Science.gov

Sample records for adequate daylight illumination

  1. Design tools for daylighting illumination and energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.

    1982-07-01

    The problems and potentials for using daylighting to provide illumination in building interiors are reviewed. It describes some of the design tools now or soon to be available for incorporating daylighting into the building design process. It also describes state-of-the-art methods for analyzing the impacts daylighting can have on selection of lighting controls, lighting energy consumption, heating and cooling loads, and peak power demand.

  2. Chromatic Illumination Discrimination Ability Reveals that Human Colour Constancy Is Optimised for Blue Daylight Illuminations

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D.; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed. PMID:24586299

  3. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  4. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed. PMID:24586299

  5. Hybrid daylight/light-emitting diode illumination system for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Aiming; Qiu, Peng; Cai, Jinlin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-03-20

    A hybrid illumination method using both daylight and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor lighting is presented in this study. The daylight can be introduced into the indoor space by a panel-integration system. The daylight part and LEDs are combined within a specific luminaire that can provide uniform illumination. The LEDs can be turned on and dimmed through closed-loop control when the daylight illuminance is inadequate. We simulated the illumination and calculated the indoor lighting efficiency of our hybrid daylight and LED lighting system, and compared this with that of LED and fluorescent lighting systems. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid daylight/LED illumination method is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems, under the same lighting conditions and lighting time; the method has hybrid lighting average energy savings of T5 66.28%, and that of the LEDs is 41.62%.

  6. Hybrid daylight/light-emitting diode illumination system for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Aiming; Qiu, Peng; Cai, Jinlin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-03-20

    A hybrid illumination method using both daylight and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor lighting is presented in this study. The daylight can be introduced into the indoor space by a panel-integration system. The daylight part and LEDs are combined within a specific luminaire that can provide uniform illumination. The LEDs can be turned on and dimmed through closed-loop control when the daylight illuminance is inadequate. We simulated the illumination and calculated the indoor lighting efficiency of our hybrid daylight and LED lighting system, and compared this with that of LED and fluorescent lighting systems. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid daylight/LED illumination method is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems, under the same lighting conditions and lighting time; the method has hybrid lighting average energy savings of T5 66.28%, and that of the LEDs is 41.62%. PMID:24663465

  7. Daylight illuminance on horizontal and vertical surfaces for clear skies. Case study of shaded surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Burgos, Ana; Miguel, Argimiro de; Bilbao, Julia

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on daylight illuminance levels measured on horizontal and vertical surfaces. Firstly, an attempt to know the behavior of the daylight illumination in a specific area, as the 'Castilla-Leon' region, Spain, is made in order to determine the representative values of this parameter in this geographical area. With this aim, a series of measurements of global illuminance on a horizontal surface and on vertical surfaces oriented to the four cardinal points (N, S, E and W) have been collected and analyzed. In the paper, the daily evolution of this parameter is reported considering different times of the year so that a global annual behavior can be established. The study is focused on clear days. The collected data correspond to 10 min measurements carried out during the year 2007 in a rural area close to the city of Valladolid, Spain, in the mentioned region. In addition to that, the data have been treated in order to analyze the relationship between the global vertical illuminance and the corresponding horizontal illuminance. In case that no direct sunlight is reaching a vertical surface, that is, for a shaded surface, a simple parametric equation is proposed in order to predict the vertical illumination. The expression obtained shows a high correlation coefficient. It relates the ratio between vertical and horizontal illuminances versus the solar altitude; so, it permits to calculate vertical illuminance if horizontal illuminance is known. (author)

  8. Optimizing indoor illumination quality and energy efficiency using a spectrally tunable lighting system to augment natural daylight.

    PubMed

    Hertog, W; Llenas, A; Carreras, J

    2015-11-30

    This article demonstrates the benefits of complementing a daylight-lit environment with a spectrally tunable illumination system. The spectral components of daylight present in the room are measured by a low-cost miniature spectrophotometer and processed through a number of optimization algorithms, carefully trading color fidelity for energy efficiency. Spectrally-tunable luminaires provide only those wavelengths that ensure that either the final illumination spectrum inside the room is kept constant or carefully follows the dynamic spectral pattern of natural daylight. Analyzing the measured data proves that such a hybrid illumination system brings both unprecendented illumination quality and significant energy savings.

  9. Students' Perception of Daylight Illumination in the School Workshop as a Determinant for Effective Students' Task Performance in Workshop Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amasuomo, Japo Oweikeye Morto; Alio, Abigail Ngozi

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated daylight illumination in the school workshop as a determinant for effective students' task performance in workshop practice. 183 NCE Technical students in 300 Level which comprised of 73 and 112 students from Federal Colleges of Education (Technical), Asaba and Omoku, Nigeria respectively during the 2008/2009 academic…

  10. Momentary adjusting methods for simulating the color temperature, hues and brightness of daylight illumination with RGB LEDs for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing

    2011-07-01

    Methods for simulating the color temperature, hue and brightness of daylight illumination for indoor lighting simply by adjusting the intensity of red, green, and blue light emitting diodes are proposed. We obtain uniform color mixing with a light box by adjusting the ratios between the intensities of red, green and blue LEDs. The intensity can be found by measuring the CIE chromaticity coordinates (x, y) and the luminance Y of the daylight with a chroma meter. After the chromaticity coordinates (x, y) and the luminance Y are found, the tristimulus values can be calculated and then transferred to red, green, and blue primaries by linear transformation. With the correct ratio of red, green, and blue intensities, the color temperature, hues and brightness of daylight can be rebuilt by red, green, and blue light emitting diodes.

  11. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy--Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-02-29

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor "daylight PDT" and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed.

  12. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Lerche, Catharina M.; Heerfordt, Ida M.; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor “daylight PDT” and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. PMID:26938525

  13. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy--Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor "daylight PDT" and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. PMID:26938525

  14. Controlling daylight illumination in cultural heritage buildings by using thin-film and thermographic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, D.; Muñoz de Luna, J.; Alvarez, A.; Mayorga, S.; Hernández, G.; Garcia, A.; Laborde, A.; Herráez, J. A.; del Egido, M.

    2012-12-01

    There are many master pieces of the cultural heritage which cańt be correctly contemplated if daylight is not part of the exhibition environment, since they were made with the sun light as essential element of them. The Pórtico de la Gloria and the Cloister and paintings of Santa María de El Paular monastery are ones of these cases. The Pórtico de la Gloria (Gate of the Glory) is probably the most relevant masterpiece of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral. It is located at the narthex of the west gate. It is a masterwork of Romanesque sculpture built between 1168 and 1188 by Master Mateo. During the XVIII century a new Baroque façade was placed in front of it replacing the middle ages wall. Daylight entering through the windows of the facade makes possible to see the art work but the sun can generate serious problems since it heats the stone and evaporates the humidity. Thermal imagers have been used to test the thermal performance of the antireflection treatment located in the windows in the actual temperature of the stone sculptures. The cloister of the monastery of Santa María de El Paular, housed until the confiscation of 1835 a collection of 54 paintings of Vincente Carducho called Carthusian series. When in 2006 the restoration of the 52 still preserved paintings was completed, began a refurbishment of the cloister to return the paintings to their original place. We conducted a study of the incidence of the Sun in the cloister and how to avoid direct sunlight on Carducho's paintings.

  15. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  16. Daylighting: six Aalto libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, F. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes six libraries designed by the Finnish architect, Alvar Aalto (1898-1976) to illustrate the principles of daylighting. Aalto used vertical clerestories, roof monitors with 'scoops', and skylights with wells to minimize direct sunlight penetration. However, most of his buildings were designed during a time of abundant energy with little regard for problems of excessive heat loss or gain. For contemporary architects, the most valuable principle to be gleaned from Aalto is the use of white surfaces as diffuse, secondary illumination sources.

  17. Heliostat design for the daylighting system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Hsiso, Horng-Ching; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Wang, Chen-You; Lin, Tzung-Han; Chen, Yi-Yung; Lai, Yi-Lung; Yen, Cho-Jung; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2014-10-10

    The daylighting system is designed to guide sunlight into buildings for illumination. It has the best illumination performance when sunlight vertically impinges on the collector of the daylighting system, while it has low performance when sunlight impinges obliquely. To overcome the problem, this paper investigates the design of a heliostat that reflects sunlight vertically onto a daylighting system. This study proposes a 3×3 mirror matrix heliostat, which is different from the traditional heliostat with one single mirror. With the heliostat, the system efficiency increases as high as 3.32 times.

  18. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  19. The elusive challenge of daylighted buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Steve

    1998-02-01

    As we approach the end of the decade of the 1990s, daylighting is increasingly promoted as a design strategy and building solution that can save energy and improve human performance and satisfaction in indoor spaces. Similar claims were made in the 1970s in the aftermath of the oil embargo. Twenty-five years later, in a world newly concerned about carbon emissions, global warming, and sustainable design, daylighted buildings are again proposed as a ''solution.'' While it is possible to find some examples of well daylighted buildings that have been built in the last 25 years, the fact that there are so few suggests that the optimistic outlook for daylighting needs to be critically (re)examined. In 1978 and again in 1986 the author examined [Selkowitz 1979, Selkowitz 1986] the gap between the potential benefits claimed for daylighted buildings and the actual achievements in building practice. That gap remains in 1998. The first challenge is to define performance expectations for a daylighted space. Many definitions of daylighted buildings and the associated performance expectations are used interchangeably: Architectural definition: the interplay of natural light and building form to provide a visually stimulating, healthful, and productive interior environment; Lighting Energy Savings definition: the replacement of indoor electric illumination needs by daylight, resulting in reduced annual energy consumption for lighting; Building Energy Consumption definition: the use of fenestration systems and responsive electric lighting controls to reduce overall building energy requirements (heating, cooling, lighting); Load Management definition: dynamic control of fenestration and lighting to manage and control building peak electric demand and load shape; Cost definition: the use of daylighting strategies to minimize operating costs and maximize output, sales, or productivity. Each of these (and others) is a legitimate perspective, but it is important to be clear about

  20. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, Jonathan G.; Friedman, Peter S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  1. Energy 101: Daylighting

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Daylighting—the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation—is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.

  2. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  3. Ray tracing study for non-imaging daylight collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wittkopf, Stephen; Oliver Grobe, Lars; Geisler-Moroder, David; Compagnon, Raphael; Kaempf, Jerome; Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel method to study how well non-imaging daylight collectors pipe diffuse daylight into long horizontal funnels for illuminating deep buildings. Forward ray tracing is used to derive luminous intensity distributions curves (LIDC) of such collectors centered in an arc-shaped light source representing daylight. New photometric characteristics such as 2D flux, angular spread and horizontal offset are introduced as a function of such LIDC. They are applied for quantifying and thus comparing different collector contours. (author)

  4. Daylighting in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willi, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how one elementary school was designed to be a flexible, innovative campus that connects learning and the learning environment. The celebration of nature is carried out in many ways within the building. Students are exposed to great vistas from every interior location. Daylighting is infused throughout the school to reinforce the desire…

  5. Energy 101: Daylighting

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Daylighting—the use of windows or skylights for natural lighting and temperature regulation—is one building strategy that can save money for homeowners and businesses. Highly efficient, strategically placed windows maximize the use of natural daylight in a building, lowering the need for artificial lighting without causing heating or cooling problems.

  6. Monte Carlo modelling of daylight activated photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C L; Wood, K; Valentine, R M; Brown, C T A; Moseley, H

    2015-05-21

    The treatment of superficial skin lesions via daylight activated photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been explored theoretically with three dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations. For similar parameters and conditions, daylight activated PDT was compared to conventional PDT using a commercially available light source. Under reasonable assumptions for the optical properties of the tissue, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) concentration and a treatment dose of 75 J cm(-2), it was found that during a clear summer day an effective treatment depth of over 2 mm can be achieved after 30 min of daylight illumination at a latitude of 56 degrees North. The same light dose would require 2.5 h of daylight illumination during an overcast summer day where a treatment depth of about 2 mm can be achieved. For conventional PDT the developed model suggests that 15 min of illumination is required to deliver a light dose of 75 J cm(-2), which would result in an effective treatment depth of about 3 mm. The model developed here allows for the determination of photo-toxicity in skin tissue as a function of depth for different weather conditions as well as for conventional light sources. Our theoretical investigation supports clinical studies and shows that daylight activated PDT has the potential for treating superficial skin lesions during different weather conditions.

  7. Monte Carlo modelling of daylight activated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Wood, K.; Valentine, R. M.; Brown, C. T. A.; Moseley, H.

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of superficial skin lesions via daylight activated photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been explored theoretically with three dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations. For similar parameters and conditions, daylight activated PDT was compared to conventional PDT using a commercially available light source. Under reasonable assumptions for the optical properties of the tissue, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) concentration and a treatment dose of 75 J cm-2, it was found that during a clear summer day an effective treatment depth of over 2 mm can be achieved after 30 min of daylight illumination at a latitude of 56 degrees North. The same light dose would require 2.5 h of daylight illumination during an overcast summer day where a treatment depth of about 2 mm can be achieved. For conventional PDT the developed model suggests that 15 min of illumination is required to deliver a light dose of 75 J cm-2, which would result in an effective treatment depth of about 3 mm. The model developed here allows for the determination of photo-toxicity in skin tissue as a function of depth for different weather conditions as well as for conventional light sources. Our theoretical investigation supports clinical studies and shows that daylight activated PDT has the potential for treating superficial skin lesions during different weather conditions.

  8. Daylighting and Electric Lighting Analysis for Complex Spaces

    1995-06-07

    SUPERLITE is a powerful lighting analysis program designed to accurately predict interior illuminance in complex building spaces due to daylight and electric lighting systems. The program enables users to model interior daylight levels for any sun and sky condition in spaces having windows, skylights or other standard fenestration systems. SUPERLITE Version 2.0 includes the capability to calculate electric lighting levels in addition to the daylighting prediction, allowing lighting performance simulation for integrated lighting systems. Themore » program calculates lighting levels on all interior surfaces, as well as on planes that can be arbitrarily positioned to represent work surfaces or other locations of interest. SUPERLITE is intended to be used by researchers and lighting designers who require detailed analysis of the illuminance distribution in architecturally complex spaces.« less

  9. Field Commissioning of a Daylight-Dimming Lighting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.

    A Florida elementary school cafeteria, retrofitted with a fluorescent lighting system that dims in response to available daylight, was evaluated through real time measurement of lighting and air conditioning power, work plane illumination, and interior/exterior site conditions. The new system produced a 27 percent reduction in lighting power due…

  10. The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitoredperformance of the daylighting control system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2006-02-24

    A nine-month monitored field study of the performance of automated roller shades and daylighting controls was conducted in a 401 m{sup 2} unoccupied, furnished daylighting mockup. The mockup mimicked the southwest corner of a new 110 km{sub 2} commercial building in New York, New York, where The New York Times will be the major tenant. This paper focuses on evaluating the performance of two daylighting control systems installed in separate areas of an open plan office with 1.2-m high workstation partitions: (1) Area A had 0-10 V dimmable ballasts with an open-loop proportional control system and an automated shade controlled to reduce window glare and increase daylight, and (2) Area B had digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) ballasts with a closed-loop integral reset control system and an automated shade controlled to block direct sun. Daylighting control system performance and lighting energy use were monitored. The daylighting control systems demonstrated very reliable performance after they were commissioned properly. Work plane illuminance levels were maintained above 90% of the maximum fluorescent illuminance level for 99.9{+-}0.5% and 97.9{+-}6.1% of the day on average over the monitored period, respectively, in Areas A and B. Daily lighting energy use savings were significant in both Areas over the equinox-to-equinox period compared to a non-daylit reference case. At 3.35 m from the window, 30% average savings were achieved with a sidelit west-facing condition in Area A while 50-60% were achieved with a bilateral daylit south-facing condition in Area B. At 4.57-9.14 m from the window, 5-10% and 25-40% savings were achieved in Areas A and B, respectively. Average savings for the 7-m deep dimming zone were 20-23% and 52-59% for Areas A and B, respectively, depending on the lighting schedule. The large savings and good reliability can be attributed to the automatic management of the interior shades. The DALI-based system exhibited faulty behavior that

  11. Delight2 Daylighting Analysis in Energy Plus: Integration and Preliminary User Results

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, William L.; Hitchcock, Robert J.

    2005-04-26

    DElight is a simulation engine for daylight and electric lighting system analysis in buildings. DElight calculates interior illuminance levels from daylight, and the subsequent contribution required from electric lighting to meet a desired interior illuminance. DElight has been specifically designed to integrate with building thermal simulation tools. This paper updates the DElight capability set, the status of integration into the simulation tool EnergyPlus, and describes a sample analysis of a simple model from the user perspective.

  12. Design and evaluation of daylighting applications of holographic glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Ehrlich, C.; Ward, G.

    1996-12-01

    According to the contractual agreement, BTP would develop a computer model of the POC holographic structures and then simulate the performance of alternative designs using the RADIANCE lighting and rendering computer program [Ward 1990]. The RADIANCE model would then be used to evaluate the daylight performance of alternative designs of holographic glazings in a prototypical office space. The simulation process would be validated against actual photometric measurements of holographic glazing samples developed by POC. The results would be used to evaluate the potential for increased electric lighting savings through increased daylight illuminance levels at distances more than 15 ft--20 ft (4.6 m--6.1 m ) from the window wall.

