conventional illumination source, the net effect of stepper lens aberration in resist printing depends not only on both the amount and type of the lens aberration, but also on the mask feature pattern. In the case of lens distortion, unlike the other types of lens aberration, the oblique illumination source does not show any improvement as compared to that of conventional illumination source. It does not show pattern dependent distortion either. In the experiment, an effect of a stepper lens aberration in resist printing for both conventional illumination and quadrapole illumination sources (mostly astigmatism) were measured. The results were in agreement with our simulation results.

  1. Illuminance and luminance distributions of a prototype ambient illumination system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullican, R. C.; Hayes, B. C.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of research conducted in the late 1970's indicate that perceptual qualities of an enclosure can be influenced by the distribution of illumination within the enclosure. Subjective impressions such as spaciousness, perceptual clarity, and relaxation or tenseness, among others, appear to be related to different combinations of surface luminance. A prototype indirect ambient illumination system was developed which will allow crew members to alter surface luminance distributions within an enclosed module, thus modifying perceptual cues to match crew preferences. A traditional lensed direct lighting system was compared to the prototype utilizing the full-scale mockup of Space Station Freedom developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. The direct lensed system was installed in the habitation module with the indirect prototype deployed in the U.S. laboratory module. Analysis centered on the illuminance and luminance distributions resultant from these systems and the implications of various luminaire spacing options. All test configurations were evaluated for compliance with NASA Standard 3000, Man-System Integration Standards.

  2. Daylight Imaging of SSA Targets Through Distributed Volume Non-Kolmogorov and Anisotropic Deep Turbulence at Low Elevation Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, J.

    2014-09-01

    Monte-Carlo simulations featuring Kolmogorov phase screens have long been used in understanding both the effects of atmospheric turbulence on imaging and the performance of turbulence mitigation methods. We have developed a new, high-fidelity, non-Kolmogorov phase screen model that allows the orientation of anisotropy to vary arbitrarily. Our model is used to generate simulated video sequences featuring a common satellite imaging target in low-elevation, daylight imaging scenarios, where these effects are thought to be common. These sequences demonstrate the effects of anisotropic, non-Kolmogorov turbulence, which can be unintuitive. We also briefly examine how these non-traditional features affect the performance of certain post-processing techniques, such as speckle imaging.

  3. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The

  4. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  5. Beyond perspective dual photography with illumination masks.

    PubMed

    Koppal, Sanjeev J; Narasimhan, Srinivasa G

    2015-07-01

    Scene appearance from the point of view of a light source is called a reciprocal or dual view. Since there exists a large diversity in illumination, these virtual views may be nonperspective and multiviewpoint in nature. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of occluding masks to recover these dual views, which we term shadow cameras. We first show how to render a single reciprocal scene view by swapping the camera and light source positions. We then extend this technique for multiple views by both building a virtual shadow camera array and by exploiting area sources. We also capture nonperspective views such as orthographic, cross-slit and a pushbroom variant, while introducing novel applications such as converting between camera projections and removing refractive and catadioptric distortions. Finally, since a shadow camera is artificial, we can manipulate any of its intrinsic parameters, such as camera skew, to create perspective distortions. We demonstrate a variety of indoor and outdoor results and show a rendering application for capturing the light-field of a light-source. PMID:25794389

  6. A novel solid state general illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, David B.

    A novel solid state illumination source has been developed. A two terminal dual LED has been created with the ability to control the relative intensities of the two emission peaks by varying drive current. Doping profiles have been used to extend the dynamic range of the dual LED over other reported devices. Operation of the dual LEDs is explained as a function of drive current. In addition, novel use of phosphor mixtures allows the creation of a broadband spectral power distribution that can be varied using a dual LED as an excitation source. Combinations of phosphors that have varied excitation spectra provide the ability to selectively excite different phosphors with the different LED emission peaks. First and second generations of the two terminal dual LED and the phosphor combination are discussed. The final source has the ability to mimic the light of a blackbody radiator over a range of 3200 K - 5300 K. The development of a three terminal dual LED as a pump source was prohibited by the need for a III-nitride tunnel junction, that proved unattainable in the scope of this work. However, several novel doping schemes were investigated toward this end. Finally, a circadian light source has also been developed that can affect physiological changes in humans, and a light box for entrainment of circadian rhythms in rats has been built.

  7. Tachistoscopic illumination and masking of real scenes

    PubMed Central

    Chichka, David; Philbeck, John W.; Gajewski, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Tachistoscopic presentation of scenes has been valuable for studying the emerging properties of visual scene representations. The spatial aspects of this work have generally been focused on the conceptual locations (e.g., next to the refrigerator) and the directional locations of objects in 2D arrays and/or images. Less is known about how the perceived egocentric distance of objects develops. Here we describe a novel system for presenting brief glimpses of a real-world environment, followed by a mask. The system includes projectors with mechanical shutters for projecting the fixation and masking images, a set of LED floodlights for illuminating the environment, and computer-controlled electronics to set the timing and initiate the process. Because a real environment is used, most visual distance and depth cues may be manipulated using traditional methods. The system is inexpensive, robust, and its components are readily available in the marketplace. This paper describes the system and the timing characteristics of each component. Verification of the ability to control exposure to time scales as low as a few milliseconds is demonstrated. PMID:24519496

  8. A novel phase shifting structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veena; Dubey, Vishesh; Ahmad, Azeem; Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a new and novel phase shifting technique for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement in microscopy. We have developed a phase shifting device which is robust, inexpensive and involves no mechanical movement. In this method, phase shifting is implemented using LED array, beam splitters and defocused projection of Ronchi grating. The light from the LEDs are made incident on the beam splitters at spatially different locations. Due to variation in the geometrical distances of LEDs from the Ronchi grating and by sequentially illuminating the grating by switching on one LED at a time the phase shifted grating patterns are generated. The phase shifted structured patterns are projected onto the sample using microscopic objective lens. The phase shifted deformed patterns are recorded by a CCD camera. The initial alignment of the setup involves a simple procedure for the calibration for equal fringe width and intensity such that the phase shifted fringes are at equal phase difference. Three frame phase shifting algorithm is employed for the reconstruction of the phase map. The method described here is fully automated so that the phase shifted images are recorded just by switching of LEDs and has been used for the shape measurement of microscopic industrial objects. The analysis of the phase shifted images provides qualitative as well as quantitative information about the sample. Thus, the method is simple, robust and low cost compared to PZT devices commonly employed for phase shifting.

  9. Illumination-invariant hand gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Morales, América I.; Miramontes-Jaramillo, Daniel; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, human-computer interaction (HCI) has received a lot of interest in industry and science because it provides new ways to interact with modern devices through voice, body, and facial/hand gestures. The application range of the HCI is from easy control of home appliances to entertainment. Hand gesture recognition is a particularly interesting problem because the shape and movement of hands usually are complex and flexible to be able to codify many different signs. In this work we propose a three step algorithm: first, detection of hands in the current frame is carried out; second, hand tracking across the video sequence is performed; finally, robust recognition of gestures across subsequent frames is made. Recognition rate highly depends on non-uniform illumination of the scene and occlusion of hands. In order to overcome these issues we use two Microsoft Kinect devices utilizing combined information from RGB and infrared sensors. The algorithm performance is tested in terms of recognition rate and processing time.

  10. Efficient White SSL Component for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Evans

    2011-01-31

    Cree has developed a new, high-efficiency, low-cost, light emitting diode (LED) module that should be capable of replacing standard, halogen, fluorescent and metal halide lamps based on the total cost of ownership. White LEDs are produced by combining one or more saturated color LEDs with a phosphor or other light down-converting media to achieve white broad-band illumination. This two year project addressed LED chip, package and phosphor efficiency improvements to establish a technology platform suitable for low-cost, high-efficiency commercial luminaires. New phosphor materials with improved quantum efficiency at 'real-life' operating conditions were developed along with new package technology to improve the efficiency of warm white LED modules compared to the baseline technology. Specifically, Cree has successfully demonstrated warm white LED modules providing 540 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3000 K. The LED module had an efficacy of 102.8 lumens per watt (LPW) using 1 mm2 chips biased at 350 mA - a 27% improvement over the technology at project start (81 LPW at 3000K). The white modules also delivered an efficacy of 88 LPW at elevated junction temperatures of 125 C. In addition, a proof-of-concept 4-inch downlight luminaire produced a flux of 1183 lumens at a CCT of 2827 K and a color rendering index (CRI) of 80 using this project's phosphor developments.

  11. Lightness of an object under two illumination levels.

    PubMed

    Zdravković, Suncica; Economou, Elias; Gilchrist, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Anchoring theory (Gilchrist et al, 1999 Psychological Review 106 795-834) predicts a wide range of lightness errors, including failures of constancy in multi-illumination scenes and a long list of well-known lightness illusions seen under homogeneous illumination. Lightness values are computed both locally and globally and then averaged together. Local values are computed within a given region of homogeneous illumination. Thus, for an object that extends through two different illumination levels, anchoring theory produces two values, one for the patch in brighter illumination and one for the patch in dimmer illumination. Observers can give matches for these patches separately, but they can also give a single match for the whole object. Anchoring theory in its current form is unable to predict these object matches. We report eight experiments in which we studied the relationship between patch matches and object matches. The results show that the object match represents a compromise between the match for the patch in the field of highest illumination and the patch in the largest field of illumination. These two principles are parallel to the rules found for anchoring lightness: highest luminance rule and area rule. PMID:17120840

  12. Fraunhofer Diffraction Patterns from Apertures Illuminated with Nonparallel Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsporn, Paul E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several aspects of Fraunhofer diffraction patterns from apertures illuminated by diverging light. Develops a generalization to apertures of arbitrary shape which shows that the sizes of the pattern are related by a simple scale factor. Uses the Abbe theory of image formation by diffraction to discuss the intensity of illumination of the…

  13. 30 CFR 75.1719-1 - Illumination in working places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination in working places. 75.1719-1 Section 75.1719-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1719-1 Illumination in working places. (a) Each operator of...

  14. Number of phase levels of a talbot array illuminator.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Wang, H; Zhao, S; Xi, P; Liu, L

    2001-02-10

    The number of phase levels of a Talbot array illuminator is an important factor in the estimation of practical fabrication complexity and cost. We show that the number (L) of phase levels of a Talbot array illuminator has a simple relationship to the prime number. When there is an alternative pi-phase modulation in the output array, the relations are similar. PMID:18357036

  15. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  16. New multicolor illumination system for automatic optical inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guangjie; Ma, Shuyuan; Nie, Xuejun; Tang, Xiaohua

    2010-10-01

    In automatic optical inspection (AOI), the illumination system affects the quality of input images and the result of image processing in the AOI. This paper developed a new multi-color illumination system specially used in the printed circuit board (PCB) inspection to detect a variety of defects in automated optical inspection system. The new illumination system consists of four kinds of colors of light emitting diode (LED) arrays composed of high-density LED surface light source. In order to detect a variety of defects, the radiation angle of the each LED array is different. The system uses a micro-controller to control the four sets of LED arrays, after acquisition of the image, which can self-adjust the light intensity of the illumination system based on the reference and comparison of histogram of the image in real time and can control different color LED array respectively according to the quality of the tested image. This paper analyzed the structural model of the illumination system and designed the control system. The experimental results show that the new illumination system has important performances such as uniform illumination, adjustable light intensity, fast response, lower heat and etc. The system can provide highly stable illumination for the AOI to obtain high-quality images effectively for detect the defects of PCB, and improve the defect detection rate and reduce the defects of the false alarm rate of AOI.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1719-1 - Illumination in working places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illumination in working places. 75.1719-1 Section 75.1719-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1719-1 Illumination in working places. (a) Each operator of...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  1. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  2. 50. STREET LIGHTING & ILLUMINATED SIGNS, NORTH & SOUTH APPROACHES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. STREET LIGHTING & ILLUMINATED SIGNS, NORTH & SOUTH APPROACHES, DETAILS OF ILLUMINATED SIGNS (Sheet 2 of 3 sheets), June 29, 1932 - West End-North Side Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, approximately 1 mile downstream from confluence of Monongahela & Allegheny rivers, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  4. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  5. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  6. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  7. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1719-1 - Illumination in working places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illumination in working places. 75.1719-1 Section 75.1719-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1719-1 Illumination in working places. (a) Each operator of...

  9. Template based illumination compensation algorithm for multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoming; Jiang, Lianlian; Ma, Siwei; Zhao, Debin; Gao, Wen

    2010-07-01

    Recently multiview video coding (MVC) standard has been finalized as an extension of H.264/AVC by Joint Video Team (JVT). In the project Joint Multiview Video Model (JMVM) for the standardization, illumination compensation (IC) is adopted as a useful tool. In this paper, a novel illumination compensation algorithm based on template is proposed. The basic idea of the algorithm is that the illumination of the current block has a strong correlation with its adjacent template. Based on this idea, firstly a template based illumination compensation method is presented, and then a template models selection strategy is devised to improve the illumination compensation performance. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the coding efficiency significantly.

  10. Mixing and Simplex Search for Optimal Illumination in Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungTae; Cho, KyeongYong; Jin, Kyungchan; Yoon, JooSung; Cho, YoungJune

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-color illumination affects the quality of images in industrial vision system and it is important to optimize color and intensity for image acquisition. This study used simplex search to find the optimal illumination in a short amount of time. A typical color mixer synthesized various color of lights by changing the inputs of RGB power LEDs and passing the lights through an optical system. The image quality under mixed-color illumination was calculated according to the sharpness. For the purpose of optimal illumination using simplex search, a probe network was organized with N + 1probing points for N inputs. The shape of the probe network, simplex, was varied through procedures of extension, contraction, and shrinkage. The inputs of the color mixer were changed until the size of the simplex became smaller than a threshold. The simplex search was tested for commercial semiconductor patterns, and was useful for finding the optimal illumination.