  13. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  14. Illumination preference, illumination constancy and colour discrimination by bumblebees in an environment with patchy light.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Sarah E J; Chittka, Lars

    2012-07-01

    Patchy illumination presents foraging animals with a challenge, as the targets being sought may appear to vary in colour depending on the illumination, compromising target identification. We sought to explore how the bumblebee Bombus terrestris copes with tasks involving flower colour discrimination under patchy illumination. Light patches varied between unobscured daylight and leaf-shade, as a bee might encounter in and around woodland. Using a flight arena and coloured filters, as well as one or two different colours of artificial flower, we quantified how bees chose to forage when presented with foraging tasks under patchy illumination. Bees were better at discriminating a pair of similar colours under simulated unobscured daylight illumination than when foraging under leaf-shade illumination. Accordingly, we found that bees with prior experience of simulated daylight but not leaf-shade illumination initially preferred to forage in simulated daylight when all artificial flowers contained rewards as well as when only one colour was rewarding, whereas bees with prior experience of both illuminants did not exhibit this preference. Bees also switched between illuminants less than expected by chance. This means that bees prefer illumination conditions with which they are familiar, and in which rewarding flower colours are easily distinguishable from unrewarding ones. Under patchy illumination, colour discrimination performance was substantially poorer than in homogenous light. The bees' abilities at coping with patchy light may therefore impact on foraging behaviour in the wild, particularly in woodlands, where illumination can change over short spatial scales.

  15. Daylighting simulation: methods, algorithms, and resources

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, William L.

    1999-12-01

    This document presents work conducted as part of Subtask C, ''Daylighting Design Tools'', Subgroup C2, ''New Daylight Algorithms'', of the IEA SHC Task 21 and the ECBCS Program Annex 29 ''Daylight in Buildings''. The search for and collection of daylighting analysis methods and algorithms led to two important observations. First, there is a wide range of needs for different types of methods to produce a complete analysis tool. These include: Geometry; Light modeling; Characterization of the natural illumination resource; Materials and components properties, representations; and Usability issues (interfaces, interoperability, representation of analysis results, etc). Second, very advantageously, there have been rapid advances in many basic methods in these areas, due to other forces. They are in part driven by: The commercial computer graphics community (commerce, entertainment); The lighting industry; Architectural rendering and visualization for projects; and Academia: Course materials, research. This has led to a very rich set of information resources that have direct applicability to the small daylighting analysis community. Furthermore, much of this information is in fact available online. Because much of the information about methods and algorithms is now online, an innovative reporting strategy was used: the core formats are electronic, and used to produce a printed form only secondarily. The electronic forms include both online WWW pages and a downloadable .PDF file with the same appearance and content. Both electronic forms include live primary and indirect links to actual information sources on the WWW. In most cases, little additional commentary is provided regarding the information links or citations that are provided. This in turn allows the report to be very concise. The links are expected speak for themselves. The report consists of only about 10+ pages, with about 100+ primary links, but with potentially thousands of indirect links. For purposes of

  16. New tools for the evaluation of daylighting strategies and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Hitchcock, R.; Ehrlich, C.; Carroll, B.

    1998-03-01

    The use of daylight for the illumination of building interiors has the potential to enhance the quality of the environment while providing opportunities to save energy by replacing or supplementing electric lighting. Moreover, it has the potential to reduce heating and cooling loads, which offer additional energy saving opportunities as well as reductions in HVAC equipment sizing and cost. All of these benefits, however, assume proper use of daylighting strategies and technologies, whose performance depends on the context of their application. On the other hand, improper use can have significant negative effects on both comfort and energy requirements, such as increased glare and cooling loads. To ensure proper use, designers need design tools that model the dynamic nature of daylight and accurately predict performance with respect to a multitude of performance criteria, extending beyond comfort and energy to include aesthetics, cost, security, safety, etc.

  17. Control system performance in a modern daylighted office building

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, C.; Fountain, M., Selkowitz, S.; Jewell, J.

    1990-10-01

    Lockheed Building 157 is one of the United States' largest experiments in contemporary daylighting. Built in 1983, the five story structure houses 3,000 employees and uses daylight for ambient illumination throughout its 56,000-m{sup 2} office interior. A continuously dimmable fluorescent lighting system supplements interior daylight under the control of open-loop ceiling-mounted photosensors. In 1985 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) began a year-long program to measure lighting system performance in the building. Data from this study indicated that architectural features of the building performed admirably, admitting significant daylight to large areas of the open plan interior. Operational savings, however, were limited by inappropriate performance of the control system in many of the building's lighting circuits. LBL recently completed a follow-up investigation of the lighting systems in Building 157 addressing the interaction between daylight and the lighting control system with the goal of improving control system performance. We modified a 1,700-m{sup 2} test zone by relocating the photosensors, attenuating the photosensor control signal, changing the response pattern of the photosensors, and implementing a LBL-developed calibration procedure, Following these modifications, we installed four data-acquisition systems and collected detailed data describing illuminance and lighting power demand during two week periods in the summer, equinox, and winter seasons. This paper presents a comparison of lighting system performance before and after the LBL modifications. Analysis of the data indicates our modifications were successful in maintaining interior illuminance at the target of 350 lux with minimal electric energy consumption. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Daylighting estimation and analysis in residential apartment building: GIS based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Mahesh B.; Mhaske, Sumedh Y.

    2016-06-01

    The openings in the building envelope have a great influence on daylighting in the internal area of the building spaces. The amount of opening area, its orientation, outside obstruction & positioning of building affects the inside illumination. Most of the energy consumption occurs during the building's operational phase for heating, cooling & lighting purposes. This paper aims to provide a simplified analytical and GIS based approach to evaluate the potential of daylight inside the room under clear sky conditions. The work evaluates the intensity of internal illumination in residential apartment building from available outside external illumination.

  19. Performance of Integrated Systems of Automated Roller Shade Systems and Daylight Responsive Dimming Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byoung-Chul; Choi, An-Seop; Jeong, Jae-Weon; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2010-07-08

    Daylight responsive dimming systems have been used in few buildings to date because they require improvements to improve reliability. The key underlying factor contributing to poor performance is the variability of the ratio of the photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance in accordance with sun position, sky condition, and fenestration condition. Therefore, this paper describes the integrated systems between automated roller shade systems and daylight responsive dimming systems with an improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm, and the relative performance of the integrated systems and single systems. The concept of the improved closed-loop proportional control algorithm for the integrated systems is to predict the varying correlation of photosensor signal to daylight workplane illuminance according to roller shade height and sky conditions for improvement of the system accuracy. In this study, the performance of the integrated systems with two improved closed-loop proportional control algorithms was compared with that of the current (modified) closed-loop proportional control algorithm. In the results, the average maintenance percentage and the average discrepancies of the target illuminance, as well as the average time under 90percent of target illuminance for the integrated systems significantly improved in comparison with the current closed-loop proportional control algorithm for daylight responsive dimming systems as a single system.

  20. Analysis of Daylighting Requirements within ASHRAE Standard 90.1

    SciTech Connect

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides support to the ASHRAE/IES/IESNA Standard 90.1(Standard 90.1) Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC 90.1) and its subcommittees. In an effort to provide the ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 with data that will improve the daylighting and fenestration requirements in the Standard, PNNL collaborated with Heschong Mahone Group (HMG), now part of TRC Solutions. Combining EnergyPlus, a whole-building energy simulation software developed by DOE, with Radiance, a highly accurate illumination modeling software (Ward 1994), the daylighting requirements within Standard 90.1 were analyzed in greater detail. The initial scope of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fraction of window area compared to exterior wall area (window-to-wall ratio (WWR)) on energy consumption when daylighting controls are implemented. This scope was expanded to study the impact of fenestration visible transmittance (VT), electric lighting controls and daylighted area on building energy consumption.

  1. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  2. A spatially augmented reality sketching interface for architectural daylighting design.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yu; Yapo, Theodore C; Young, Christopher; Cutler, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of interactive global illumination and spatially augmented reality to architectural daylight modeling that allows designers to explore alternative designs and new technologies for improving the sustainability of their buildings. Images of a model in the real world, captured by a camera above the scene, are processed to construct a virtual 3D model. To achieve interactive rendering rates, we use a hybrid rendering technique, leveraging radiosity to simulate the interreflectance between diffuse patches and shadow volumes to generate per-pixel direct illumination. The rendered images are then projected on the real model by four calibrated projectors to help users study the daylighting illumination. The virtual heliodon is a physical design environment in which multiple designers, a designer and a client, or a teacher and students can gather to experience animated visualizations of the natural illumination within a proposed design by controlling the time of day, season, and climate. Furthermore, participants may interactively redesign the geometry and materials of the space by manipulating physical design elements and see the updated lighting simulation. PMID:21071786

  3. A spatially augmented reality sketching interface for architectural daylighting design.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yu; Yapo, Theodore C; Young, Christopher; Cutler, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of interactive global illumination and spatially augmented reality to architectural daylight modeling that allows designers to explore alternative designs and new technologies for improving the sustainability of their buildings. Images of a model in the real world, captured by a camera above the scene, are processed to construct a virtual 3D model. To achieve interactive rendering rates, we use a hybrid rendering technique, leveraging radiosity to simulate the interreflectance between diffuse patches and shadow volumes to generate per-pixel direct illumination. The rendered images are then projected on the real model by four calibrated projectors to help users study the daylighting illumination. The virtual heliodon is a physical design environment in which multiple designers, a designer and a client, or a teacher and students can gather to experience animated visualizations of the natural illumination within a proposed design by controlling the time of day, season, and climate. Furthermore, participants may interactively redesign the geometry and materials of the space by manipulating physical design elements and see the updated lighting simulation.

  4. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  5. Daylighting performance evaluation of a bottom-up motorized roller shade

    SciTech Connect

    Kapsis, K.; Athienitis, A.K.; Zmeureanu, R.G.; Tzempelikos, A.

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental and simulation study for quantifying the daylighting performance of bottom-up roller shades installed in office spaces. The bottom-up shade is a motorized roller shade that opens from top to bottom operating in the opposite direction of a conventional roller shade, so as to cover the bottom part of the window, while allowing daylight to enter from the top part of the window, reaching deeper into the room. A daylighting simulation model, validated with full-scale experiments, was developed in order to establish correlations between the shade position, outdoor illuminance and work plane illuminance for different outdoor conditions. Then, a shading control algorithm was developed for application in any location and orientation. The validated model was employed for a sensitivity analysis of the impact of shade optical properties and control on the potential energy savings due to the use of daylighting. The results showed that Daylight Autonomy for the bottom-up shade is 8-58% higher compared to a conventional roller shade, with a difference of 46% further away from the facade, where the use of electric lighting is needed most of the time. The potential reduction in energy consumption for lighting is 21-41%. (author)

  6. The design and evaluation of three advanced daylighting systems: Light shelves, light pipes and skylights

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, L.O.; Lee, E.S.; Papmichael, K.M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1994-03-01

    We present results from the design and evaluation of three advanced daylighting systems: a light shelf, a light pipe, and a skylight. These systems use optical films and an optimized geometry to passively intercept and redirect sunlight further into the building. The objectives of these designs are to increase daylighting illuminance levels at distances of 4.6-9.1 m (15--30 ft) from the window, and to improve the uniformity of the daylight distribution and the luminance gradient across the room under variable sun and sky conditions throughout the year. The designs were developed through a series of computer-assisted ray-tracing studies, photometric measurements, and observations using physical scale models. Comprehensive sets of laboratory measurements in combination with analytical routines were then used to simulate daylight performance for any solar position. Results show increased daylight levels and an improved luminance gradient throughout the year -- indicating that lighting energy consumption and cooling energy due of lighting can be substantially reduced with improvements to visual comfort. Future development of the designs may further improve the daylighting performance of these systems.

  7. Natural light illumination system.

    PubMed

    Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Yang, Shu-Hua; Pan, Po-Hsuan; Chou, Kao-Hsu; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lee, Zong-Yi; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2010-12-10

    In recent years, green energy has undergone a lot of development and has been the subject of many applications. Many research studies have focused on illumination with sunlight as a means of saving energy and creating healthy lighting. Natural light illumination systems have collecting, transmitting, and lighting elements. Today, most daylight collectors use dynamic concentrators; these include Sun tracking systems. However, this design is too expensive to be cost effective. To create a low-cost collector that can be easily installed on a large building, we have designed a static concentrator, which is prismatic and cascadable, to collect sunlight for indoor illumination. The transmission component uses a large number of optical fibers. Because optical fibers are expensive, this means that most of the cost for the system will be related to transmission. In this paper, we also use a prismatic structure to design an optical coupler for coupling n to 1. With the n-to-1 coupler, the number of optical fibers necessary can be greatly reduced. Although this new natural light illumination system can effectively guide collected sunlight and send it to the basement or to other indoor places for healthy lighting, previously there has been no way to manage the collected sunlight when lighting was not desired. To solve this problem, we have designed an optical switch and a beam splitter to control and separate the transmitted light. When replacing traditional sources, the lighting should have similar characteristics, such as intensity distribution and geometric parameters, to those of traditional artificial sources. We have designed, simulated, and optimized an illumination lightpipe with a dot pattern to redistribute the collected sunlight from the natural light illumination system such that it equals the qualities of a traditional lighting system. We also provide an active lighting module that provides lighting from the natural light illumination system or LED auxiliary

  8. Daylighting Strategies Promote Healthy High Performance Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons to incorporate daylighting into the building or renovation of K-16 learning facilities. Benefits include increased productivity for students and staff, improved health, a better connection to the outdoors, energy savings and better quality of light. Add the role daylighting can play in LEED certification and it's clear that…

  9. Effect of Daylight on Melatonin and Subjective General Health Factors in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    KARAMI, Zohre; GOLMOHAMMADI, Rostam; HEIDARIPAHLAVIAN, Ahmad; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; HEIDARIMOGHADAM, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper investigated the effect of daylight on morning and night melatonin, subjective general health using GHQ questionnaire, sleepiness and alertness on elderly who lived in nursing houses. Methods: Nineteen nursing home residents participated voluntarily. They exposed to daylight from 9 to 10 a.m. and from 4 to 5 p.m. for 6 wk. The level of melatonin in the morning and at night was measured. General health of all participants was evaluated using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) as well. Results: Daylight exposure significantly affected morning melatonin from 25.39 pg/ml to 59.77 pg/ml (P=0.001) and night melatonin were changed from 40.30pg/ml to 34.41pg/ml (P=0.081). Mean score of general health changed 36.31 to 29.89 (P=0.003). Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) showed increase sleepiness and decrease alertness from 3:00 to 7:00 a.m. Sleepiness decreased and alertness increased during 1:00 p.m. and 20:00 p.m. Conclusions: Daylight exposure could delay sleep phase and correction of circadian rhythm in elderly. Anxiety and insomnia could be improved with daylight exposure. It suggests that elders should be exposed to scheduled daylight in morning and evening for prevention and improvement of mental disorders. Adequate light should be provided for elder’s homes and nursing house. PMID:27398336

  10. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. PMID:24529766

  11. Technology reviews: Daylighting optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends.Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  12. Colorimetric analysis of outdoor illumination across varieties of atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Peyvandi, Shahram; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Olmo, F J; Nieves, Juan Luis; Romero, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Solar illumination at ground level is subject to a good deal of change in spectral and colorimetric properties. With an aim of understanding the influence of atmospheric components and phases of daylight on colorimetric specifications of downward radiation, more than 5,600,000 spectral irradiance functions of daylight, sunlight, and skylight were simulated by the radiative transfer code, SBDART [Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.79, 2101 (1998)], under the atmospheric conditions of clear sky without aerosol particles, clear sky with aerosol particles, and overcast sky. The interquartile range of the correlated color temperatures (CCT) for daylight indicated values from 5712 to 7757 K among the three atmospheric conditions. A minimum CCT of ∼3600  K was found for daylight when aerosol particles are present in the atmosphere. Our analysis indicated that hemispheric daylight with CCT less than 3600 K may be observed in rare conditions in which the level of aerosol is high in the atmosphere. In an atmosphere with aerosol particles, we also found that the chromaticity of daylight may shift along the green-purple direction of the Planckian locus, with a magnitude depending on the spectral extinction by aerosol particles and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. The data analysis showed that an extremely high value of CCT, in an atmosphere without aerosol particles, for daylight and skylight at low sun, is mainly due to the effect of Chappuis absorption band of ozone at ∼600  nm. In this paper, we compare our data with well-known observations from previous research, including the ones used by the CIE to define natural daylight illuminants. PMID:27409431

  13. Intensified phototherapy using daylight fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; De Carvalho, D; Trzmielina, S; Lopes, J M; Hansen, T W

    1999-07-01

    Jaundice is a common reason for therapeutic intervention in newborn infants and phototherapy is effective treatment if enough light energy is delivered to a skin surface area of sufficient size. Narrow spectrum blue light is superior to white light, but in developing countries fluorescent blue lamps often have to be imported and are much more expensive than white lamps. We developed a phototherapy unit in which seven daylight fluorescent tubes are placed immediately under the floor of a transparent plexiglass crib. The efficacy of this unit, delivering approximately 19 microW/cm2/nm, was compared with that of two conventional phototherapy units using overhead lamps placed 35 cm above the infants. One unit used daylight fluorescent tubes and delivered approximately 4 microW/cm2/nm, the other unit used special blue fluorescent tubes and delivered approximately 22 microW/cm2/nm. Fifty-one infants were included in the analyses, all of them breastfed on demand. Serum bilirubin levels were determined spectrophotometrically at 0, 12 and 24 h. The decrement in serum bilirubin concentrations was significantly greater in infants undergoing phototherapy with the new device or with special blue lamps compared to conventional overhead daylight lamps (p < 0.001 both at 12 and at 24 h). We conclude that highly efficient phototherapy may be delivered with daylight fluorescent lamps placed in very close proximity to the patient. Thus, lack of access to expensive imported special blue lamps does not preclude delivery of effective phototherapy in developing countries.

  14. Variations in daylight as a contextual cue for estimating season, time of day, and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Valsecchi, Matteo

    2014-01-24

    Experience and experiments on human color constancy (i.e., Arend & Reeves, 1986; Craven & Foster, 1992) tell us that we are capable of judging the illumination. However, when asked to make a match of the illuminant's color and brightness, human observers seem to be quite poor (Granzier, Brenner, & Smeets, 2009a). Here we investigate whether human observers use (rather than match) daylight for estimating ecologically important dimensions: time of year, time of day, and outdoor temperature. In the first three experiments we had our observers evaluate calibrated color images of an outdoor urban scene acquired throughout a year. Although some observers could estimate the month and the temperature, overall they were quite poor at judging the time of day. In particular, observers were not able to discriminate between morning and afternoon pictures even when they were allowed to compare multiple images captured on the same day (Experiment 3). However, observers could distinguish between midday and sunset and sunrise daylight. Classification analysis showed that, given a perfect knowledge of its variation, an ideal observer could have performed the task over chance only considering the average chromatic variation in the picture. Instead, our observers reported using shadows to detect the position of the sun in order to estimate the time of day. However, this information is highly unreliable without knowledge of the orientation of the scene. In Experiment 4 we used an LED chamber in order to present our observers with lights whose chromaticity and illuminance varied along the daylight locus, thus isolating the light cues from the sun position cue. We conclude that discriminating the slight variations in chromaticity and brightness, which potentially distinguish morning and afternoon illuminations, lies beyond the ability of human observers.

  15. Variations in daylight as a contextual cue for estimating season, time of day, and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Valsecchi, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Experience and experiments on human color constancy (i.e., Arend & Reeves, 1986; Craven & Foster, 1992) tell us that we are capable of judging the illumination. However, when asked to make a match of the illuminant's color and brightness, human observers seem to be quite poor (Granzier, Brenner, & Smeets, 2009a). Here we investigate whether human observers use (rather than match) daylight for estimating ecologically important dimensions: time of year, time of day, and outdoor temperature. In the first three experiments we had our observers evaluate calibrated color images of an outdoor urban scene acquired throughout a year. Although some observers could estimate the month and the temperature, overall they were quite poor at judging the time of day. In particular, observers were not able to discriminate between morning and afternoon pictures even when they were allowed to compare multiple images captured on the same day (Experiment 3). However, observers could distinguish between midday and sunset and sunrise daylight. Classification analysis showed that, given a perfect knowledge of its variation, an ideal observer could have performed the task over chance only considering the average chromatic variation in the picture. Instead, our observers reported using shadows to detect the position of the sun in order to estimate the time of day. However, this information is highly unreliable without knowledge of the orientation of the scene. In Experiment 4 we used an LED chamber in order to present our observers with lights whose chromaticity and illuminance varied along the daylight locus, thus isolating the light cues from the sun position cue. We conclude that discriminating the slight variations in chromaticity and brightness, which potentially distinguish morning and afternoon illuminations, lies beyond the ability of human observers. PMID:24464161

  16. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the

  17. Liquid filled prismatic louver façade for enhanced daylighting in high-rise commercial buildings.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, A; Madamopoulos, N

    2015-07-27

    A liquid filled prismatic louver (LFPL) façade that can perform daylight and thermal energy harvesting with the potential to offer enhanced natural illumination levels to office spaces and thermally assist secondary thermal driven applications is proposed and analyzed. We focus the present simulation study on the evaluation of daylight enhancement in indoor space by redirecting light from a window opening to the ceiling of the room, and then-after a diffusive reflection from the ceiling-onward to the work plane of the room. Illumination simulations using LightTools, a forward ray tracing illumination simulation software, are performed for an office building space located in New York City. We show that the LFPL system achieves deeper natural light penetration, better uniformity and higher illuminance levels compared to an office space without the LFPL system. We further extend our study to a number of other representative cities in the continental US, covering different climatic zones. The LFPL system achieves good daylight harvesting performance. Finally, we discuss the potential of the LFPL system to capture solar infrared radiation heat within the liquid (e.g., water) volume and use it to assist in secondary thermal energy applications. PMID:26367682

  18. Liquid filled prismatic louver façade for enhanced daylighting in high-rise commercial buildings.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, A; Madamopoulos, N

    2015-07-27

    A liquid filled prismatic louver (LFPL) façade that can perform daylight and thermal energy harvesting with the potential to offer enhanced natural illumination levels to office spaces and thermally assist secondary thermal driven applications is proposed and analyzed. We focus the present simulation study on the evaluation of daylight enhancement in indoor space by redirecting light from a window opening to the ceiling of the room, and then-after a diffusive reflection from the ceiling-onward to the work plane of the room. Illumination simulations using LightTools, a forward ray tracing illumination simulation software, are performed for an office building space located in New York City. We show that the LFPL system achieves deeper natural light penetration, better uniformity and higher illuminance levels compared to an office space without the LFPL system. We further extend our study to a number of other representative cities in the continental US, covering different climatic zones. The LFPL system achieves good daylight harvesting performance. Finally, we discuss the potential of the LFPL system to capture solar infrared radiation heat within the liquid (e.g., water) volume and use it to assist in secondary thermal energy applications.

  19. The challenge of meteor daylight observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egal, A.; Kwon, M.-K.; Colas, F.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the FRIPON network is to perform the daylight detection of fireballs. If the cameras used are adapted to these observations, the reduction method still needs to be improved in order to reduce the high number of false detections. To deeply check the daylight reduction software, the FRIPON team is looking for observations of fireballs and atmospheric reentries during the day. For this purpose, the team has organized in emergency (in less than 10 days) an observation campaign of the reentry of the WT1190F space debris in November 2015. Although the bad weather conditions have hampered the success of the mission, it remains a great example of the value of the collaboration between scientists and amateurs, without whom this challenge wouldn't have been overcome.

  20. [Procedure for daylight methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy to treat actinic keratoses].

    PubMed

    Girard, C; Adamski, H; Basset-Séguin, N; Beaulieu, P; Dreno, B; Riboulet, J-L; Lacour, J-P

    2016-04-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK), also known as solar keratosis or pre-cancerous keratosis, is frequently observed in areas of skin exposed to sunlight, particularly in light-skinned patients. In France, photodynamic therapy using red light (conventional PDT) and methylamino 5-levulinate (MAL) is indicated in the treatment of thin or non-hyperkeratotic and non-pigmented multiple AK lesions or large zones covered with AK lesions. It is well-known for its efficacy but also for its side effects, especially pain during illumination, which can limit its use. An alternative to PDT using natural daylight has recently been proposed to treat actinic keratosis lesions, and results in greater flexibility as well as significant reduction in pain. The lesions are prepared as for conventional PDT, with MAL cream being applied by the physician or the patient, after which they are exposed to natural daylight for 2hours. The lesions are then gently cleansed and protected from natural light for 24hours. This paper seeks to provide a precise description of the daylight PDT procedure for the treatment of AK. PMID:27016200

  1. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  2. Daylight coloring for monochrome infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabura, James

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of infrared imagery in poor visibility situations is well established and the range of applications is expanding as we enter a new era of inexpensive thermal imagers for mobile phones. However there is a problem in that the counterintuitive reflectance characteristics of various common scene elements can cause slowed reaction times and impaired situational awareness-consequences that can be especially detrimental in emergency situations. While multiband infrared sensors can be used, they are inherently more costly. Here we propose a technique for adding a daylight color appearance to single band infrared images, using the normally overlooked property of local image texture. The simple method described here is illustrated with colorized images from the visible red and long wave infrared bands. Our colorizing process not only imparts a natural daylight appearance to infrared images but also enhances the contrast and visibility of otherwise obscure detail. We anticipate that this colorizing method will lead to a better user experience, faster reaction times and improved situational awareness for a growing community of infrared camera users. A natural extension of our process could expand upon its texture discerning feature by adding specialized filters for discriminating specific targets.

  3. Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights.

    PubMed

    Baraas, Rigmor C; Foster, David H; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M C

    2006-01-01

    Deuteranomalous trichromacy, which affects medium-wavelength-sensitive cones, is more common than protanomalous trichromacy, which affects long-wavelength-sensitive cones. The aim of the present work was to test the extent to which these two kinds of anomalous trichromacy affect surface-color judgments in the natural world. Simulations of 18 natural scenes under different daylight illuminants were presented on a high-resolution color monitor to 7 deuteranomalous, 7 protanomalous, and 12 normal trichromatic observers, who had to discriminate between reflectance and illuminant changes in the images. Observers' ability to judge surface color was quantified by a standard color-constancy index. Deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as normal trichromats, but protanomalous trichromats performed more poorly than both. The results are considered in relation to the spectral coverage of cones, rod intrusion, and the characterization of anomalous trichromacy by the Rayleigh match. PMID:16962006

  4. Color rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-02-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. Based on state-of-the-art colorimetric methods we present a modern approach for calculating color rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: firstly, we use the CIELAB color space, secondly, we apply a Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation, and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda1 have shown for the cube model that interreflections can influence the CRI of an illuminant. We analyze how color rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  5. Hotsphere illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes at all spatial and temporal scales. Importance of the hotspheres such as rhizosphere, detritusphere, porosphere (including drilosphere and biopores), hyphasphere and spermosphere, calls for spatially explicit methods to illuminate distribution of microbial activities in these hotspheres (Kuzyakov and Blagodatskaya, 2015). Zymography technique has previously been adapted to visualize the spatial dynamics of enzyme activities in rhizosphere (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2014). Here, we further developed soil zymography to obtain a higher resolution of enzyme activities by enabling direct contact of substrate-saturated membranes with soil. For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in various hotspheres. We calculated and compared percentage of enzymatic hotspots of five hotspheres: spermosphere, rhizosphere, detritusphere, drilosphere and biopores. Spatial distribution of activities of two enzymes: β-glucosidase and leucine amino peptidase were analyzed in the spermosphere, rhizosphere and detritusphere of maize and lentil. Zymography has been done 3 days (spermosphere), 14 days (rhizosphere) after sowing and 21 days after cutting plant (detritusphere). Spatial resolution of fluorescent images was improved by direct application fluorogenically labelled substrates on the soil surface. Such improvement enabled to visualize enzyme distribution of mycorrhiza hypha on the rhizobox surface. Further, to visualize the 2D distribution of the enzyme activities in porosphere, we placed earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris), (drilosphere) and ground beetle species Platynus dorsalis Pont. (Coleoptera; Carabidae), (biopore), in transparent boxes for 2weeks. The developed in situ zymography visualized the heterogeneity of enzyme activities along and across the roots. Spatial patterns of enzyme activities as a function of distance along the

  6. Light Moves: Integrating Daylight into School Design from the Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossy de Dios, Eric; Rogic, Tinka; Vaughn, Wendell

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of daylight on the learning environment. Enhanced student performance and mood, increased teacher and student attendance, reduced energy costs, as well as a positive effect on the environment are some of the improvements seen in school buildings that use well-planned daylighting concepts. Looking at…

  7. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.; Sweeney, Alison M.

    2016-06-01

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky.

  8. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution.

    PubMed

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K; Brainard, David H; Sweeney, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky. PMID:27272736

  9. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution.

    PubMed

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K; Brainard, David H; Sweeney, Alison M

    2016-06-07

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky.

  10. Variation of outdoor illumination as a function of solar elevation and light pollution

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.; Sweeney, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    The illumination of the environment undergoes both intensity and spectral changes during the 24 h cycle of a day. Daylight spectral power distributions are well described by low-dimensional models such as the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage) daylight model, but the performance of this model in non-daylight regimes is not characterised. We measured downwelling spectral irradiance across multiple days in two locations in North America: One rural location (Cherry Springs State Park, PA) with minimal anthropogenic light sources, and one city location (Philadelphia, PA). We characterise the spectral, intensity and colour changes and extend the existing CIE model for daylight to capture twilight components and the spectrum of the night sky. PMID:27272736

  11. Effects of daylight savings time changes on stock market volatility.

    PubMed

    Berument, M Hakan; Dogan, Nukhet; Onar, Bahar

    2010-04-01

    The presence of daylight savings time effects on stock returns and on stock volatility was investigated using an EGARCH specification to model the conditional variance. The evidence gathered from the major United States stock markets for the period between 1967 and 2007 did not support the existence of the daylight savings time effect on stock returns or on volatility. Returns on the first business day following daylight savings time changes were not lower nor was the volatility higher, as would be expected if there were an effect.

  12. [Study on illuminant spectrum qualifications for collecting tongue condition].

    PubMed

    Song, Xian-Jie; Xu, Chen-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Gu; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

    2008-05-01

    The traditional light sources in the diagnostic method of tongue collection such as daylight or even candles are easily affected by weather and environment. It isn't favorable for doctors to obtain the accurate information of the tongue condition. The authors' introduce the electric light sources to compensate or replace daylight to obtain stable and real tongue image and scientific results. Lighted by lamps with different radiation spectrum power distribution property, various color rendition and color temperature, the same object will indicate different colors. In this study, spectrum analysis is carried out on four fluorescent lamps and the research is based on iamge identification techniques of tongue color. Applying the methods of spectrum analysis, choose the best one in four illuminants with their specific spectrum by testing instruments and comparing with the results using several spectrum parameters and chromatic coordinates tolerance ellipses. Result showed PHILIPS YPZ220/18-3U. RR. D (with the correlative color temperature 6 500 K) lamp which has the most similar spectrum property with daylight can be used as standard lamp. The research provides the theoretic and experimental basis for choosing electric light sources to replace daylight. PMID:18720782

  13. The effects of daylight and daylight saving time on US pedestrian fatalities and motor vehicle occupant fatalities.

    PubMed

    Coate, Douglas; Markowitz, Sara

    2004-05-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of daylight and daylight saving time (DST) on pedestrian and motor vehicle occupant fatalities in the United States. Multivariate analyses of county level data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2-week periods in 1998 and 1999 are used. Results show that full year daylight saving time would reduce pedestrian fatalities by 171 per year, or by 13% of all pedestrian fatalities in the 5:00-10.00 a.m. and in the 4:00-9:00 p.m. time periods. Motor vehicle occupant fatalities would be reduced by 195 per year, or 3%, during the same time periods.

  14. FREE-SPACE QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY IN DAYLIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.

  15. Teaching Science: Beats the Daylight Out of Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities for observing, measuring, collecting, and graphing data about times of sunrise and sunset to teach an understanding about arrival of Daylight Savings Time in April. Also discusses seasonal affective disorder (SAD). (TM)

  16. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  17. Lights illuminate surfaces superluminally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Zhong, Qi; Lilleskov, Elias

    2016-07-01

    When a light bulb is turned on, light moves away from it at speed c, by definition. When light from this bulb illuminates a surface, however, this illumination front is not constrained to move at speed c. A simple proof is given that this illumination front always moves faster than c. Generalized, when any compact light source itself varies, this information spreads across all of the surfaces it illuminates at speeds faster than light.

  18. The measurement and evaluation of daylighting performance in Collins Center

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.; Schiler, M.; Ander, G.

    1995-11-01

    The James A. Collins Center for Hotel and Restaurant Management at Cal Poly campus has been built with technical assistance from Southern California Edison Company (SCE) to incorporate daylighting strategies for energy conservation. These west oriented windows with light-shelves not only provide reflected and diffused light into office space, they also act as shading devices to reduce glare and heat gains from low western sun. Along with skylights toward the center of the space, abundant daylight fills the space throughout the year. This project not only monitored the lighting level supplied by these daylighting strategies but also examined the visual comfort due to glare of the devices using video techniques to analyze the luminance in the space.

  19. Illumination Under Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2002-08-19

    This paper is a survey of the author's work on illumination and shadows under trees, including the effects of sky illumination, sun penumbras, scattering in a misty atmosphere below the trees, and multiple scattering and transmission between leaves. It also describes a hierarchical image-based rendering method for trees.

  20. The daylight sky and Avogadro’s number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenza, Marco A. C.

    2015-11-01

    Two methods for estimating Avogadro’s number from the observation of the daylight sky are presented, both suitable for undergraduate students. One is very simple and based on simple naked-eye observation, and the other exploits a common digital camera as a photometer.

  1. Illuminance of neonatal units.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J; Moseley, M J; Fielder, A R

    1990-07-01

    We have measured the illuminance (brightness) of seven neonatal units during both the day and the night. When the units were lit solely by fluorescent tubes the mean illuminance was 348 lux (range 192-690). During the day the mean illuminance was 470 lux (range 236-905). The high dependency regions in four of the seven units were significantly brighter than the corresponding low dependency nurseries at all times. In two of these units there is a policy of reducing the amount of artificial light in the low dependency areas at night, and in these the normal mean illuminance was 50 lux. We have measured the general levels of illumination to which a neonate might be exposed; the ocular exposure to light of a neonate depends, however, on both physical and biological factors and more research is required before an accurate estimate can be made.