  11. Exemplar-Based Color Constancy and Multiple Illumination.

    PubMed

    Joze, Hamid Reza Vaezi; Drew, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Exemplar-based learning or, equally, nearest neighbor methods have recently gained interest from researchers in a variety of computer science domains because of the prevalence of large amounts of accessible data and storage capacity. In computer vision, these types of technique have been successful in several problems such as scene recognition, shape matching, image parsing, character recognition, and object detection. Applying the concept of exemplar-based learning to the problem of color constancy seems odd at first glance since, in the first place, similar nearest neighbor images are not usually affected by precisely similar illuminants and, in the second place, gathering a dataset consisting of all possible real-world images, including indoor and outdoor scenes and for all possible illuminant colors and intensities, is indeed impossible. In this paper, we instead focus on surfaces in the image and address the color constancy problem by unsupervised learning of an appropriate model for each training surface in training images. We find nearest neighbor models for each surface in a test image and estimate its illumination based on comparing the statistics of pixels belonging to nearest neighbor surfaces and the target surface. The final illumination estimation results from combining these estimated illuminants over surfaces to generate a unique estimate. We show that it performs very well, for standard datasets, compared to current color constancy algorithms, including when learning based on one image dataset is applied to tests from a different dataset. The proposed method has the advantage of overcoming multi-illuminant situations, which is not possible for most current methods since they assume the color of the illuminant is constant all over the image. We show a technique to overcome the multiple illuminant situation using the proposed method and test our technique on images with two distinct sources of illumination using a multiple-illuminant color constancy

  12. Illuminate Knowledge Elements in Geoscience Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous dark data hidden in geoscience literature. Efficient retrieval and reuse of those data will greatly benefit geoscience researches of nowadays. Among the works of data rescue, a topic of interest is illuminating the knowledge framework, i.e. entities and relationships, embedded in documents. Entity recognition and linking have received extensive attention in news and social media analysis, as well as in bioinformatics. In the domain of geoscience, however, such works are limited. We will present our work on how to use knowledge bases on the Web, such as ontologies and vocabularies, to facilitate entity recognition and linking in geoscience literature. The work deploys an un-supervised collective inference approach [1] to link entity mentions in unstructured texts to a knowledge base, which leverages the meaningful information and structures in ontologies and vocabularies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Our work is still in the initial stage towards the detection of knowledge frameworks in literature, and we have been collecting geoscience ontologies and vocabularies in order to build a comprehensive geoscience knowledge base [2]. We hope the work will initiate new ideas and collaborations on dark data rescue, as well as on the synthesis of data and knowledge from geoscience literature. References: 1. Zheng, J., Howsmon, D., Zhang, B., Hahn, J., McGuinness, D.L., Hendler, J., and Ji, H. 2014. Entity linking for biomedical literature. In Proceedings of ACM 8th International Workshop on Data and Text Mining in Bioinformatics, Shanghai, China. 2. Ma, X. Zheng, J., 2015. Linking geoscience entity mentions to the Web of Data. ESIP 2015 Summer Meeting, Pacific Grove, CA.

  13. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography using illuminations from a single direction.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Aki; Cox, Ben T; Arridge, Simon R; Kaipio, Jari P; Tarvainen, Tanja

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic tomography is an emerging imaging technique aimed at estimating optical parameters inside tissues from photoacoustic images, which are formed by combining optical information and ultrasonic propagation. This optical parameter estimation problem is ill-posed and needs to be approached within the framework of inverse problems. It has been shown that, in general, estimating the spatial distribution of more than one optical parameter is a nonunique problem unless more than one illumination pattern is used. Generally, this is overcome by illuminating the target from various directions. However, in some cases, for example when thick samples are investigated, illuminating the target from different directions may not be possible. In this work, the use of spatially modulated illumination patterns at one side of the target is investigated with simulations. The results show that the spatially modulated illumination patterns from a single direction could be used to provide multiple illuminations for quantitative photoacoustic tomography. Furthermore, the results show that the approach can be used to distinguish absorption and scattering inclusions located near the surface of the target. However, when compared to a full multidirection illumination setup, the approach cannot be used to image as deep inside tissues. PMID:25803187

  14. Improved illumination system of laparoscopes using an aspherical lens array

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rengmao; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current fiber-based illumination systems of laparoscopes are unable to uniformly illuminate a large enough area in abdomen due to the limited numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber bundle. Most energy is concentrated in a small region at the center of the illumination area. This limitation becomes problematic in laparoscopes which require capturing a wide field of view. In this paper, we propose an aspherical lens array which is used to direct the outgoing rays from the fiber bundle of laparoscope to produce a more uniformly illuminated, substantially larger field coverage than standalone fiber source. An intensity feedback method is developed to design the aspherical lens unit for extended non-Lambertian sources, which is the key to the design of this lens array. By this method, the lens unit is obtained after only one iteration, and the lens array is constructed by Boolean operation. Then, the ray-tracing technique is used to verify the design. Further, the lens array is fabricated and experimental tests are performed. The results clearly show that the well-illuminated area is increased to about 0.107m2 from 0.02m2 (about 5x larger than a standard fiber illumination source). More details of the internal organs can be clearly observed under this improved illumination condition, which also reflects the significant improvement in the optical performance of the laparoscope. PMID:27375940

  15. Spectral image analysis of mutual illumination between florescent objects.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Shoji; Kato, Keiji; Hirai, Keita; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a method for modeling and component estimation of the spectral images of the mutual illumination phenomenon between two fluorescent objects. First, we briefly describe the bispectral characteristics of a single fluorescent object, which are summarized as a Donaldson matrix. We suppose that two fluorescent objects with different bispectral characteristics are located close together under a uniform illumination. Second, we model the mutual illumination between two objects. It is shown that the spectral composition of the mutual illumination is summarized with four components: (1) diffuse reflection, (2) diffuse-diffuse interreflection, (3) fluorescent self-luminescence, and (4) interreflection by mutual fluorescent illumination. Third, we develop algorithms for estimating the spectral image components from the observed images influenced by the mutual illumination. When the exact Donaldson matrices caused by the mutual illumination influence are unknown, we have to solve a non-linear estimation problem to estimate both the spectral functions and the location weights. An iterative algorithm is then proposed to solve the problem based on the alternate estimation of the spectral functions and the location weights. In our experiments, the feasibility of the proposed method is shown in three cases: the known Donaldson matrices, weak interreflection, and strong interreflection. PMID:27505645

  16. Effect of noise intensity and illumination intensity on visual performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chiuan

    2014-10-01

    The results of Experiment 1 indicated that noise and illumination intensity have a significant effect on character identification performance, which was better at 30 dBA than at 60 and 90 dBA, and better at 500 and 800 lux than at 200 lux. However, the interaction of noise and illumination intensity did not significantly affect visual performance. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that noise and illumination intensity also had a significant effect on reading comprehension performance, which was better at 30 dBA than at 60 and 90 dBA, and better at 500 lux than at 200 and 800 lux. Furthermore, reading comprehension performance was better at 500 lux lighting and 30 dBA noise than with 800 lux and 90 dBA. High noise intensity impaired visual performance, and visual performance at normal illumination intensity was better than at other illumination intensities. The interaction of noise and illumination had a significant effect on reading comprehension. These results indicate that noise intensity lower than 30 dBA and illumination intensity approximately 500 lux might be the optimal conditions for visual work. PMID:25153619