  2. EVALUATION OF A PROCEDURE FOR USING DAYLIGHT PROJECTION OF FILM LOOPS IN TEACHING SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARBY, S.F.

    EQUIPMENT USING A TRANSLUCENT SCREEN AND REAR PROJECTION HAS MADE IT POSSIBLE TO PROJECT MOTION PICTURES IN DAYLIGHT (DAYLIGHT PROJECTION). FILMS CAN BE SHOWN REPEATEDLY WHEN FORMED INTO A FILM LOOP (CONTINUOUS LOOP PROJECTION). DAYLIGHT PROJECTION AND CONTINUOUS LOOP PROJECTION WERE USED TO INVESTIGATE THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS--(1) ARE FILM LOOP…

  3. Daylighting Update: A Brief Guide to the Process of Designing Energy Conserving Schools through the Use of Daylighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Alva L.; Lawrence, Jerry

    In recent years one of the most prevalent requests directed to design architects by teachers and administrative personnel is to include in the architectural program for their new school provisions for admitting more daylight into their classrooms. This guide by the American Institute of Architects National Committee on Architecture for Education…

  4. Dental operating lights and illumination of the dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Viohl, J

    1979-06-01

    The requirements laid down in national and international standards and draft standards provide helpful guidelines for optimum illumination (Fig. 1, Table I). General room illumination with 500 lx and illumination of the working area with 1000 lx are best achieved with a larger number of fluorescent lamps on the ceiling above and in front of the dental chair. Daylight white lamps with good colour rendering (e.g. Osram colour 19 or Philips colour 47) are a good combination with changing daylight and the colour of light of the operating light. The colour of external skin, mucous membrane and teeth appears natural. The eight surgical lights examined differ in quality (Figs. 2-9). The maximum illuminance is between 9000 and 21 000 lx and is thus sufficiently high. The evenness of light distribution within an ellipse 9 cm and 18 cm in diameter is between 1 : 4 and 1 : 15 (Figs. 10 and 11). Illuminance can be adjusted to the work in hand by means of controls. If the patient looks into the operating lights (Figs. 2c and 9c), maximum luminances of 5 cd/cm2-20 cd/cm2 occur 8 cm above the illuminance maximum in six operating lights. Luminances of more than 20 cd/cm2 cause squinting and running eyes. A light fitting with more than 200 cd/cm2 should not be used. A sharp fall in illuminance (distinct light/dark threshold) and low luminances to the patient's eyes can be achieved with very directed light. Very directed light leads to very heavy shadows. Similarly, less specifically directed light leads to softer shadows so that objects in the oral cavity can be discerned easily, but the patient is no longer dazzled. The following operating lights can be recommended if the patient is to suffer as little glare as possible: Den-Tel-Ez Daray, and Belmont Type 040, Faro Sunlight S 70, Ritter Super Starlite; as well as: Chirana Fax, Siemens Sirolux. The following can be recommended for good illumination of the oral cavity: Belmont Type 040, Chirana Fax, Emda Top Spot, Faro Sunlight S 70

  5. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  6. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  7. Shackleton Crater Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions near the lunar South Pole. The 30km x 30km region highlights the Shackleton crater. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, ...

  8. Illumination in diverse codimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper derives a model of diffuse and specular illumination in arbitrarily large dimensions, based on a few characteristics of material and light in three-space. It then describes how to adjust for the anomaly of excess brightness in large codimensions. If a surface is grooved or furry, it can be illuminated with a hybrid model that incorporates both the one dimensional geometry (the grooves or fur) and the two dimensional geometry (the surface).

  9. Phases of daylight and the stability of color perception in the near peripheral human retina.

    PubMed

    Panorgias, Athanasios; Kulikowski, Janus J; Parry, Neil R A; McKeefry, Declan J; Murray, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Typical daylight extends from blue (morning sky) to orangey red (evening sky) and is represented mathematically as the Daylight Locus in color space. In this study, we investigate the impact of this daylight variation on human color vision. Thirty-eight color normal human observers performed an asymmetric color match in the near peripheral visual field. Unique hues were identified using a naming paradigm. The observers' performance for matching was almost perfectly coincident with the Daylight Locus but declined markedly in other regions. Interobserver variability reached a conspicuous minimum adjacent to the Daylight Locus and was maximal in the red and yellowish-green regions. In the naming task, unique blue and yellow were virtually coincident with the Daylight Locus. The results suggest that the mechanisms of color perception mediated by the phylogenetically older (blue-yellow) color pathway have been strongly influenced by the different phases of daylight.

  10. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  11. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  12. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  13. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  15. Bright field illumination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A Bright Field Illumination system for inspecting a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface. The system has an illumination source placed near a first focus of an elliptical reflector. In addition, a camera facing the inspected area is placed near the illumination source and the first focus. The second focus of the elliptical reflector is located at a distance approximately twice the elliptical reflector's distance above the inspected surface. The elliptical reflector directs the light from the source onto the inspected surface. Due to the shape of the elliptical reflector, light that is specularly reflected from the inspected surface is directed into the camera is which located at the position of the reflected second focus of the ellipse. This system creates a brightly lighted background field against which damage sites appear as high contrast dark objects which can be easily detected by a person or an automated inspection system. In addition, the Bright Field Illumination system and method can be used in combination with a vision inspection system providing for multiplexed illumination and data handling of multiple kinds of surface characteristics including abrupt and gradual surface variations and differences between measured characteristics of different kinds and prior instruments.

  16. OLED area illumination source

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  17. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1998-10-06

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  18. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1996-12-17

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  19. Practical structured illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rego, E Hesper; Shao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a method that can double the spatial resolution of wide-field fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions by using spatially structured illumination light. In this chapter, we introduce the basic principles of SIM and describe in detail several different implementations based on either a diffraction grating or liquid crystal spatial light modulators. We also describe nonlinear SIM, a method that in theory can achieve unlimited resolution. In addition, we discuss a number of key points important for high-resolution imaging. PMID:25391800

  20. Tailored reflectors for illumination.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D; Winston, R

    1996-04-01

    We report on tailored reflector design methods that allow the placement of general illumination patterns onto a target plane. The use of a new integral design method based on the edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics gives much more compact reflector shapes by eliminating the need for a gap between the source and the reflector profile. In addition, the reflectivity of the reflector is incorporated as a design parameter. We show the performance of design for constant irradiance on a distant plane, and we show how a leading-edge-ray method may be used to achieve general illumination patterns on nearby targets. PMID:21085288

  1. Color-rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources that are used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. On the basis of state-of-the-art colorimetric methods, we present a modern approach for the calculation of color-rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: first, we use the CIELAB color space; second, we apply a linearized Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation; and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda [Proc. CGIV'06 Conf., Leeds, UK, pp. 283-286 (2006)] have shown for the cube model that diffuse interreflections can influence the CRI of a light source. We analyze how color-rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB-based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  2. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  3. Daylighting on the working plane in oriented attic rooms under overcast and clear sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondáš, Kristián; Darula, Stanislav

    2014-06-01

    The evaluation of daylight conditions in building interiors is based on the Daylight Factor concept after current Slovak standards. Criteria and requirements determined in these standards consider the worst daylight exterior conditions which are described by CIE overcast sky model. The sky luminance distribution of overcast sky is centrical to the zenith, so independence of window orientation to cardinal points is characteristic in daylighting calculations. The sky luminance distribution modelling is one of the main task of the daylight source research more than 50 years. It is evident that also other types of sky conditions exist in nature. An introduction of a new criterion based on photometric variables, which also consider sunlight influence, is expected. This article represents a study of the influence of the interior orientation on distribution of daylighting in attic spaces under an overcast and clear sky

  4. Using the whole-building design approach to incorporate daylighting into a retail space: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Eastment, M.; Judkoff, R.

    2000-06-21

    This paper focuses on implementation of daylighting into the Bighorn Center, a collection of home improvement retail spaces in Silverthorne, Colorado, which were constructed in three phases. Daylighting was an integral part of the design of the Phase 3 building. Energy consultants optimized the daylighting design through detailed modeling using an hourly building energy simulation tool. Energy consultants also used this tool to address the building owner's concerns related to customer comfort and increased product sales.

  5. A method for estimating colors of scene illuminants under spatially non-uniform environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Harumi; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Kojima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for estimating illuminant colors that have two different light sources, i.e. fluorescent light and daylight. The conventional methods assume that one light source exists in a scene or in a small region and that it spans a scene uniformly. Therefore the methods cannot estimate illuminant colors when two different light sources are illuminating the scene or the region. Our method formulates the relationships among the colors of two regions that have the same surface reflectance but are in different locations and have different illumination rates (which vary from location to location). In order to clarify the unknown surface reflectance common to each color region, the method uses the property that the colors derived in the regions comprise the plane through the origin in a three-dimensional color space. By determining the normal of the plane, which is unique to the surface reflectance, the coefficients of the basis function of surface reflectance are derived. In this way, we can estimate illumination rates, that is, the colors of the scene illuminants. The results of numerical simulations using the reflectance dataset from the ISO-TR 16066 database and two illuminants (a typical fluorescent lamp and sunlight) show that the estimated illumination rates are similar to the ground truth.

  6. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 × 1026 W of radiation, of which ≈37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather. Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types. Ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range were obtained from the United Kingdom Meteorology Office. Based on available weather reports, five days of clear sky observations were selected. These data are compared to the predictions of the two models. We find that neither of the models provide an accurate treatment during twilight conditions when the Sun is at or a few degrees below the horizon. When the Sun is above the horizon, the Shapiro model straddles the observed data, ranging between 90% and 120% of the recorded illuminance. During the same times, the Brown model is between 70% and 90% of the

  7. The twilight envelope: a user-centered approach to describing roadway illumination at night.

    PubMed

    Andre, J; Owens, D A

    2001-01-01

    Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education.

  8. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1994-02-22

    A nonimaging illumination or concentration optical device. An optical device is provided having a light source, a light reflecting surface with an opening and positioned partially around the light source which is opposite the opening of the light reflecting surface. The light reflecting surface is disposed to produce a substantially uniform intensity output with the reflecting surface defined in terms of a radius vector R.sub.i in conjunction with an angle .phi..sub.i between R.sub.i, a direction from the source and an angle .theta..sub.i between direct forward illumination and the light ray reflected once from the reflecting surface. R.sub.i varies as the exponential of tan (.phi..sub.i -.theta..sub.i)/2 integrated over .phi..sub.i.

  9. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    2000-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  10. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1998-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  11. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  12. Illuminant spectrum estimation using a digital color camera and a color chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junsheng; Yu, Hongfei; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Chen, Zaiqing; Tai, Yonghang

    2014-10-01

    Illumination estimation is the main step in color constancy processing, also an important prerequisite for digital color image reproduction and many computer vision applications. In this paper, a method for estimating illuminant spectrum is investigated using a digital color camera and a color chart under the situation when the spectral reflectance of the chart is known. The method is based on measuring CIEXYZ of the chart using the camera. The first step of the method is to gain camera's color correction matrix and gamma values by taking a photo of the chart under a standard illuminant. The second step is to take a photo of the chart under an estimated illuminant, and the camera's inherent RGB values are converted to the standard sRGB values and further converted to CIEXYZ of the chart. Based on measured CIEXYZ and known spectral reflectance of the chart, the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the illuminant is estimated using the Wiener estimation and smoothing estimation. To evaluate the performance of the method quantitatively, the goodnessfitting coefficient (GFC) was used to measure the spectral match and the CIELAB color difference metric was used to evaluate the color match between color patches under the estimated and actual SPDs. The simulated experiment was carried to estimate CIE standard illuminant D50 and C using X-rite ColorChecker 24-color chart, the actual experiment was carried to estimate daylight and illuminant A using two consumergrade cameras and the chart, and the experiment results verified feasible of the investigated method.

  13. Daylighting practices of the architectural industry (baseline results of a national survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1990-05-01

    A national survey of over 300 commercial design architects was conducted to develop baseline information on their knowledge, perceptions, and use of daylighting in commercial building designs. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted the survey for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). In the survey daylighting was defined as the intentional use of natural light as a partial substitute for artificially generated light. The results suggested that architects need to be educated about the true benefits of daylighting and the impacts it can have on a building's energy performance. Educational programs that will increase the architects' understanding and awareness of modern daylighting technologies and practices should be developed by utilities, stage agencies, and the federal government. If more architects can be made aware of the true effectiveness and positive attributes of daylighting systems and technologies, daylighting may be used in more commercial buildings. The results of the survey show that the more familiar architects feel they are with daylighting, the more they use daylighting. 3 refs., 19 tabs.

  14. Daylighting Concepts for University Libraries and Their Influences on Users' Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Didem Kan; Hasirci, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Daylighting, a controlled architectural tool that influences users' perception and behavior, in university libraries and their influences on users' preference and satisfaction was examined in this study. The effects of daylighting in coordination with visual comfort, on university library users were measured in relation to four environmental…

  15. Eliminating Topographic Illumination Effects from Landsat Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, J.; Small, C.

    2013-12-01

    The solar illumination across a single satellite image is variable due to tree cover, slope, aspect and flux density. This makes it difficult to discern differences in land cover. In order to extract different land cover types from multispectral moderate resolution imagery, many techniques (mainly supervised and unsupervised classifications) have been used. These methods often perform adequately, but often must ignore finer resolution phenomena. Supervised classification suffers from this flaw, while unsupervised classification also often detects large differences in solar illumination as different classes. This makes lower flux density vegetation classify differently than illuminated vegetation, even of the same species. Existing topographic correction methods may overcorrect, rely on site-specific empirical terms or require data often unavailable in areas of interest (Kane et al. 2008). We present a new technique to remove topographic illumination effects with available global data and spectral unmixing. It uses a three endmember mixing model of substrate, vegetation, and dark (SVD) on Landsat imagery (Small 2004). The dark fraction is then plotted against a simulated incidence angle image derived from ASTER GDEM data to see the incidence angle-dark fraction space. This technique minimizes the trend between solar illumination values calculated from ASTER GDEM and the SVD dark fraction. This trend is then minimized to the nominal flux density of a level surface. With this minimization, the fraction estimates are reduced on sun-facing slopes and increased on sun-backing slopes. The resulting image can then be used to study variations in land cover without the overprinting of topographic shadow or variations in solar flux.

  16. ILLUMINATION RESPONSE OF CDZNTE

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, L.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.

    2011-08-02

    CdZnTe (CZT) semiconducting crystals are of interest for use as room temperature X- and {gamma}-ray spectrometers. Several studies have focused on understanding the various electronic properties of these materials, such as the surface and bulk resistivities and the distribution of the electric field within the crystal. Specifically of interest is how these properties are influenced by a variety of factors including structural heterogeneities, such as secondary phases (SPs) and line defects as well as environmental effects. Herein, we report the bulk current, surface current, electric field distribution and performance of a spectrometer-grade CZT crystal exposed to above band-gap energy illumination.

  17. LeRoy Doggett and Daylight Saving Time: A Reminiscence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartky, I. R.

    1997-12-01

    Daylight Saving Time (DST) has been a concern of Congress ever since its adoption in 1918. Yet, not until 1976 did Members of Congress have astronomical, geographic and demographic information in terms of the country's Standard Time zones. This information and various impact analyses were developed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) at the request of the House of Representatives, which was reviewing the effects of a two-year, DST experiment on the American public. The displays in the study gave legislators a way to consider alternate observance periods in a systematic manner. The leader of the DST study team will detail LeRoy Doggett's involvement during the hectic, three-month analysis period that culminated with NBS officials testifying before Congress.

  18. Naked eye visibility of Sirius in broad daylight.

    PubMed

    Können, Gunther P; Tinbergen, Jaap; Stammes, Piet

    2015-02-01

    Sirius was spotted with the naked eye at broad daylight by looking along the finder of a 1 m telescope on La Palma Observatory at a 2370 m height. Sun elevation was 73°; Sirius was nearly straight under the Sun at 37° elevation. The sky radiance, although not recorded directly, could be determined from the simultaneously obtained high-precision wavelength-dependent sky polarization data near Sirius. This was done by fitting the polarization data with the doubling-adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model, which provided the values of the surface albedo and of the aerosol optical thickness required for determining the absolute sky radiance. Our analysis implies that Sirius, when positioned overhead, can be a daytime naked eye object from sea level even if its culmination occurs at solar noon. It also suggests that the second-brightest star (Canopus), if positioned overhead, could be perceptible even at solar noon.

  19. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy in Spain: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients.

  20. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy.

  1. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy. PMID:25768743

  2. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  3. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  4. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  5. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  6. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  7. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  8. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  9. Optical influence of different standard illuminants on green nephrite's color From Manasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hong-mei; Guo, Ying

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the optical influence of illuminant on green color with low chroma (C*~1~12) of nephrite from Manasi, three different standard illuminant-daylight D65, incandescent light A and fluorescent light F2 (CWF) were applied during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the illuminants tested considering the coordinates of lightness L* and chromaticity a*, b*. The results indicate significant differences for L*, a* and b* (p<0.05). Only L* between D65 and F2 didn't vary significantly (p=0.691) with the multiple comparisons (LSD- test). The green color with higher C*and L* were found to be easily influenced by illuminant, and the color-difference was larger and the color appearance varied more obviously while the illuminant as changed. The changes in color parameters and visual effects showed that the D65 light illuminant is more suitable for the evaluation of green nephrite's color grading while light source A can be used during trading.

  10. Split-illumination electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  11. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    PubMed

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  12. An indicator device for monitoring of room illuminance level in the radiological image viewing environment.

    PubMed

    Azlan, C A; Ng, K H; Anandan, S; Nizam, M S

    2006-09-01

    Illuminance level in the softcopy image viewing room is a very important factor to optimize productivity in radiological diagnosis. In today's radiological environment, the illuminance measurements are normally done during the quality control procedure and performed annually. Although the room is equipped with dimmer switches, radiologists are not able to decide the level of illuminance according to the standards. The aim of this study is to develop a simple real-time illuminance detector system to assist the radiologists in deciding an adequate illuminance level during radiological image viewing. The system indicates illuminance in a very simple visual form by using light emitting diodes. By employing the device in the viewing room, illuminance level can be monitored and adjusted effectively.

  13. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  14. Phase-diffractive coating for daylight control on smart window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perennes, Frederic; Twardowski, Patrice J.; Gesbert, D.; Meyrueis, Patrick

    1992-11-01

    Daylight can be processed by a smart window in a transmission, reflective, refractive, and diffractive mode. In the future an optimization will be realized by a mixing of these approaches depending on the applied cases. Non-imaging diffractive optics has its roots in the work done in holographic diffractive coating for head up displays (HUD) and helmet mounted displays. For having globally good results on smart window with diffractive coating, a very high diffraction efficiency must be reached close to 100% without having a too important lowering of the control of other parameters of the light processed by a smart window (direction and frequency control essentially). We propose a method for designing, realizing, and using diffractive coating for a smart window that is based on a new organic material and diffractive model that were already validated in HUD. Potential low cost is possible for mass production on a large surface with an adapted investment. We describe the present technology and its limits and the ones that can be reached in the future. In this work, we present a holographic way to modify the slant of sun rays through a window, and to filter infrared radiations by using dichromated gelatin material. In this way it would be able to ensure a more uniform lighting and a more pleasant temperature inside buildings or vehicles, without using dye or photochromics glasses.

  15. Do humans discount the illuminant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2005-03-01

    In constancy experiments, humans report very small changes in appearance with substantial illumination changes. Hermann von Helmholtz introduced the term "discounting the illuminant" to describe 19th century thinking about underlying mechanisms of constancy. It uses an indirect approach. Since observers see objects as constant, observers "must" be able to detect the spatial and spectral changes in illumination and automatically compensate by altering the signals from the quanta catches of retinal receptors. Instead of solving the problem directly by calculating an object"s reflectance from the array of scene radiances, Helmholtz chose to solve the problem of identifying the illumination. Twentieth century experiments by Hubel and Wiesel, Campbell, Land, and Gibson demonstrate the power of mechanisms using spatial comparisons. This paper analyses a series of different experiments looking for unequivocal evidence that either supports "discounting the illuminant" or supports spatial comparisons as the underlying mechanism of constancy.

  16. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  17. Performance of Anidolic Daylighting Systems in tropical climates - Parametric studies for identification of main influencing factors

    SciTech Connect

    Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Wittkopf, Stephen K.

    2010-07-15

    Making daylight more available in buildings is highly desirable, not only for reasons of energy-efficiency, but also for improvement of occupants' health and well-being. Core-daylighting, that is daylight provision in areas situated at considerable distances from facades and windows, is currently one of the main challenges in sustainable building design. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADSs) are one very promising technology in the field of core-daylighting, but commercial solutions that are not only well-performing but also financially competitive are not yet widely available. This article presents results of parametric studies on Anidolic Integrated Ceilings (AICs), a special type of ADS, for identification of main influencing factors. The article describes a reliable method for simulating ADS and AIC performance under given sky conditions. Various simulation results for the example location Singapore are discussed in detail, it is concluded that the main influencing factors are coating material, system dimensions and external obstruction, and those influencing factors' potential impacts are quantified. It is shown that AIC overall efficiencies can reach up to almost 50% in Singapore. The essentially new results presented in this article can be of great help to architects, engineers and scientists in the future, when it comes to precisely dimensioning ADS for various buildings and daylight conditions. (author)

  18. Structured illumination temporal compressive microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xin; Pang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a compressive video microscope based on structured illumination with incoherent light source. The source-side illumination coding scheme allows the emission photons being collected by the full aperture of the microscope objective, and thus is suitable for the fluorescence readout mode. A 2-step iterative reconstruction algorithm, termed BWISE, has been developed to address the mismatch between the illumination pattern size and the detector pixel size. Image sequences with a temporal compression ratio of 4:1 were demonstrated. PMID:27231586

  19. Flexible structured illumination microscope with a programmable illumination array.

    PubMed

    Křížek, Pavel; Raška, Ivan; Hagen, Guy M

    2012-10-22

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has grown into a family of methods which achieve optical sectioning, resolution beyond the Abbe limit, or a combination of both effects in optical microscopy. SIM techniques rely on illumination of a sample with patterns of light which must be shifted between each acquired image. The patterns are typically created with physical gratings or masks, and the final optically sectioned or high resolution image is obtained computationally after data acquisition. We used a flexible, high speed ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay for definition of the illumination pattern coupled with widefield detection. Focusing on optical sectioning, we developed a unique and highly accurate calibration approach which allowed us to determine a mathematical model describing the mapping of the illumination pattern from the microdisplay to the camera sensor. This is important for higher performance image processing methods such as scaled subtraction of the out of focus light, which require knowledge of the illumination pattern position in the acquired data. We evaluated the signal to noise ratio and the sectioning ability of the reconstructed images for several data processing methods and illumination patterns with a wide range of spatial frequencies. We present our results on a thin fluorescent layer sample and also on biological samples, where we achieved thinner optical sections than either confocal laser scanning or spinning disk microscopes. PMID:23187221

  20. Hourly Illumination of Shackleton Crater

    NASA Video Gallery

    Illumination of Shackleton crater, a 21-km-diameter (12.5 mile-diameter) structure situated adjacent to the Moon’s south pole. The resolution is 30 meters (approximately 100 feet) per pixel. Fra...

  1. Laser sources for object illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, G.F.

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  2. Illumination of interior spaces by bended hollow light guides: Application of the theoretical light propagation method

    SciTech Connect

    Darula, Stanislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kittler, Richard; Kundracik, Frantisek

    2010-12-15

    To ensure comfort and healthy conditions in interior spaces the thermal, acoustics and daylight factors of the environment have to be considered in the building design. Due to effective energy performance in buildings the new technology and applications also in daylight engineering are sought such as tubular light guides. These allow the transport of natural light into the building core reducing energy consumption. A lot of installations with various geometrical and optical properties can be applied in real buildings. The simplest set of tubular light guide consists of a transparent cupola, direct tube with high reflected inner surface and a ceiling cover or diffuser redistributing light into the interior. Such vertical tubular guide is often used on flat roofs. When the roof construction is inclined a bend in the light guide system has to be installed. In this case the cupola is set on the sloped roof which collects sunlight and skylight from the seen part of the sky hemisphere as well as that reflected from the ground and opposite facades. In comparison with the vertical tube some additional light losses and distortions of the propagated light have to be expected in bended tubular light guides. Recently the theoretical model of light propagation was already published and its applications are presented in this study solving illuminance distributions on the ceiling cover interface and further illuminance distribution on the working plane in the interior. (author)

  3. Daylight Operable PIV for Use in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Larry; Sheng, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is widely used in laboratory scale studies, however, has considerable difficulties for application in the field. The issue mainly arise due to the presence of background sunlight and undesirable environmental conditions. To overcome the strong ambient light during the double exposure PIV operation, one must reduce substantially the total ambient illuminations to the tracer particle scattering. To achieve the above mentioned objective, we increase the scattering by using a pulsed laser with short pulse width (<7ns) at the same time shortening the image exposure. The laser light is introduced via fiber optic cable where the laser is located in a remote location and delivered to the encapsulated pod to form a thin collimated 50 x 1mm sheet, latter being the thickness. The sheet is then reflected between a series of mirrors to create a light-in-flight. The light sheet is overlapped slightly between the reflections and illuminates the entire field of view in the time of camera exposure (e.g. 1us). The DOPIV system is capable of measuring 2D velocity in a .5 m X .5 m field of view with 0.2 mm spatial resolution and 7.6 mm vector spacing. The bench-top and fields experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the systems in understanding near surface transport phenomenon such as wake in a wind farm, atmospheric/oceanic boundary layer, etc.

  4. Daylight saving time transitions and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Čulić, Viktor

    2013-06-01

    Most recently, the possible impact of transitions to and from daylight saving time (DST) on the increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been suggested. The goal of this report was to analyze independent influence of DST transitions on the incidence of AMI with simultaneous control for the confounding presence of situational triggers such as physical exertion, emotional stress, heavy meals, and sexual intercourse, as well as for other clinical factors. Detailed information was obtained from 2412 patients and included baseline characteristics, working status, exact time of AMI, possible external triggers, cardiovascular risk factors, and prehospital medication. AMI incidence on days after the DST was compared with incidence during control periods and patient characteristics, cardiovascular medication, and circumstances of AMI were evaluated to identify potential risk modifiers. Relative risks of AMI and differences in patient characteristics were expressed through incidence ratios and odds ratios, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis was performed by using a stepwise multiple regression to assess the independent predictive significance of the characteristics of patients for the AMI occurring in the posttransitional period. The incidence ratio for AMI for the first four workdays after the spring DST transition was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.09-1.49) and the excess was particularly prominent on Monday. In autumn, the incidence ratio for AMI for this 4-d period was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.19-1.69), with peaks on Tuesday and Thursday. The independent predictors for AMI during this period in spring were male sex (p = 0.03) and nonengagement in physical activity (p = 0.02) and there was a trend for the lower risk of incident among those taking calcium antagonists (p = 0.07). In autumn, the predictors were female sex (p = 0.04), current employment (p = 0.006), not taking β-blocker (p = 0.03), and nonengagement in physical activity (p

  5. Specimen illumination apparatus with optical cavity for dark field illumination

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, Daniel; Sudar, Damir; Albertson, Donna

    1999-01-01

    An illumination apparatus with a specimen slide holder, an illumination source, an optical cavity producing multiple reflection of illumination light to a specimen comprising a first and a second reflective surface arranged to achieve multiple reflections of light to a specimen is provided. The apparatus can further include additional reflective surfaces to achieve the optical cavity, a slide for mounting the specimen, a coverslip which is a reflective component of the optical cavity, one or more prisms for directing light within the optical cavity, antifading solutions for improving the viewing properties of the specimen, an array of materials for analysis, fluorescent components, curved reflective surfaces as components of the optical cavity, specimen detection apparatus, optical detection equipment, computers for analysis of optical images, a plane polarizer, fiberoptics, light transmission apertures, microscopic components, lenses for viewing the specimen, and upper and lower mirrors above and below the specimen slide as components of the optical cavity. Methods of using the apparatus are also provided.

  6. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  7. Physiological effects of sudden change in illuminance during dark-adapted state.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Sakaguchi, T; Sato, M

    1999-05-01

    To derive an optimal illuminance of nighttime illumination, we conducted an experiment with 7 healthy young individuals and 7 healthy elderly individuals as subjects. After 20 minutes of adaptation to darkness, subjects were exposed to illumination under 5 conditions comprising 0.5 lx, 1 lx, 3 lx, 10 lx, or 30 lx vertical illuminance of the facial region, and heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured, and discomfort was evaluated by subjective report. Results of LF/(LF + HF) (LF = low frequency, HF = high frequency) demonstrated a V-shaped trend for the young groups beginning during exposure and ending post exposure, with 3 lx conditions representing the minimum value, a value markedly lower than that for 30 lx conditions. From these results we inferred that approximately 3 lx illuminance could best suppress physiological stress. Evaluation of discomfort by subjective report also demonstrated an increase in discomfort evaluation scores under high illuminance conditions. The alpha-wave proportion of EEG during exposure fell markedly on 3 lx or higher illuminance conditions, and we inferred that visual sensory information and cortical activity level were adequately attained in 3 lx or higher illuminance conditions. These results suggest that the optimal illuminance of nighttime illumination is approximately 3 lx.

  8. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utama Sjarifudin, Firza; Justina, Laurensia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office) which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  9. A Study on the Optimal Duration of Daylight Saving Time (DST) in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Ahn, Young Sook; Kim, Dong-Bin; Yang, Hong-Jin

    2009-09-01

    Daylight saving time aims at spending effective daylight in summer season. Korea had enforced daylight saving time twelve times from 1948 to 1988. Since 1988, it is not executed, but it is recently discussed the resumption of DST. In this paper, we investigate the trend of DST in other countries, review the history of DST in Korea, and suggest the optimal DST duration in terms of astronomical aspects (times of sunrise and sunset). We find that the starting day of DST in Korea is apt for the second Sunday in May or the second Sunday in April according to the time of sunrise or to the difference between Korean standard meridian and observer's, respectively. We also discuss time friction that might be caused by time difference between DST and Korea Standard Time (KST).

  10. Recent research on anidolic daylighting systems: highly reflective coating materials and chronobiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhart, Friedrich; Wittkopf, Stephen K.; Münch, Mirjam; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2009-08-01

    Making daylight more available in buildings is highly desirable for reasons of energy efficiency, visual comfort, occupant well-being and health. The Anidolic Integrated Ceiling (AIC) is a highly efficient daylighting system, designed to gather and redirect daylight from the outside of a building into its interior with minimal losses. The reflective coating materials used within AICs have a major impact on the optical efficiency of such systems. The first part of our article presents a new computer model of an AIC consisting of more than 30 distinct components. We discuss on which of them the use of expensive, highly reflective coatings makes the most sense. We conclude that coating the component "Anidolic element 1" is always a good choice and that considerable financial savings can be obtained by following an appropriate optimization sequence.The second part of our article discusses chronobiological properties of Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS). We recorded daytime irradiance values for several weeks from March to May 2009 in an experimental office setup in our laboratory using a portable digital spectroradiometer. Our results showed to which extent different sky conditions influenced daylight exposure of office workers in an ADS-equipped office room. We conclude that for the tested ADS-equipped office room, daylight supply can be considered largely sufficient during long periods on most working days. However, complementary artificial lighting with blue-enriched polychromatic fluorescent tubes might be useful on days with predominantly overcast skies as well as before 09:00 and after 16:30 on all days.

  11. A course in illumination engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshel, R. John

    2007-09-01

    Illumination engineering is the novel field of more general field of optical design and engineering. A seminar, project-based course has been started at the College of Optical Science, The Univ. of Arizona. Topics include lightpipes, sources, sampling, modeling methods, reflectors, and displays. Guest lecturers from industry provide a wealth of additional content. The goal is to education our next generation of optical designers about this intriguing, complex, yet understudied field. Other goals are to provide training in nonsequential optical design software, connections between experimental data and modeling, and the non-technical aspects of the illumination field.

  12. Behavior of skin color under varying illumination seen by different cameras at different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta; Soriano, Maricor N.; Laaksonen, Mika V.

    2001-04-01

    The appearance of skin colors in the images depends among other things, on the camera, the calibration of the camera, and the illumination under which the image was taken. In this study, we investigate how the skin colors appear in the chromaticity coordinates of different color spaces like HSV/HSL, normalized rgb, YES and TSL. For this purpose, we have taken images of faces under 16 different illumination/camera calibration conditions using simulated illuminants (Horizon, A, fluorescent TL84 and daylight) with different RGB cameras (1CCD web cameras and a 3CCD camera). In the making of this series of 16 images, first the selected camera was calibrated to one of the four light sources and an image was taken. After that the light source was changed to the other light sources and at each time the person was imaged. The process was repeated to the other two light sources. The same procedure was done for all four light sources and for each camera. The skin regions were extracted from these images and this skin data was then converted to different color spaces. We inspected how the chromaticities of different skin color groups in these color spaces overlap in images taken in all 16 different cases and only in those cases in which the selected camera was calibrated to the current illuminant. These investigations were also made between different cameras. In addition to this, we examined the overlapping of all skin chromaticities from the different skin color groups between cameras.

  13. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  14. Statistical characterization of real-world illumination.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ron O; Willsky, Alan S; Adelson, Edward H

    2004-09-28

    Although studies of vision and graphics often assume simple illumination models, real-world illumination is highly complex, with reflected light incident on a surface from almost every direction. One can capture the illumination from every direction at one point photographically using a spherical illumination map. This work illustrates, through analysis of photographically acquired, high dynamic range illumination maps, that real-world illumination possesses a high degree of statistical regularity. The marginal and joint wavelet coefficient distributions and harmonic spectra of illumination maps resemble those documented in the natural image statistics literature. However, illumination maps differ from typical photographs in that illumination maps are statistically nonstationary and may contain localized light sources that dominate their power spectra. Our work provides a foundation for statistical models of real-world illumination, thereby facilitating the understanding of human material perception, the design of robust computer vision systems, and the rendering of realistic computer graphics imagery. PMID:15493972

  15. Consensus recommendations on the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream for actinic keratoses in Australia.