  17. Improved illumination system of laparoscopes using an aspherical lens array.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rengmao; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The current fiber-based illumination systems of laparoscopes are unable to uniformly illuminate a large enough area in abdomen due to the limited numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber bundle. Most energy is concentrated in a small region at the center of the illumination area. This limitation becomes problematic in laparoscopes which require capturing a wide field of view. In this paper, we propose an aspherical lens array which is used to direct the outgoing rays from the fiber bundle of laparoscope to produce a more uniformly illuminated, substantially larger field coverage than standalone fiber source. An intensity feedback method is developed to design the aspherical lens unit for extended non-Lambertian sources, which is the key to the design of this lens array. By this method, the lens unit is obtained after only one iteration, and the lens array is constructed by Boolean operation. Then, the ray-tracing technique is used to verify the design. Further, the lens array is fabricated and experimental tests are performed. The results clearly show that the well-illuminated area is increased to about 0.107m(2) from 0.02m(2) (about 5x larger than a standard fiber illumination source). More details of the internal organs can be clearly observed under this improved illumination condition, which also reflects the significant improvement in the optical performance of the laparoscope. PMID:27375940

  18. Evaluating combinational illumination estimation methods on real-world images.

    PubMed

    Bing Li; Weihua Xiong; Weiming Hu; Funt, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Illumination estimation is an important component of color constancy and automatic white balancing. A number of methods of combining illumination estimates obtained from multiple subordinate illumination estimation methods now appear in the literature. These combinational methods aim to provide better illumination estimates by fusing the information embedded in the subordinate solutions. The existing combinational methods are surveyed and analyzed here with the goals of determining: 1) the effectiveness of fusing illumination estimates from multiple subordinate methods; 2) the best method of combination; 3) the underlying factors that affect the performance of a combinational method; and 4) the effectiveness of combination for illumination estimation in multiple-illuminant scenes. The various combinational methods are categorized in terms of whether or not they require supervised training and whether or not they rely on high-level scene content cues (e.g., indoor versus outdoor). Extensive tests and enhanced analyzes using three data sets of real-world images are conducted. For consistency in testing, the images were labeled according to their high-level features (3D stages, indoor/outdoor) and this label data is made available on-line. The tests reveal that the trained combinational methods (direct combination by support vector regression in particular) clearly outperform both the non-combinational methods and those combinational methods based on scene content cues. PMID:23974624

  19. Real-time global illumination on mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Minsu; Ha, Inwoo; Lee, Hyong-Euk; Kim, James D. K.

    2014-02-01

    We propose a novel method for real-time global illumination on mobile devices. Our approach is based on instant radiosity, which uses a sequence of virtual point lights in order to represent the e ect of indirect illumination. Our rendering process consists of three stages. With the primary light, the rst stage generates a local illumination with the shadow map on GPU The second stage of the global illumination uses the re ective shadow map on GPU and generates the sequence of virtual point lights on CPU. Finally, we use the splatting method of Dachsbacher et al 1 and add the indirect illumination to the local illumination on GPU. With the limited computing resources in mobile devices, a small number of virtual point lights are allowed for real-time rendering. Our approach uses the multi-resolution sampling method with 3D geometry and attributes simultaneously and reduce the total number of virtual point lights. We also use the hybrid strategy, which collaboratively combines the CPUs and GPUs available in a mobile SoC due to the limited computing resources in mobile devices. Experimental results demonstrate the global illumination performance of the proposed method.

  20. Research on infrared imaging illumination model based on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-he; Feng, Chao-yin; Guo, Chang-geng; Zheng, Hai-jing; Han, Qiang; Hu, Hai-yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to effectively simulate infrared features of the scene and infrared high light phenomenon, Based on the visual light illumination model, according to the optical property of all material types in the scene, the infrared imaging illumination models are proposed to fulfill different materials: to the smooth material with specular characteristic, adopting the infrared imaging illumination model based on Blinn-Phone reflection model and introducing the self emission; to the ordinary material which is similar to black body without highlight feature, ignoring the computation of its high light reflection feature, calculating simply the material's self emission and its reflection to the surrounding as its infrared imaging illumination model, the radiation energy under zero range of visibility can be obtained according to the above two models. The OpenGl rendering technology is used to construct infrared scene simulation system which can also simulate infrared electro-optical imaging system, then gets the synthetic infrared images from any angle of view of the 3D scenes. To validate the infrared imaging illumination model, two typical 3D scenes are made, and their infrared images are calculated to compare and contrast with the real collected infrared images obtained by a long wave infrared band imaging camera. There are two major points in the paper according to the experiment results: firstly, the infrared imaging illumination models are capable of producing infrared images which are very similar to those received by thermal infrared camera; secondly, the infrared imaging illumination models can simulate the infrared specular feature of relative materials and common infrared features of general materials, which shows the validation of the infrared imaging illumination models. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulation images are similar to the collected images in the aspects of main features, but their histogram distribution does not match very well, the

  1. Visual inspection system with flexible illumination and autofocusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Young Jun; Lee, Duk-Young; Kim, Min-Young; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2002-10-01

    The visual information obtained from CCD camera is vulnerable to external illumination and the surface reflection properties of object images. Thus, the success of extracting aimed features from images depends mostly on the appropriate design of illumination. This paper presents a visual inspection system that is equipped with a flexible illumination and an auto-focusing unit. The proposed illumination system consists of a three-layered LED illumination device and the controllable diffusers. Each layer is composed of LEDs arranged in a ring type, and a controllable diffuser unit is located in front of each layer. The diffuser plays a role of diffusing lights emitted from the LEDs so that the characteristics of illumination is made varied. This combined configuration of the LED light sources and the adjustable diffuser creates the various lighting conditions. In addition to this flexible illumination function, the vision system is equipped with an auto-focusing unit composed of a pattern projector and a working distance adjustable zoom camera. For the auto-focusing, hill climbing algorithm is used here based on a reliable focus measure that is defined as the variance of high frequency terms in an image. Through a series of experiments, the influence of the illumination system on image quality is analyzed for various objects that have different reflective properties and shapes. As an example study, the electrical parts inspection is investigated. In this study, several types of chips with different sizes and heights are segmented and focused automatically, and then analyzed for part inspection. The results obtained from a series of experiments confirm the usefulness of the proposed system and the effectiveness of the illumination and focusing method.

  2. A study for polarized illumination effects in photo resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Junjiang; Bai, Min; Shiely, Jim; Zhang, Lin

    2005-06-01

    Using a polarized illumination source is a promising RET technique for improvement of wafer printability for features of 65 nm and below. Polarization effects could be considered in several different stages of lithography modeling and simulation. For example, light propagation in thin films, wave superstition and interference in the thin film stack, and mask-induced polarization all deserve special attention and delicate treatment because TE and TM waves have different behaviors through these stages. In this paper we consider effects of polarized illumination in photo resist, using the Kirchhoff approximation for masks. We discuss some theoretical aspects of our vector modeling methods and show an example of simulation for polarized illumination effects.