    PubMed

    See, Jo-Ann; Shumack, Stephen; Murrell, Dedee F; Rubel, Diana M; Fernández-Peñas, Pablo; Salmon, Robert; Hewitt, Daniel; Foley, Peter; Spelman, Lynda

    2016-08-01

    Australia has the highest prevalence of actinic keratoses (AK) worldwide. Because of the risk of transformation of AK to invasive squamous cell carcinomas, consensus guidelines recommend that AK are removed using appropriate therapies to prevent progression to invasive disease. Daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as an efficacious treatment for AK, particularly for patients who require treatment of large areas of chronic actinic damage that can be exposed easily to daylight. Daylight PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream is a simple treatment for AK, almost painless, well tolerated and convenient, requiring minimal time in the clinic. Randomised controlled studies from northern Europe and Australia support the use of daylight PDT as an effective therapy for grade I and II AK on the face and scalp. There is sufficient daylight to conduct daylight PDT in Australia at any time of the year and during most weather conditions. Hence, daylight PDT with MAL can be included as an effective and well-tolerated new treatment option for the treatment of AK in Australia. These consensus recommendations provide guidelines for Australian clinicians on the use of daylight PDT in the treatment of diagnosed AK. PMID:26033230

  16. Consensus recommendations on the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream for actinic keratoses in Australia.

    PubMed

    See, Jo-Ann; Shumack, Stephen; Murrell, Dedee F; Rubel, Diana M; Fernández-Peñas, Pablo; Salmon, Robert; Hewitt, Daniel; Foley, Peter; Spelman, Lynda

    2016-08-01

    Australia has the highest prevalence of actinic keratoses (AK) worldwide. Because of the risk of transformation of AK to invasive squamous cell carcinomas, consensus guidelines recommend that AK are removed using appropriate therapies to prevent progression to invasive disease. Daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as an efficacious treatment for AK, particularly for patients who require treatment of large areas of chronic actinic damage that can be exposed easily to daylight. Daylight PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream is a simple treatment for AK, almost painless, well tolerated and convenient, requiring minimal time in the clinic. Randomised controlled studies from northern Europe and Australia support the use of daylight PDT as an effective therapy for grade I and II AK on the face and scalp. There is sufficient daylight to conduct daylight PDT in Australia at any time of the year and during most weather conditions. Hence, daylight PDT with MAL can be included as an effective and well-tolerated new treatment option for the treatment of AK in Australia. These consensus recommendations provide guidelines for Australian clinicians on the use of daylight PDT in the treatment of diagnosed AK.

  17. Consensus recommendations on the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream for actinic keratoses in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Shumack, Stephen; Murrell, Dedee F; Rubel, Diana M; Fernández‐Peñas, Pablo; Salmon, Robert; Hewitt, Daniel; Foley, Peter; Spelman, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Australia has the highest prevalence of actinic keratoses (AK) worldwide. Because of the risk of transformation of AK to invasive squamous cell carcinomas, consensus guidelines recommend that AK are removed using appropriate therapies to prevent progression to invasive disease. Daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as an efficacious treatment for AK, particularly for patients who require treatment of large areas of chronic actinic damage that can be exposed easily to daylight. Daylight PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream is a simple treatment for AK, almost painless, well tolerated and convenient, requiring minimal time in the clinic. Randomised controlled studies from northern Europe and Australia support the use of daylight PDT as an effective therapy for grade I and II AK on the face and scalp. There is sufficient daylight to conduct daylight PDT in Australia at any time of the year and during most weather conditions. Hence, daylight PDT with MAL can be included as an effective and well‐tolerated new treatment option for the treatment of AK in Australia. These consensus recommendations provide guidelines for Australian clinicians on the use of daylight PDT in the treatment of diagnosed AK. PMID:26033230

  18. Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes.

    PubMed

    Glazowski, Christopher; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-08-01

    Coherent speckle influences the resulting image when narrow spectral line-width and single spatial mode illumination are used, though these are the same light-source properties that provide the best radiance-to-cost ratio. However, a suitable size of the detection pinhole can be chosen to maintain adequate optical sectioning while making the probability density of the speckle noise more normal and reducing its effect. The result is a qualitatively better image with improved contrast, which is easier to read. With theoretical statistics and experimental results, we show that the detection pinhole size is a fundamental parameter for designing imaging systems for use in turbid media.

  19. Daylight exposure and the other predictors of burnout among nurses in a University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Donmez, Levent

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if daylight exposure in work setting could be placed among the predictors of job burnout. The sample was composed of 141 nurses who work in Akdeniz University Hospital in Antalya, Turkey. All participants were asked to complete a personal data collection form, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Work Related Strain Inventory and the Work Satisfaction Questionnaire to collect data about their burnout, work-related stress (WRS) and job satisfaction (JS) levels in addition to personal characteristics. Descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests and correlation analysis were used in statistical analyses. Daylight exposure showed no direct effect on burnout but it was indirectly effective via WRS and JS. Exposure to daylight at least 3h a day was found to cause less stress and higher satisfaction at work. Suffering from sleep disorders, younger age, job-related health problems and educational level were found to have total or partial direct effects on burnout. Night shifts may lead to burnout via work related strain and working in inpatient services and dissatisfaction with annual income may be effective via job dissatisfaction. This study confirmed some established predictors of burnout and provided data on an unexplored area. Daylight exposure may be effective on job burnout.

  20. Change in the Classroom Deportment of Children Following Change From Daylight Saving Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The deportment of each student in a third-grade classroom was rated by the teacher before and after the fall change from daylight savings time, to see if this disruption in circadian rhythms alters behavior. The deportment of boys improved significantly while the deportment of girls was significantly disrupted. (Author/SJL)

  1. Electric Lighting and Daylighting in Schools. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grocoff, Paul N.

    This report examines both electric lighting and daylighting, listing criteria to determine the correct equipment for a school renovation or building project. Specific topics examine use of prismatic lenses; parabolic louvers; and indirect lighting, including the cost savings of using indirect lighting. The report indicates there is no clear answer…

  2. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  3. Study on illuminance and visual properties of flammable illumination.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, K; Nagai, Y

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate the physical, economical, physiological and psychological aspects regarding ancient lighting, two series of experiment were performed. At first a darkroom (1.3 x 4.5 m, Ht: 2.7 m) was constructed. In experiment I, illuminance and consumption rate of fuel were measured. The Japanese classic candle, plant oil and animal fat yield 1.12, 0.30-0.62 and 0.05 lux at 1.0 m distance, respectively. The illuminance was reduced to about 50% by and on which was a lighting tool of folkcraft. The burning duration of plant oil was about two weeks to 180 ml when it burned 4 hours per one day. In experiment II, 15 young females were examined regarding the visual properties such as visual acuity, readability of newspaper and discrimination of color under the simulated illumination of candle. The visual acuity was 0.42 under 0.16 lux. It needed more than 1.44 lux to read a newspaper. In the color discrimination test, yellowish green was most difficult, silver or long wave range colors were easy.

  4. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  5. Structured line illumination Raman microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kozue; Palonpon, Almar F.; Smith, Nicholas I.; Chiu, Liang-da; Kasai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Kawata, Satoshi; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    In the last couple of decades, the spatial resolution in optical microscopy has increased to unprecedented levels by exploiting the fluorescence properties of the probe. At about the same time, Raman imaging techniques have emerged as a way to image inherent chemical information in a sample without using fluorescent probes. However, in many applications, the achievable resolution is limited to about half the wavelength of excitation light. Here we report the use of structured illumination to increase the spatial resolution of label-free spontaneous Raman microscopy, generating highly detailed spatial contrast from the ensemble of molecular information in the sample. Using structured line illumination in slit-scanning Raman microscopy, we demonstrate a marked improvement in spatial resolution and show the applicability to a range of samples, including both biological and inorganic chemical component mapping. This technique is expected to contribute towards greater understanding of chemical component distributions in organic and inorganic materials. PMID:26626144

  6. Structured line illumination Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kozue; Palonpon, Almar F.; Smith, Nicholas I.; Chiu, Liang-Da; Kasai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Kawata, Satoshi; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-12-01

    In the last couple of decades, the spatial resolution in optical microscopy has increased to unprecedented levels by exploiting the fluorescence properties of the probe. At about the same time, Raman imaging techniques have emerged as a way to image inherent chemical information in a sample without using fluorescent probes. However, in many applications, the achievable resolution is limited to about half the wavelength of excitation light. Here we report the use of structured illumination to increase the spatial resolution of label-free spontaneous Raman microscopy, generating highly detailed spatial contrast from the ensemble of molecular information in the sample. Using structured line illumination in slit-scanning Raman microscopy, we demonstrate a marked improvement in spatial resolution and show the applicability to a range of samples, including both biological and inorganic chemical component mapping. This technique is expected to contribute towards greater understanding of chemical component distributions in organic and inorganic materials.

  7. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  8. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  9. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at “designated... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active...

  10. Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

    2013-09-01

    Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory.

  11. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active work... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active work... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active work... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.123 - Illumination. 9

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the United States Coast Guard (33 CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570) exist in the case of specific operations, illumination in active work... CFR 126.15(1) and (n), and 33 CFR 154.570 sets out requirements for illumination at...

  15. Best lighting for visual appreciation of artistic paintings--experiments with real paintings and real illumination.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Masuda, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    In a previous study based on monitor simulations of artistic paintings, it was found that the average correlated color temperature (CCT) of daylight preferred by a large set of observers to illuminate paintings was around 5100 K. The goal of the present study was to test if this result holds in real viewing conditions, i.e., with real paintings and real light sources. The same 11 paintings were tested in real conditions illuminated by a spectrally tunable light source and with accurate monitor simulations. To ensure uniform illumination across the paintings, only a central part of the paintings was visible to the observers. It was found that the average CCT preferred for real and monitor viewing conditions were very similar, 5500 and 5700 K, respectively. The somewhat larger CCT obtained with monitor viewing in relation to the former study was only observed in some paintings and was attributed to the smaller viewing area. These results confirm that CCT for best appreciation of paintings is higher than normally used in museums, and the viewing conditions, real or simulated, have only a minor effect.

  16. High-nitrogen-based pyrotechnics: perchlorate-free red- and green-light illuminants based on 5-aminotetrazole.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Moretti, Jared D

    2013-09-16

    Prototype testing of perchlorate-free hand-held signal illuminants for the US Army's M126 A1 red-star and M195 green-star parachute illuminants are described. Although previous perchlorate-free variants for these items have been developed based on high-nitrogen compounds that are not readily available, the new formulations consist of anhydrous 5-aminotetrazole as the suitable perchlorate replacement. Compared to the perchlorate-containing control, the disclosed illuminants exhibited excellent stabilities toward various ignition stimuli and had excellent pyrotechnic performance. The illuminants are important from both military and civil fireworks perspectives, as the perchlorate-free nature of the illuminants adequately address environmental concerns associated with perchlorate-containing red- and green-light-emitting illuminants. PMID:23950104

  17. High-nitrogen-based pyrotechnics: perchlorate-free red- and green-light illuminants based on 5-aminotetrazole.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Moretti, Jared D

    2013-09-16

    Prototype testing of perchlorate-free hand-held signal illuminants for the US Army's M126 A1 red-star and M195 green-star parachute illuminants are described. Although previous perchlorate-free variants for these items have been developed based on high-nitrogen compounds that are not readily available, the new formulations consist of anhydrous 5-aminotetrazole as the suitable perchlorate replacement. Compared to the perchlorate-containing control, the disclosed illuminants exhibited excellent stabilities toward various ignition stimuli and had excellent pyrotechnic performance. The illuminants are important from both military and civil fireworks perspectives, as the perchlorate-free nature of the illuminants adequately address environmental concerns associated with perchlorate-containing red- and green-light-emitting illuminants.

  18. Synchrotron-based EUV lithography illuminator simulator

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2004-07-27

    A lithographic illuminator to illuminate a reticle to be imaged with a range of angles is provided. The illumination can be employed to generate a pattern in the pupil of the imaging system, where spatial coordinates in the pupil plane correspond to illumination angles in the reticle plane. In particular, a coherent synchrotron beamline is used along with a potentially decoherentizing holographic optical element (HOE), as an experimental EUV illuminator simulation station. The pupil fill is completely defined by a single HOE, thus the system can be easily modified to model a variety of illuminator fill patterns. The HOE can be designed to generate any desired angular spectrum and such a device can serve as the basis for an illuminator simulator.

  19. Minimizing lighting power density in office rooms equipped with Anidolic Daylighting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2010-04-15

    Electric lighting is responsible for up to one third of an office building's electricity needs. Making daylight more available in office buildings can not only contribute to significant energy savings but also enhance the occupants' performance and wellbeing. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are one type of very effective facade-integrated daylighting systems. All south-facing office rooms within the LESO solar experimental building in Lausanne (Switzerland) are equipped with a given type of ADS. A recent study has shown that these offices' occupants are highly satisfied with their lighting environment. The most energy-efficient south-facing offices have a lighting power density of less than 5W/m{sup 2}. The lighting situation within these ''best practice''-offices has been assessed using the lighting simulation software RELUX Vision. Because this lighting situation is very much appreciated by the occupants, it was used as a starting point for developing even more energy-efficient office lighting designs. Two new lighting designs, leading to lighting power densities of 3.9W/m{sup 2} and 3W/m{sup 2}, respectively, have been suggested and simulated with RELUX Vision. Simulation results have shown that the expected performances of these new systems are comparable to that of the current lighting installation within the ''best practice''-offices or even better. These simulation results have been confirmed during experiments on 20 human subjects in a test office room recently set up within the LESO building. This article gives engineers, architects and light planers valuable information and ideas on how to design energy-efficient and comfortable electric lighting systems in office rooms with abundant access to daylight. (author)

  20. Aphid Acceptance of Barley Exposed to Volatile Phytochemicals Differs Between Plants Exposed in Daylight and Darkness

    PubMed Central

    Glinwood, Robert; Gradin, Therese; Karpinska, Barbara; Ahmed, Elham; Jonsson, Llisbeth

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that volatile cues from damaged plants may induce resistance in neighboring plants. Much less is known about the effects of volatile interaction between undamaged plants. In this study, barley plants, Hordeum vulgare cv. Kara, were exposed to volatiles from undamaged plants of barley cv. Alva or thistle Cirsium vulgare, and to the volatile phytochemicals, methyl salicylate or methyl jasmonate. Exposures were made either during natural daylight or darkness. Acceptance of exposed plants by the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi was assessed, as well as the expression of putative marker genes for the different treatments. Aphid acceptance of plants exposed to either barley or C. vulgare was significantly reduced, and an effect of the volatiles from undamaged plants was confirmed by the induction of pathogenesis-related protein, PR1a in exposed plants. However the effect on aphid acceptance was seen only when plants were exposed during darkness, whereas PR1a was induced only after treatment during daylight. Aphid acceptance of plants exposed to either methyl salicylate or methyl jasmonate was significantly reduced, but only when plants were exposed to the chemicals during daylight. AOS2 (allene oxide synthase) was induced by methyl jasmonate and BCI-4 (barley chemical inducible gene-4) by methyl salicylate in both daylight and darkness. It is concluded that (a) the effects on aphids of exposing barley to volatile phytochemicals was influenced by the presence or absence of light and (b) the response of barley to methyl salicylate/methyl jasmonate and to volatiles from undamaged plants differed at the gene and herbivore level. PMID:19516995

  1. Daylight measurements of mesopause temperature and vertical wind with the mobile scanning iron lidar.

    PubMed

    Höffner, Josef; Lautenbach, Jens

    2009-05-01

    We report on what we believe to be the first continuous daytime measurements of temperature and vertical wind with a mobile scanning iron lidar. The favorable combination of low backscatter coefficient, high number density, narrow resonance line, and strong Fraunhofer line allows nearly background-free observations during daylight. Owing to the low backscatter coefficient at 386 nm the Fe lidar can operate at a field of view of 54 microrad, which permits efficient spectral filtering with a compact double etalon. PMID:19412269

  2. Flight directions of passerine migrants in daylight and darkness: A radar and direct visual study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthreaux, S. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The application of radar and visual techniques to determine the migratory habits of passerine birds during daylight and darkness is discussed. The effects of wind on the direction of migration are examined. Scatter diagrams of daytime and nocturnal migration track directions correlated with wind direction are presented. It is concluded that migratory birds will fly at altitudes where wind direction and migratory direction are nearly the same. The effects of cloud cover and solar obscuration are considered negligible.

  3. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2013-05-23

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

  4. Trapped in the darkness of the night: thermal and energetic constraints of daylight flight in bats.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Lewanzik, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Bats are one of the most successful mammalian groups, even though their foraging activities are restricted to the hours of twilight and night-time. Some studies suggested that bats became nocturnal because of overheating when flying in daylight. This is because--in contrast to feathered wings of birds--dark and naked wing membranes of bats efficiently absorb short-wave solar radiation. We hypothesized that bats face elevated flight costs during daylight flights, since we expected them to alter wing-beat kinematics to reduce heat load by solar radiation. To test this assumption, we measured metabolic rate and body temperature during short flights in the tropical short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata at night and during the day. Core body temperature of flying bats differed by no more than 2°C between night and daytime flights, whereas mass-specific CO(2) production rates were higher by 15 per cent during daytime. We conclude that increased flight costs only render diurnal bat flights profitable when the relative energy gain during daytime is high and risk of predation is low. Ancestral bats possibly have evolved dark-skinned wing membranes to reduce nocturnal predation, but a low degree of reflectance of wing membranes made them also prone to overheating and elevated energy costs during daylight flights. In consequence, bats may have become trapped in the darkness of the night once dark-skinned wing membranes had evolved.

  5. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than themore » Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.« less

  6. The shift to and from daylight savings time and motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Lambe, M; Cummings, P

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether the shifts to and from daylight savings time in Sweden have short-term effects on the incidence of traffic crashes. A database maintained by the Swedish National Road Administration was used to examine crashes from 1984 through 1995, that occurred on state roads the Monday preceding, the Monday immediately after (index Monday), and the Monday 1 week after the change to daylight savings time in the spring and for the corresponding three Mondays in the autumn. The Mondays 1 week before and after the time changes were taken as representing the expected incidence of crashes. Crash incidence was calculated per 1000 person-years using population estimates for each year of the study. The association between 1 h of possible sleep loss and crash incidence was estimated by the incidence rate ratio from negative binomial regression. The incidence rate ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.92-1.16) for a Monday on which drivers were expected to have had 1 h less sleep, compared with other Mondays. In the spring, the incidence rate ratio for crashes was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.93-1.31) for Mondays after the time change compared to other spring Mondays. The corresponding rate ratio for the fall was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84-1.15) It was concluded that the shift to and from daylight savings time did not have measurable important immediate effects on crash incidence in Sweden.

  7. Energy and daylighting: A correlation between quality of light and energy consciousness

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, N.

    1997-12-31

    Energy and Daylighting, an advanced topics graduate/professional elective has been established to help the student develop a deeper understanding of Architectural Daylighting, Energy Conserving Design, and Material/Construction/Methods through direct application. After a brief survey of the principles and applications of current and developing attitudes and techniques in energy conservation and natural lighting strategies is conducted (in order to build upon previous courses), an extensive exercise follows which allows the student the opportunity for direct applications. Both computer modeling/analysis and physical modeling (light box simulation with photographic documentation) are employed to focus attention on the interrelationships between natural lighting and passive energy conserving design--all within the context of establishing environmental (interior) quality and (exterior) design direction. As a result, students broaden their understanding of natural light and energy conservation as design tools; the importance of environmental responsibility, both built and natural environments; and using computer analysis as a design tool. This presentation centers around the activities and results obtained from explorations into Energy and Daylighting. Discussion will highlight the course objectives, the methodology involved in the studies, specific requirements and means of evaluation, a slide show of befores and afters (results), and a retrospective look at the course`s value, as well as future directions and implications.

  8. The impact of daylight saving time on sleep and related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Yvonne

    2013-08-01

    Daylight saving time is currently adopted in over 70 countries and imposes a twice yearly 1 h change in local clock time. Relative ease in adjustment of sleep patterns is assumed by the general population but this review suggests that the scientific data challenge a popular understanding of the clock change periods. The start of daylight saving time in the spring is thought to lead to the relatively inconsequential loss of 1 h of sleep on the night of the transition, but data suggests that increased sleep fragmentation and sleep latency present a cumulative effect of sleep loss, at least across the following week, perhaps longer. The autumn transition is often popularised as a gain of 1 h of sleep but there is little evidence of extra sleep on that night. The cumulative effect of five consecutive days of earlier rise times following the autumn change again suggests a net loss of sleep across the week. Indirect evidence of an increase in traffic accident rates, and change in health and regulatory behaviours which may be related to sleep disruption suggest that adjustment to daylight saving time is neither immediate nor without consequence.

  9. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than the Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.

  10. Trapped in the darkness of the night: thermal and energetic constraints of daylight flight in bats

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Christian C.; Lewanzik, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Bats are one of the most successful mammalian groups, even though their foraging activities are restricted to the hours of twilight and night-time. Some studies suggested that bats became nocturnal because of overheating when flying in daylight. This is because—in contrast to feathered wings of birds—dark and naked wing membranes of bats efficiently absorb short-wave solar radiation. We hypothesized that bats face elevated flight costs during daylight flights, since we expected them to alter wing-beat kinematics to reduce heat load by solar radiation. To test this assumption, we measured metabolic rate and body temperature during short flights in the tropical short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata at night and during the day. Core body temperature of flying bats differed by no more than 2°C between night and daytime flights, whereas mass-specific CO2 production rates were higher by 15 per cent during daytime. We conclude that increased flight costs only render diurnal bat flights profitable when the relative energy gain during daytime is high and risk of predation is low. Ancestral bats possibly have evolved dark-skinned wing membranes to reduce nocturnal predation, but a low degree of reflectance of wing membranes made them also prone to overheating and elevated energy costs during daylight flights. In consequence, bats may have become trapped in the darkness of the night once dark-skinned wing membranes had evolved. PMID:21208959

  11. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOEpatents

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  12. Free-form illumination optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Hernández, Maikel

    2016-04-01

    In many illumination problems, the beam pattern needed and/or some geometrical constraints lead to very asymmetric design conditions. These asymmetries have been solved in the past by means of arrangements of rotationally symmetric or linear lamps aimed in different directions whose patterns overlap to provide the asymmetric prescriptions or by splitting one single lamp into several sections, each one providing a part of the pattern. The development of new design methods yielding smooth continuous free-form optical surfaces to solve these challenging design problems, combined with the proper CAD modeling tools plus the development of multiple axes diamond turn machines, give birth to a new generation of optics. These are able to offer the performance and other advanced features, such as efficiency, compactness, or aesthetical advantages, and can be manufactured at low cost by injection molding. This paper presents two examples of devices with free-form optical surfaces, a camera flash, and a car headlamp.

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  17. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  18. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  19. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  20. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  1. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  2. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  3. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  4. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  5. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  6. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  7. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  8. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  16. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  17. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  18. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  19. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  20. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  1. Effects of changing illuminance on somatosensory function.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Fujita, Mizuho; Tanaka, Yuji L; Nemoto, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Artificial sources of illumination can be easily used, regardless of the time and place, to improve visibility at night and in dark places. Illuminance and color temperature are particularly important factors since they are known to elicit physiological effects. However, the relationship between changes in illuminance and somatosensory function has not been sufficiently clarified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct a laboratorial model to examine the effects of lowering or raising illuminance on somatosensory function. Three illuminance levels (200 lx, 50 lx, and 0 lx), which were changed using all combinations, and an artificial sensory stimulus maintained at a constant intensity were presented to the subjects of this study. Objective sensory function in response to the sensory stimulus was investigated by somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), and subjective sensory evaluation in response to the stimulus was investigated using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by interview. In many cases, the SEP amplitude and VAS value tended to decrease when illuminance was lowered and tended to increase when illuminance was raised. However, in a few cases, SEP amplitude and VAS value tended to increase in spite of the low illuminance. The occurrence of attention responses and unpleasant emotional responses caused by lowering the illuminance seems to be related to this study finding.

  2. Ray tracing analysis of inclined illumination techniques.

    PubMed

    Sinkó, József; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2014-08-11

    The reduction of out of focus signal is a general task in fluorescence microscopy and is especially important in the recently developed super-resolution techniques because of the degradation of the final image. Several illumination methods have been developed to provide decreased out of focus signal level relative to the common epifluorescent illumination. In this paper we examine the highly inclined and the total internal reflection illumination techniques using the ray tracing method. Two merit functions were introduced for the quantitative description of the excitation of the selected region. We studied the feasibility of illumination methods, and the required corrections arising from the imperfections of the optical elements.

  3. Shadowgraph illumination techniques for framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.M.; Flurer, R.L.; Frogget, B.C.; Sorenson, D.S.; Holmes, V.H.; Obst, A.W.

    1997-06-01

    Many pulse power applications in use at the Pegasus facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require specialized imaging techniques. Due to the short event duration times, visible images are recorded by high speed electronic framing cameras. Framing cameras provide the advantages of high speed movies of back light experiments. These high speed framing cameras require bright illumination sources to record images with 10 ns integration times. High power lasers offer sufficient light for back illuminating the target assemblies; however, laser speckle noise lowers the contrast in the image. Laser speckle noise also limits the effective resolution. This discussion focuses on the use of telescopes to collect images 50 feet away. Both light field and dark field illumination techniques are compared. By adding relay lenses between the assembly target and the telescope, a high resolution magnified image can be recorded. For dark field illumination, these relay lenses can be used to separate the object field from the illumination laser. The illumination laser can be made to focus onto the opaque secondary of a Schmidt telescope. Thus, the telescope only collects scattered light from the target assembly. This dark field illumination eliminates the laser speckle noise and allows high resolution images to be recorded. Using the secondary of the telescope to block the illumination laser makes dark field illumination an ideal choice for the framing camera.

  4. Illumination discrimination in real and simulated scenes

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Pearce, Bradley; Aston, Stacey; Krieger, Avery; Dubin, Hilary; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.; Hurlbert, Anya C.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing humans' ability to discriminate changes in illumination provides information about the visual system's representation of the distal stimulus. We have previously shown that humans are able to discriminate illumination changes and that sensitivity to such changes depends on their chromatic direction. Probing illumination discrimination further would be facilitated by the use of computer-graphics simulations, which would, in practice, enable a wider range of stimulus manipulations. There is no a priori guarantee, however, that results obtained with simulated scenes generalize to real illuminated scenes. To investigate this question, we measured illumination discrimination in real and simulated scenes that were well-matched in mean chromaticity and scene geometry. Illumination discrimination thresholds were essentially identical for the two stimulus types. As in our previous work, these thresholds varied with illumination change direction. We exploited the flexibility offered by the use of graphics simulations to investigate whether the differences across direction are preserved when the surfaces in the scene are varied. We show that varying the scene's surface ensemble in a manner that also changes mean scene chromaticity modulates the relative sensitivity to illumination changes along different chromatic directions. Thus, any characterization of sensitivity to changes in illumination must be defined relative to the set of surfaces in the scene.

  5. Illumination system characterization for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrašnik, Jaka; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging is becoming a popular tool in the biomedical field, especially for detection and analysis of different types of cancers, analysis of skin burns and bruises, imaging of blood vessels and for many other applications. As in all imaging systems, proper illumination is crucial to attain optimal image quality that is needed for best performance of image analysis algorithms. In hyperspectral imaging based on filters (AOTF, LCTF and filter wheel) the acquired spectral signature has to be representative in all parts of the imaged object. Therefore, the whole object must be equally well illuminated - without shadows and specular reflections. As there are no restrictions imposed on the material and geometry of the object, the desired object illumination can only be achieved with completely diffuse illumination. In order to minimize shadows and specular reflections in diffuse illumination the light illuminating the object must be spatially, angularly and spectrally uniform. We present and test two diffuse illumination system designs that try to achieve optimal uniformity of the above mentioned properties. The illumination uniformity properties were measured with an AOTF based hyperspectral imaging system utilizing a standard white diffuse reflectance target and a specially designed calibration target for estimating the spatial and angular illumination uniformity.

  6. Nonmonotonic effects of test illuminance on flicker detection: a study of foveal light adaptation with annular surrounds.

    PubMed

    Eisner, A

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the detectability of flicker for small long-wavelength foveal test stimuli centered within larger long-wavelength surround stimuli. Flicker visibility was evaluated as a function of surround and test illuminance and as a function of test wavelength, of the time elapsed following test or surround onset, and of surround dimensions. Consistent with prior flicker threshold-versus-illuminance results [Vision Res. 26, 917 (1986)], flicker threshold decreased abruptly once the surround illuminance became sufficiently great. However, as test illuminance was increased above flicker threshold, flicker again vanished. Flicker reappeared at still higher test illuminances, as middle-wavelength-sensitive (M-) cone-mediated flicker threshold was exceeded. Meanwhile, the time required for the surround to render flicker visible increased at a rapidly accelerating rate with decreasing surround illuminance; it increased at a more sporadic rate with increasing test illuminance. At bright enough surround illuminances, flicker did not vanish with increasing test illuminance. These and other results are compatible with a framework derived from previous dark-adaptation data [Vision Res. 32, 1975 (1992)]. In that framework the test stimulus itself induces losses of flicker sensitivity by sufficiently perturbing retinal response during states or stages of adaptation that fail to cause spectrally antagonistic processes to redress that perturbation adequately. The relevant adaptation processes, which can require minutes, involve an adaptation pool that includes (and is affected by) the test stimulus.

  7. Aspects of illumination system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshel, R. John

    2004-09-01

    This paper focuses on the facets of illumination system optimization, in particular parameterization of objects, the number of rays that must be traced to sample properly its properties, and the optimization algorithm with the associated merit function designation. Non-interference ensures that the parameterized objects do not erroneously intersect each other or leave gaps during the steps of the optimization procedure. The required number of rays is based on a model developed for television cameras during their initial days of development. Using signal to noise ratio, it provides the number of rays based on the desired contrast, feature size, and allowed error probability. A lightpipe is used to highlight the nuances of this model. The utility of using system symmetry to increase ray count is also discussed. A modified simplex method of optimization is described. This algorithm provides quicker convergence than the standard simplex method, while it is also robust, accurate, and convergent. A previous example using a compound parabolic concentrator highlights the utility of this improvement.

  8. Illuminating the life of GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Böhme, Ilka; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of biological systems highly depends on the possibilities that allow scientists to visualize and quantify biomolecules and their related activities in real-time and non-invasively. G-protein coupled receptors represent a family of very dynamic and highly regulated transmembrane proteins that are involved in various important physiological processes. Since their localization is not confined to the cell surface they have been a very attractive "moving target" and the understanding of their intracellular pathways as well as the identified protein-protein-interactions has had implications for therapeutic interventions. Recent and ongoing advances in both the establishment of a variety of labeling methods and the improvement of measuring and analyzing instrumentation, have made fluorescence techniques to an indispensable tool for GPCR imaging. The illumination of their complex life cycle, which includes receptor biosynthesis, membrane targeting, ligand binding, signaling, internalization, recycling and degradation, will provide new insights into the relationship between spatial receptor distribution and function. This review covers the existing technologies to track GPCRs in living cells. Fluorescent ligands, antibodies, auto-fluorescent proteins as well as the evolving technologies for chemical labeling with peptide- and protein-tags are described and their major applications concerning the GPCR life cycle are presented. PMID:19602276

  9. Fenestration guideline for energy and daylight efficiency: Evaluation and prediction of performance in office buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Dong-Hwan

    The primary significance of this paper is the development of guidelines that can help in defining fenestration properties and design factors to increase building performances. Since the influence of fenestration on energy consumption is well known and proved, in order to encourage the development of appropriate designs to ensure high performance office buildings, fenestration guidelines have been developed. This research consisted of the following two parts. First, in relation to window design of typical office buildings, the main design parameters were considered for (1) daylight simulation using RADIANCE and (2) energy performance using eQUEST, based on the characteristics of the typical office building. Second, window area and properties such as U-factor, SHGC, and VT were considered, because building performance depends on a good configuration of fenestration factors. The main results of this research provide the necessary criteria with respect to fenestration in order to meet daylight requirements and conserve energy. These fenestration criteria are targeted at architects and designers to facilitate them in the selection of the U-factor, SHGC, VT, and window-to-wall ratio (WWR). Further, the application of the abovementioned method can result in more energy-efficient buildings, which, in turn, can assist in attaining an LEED green building rating system certification. In sum, in this research, guidelines to estimate energy conservation and daylight performance have been presented. Further, the use of the simplified method developed in this study can help in designing green buildings and obtaining more LEED credits. It is hoped that these criteria will enable architects to achieve better fenestration designs and ensure that they consider window properties and local climate types in the design process.

  10. Loss of daylight vision in retinal degeneration: are oxidative stress and metabolic dysregulation to blame?

    PubMed

    Punzo, Claudio; Xiong, Wenjun; Cepko, Constance L

    2012-01-13

    Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by loss of night vision, followed by complete blindness. Over 40 genetic loci for retinitis pigmentosa have been identified in humans, primarily affecting photoreceptor structure and function. The availability of excellent animal models allows for a mechanistic characterization of the disease. Metabolic dysregulation and oxidative stress have been found to correlate with the loss of vision, particularly in cones, the type of photoreceptors that mediate daylight and color vision. The evidence that these problems actually cause loss of vision and potential therapeutic approaches targeting them are discussed. PMID:22074929

  11. High-quality silver halide holograms and interferograms momentally produced in daylight environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data having no analogs is presented. Holograms and interferograms are recorded and momentarily photoprocessed in the presence of rather intense polychromatic light. Russian and Western silver halide media for holography are used. A scientific demonstration of the technique is planned with holograms momentarily produced on the site during the presentation. In other words totally daylight holographic technique avoiding darkrooms is presented de facto. The technique with its unique simplicity and speed, guaranteed quality of holographic reconstructions, and extreme cheapness seems to be very promising to biomedical applications.

  12. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  13. Assessment of metal halide lamp for the illumination of LCD-based projection display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. C.; Huang, C. H.; Chen, How-More; Chiang, Cyril C.