  3. Image-like illumination with LED arrays: design.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ivan

    2012-03-01

    An array of spatially distributed light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can produce an illumination pattern that approaches an image by individually modulating each LED. In this letter, I analyze the first-order design of such systems in order to achieve the best match between the illumination distribution and a desired image. In particular, simple formulas are given for the optimal number of LEDs, working distance, array size, and LED beam pattern. The analysis developed here may be applied to the design of LED systems such as architecture lighting, energy-efficient lighting, backlight local dimming for displays, and structured illumination microscopy with micro-LED arrays. PMID:22378411

  4. Single-beam phase retrieval with partially coherent light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meiling; Min, Junwei; Gao, Peng; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    A single-beam phase retrieval method with partially coherent illumination is proposed. By using an obverse and reverse iterative (ORI) algorithm, objects can be reconstructed within less time by recording a sequence of diffraction patterns at different axial planes under partially coherent light illumination. Partially coherent light illumination reduces coherent noise and the number of diffraction patterns needed for reconstruction. Thus, the whole process is fast and has high immunity to external perturbation due to the reference-less configuration. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  5. An Illumination Correction ALgorithm on Landsat-TM Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Wolfe, Robert; Masek, Jeffrey; Gao, Feng; Vermote, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new illumination correction model, the rotation model, is introduced. The model is based on the empirical correlation between reflectance and the illumination condition (IL). The model eliminates the dependency of reflectance on IL through rotating the data in IL-reflectance space. This model is compared with widely used cosine model and C model over a sample forest region. We found that the newly developed rotation model consistently performs best on both atmospheric uncorrected and corrected Landsat images. Index Terms Landsat, illumination correction, change detection, LEDAPS

  6. IODC 2014 Illumination design problem: the Cinderella Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassarly, William J.

    2014-12-01

    For the 3rd time, the International Optical Design Conference (IODC) included an Illumination Design contest. This year, the contest involved designing the illuminator to project the 1950 Walt Disney "Cinderella" movie using a box of optical knick-knacks. The goal of the problem was to provide the highest screen lumens with greater than 30% uniformity. There were 12 entries from 3 different countries. Three different commercial optical/illumination design packages were used. The winning solution, provided by Alois Herkommer, provided 371 screen lumens.

  7. Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

    2012-10-01

    Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium

  8. Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sametoglu, Ferhat

    2008-11-01

    Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

  9. How discord underlies the noise resilience of quantum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-01

    The benefits of entanglement can outlast entanglement itself. In quantum illumination, entanglement is employed to better detect reflecting objects in environments so noisy that all entanglement is destroyed. Here, we show that quantum discord—a more resilient form of quantum correlations—explains the resilience of quantum illumination. We introduce a quantitative relation between the performance gain in quantum illumination and the amount of discord used to encode information about the presence or absence of a reflecting object. This highlights discords role preserving the benefits of entanglement in entanglement breaking noise.

  10. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n = 27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386 nmol/L) and spring (384 nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406 nmol/L) and winter (414 nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p = 0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to

  11. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  14. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  16. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  17. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  18. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  19. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  20. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  1. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  2. On the spectral quality of scanner illumination with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chengwu

    2013-01-01

    Document scanner illumination has evolved along with general illumination technologies. LEDs have become more and more popular as the illumination sources for document scanning. LED technologies provide a wide range of choices both in terms of structural design and spectral compositions. In this report, we examine some popular LED technologies used for document scanner. We evaluate the color rendering performance of scanner models with different illumination technologies by examining their rendering of the Macbeth ColorChecker™ in sRGB. We found that more phosphors in phosphor conversion types of white LEDs may not be necessarily advantageous in terms of scanner color rendering performance. Also CIS type of scanner may be sensitive to the peak wavelength shift and can be particularly problematic when the peaks are out of certain range.

  3. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1998-01-01

    A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

  4. Shallow gas cloud illumination analysis by the focal beam method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latiff, Abdul Halim Abdul

    2016-02-01

    This research will address the illumination issue of seismic data below a shallow gas cloud, also known as shallow gas accumulation. In general, poor and distorted seismic data underneath gas zones depend on four major factors; namely the velocity of the gas zones, the depth of the target reflector, the location of the source and the receiver during seismic acquisition, and the frequency of the seismic signals. These factors will be scrutinized in detail by using the focal beam method. The focal beam method incorporates the double focusing concept in order to obtain two important attributes for illumination analysis: (i) Resolution function beam, (ii) amplitude versus ray parameter (AVP) imprint, which is obtained by transforming the modelled data into the radon domain. Both illumination attributes are then applied to a gas-affected field in the Malaysia Basin. The results show well-defined illumination beneath the shallow anomalies and provide a better representation of the subsurface.

  5. Photoelastic illumination by using cathode-ray-tube displays.

    PubMed

    Ng, T W; Sajan, M R; Asundi, A

    1997-06-01

    The need to perform computer-aided fringe-analysis schemes in photoelasticity for automated stress analysis has necessitated further developments in specimen illumination. Commonly available cathode-ray-tube color displays are investigated for such a purpose. PMID:18253380

  6. Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Peng, Yuan-yuan; Guo, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recently emerged as a promising imaging technique for prostate cancer. But there was still a lot of challenge in the PAI for prostate cancer detection, such as laser illumination modality. Knowledge of absorbed light distribution in prostate tissue was essential since the distribution characteristic of absorbed light energy would influence the imaging depth and range of PAI. In order to make a comparison of different laser illumination modality of photoacoustic imaging technique for prostate cancer, optical model of human prostate was established and combined with Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the light absorption distribution in the prostate tissue. Characteristic of light absorption distribution of transurethral and trans-rectal illumination case, and of tumor at different location was compared with each other.The relevant conclusions would be significant for optimizing the light illumination in a PAI system for prostate cancer detection.

  7. Auxiliary Illumination For Viewing Along A Welding Torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Auxiliary optical subsystem provides additional illumination for through-torch vision system of type used in automated or semiautomated arc welding. Also useful during operation of torch to view parts in shadows cast by arc light.

  8. Characterization of Talbot pattern illumination for scanning optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangshuo; Yang, Changhuei; Wu, Jigang

    2013-09-01

    We studied the use of Talbot pattern illumination in scanning optical microscopy (SOM). Unlike conventional illumination spots used in SOM, the focal spots in Talbot pattern are more complicated and do not have a simple Gaussian intensity distribution. To find out the resolution of SOM using Talbot pattern, we characterized the evolution of the full-width-at-half-maximum spot size of the Talbot focal spots by computer simulation. We then simulated the SOM imaging under Talbot pattern illumination using the razor blade and the U.S. Air Force target as the sample objects, and compared the results with those performed with Gaussian spots as illumination. Using several foci searching algorithms, the optimal focal distances were found to be shorter than the theoretical Talbot distances. The simulation results were consistent with the experiment results published previously. We then provide a practical guidance for searching for optimal focal distances in the SOM based on these studies.

  9. Structured light illumination for extended resolution in fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosseev, R.; Belyaev, Y.; Frohn, J.; Stemmer, A.

    2005-03-01

    During the last two decades fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful experimental tool in modern biology. Resolution of optical microscopes is limited by the diffraction nature of light and amounts to approximately 200 nm for point objects imaged with green light and high-NA objectives. Recently, several successful attempts have been made to break the resolution limit of microscopes. One of them is the so-called harmonic excitation light microscopy. 2D structured illumination produced by four interfering laser beams improves the lateral resolution by a factor of 2 to reach 100 nm. Structured illumination extends optical resolution since spatial frequencies beyond the classical cut-off frequency are brought into the passband of the optical microscope by frequency mixing. The extended passband is reconstructed computationally from several images acquired with shifted illumination patterns. Here we discuss an extension towards high resolution imaging of thick specimens by combining 2D structured illumination with deconvolution techniques.

  10. Optical simulation of reduced retinal illuminance caused by senile miosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Taka-aki; Okajima, Katsunori; Funai, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    In order to simulate elderly vision for young observers, we developed an optical goggle using filters whose transmittance optically simulates the senile miosis: reduction in retinal illuminance as a function of ambient illuminance. First, we measured the pupil size of young and elderly subjects (mean age were 21.8 and 67.1 years, respectively) under six illuminance conditions (from 0.03 to 4850 lx), and formulated the relationship between illuminance and pupillary area functions in both age groups. Next, the transmittance formulae for the filter simulating the senile miosis were derived based on the properties of the pupillary area and visual functions of the elderly and the young subjects including the effect of mydriasis induced by the reduction of light due to the filter in young observers. Finally, we developed a goggle-type simulator using active optical devices which enables young people to experience senile miosis in any environment in real time.

  11. Two bumblebee genomes illuminate the route to advanced social living

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Social living represents a major evolutionary transition. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolutionary route from solitary to highly eusocial insect societies, for which molecular level information is largely lacking. Additionally, bumblebees are invaluable natu...

  12. Illumination and Reflectance Estimation with its Application in Foreground Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to estimate the illumination and reflectance of an image. The approach is based on illumination-reflectance model and wavelet theory. We use a homomorphic wavelet filter (HWF) and define a wavelet quotient image (WQI) model based on dyadic wavelet transform. The illumination and reflectance components are estimated by using HWF and WQI, respectively. Based on the illumination and reflectance estimation we develop an algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings which are captured in complex farrowing pens. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm can be applied to detect the domestic animals in complex environments such as light changes, motionless foreground objects and dynamic background. PMID:26343675

  13. Illumination-redistribution lenses for non-circular spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    2005-08-01

    The design of illumination lenses is far easier under the regime of the small-source approximation, whereby central rays are taken as representative of the entire source. This implies that the lens is much larger than the source's active emitter, and its entire interior surface is nowhere close to the source. Also, a given source luminance requires a minimum lens area to achieve the candlepower necessary for target illumination. We introduce two-surface aspheric lenses for specific illuminations tasks involving ceiling-mounted downlights, lenses that achieve uniform illuminance at the output aperture as well as at the target. This means that squared-off lenses will produce square spots. In particular, a semicircular lens and a vertical mirror will produce a semicircular spot suitable for gambling tables.

  14. An inexpensive programmable illumination microscope with active feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Nathan; Fraden, Seth

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a programmable illumination system capable of tracking and illuminating numerous objects simultaneously using only low-cost and reused optical components. The active feedback control software allows for a closed-loop system that tracks and perturbs objects of interest automatically. Our system uses a static stage where the objects of interest are tracked computationally as they move across the field of view allowing for a large number of simultaneous experiments. An algorithmically determined illumination pattern can be applied anywhere in the field of view with simultaneous imaging and perturbation using different colors of light to enable spatially and temporally structured illumination. Our system consists of a consumer projector, camera, 35-mm camera lens, and a small number of other optical and scaffolding components. The entire apparatus can be assembled for under 4,000. Supplemental matlab code is available to assist in the setup of the active feedback software.

  15. Illumination from space with orbiting solar-reflector spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canady, J. E., Jr.; Allen, J. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using orbiting mirrors to reflect sunlight to Earth for several illumination applications is studied. A constellation of sixteen 1 km solar reflector spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit can illuminate a region 333 km in diameter to 8 lux, which is brighter than most existing expressway lighting systems. This constellation can serve one region all night long or can provide illumination during mornings and evenings to five regions across the United States. Preliminary cost estimates indicate such an endeavor is economically feasible. The studies also explain how two solar reflectors can illuminate the in-orbit nighttime operations of Space Shuttle. An unfurlable, 1 km diameter solar reflector spacecraft design concept was derived. This spacecraft can be packaged in the Space, Shuttle, transported to low Earth orbit, unfurled, and solar sailed to operational orbits up to geosynchronous. The necessary technical studies and improvements in technology are described, and potential environmental concerns are discussed.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT IN BLUEBERRIES IS INFLUENCED BY UV ILLUMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The levels of phytochemicals in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C light. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cy...

  17. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

    1998-04-07

    A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

  18. Lunar Polar Illumination Modeling to Support Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Nicholas, J. B.; McClanahan, T. P.; Neumann, G. A.

    2014-10-01

    We show that illumination modeling at the lunar poles can be useful to support calibration and analysis of lunar datasets such as the neutron data, in particular when studying time­variable effects and correlation with time of day.

  19. Fiber Coupled Laser Diodes with Even Illumination Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An optical fiber for evenly illuminating a target. The optical fiber is coupled to a laser emitting diode and receives laser light. The la ser light travels through the fiber optic and exits at an exit end. T he exit end has a diffractive optical pattern formed thereon via etch ing, molding or cutting, to reduce the Gaussian profile present in co nventional fiber optic cables The reduction of the Gaussian provides an even illumination from the fiber optic cable.

  20. Transfer function analysis in epi-illumination Fourier ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Shaun; Salahieh, Basel; Milster, Tom; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-01-01

    This letter explores Fourier ptychography (FP) using epi-illumination. The approach effectively modifies the FP transfer function to be coherent-like out to the incoherent limit of twice the numerical aperture over the wavelength 2NA/λ. Images reconstructed using this approach are shown to have higher contrast at finer details compared with images using incoherent illumination, indicating that the FP transfer function is superior in high spatial frequency regions. PMID:26565870

  1. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  2. Daylight methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy versus ingenol mebutate for the treatment of actinic keratoses: an intraindividual comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Giovanni; Fai, Dario; Fai, Carlotta; Mavilia, Luciano; Mercuri, Santo R

    2016-05-01

    Daylight-photodynamic therapy (D-PDT) and ingenol mebutate (IM) are novel therapies directed to actinic keratoses (AK). The purpose of our study was to compare effectiveness, tolerability, cosmetic outcome and patient preference of D-PDT versus IM in the treatment of grade I and II AK. Twenty-seven patients with AK on the face or scalp were enrolled. Each patient received, in a 25 cm(2) target area, D-PDT on right side and IM on left side. Overall 323 AK were treated. Both target areas achieved complete response in 40.47% of the cases and average AK clearance rate was similar for D-PDT and IM (p=0.74). In D-PDT areas mean grade II AK clearance rate was lower compared with that of grade I AK (p=0.015). In IM areas grade I and II AK average clearance rates were similar (p=0.28). At week 1 and month 1, mean local skin responses (LSR) score were higher in areas treated with IM. IM areas showed more severe pain and cosmetic sequelae. D-PDT had similar effectiveness to IM, even if IM demonstrated higher grade II AK clearance rate. Tolerability profile was superior for D-PDT in terms of LSR and pain. D-PDT was more cosmetically acceptable. Patients preferred D-PDT to IM in most cases. PMID:26799440

  3. Off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Price, Jeffery R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Hanson, Gregory R.

    2004-06-08

    Systems and methods are described for off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording an off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object at an angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes by transforming axes of the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined as an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; applying a digital filter to cut off signals around an original origin; and then performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  4. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  5. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Klauber, Melville R; Rex, Katharine M; Tuunainen, Arja; Langer, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved. PMID:15070419

  6. Point Scanning Microscope with Adaptive Illumination Beam Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhijit; Boruah, B. R.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we describe a point scanning optical microscope where the illumination beam can be programmably controlled in real time using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM). With an appropriate pattern displayed on the LCSLM, the device can be made to act as a binary diffraction hologram. In the proposed microscope the illumination beam is in fact the +1 order beam diffracted from the binary hologram. By displaying a sequence of binary holograms it is possible to make a beam scanning, similar to a conventional scanning microscope. Here we use a computer generated holography technique to compute the binary holograms which facilitate complete control of the amplitude and phase profile of the illumination beam. In a number of microscopy applications using reflected light, the reflectivity of the sample plane may differ from region to region. Therefore if a single illumination beam intensity is used for the whole sample plane, then the regions with less reflectivity will be imaged with poor signal to noise ratio. In our proposed microscope the sample plane is first imaged to determine the regions of weak reflectivity. Holograms are then computed to make the illumination beam adapt to the reflectivity variations in the given sample plane. The image obtained with the modified set of holograms have superior signal to noise ratio all over, relative to a conventional point scanning microscope with a fixed intensity illumination beam. In this paper we present some preliminary results using the proposed setup.

  7. Measurement of image plane illumination uniformity of photoelectric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Deng-kui; Yang, Hong; Sha, Ding-guo; Jiang, Chang-lu; Chen, Min; Zhong, Xing-hui; Ma, Shi-bang; Yuan, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The image plane illumination nonuniformity caused by optical system or detector will affect the detection precision of photoelectric imaging system, especially in image guidance, positioning and recognition. An image plane illumination uniformity measurement device was set up, which was characteristiced of high uniformity and wide dynamic range. The device was composed of an asymmetric integrating sphere,the image collection and processing system, as well as the electrical control system.The asymmetric integrating sphere had two different radius,which was respectively 800mm and 1000mm.The spectral region was (0.4~1.1)μm, the illumination range was (1×10-4~2×104)lx. The image collection and processing system had two different acquisition card,which were respectively used for analog and digital signals. The software can process for dynamic image or static image. The TracePro software was used to make a internal ray tracing of integrating sphere, the illumination uniformity at the export was simulated for the size of 330mm×230mm and Φ 100mm export, the results were respectively 97.95% and 98.33%. Then,an illuminometer was used to measure the actual illumination uniformity of integrating sphere, the result was shown the actual illumination uniformity was 98.8%. Finally, a visible photoelectric imaging system was tested ,and three different uniformity indicators results were given.

  8. Naturalness preserved enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhang; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hai-Miao; Li, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Image enhancement plays an important role in image processing and analysis. Among various enhancement algorithms, Retinex-based algorithms can efficiently enhance details and have been widely adopted. Since Retinex-based algorithms regard illumination removal as a default preference and fail to limit the range of reflectance, the naturalness of non-uniform illumination images cannot be effectively preserved. However, naturalness is essential for image enhancement to achieve pleasing perceptual quality. In order to preserve naturalness while enhancing details, we propose an enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images. In general, this paper makes the following three major contributions. First, a lightness-order-error measure is proposed to access naturalness preservation objectively. Second, a bright-pass filter is proposed to decompose an image into reflectance and illumination, which, respectively, determine the details and the naturalness of the image. Third, we propose a bi-log transformation, which is utilized to map the illumination to make a balance between details and naturalness. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can not only enhance the details but also preserve the naturalness for non-uniform illumination images. PMID:23661319

  9. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  10. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  11. Analysis of near-field method for optical data storage using microstrip probe under illumination and illumination-collection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Yevhenii; Kryuchyn, Andriy A.; Petrov, Viacheslav V.; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S.

    2014-09-01

    Results of numerical simulation of near-field optical data storage using microstrip probe are presented. Simulation is carried out on the basis of the finite-difference time-domain method. Features of the information reading process from the ROM and RW (based on the phase transmissions of Ge2Sb2Te5 film) formats of optical discs under illumination and illumination-collection mode are analyzed and considered. Mathematical modeling has shown that the signal from the ROM-format disc under illumination mode, despite the fact that the probe has a significant far-field transmission coefficient, has a large crosstalk and small spatial resolution (significantly worse than a size of probe aperture). Unlike illumination mode, signal under illumination-collection mode (pure near-field method) has a resolution close to the size of the aperture, good amplitude and contrast, as well as relatively low crosstalk. However, information reading under illumination-collection mode from RW-format disc is not able to get the same good quality signal. Therefore the further optimization of the method is required to improve the signal quality of RW format.

  12. Illumination Conditions of the Lunar Polar Regions Using LOLA Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    We use high-resolution altimetry data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize present illumination conditions in the polar regions of the Moon. Compared to previous studies, both the spatial and temporal extent of the simulations are increased significantly, as well as the coverage (fill ratio) of the topographic maps used, thanks to the 28 Hz firing rate of the five-beam instrument. We determine the horizon elevation in a number of directions based on 240 m-resolution polar digital elevation models reaching down to 75 latitude. The illumination of both polar regions extending to 80 can be calculated for any geometry from those horizon longitudinal profiles. We validated our modeling with recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide-Angle Camera images. We assessed the extent of permanently shadowed regions (PSRs, defined as areas that never receive direct solar illumination), and obtained total areas generally larger than previous studies (12,866 and 16,055 km2, in the north and south respectively). We extended our direct illumination model to account for singly-scattered light, and found that every PSR does receive some amount of scattered light during the year. We conducted simulations over long periods (several 18.6-years lunar precession cycles) with a high temporal resolution (6 h), and identified the most illuminated locations in the vicinity of both poles. Because of the importance of those sites for exploration and engineering considerations, we characterized their illumination more precisely over the near future. Every year, a location near the Shackleton crater rim in the south polar region is sunlit continuously for 240 days, and its longest continuous period in total darkness is about 1.5 days. For some locations small height gains ( 10 m) can dramatically improve their average illumination and reduce the night duration, rendering some of those particularly attractive energy-wise as

  13. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks. PMID:26024460

  14. Memory color assisted illuminant estimation through pixel clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Quan, Shuxue

    2010-01-01

    The under constrained nature of illuminant estimation determines that in order to resolve the problem, certain assumptions are needed, such as the gray world theory. Including more constraints in this process may help explore the useful information in an image and improve the accuracy of the estimated illuminant, providing that the constraints hold. Based on the observation that most personal images have contents of one or more of the following categories: neutral objects, human beings, sky, and plants, we propose a method for illuminant estimation through the clustering of pixels of gray and three dominant memory colors: skin tone, sky blue, and foliage green. Analysis shows that samples of the above colors cluster around small areas under different illuminants and their characteristics can be used to effectively detect pixels falling into each of the categories. The algorithm requires the knowledge of the spectral sensitivity response of the camera, and a spectral database consisted of the CIE standard illuminants and reflectance or radiance database of samples of the above colors.

  15. Micromilled optical elements for edge-lit illumination panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronny, Rahima Afrose; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Nikumb, Suwas

    2013-04-01

    Edge-lit light guide panels (LGPs) with micropatterned surfaces represent a new technology for developing small- and medium-sized illumination sources for application such as automotive, residential lighting, and advertising displays. The shape, density, and spatial distribution of the micro-optical structures (MOSs) imprinted on the transparent LGP must be selected to achieve high brightness and uniform luminance over the active surface. We examine how round-tip cylindrical MOSs fabricated by precision micromilling can be used to create patterned surfaces on low-cost transparent polymethyl-methacrylate substrates for high-intensity illumination applications. The impact of varying the number, pitch, spatial distribution, and depth of the optical microstructures on lighting performance is initially investigated using LightTools™ simulation software. To illustrate the microfabrication process, several 100×100×6 mm3 LGP prototypes are constructed and tested. The prototypes include an "optimized" array of MOSs that exhibit near-uniform illumination (approximately 89%) across its active light-emitting surface. Although the average illumination was 7.3% less than the value predicted from numerical simulation, it demonstrates how LGPs can be created using micromilling operations. Customized MOS arrays with a bright rectangular pattern near the center of the panel and a sequence of MOSs that illuminate a predefined logo are also presented.

  16. Characterization of Lunar Polar Illumination from a Power System Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of illumination analyses for the lunar south and north pole regions obtained using an independently developed analytical tool and two types of digital elevation models (DEM). One DEM was based on radar height data from Earth observations of the lunar surface and the other was a combination of the radar data with a separate dataset generated using Clementine spacecraft stereo imagery. The analysis tool enables the assessment of illumination at most locations in the lunar polar regions for any time and any year. Maps are presented for both lunar poles for the worst case winter period (the critical power system design and planning bottleneck) and for the more favorable best case summer period. Average illumination maps are presented to help understand general topographic trends over the regions. Energy storage duration maps are presented to assist in power system design. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for favorable lunar north and south pole sites which have the potential for manned or unmanned spacecraft operations. The format of the data is oriented for use by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems.

  17. Comparison of image reconstruction methods for structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeš, Tomas; Hagen, Guy M.; Křížek, Pavel; Švindrych, Zdeněk.; Fliegel, Karel; Klíma, Miloš

    2014-05-01

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a recent microscopy technique that enables one to go beyond the diffraction limit using patterned illumination. The high frequency information is encoded through aliasing into the observed image. By acquiring multiple images with different illumination patterns aliased components can be separated and a highresolution image reconstructed. Here we investigate image processing methods that perform the task of high-resolution image reconstruction, namely square-law detection, scaled subtraction, super-resolution SIM (SR-SIM), and Bayesian estimation. The optical sectioning and lateral resolution improvement abilities of these algorithms were tested under various noise level conditions on simulated data and on fluorescence microscopy images of a pollen grain test sample and of a cultured cell stained for the actin cytoskeleton. In order to compare the performance of the algorithms, the following objective criteria were evaluated: Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Signal to Background Ratio (SBR), circular average of the power spectral density and the S3 sharpness index. The results show that SR-SIM and Bayesian estimation combine illumination patterned images more effectively and provide better lateral resolution in exchange for more complex image processing. SR-SIM requires one to precisely shift the separated spectral components to their proper positions in reciprocal space. High noise levels in the raw data can cause inaccuracies in the shifts of the spectral components which degrade the super-resolved image. Bayesian estimation has proven to be more robust to changes in noise level and illumination pattern frequency.

  18. Wide-area SWIR arrays and active illuminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougal, Michael; Hood, Andrew; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Renner, Daniel; Follman, David; Heu, Paula

    2012-01-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7°C. We have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640x512 readout integrated integrated circuits (ROICs) to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). In addition, we have fabricated high definition 1920x1080 FPAs for wide field of view imaging. The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 microns at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0°C. FLIR has also developed a high definition, 1920x1080, 15 um pitch SWIR sensor. In addition, FLIR has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  19. Polarization and coherence-engineered illumination with applications in imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Dean Patterson

    In image formation, the coherence properties of the illumination source are of great importance. At the same time, the polarization properties of an optical system also play a role in the quality of an imaging system, particularly those of high numerical aperture (NA). Polarization-dependent coherence is therefore an important area of study for any imaging system. In the past few years, while there has been a unification of the ability to use coherence theory to describe vectorial fields through the use of a construct called a correlation matrix, very little has been done experimentally predicting or measuring the coherence properties of an illumination system comprised of vectorial fields. In the work that follows, we explore several arrangements in which a polarization vortex mode converter was placed in the pupil plane of an illumination system. In these arrangements, we study both theoretically and experimentally the spatially dependent coherence properties using a vectorial treatment of optical coherence. Those properties were applied to imaging systems that then results in an improvement in image contrast using polarization- and orientation-dependent coherence properties of the illumination. In this work, the main illumination systems we explored are a Gaussian Schell-model beam, a fully correlated and 'collimated' azimuthal vortex beam, a partially correlated azimuthally-polarized vortex (PCAV) illumination system, and a partially correlated radially-polarized vortex (PCRV) illumination system. For the case of PCAV and PCRV illumination, we implemented critical and Kohler illumination systems with a polarization orientation that has an azimuthal or radial symmetry in the pupil plane. We demonstrated first theoretically and then experimentally that PCAV and PCRV illumination systems have a correlation matrix that describes the correlation between electric fields as being only dependent on the separation of points at a particular plane. Further, it was

  20. Adaptive optimisation of illumination beam profiles in fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. J.; Saunter, C. D.; O'Nions, W.; Girkin, J. M.; Love, G. D.

    2015-03-01

    Wide-field fluorescence microscope techniques such as single/selective plane illumination microscope (SPIM) are typically configured to image large regions of a sample at once. Here the illumination beam provides uniform excitation of several biological features across the region, `sliced' to a thickness of between 5-10 microns. In this paper we propose a simple alteration to the optical configuration of a SPIM by switching the light-sheet- forming cylindrical lens with a spatial light modulator. This has the potential to adaptively reconfigure the light sheet geometry to improve the optical sectioning of specific biological features, rather than the thicker sectioning of several features at once across a larger observation field-of-view. We present a prototype version of such a system, referred to as an Adaptive-SPIM (A-SPIM) system. We then suggest that the direct recording of illumination beam shapes within the working microscope system can better facilitate the analysis and subsequent re-configuration of the illumination beam to a specific geometry, and summarise the design and operation of a device that we have developed specifically for this purpose. We finally present reconstructed quantitative three dimensional flux maps of illumination beams from three microscope configurations taken using this miniature high-dynamic range beam profiling device, comparing the beam geometry of a regular SPIM system with our prototype A-SPIM system, and suggesting future improvements.