    1995-04-01

    Apparatus consists of a short-arc metal halide lamp and a dichroic mirror in parabolic-like shape has been widely employed in portable projection TV (PTV) as the light source to illuminate liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. Advantages include high luminous efficacy, near-daylight color temperature, and superior color rendering index. At MRL or ITRI we have successfully developed such light sources of 150 W input power, using Dy-Nd-Cs iodides in appropriate amount. Nominal efficiency exceeds 73 lm/w with color temperature of 6500 K. Higher efficiency better than 80 lm/w was possible at the cost of color temperature. Continuous lifetime test has been conducted for 3000 hours, compared to effective `ON' history in ON/OFF start-ups longer than 2300 hours. Luminous decay in the ON/OFF test was observed lower than 35%. A 70% reduction of the initial value is estimated around 2000 hours, better than most of the commercial counterparts. Quality of image in display is improved by matching illumination spectrum to the characteristics of flat panel devices. Monochromes after being projected are compared using (u,v) coordinates against NTSC data. Computer simulation was integrated to resolve the brightness distribution on a 3.6-inch (diagonal) LCD panel, with which lamp fixture was precisely determined. Know-hows leading to more favorable PTV systems lie in the combination of lamp spectra and color filters that comprises of the core interests in lamp assessment.

  14. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a* shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b* shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  15. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  16. On the Use of Integrated Daylighting and Energy Simulations to Drive the Design of a Large Net-Zero Energy Office Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, R.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper illustrates the challenges of integrating rigorous daylight and electric lighting simulation data with whole-building energy models, and defends the need for such integration to achieve aggressive energy savings. Through a case study example, we examine the ways daylighting -- and daylighting simulation -- drove the design of a large net-zero energy project. We give a detailed review of the daylighting and electric lighting design process for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Research Support Facility (RSF), a 220,000 ft2 net-zero energy project the author worked on as a daylighting consultant. A review of the issues involved in simulating and validating the daylighting performance of the RSF will be detailed, including daylighting simulation, electric lighting control response, and integration of Radiance simulation data into the building energy model. Daylighting was a key strategy in reaching the contractual energy use goals for the RSF project; the building's program, layout, orientation and interior/furniture design were all influenced by the daylighting design, and simulation was critical in ensuring these many design components worked together in an integrated fashion, and would perform as required to meet a very aggressive energy performance goal, as expressed in a target energy use intensity.

  17. Susceptible period of socio-emotional development affected by constant exposure to daylight.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Ozawa, Simpei; Tanaka, Ikuko; Honda, Yoshiko; Usui, Setsuo; Kodama, Tohru; Mimura, Koki; Nakamura, Shun; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    As a diurnal experimental primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has recently contributed to numerous kinds of studies of neurobiological psychiatry as an essential pre-clinical model. The marmoset matures sexually within one or two years after birth. Thus, we can observe how the primate learns and develops psycho-cognitive functions through experiences in experimental environment for a much shorter period compared to that of humans. Longer daylight exposure may affect psychological development of children. In our research, we focus on raising marmosets under constant daylight from birth until various ages. In order to quantitatively evaluate the development of higher-ordered psychological functions, we designed a system of socio-behavioral tests and multivariate correlation analysis methods based on principal component analysis. With reference to the call and typical body movement expressed during a particular social context, we statistically inferred the emotional features of the subjects. In the current literature, we review our published results showing increased alert behaviors by constant light, and then, attempted to extend our additional analysis to seek age-dependent susceptibility to constant light. We then present the neurobiological mechanisms with reference to previous research reports. The current review suggests possible existence of a susceptible period earlier than three to five month-old in the environment-induced developmental disorder model, supposedly like attention deficit hyperactive disorders (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

  18. Light-scattering properties of a Venetian blind slat used for daylighting applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Annica M.; Jonsson, Jacob C.

    2010-12-15

    The low cost, simplicity, and aesthetic appearance of external and internal shading devices, make them commonly used for daylighting and glare-control applications. Shading devices, such as Venetian blinds, screens, and roller shades, generally exhibit light scattering and/or light redirecting properties. This requires the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) of the material to be known in order to accurately predict the daylight distribution and energy flow through the fenestration system. Acquiring the complete BSDF is not a straightforward task, and to complete the process it is often required that a model is used to complement the measured data. In this project, a Venetian blind slat with a white top surface and a brushed aluminum bottom surface was optically characterized. A goniophotometer and an integrating sphere spectrophotometer were used to determine the angle resolved and hemispherical reflectance of the sample, respectively. The acquired data were fitted to a scattering model providing one Lambertian and one angle dependent description of the surface properties. These were used in combination with raytracing to obtain the complete BSDFs of the Venetian blind system. (author)

  19. Illumination optimization for 65nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo; Hung, Chi-Yuan

    2006-10-01

    The most important task of the microlithography process is to make the manufacturable process latitude/window, including dose latitude and Depth of Focus, as wide as possible. Thus, to perform a thorough source optimization during process development is becoming more critical as moving to high NA technology nodes. Furthermore, Optical proximity correction (OPC) are always used to provide a common process window for structures that would, otherwise, have no overlapping windows. But as the critical dimension of the IC design shrinks dramatically, the flexibility for applying OPC also decreases. So a robust microlithography process should also be OPC-friendly. This paper demonstrates our work on the illumination optimization during the process development. The Calibre ILO (Illumination Optimization) tool was used to perform the illumination optimization and provided plots of DOF vs. various parametric illumination settings. This was used to screen the various illumination settings for the one with optimum process margins. The resulting illumination conditions were then implemented and analyzed at a real wafer level on our 90/65nm critical layers, such as Active, Poly, Contact and Metal. In conclusion, based on these results, a summary is provided highlighting how OPC can get benefit from proper illumination optimization.

  20. Illuminance and egg production in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Danisman, R; Gous, R M

    2009-03-01

    1. Ross broiler breeders were reared at a nominal illuminance of 15, 20 or 45 lux and transferred to a nominal illuminance of 25, 55 or 70 lux at 20 weeks. 2. There were no significant interactions between the response to illuminance during rearing and in lay. This means that it matters not whether illuminance is increased, decreased or held constant on transfer to the laying house, provided it equals or exceeds the biological optimum for satisfactory egg production. 3. Whilst there were no significant effects of illuminance in either the rearing period or laying periods on egg numbers, peak rate of lay, terminal rate of lay, egg mass output or liveability, meta-analyses of these and other data indicated biological optima of 15 lux during rearing and 7 lux in the laying period. Birds reared at 45 lux had a lower mean egg weight (and earlier sexual maturity) than birds reared at 15 lux, and hens illuminated at 25 lux in the laying period laid more eggs on the floor than at either 55 or 70 lux. 4. Typical primary breeder recommendations of 10-20 lux during rearing and 30-60 lux in lay are appropriate for floor-housed birds; however, an illuminance of 7 lux could be used for caged birds, subject to welfare-code compliance.

  1. LED illuminant on the ambient light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Anqing; Sandipan, Mishra; Shur, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We develop an approach for combining illuminance and spectral power distribution of the LED and ambient light and apply our technique for developing an LED camera flashlight balancing the illuminance contrast between object and background. Our method uses the closed loop, multiobjective optimization comprising: (1) characterizing the lighting task by illuminance, correlated color temperature (CCT), and statistical color quality indices that include a set of Statistical Color Quality Metrics and the Color Rendition Index (CRI) implemented with indexes of S (saturation) or D (dulling); (2) measuring the illuminance and the spectrum of the ambient light on the target lighting surface, which might depend on all the sources proving illumination and on the reflected light; (3) determining the desired illuminance of the LED source on the target lighting surface; (4) calculating the desired luminous flux of the LED source according to the desired illuminance; (5) constituting the SPD of the LED source; (6) calculating the relative spectra counts of the LED source and the ambient light on the target lighting surface (7) calculating the CCT and statistical color quality indexes of the combined light; (8) repeating the above steps until the resulting SPD is close enough to the expectation. Using the above method, an LED camera flashlight has been designed, which works together with usual fluorescent ambient light and generates working lighting environment with high fidelity and high CCT (6000K). The spectrum and luminous flux of the LED lamp is automatically tunable with a change of the ambient light.

  2. Daylighting design analysis. Project status report No. 2, 1 March-31 December 1980. [For pre-engineered metal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hallagan, W.B.; Lindsey, L.L.; Snyder, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed scale model studies regarding daylighting aspects of the passive/hybrid solar test building located at Butler Research Center in Grandview, MO are discussed. The product development program is aimed at providing passive/hybrid system building alternatives for commercial, industrial, and community purchasers of Butler's Landmark pre-engineered metal buildings. Occasioned by recognition, early in the project, that daylighting could strongly influence annual energy consumption in buildings of the targetted use types, scale models of several alternative design configurations, including that of the test building in Grandview, were built and tested. The major design alternatives, test results, and conclusions to date are described.

  3. 29 CFR 1918.92 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Walking, working, and climbing areas. Walking, working, and climbing areas shall be illuminated. Unless conditions described in the regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard (33 CFR 154.570) exist for...

  4. Hyperspectral face recognition under variable outdoor illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhihong; Healey, Glenn E.; Prasad, Manish; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2004-08-01

    We examine the performance of illumination-invariant face recognition in outdoor hyperspectral images using a database of 200 subjects. The hyperspectral camera acquires 31 bands over the 700-1000nm spectral range. Faces are represented by local spectral information for several tissue types. Illumination variation is modeled by low-dimensional spectral radiance subspaces. Invariant subspace projection over multiple tissue types is used for recognition. The experiments consider various face orientations and expressions. The analysis includes experiments for images synthesized using face reflectance images of 200 subjects and a database of over 7,000 outdoor illumination spectra. We also consider experiments that use a set of face images that were acquired under outdoor illumination conditions.

  5. Confocal imaging with orthogonally polarized illumination beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Ranjan; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-03-01

    In confocal microscopy the polarization of the illumination beam plays an important role in determining the orientation of the fluorescent molecules being illuminated. The efficiency of the excitation depends on the angle between the excitation electric field and the direction of the molecular dipole. In order to determine the orientation of the fluorescent molecules in the focal plane the molecules are to be excited using two mutually orthogonal electric fields. In this paper we show how a computer generated holography technique can be implemented using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator to conveniently obtain two images of the same target once with an X polarized illumination beam and another with a Y polarized illumination beam.

  6. Illumination control apparatus for compensating solar light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An illumination control apparatus is presented for supplementing light from solar radiation with light from an artificial light source to compensate for periods of insufficient levels of solar light. The apparatus maintains a desired illumination level within an interior space comprising an artificial light source connected to an electrical power source with a switch means for selectively energizing said light source. An actuator means for controlling the on-off operation of the switch means is connected to a light sensor which responses to the illumination level of the interior space. A limit switch carried adjacent to the actuator limits the movement of the actuator within a predetermined range so as to prevent further movement thereof during detection of erroneous illumination conditions.

  7. An illuminated flute needle for vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davison, C N; Rosen, P H

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a simple self-illuminated flute needle for internal drainage of subretinal fluid during three-port vitrectomy. This instrument facilitates visualization and drainage through peripheral retinal breaks.

  8. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  12. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  13. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  14. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  15. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  16. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  17. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  18. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  19. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  20. 10 CFR 431.202 - Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs § 431.202 Definitions concerning illuminated exit... sign. Illuminated exit sign means a sign that— (1) Is designed to be permanently fixed in place...

  1. Response of Spirogyra chloroplast to local illumination.

    PubMed

    Ohiwa, T

    1977-01-01

    1. The chloroplast of Spirogyra grows diffusively over its entire length even when irradiated only locally. Illumination of a disconnected chloroplast fragment also enhances the growth of other disconnected, non-illuminated fragments in the same cell. -2. When irradiated locally, the chloroplast becomes deformed to bring a greater part of it into the lighted area. Deformation caused by local illumination occurs only in the vicinity of the light-dark boundary. The chloroplast ribbon in this region shifts toward the lighted area not in parallel with the cell axis but obliquely to it. -3. Only light from the blue region induces the deformation. -4. The ability of the chloroplast to be centrifuged decreases in the illuminated region and increases in the shadowed region close to the light-dark boundary. -5. In a cell in which only the longitudinal half is illuminated, the chloroplast helix deforms to allow a greater part of the green ribbon to come into the illuminated half without changing its helical pitch.

  2. Surface color perception under two illuminants: the second illuminant reduces color constancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Joong Nam; Shevell, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates color perception in a scene with two different illuminants. The two illuminants, in opposite corners, simultaneously shine on a (simulated) scene with an opaque dividing wall, which controls how much of the scene is illuminated by each source. In the first experiment, the height of the dividing wall was varied. This changed the amount of each illuminant reaching objects on the opposite side of the wall. Results showed that the degree of color constancy decreased when a region on one side of the wall had cues to both illuminants, suggesting that cues from the second illuminant are detrimental to color constancy. In a later experiment, color constancy was found to improve when the specular highlight cues from the second illuminant were altered to be consistent with the first illuminant. This corroborates the influence of specular highlights in surface color perception, and suggests that the reduced color constancy in the first experiment is due to the inconsistent, though physically correct, cues from the two illuminants.

  3. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram

    2015-11-03

    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  4. Feasibility of an airborne TV camera as a size spectrometer for cloud droplets in daylight.

    PubMed

    Roscoe, H K; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Roscoe, J

    1999-01-20

    Photographs of clouds taken with a camera with a large aperture ratio must have a short depth of focus to resolve small droplets. Hence the sampling volume is small, which limits the number of droplets and gives rise to a large statistical error on the number counted. However, useful signals can be obtained with a small aperture ratio, which allows for a sample volume large enough for counting cloud droplets at aircraft speeds with useful spatial resolution. The signal is sufficient to discriminate against noise from a sunlit cloud as background, provided the bandwidth of the light source and camera are restricted, and against readout noise. Hence, in principle, an instrument to sample the size distribution of cloud droplets from aircraft in daylight can be constructed from a simple TV camera and an array of laser diodes, without any components or screens external to the aircraft window.

  5. Influence of daylight and noise current on cloud and aerosol observations by spaceborne elastic scattering lidar.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T Y; Imai, T; Uchino, O; Nagai, T

    1999-08-20

    The influence of daylight and noise current on cloud and aerosol observations by realistic spaceborne lidar was examined by computer simulations. The reflected solar radiations, which contaminate the daytime return signals of lidar operations, were strictly and explicitly estimated by accurate radiative transfer calculations. It was found that the model multilayer cirrus clouds and the boundary layer aerosols could be observed during the daytime and the nighttime with only a few laser shots. However, high background noise and noise current make it difficult to observe volcanic aerosols in middle and upper atmospheric layers. Optimal combinations of the laser power and receiver field of view are proposed to compensate for the negative influence that is due to these noises. For the computer simulations, we used a realistic set of lidar parameters similar to the Experimental Lidar in-Space Equipment of the National Space Development Agency of Japan.

  6. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  7. New insight into daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag: synergistic effect between semiconductor photocatalysis and plasmonic photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are often used as electron scavengers in conventional semiconductor photocatalysis to suppress electron-hole (e(-)-h(+) ) recombination and promote interfacial charge transfer, and thus enhance photocatalytic activity of semiconductors. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that noble metal NPs such as Ag NPs function as visible-light harvesting and electron-generating centers during the daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag. Novel Ag plasmonic photocatalysis could cooperate with the conventional AgBr semiconductor photocatalysis to enhance the overall daylight activity of AgBr@Ag greatly because of an interesting synergistic effect. After a systematic investigation of the daylight photocatalysis mechanism of AgBr@Ag, the synergistic effect was attributed to surface plasmon resonance induced local electric field enhancement on Ag, which can accelerate the generation of e(-)-h(+) pairs in AgBr, so that more electrons are produced in the conduction band of AgBr under daylight irradiation. This study provides new insight into the photocatalytic mechanism of noble metal/semiconductor systems as well as the design and fabrication of novel plasmonic photocatalysts.

  8. Alcohol as a risk factor for unintentional rail injury fatalities during daylight hours.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Peden, Margie; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jordaan, Esme

    2006-06-01

    Railway fatalities account for approximately 10% of transport fatalities in Cape Town. The objective of this study was to examine alcohol intoxication as a risk factor during daylight hours by conducting a case - control study to compare rail passenger and pedestrian fatalities (cases) with motor vehicle passenger and pedestrian fatalities (controls). Rail passenger and rail pedestrian fatalities were defined as cases with motor vehicle passenger and pedestrian fatalities as the respective controls. Data were collected from post-mortem reports at two mortuaries from 1994 to 1996. Blood alcohol concentration was the dependent variable. The independent variables were age, gender, date of death, day of week, time of injury and external cause of death. The late afternoon and early evening period from 1600 hours to 1900 hours had the highest frequency of fatalities for all case and control groups. Of the 56 predominately male (89%) railway passenger cases with an average age of 34.5 (SD 12.5) years, Friday (27%) was the most frequent day of death. Railway pedestrian cases (89% male, average age 36.8 years (SD 13.3)) were more likely to be killed on a Monday (11% of cases). Among the controls, motor vehicle passengers (63% male, average age 39.9 (SD 15.5)) were more likely to die on a Sunday (25%) and pedestrians (82% male, average age 41 (SD 14.7)) on a Saturday (21%). The study showed that alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for rail fatalities during daylight hours, with rail passenger fatalities being 4.71 (1.72 - 12.88) and rail pedestrian fatalities 1.62 (0.98 - 2.69) times more likely to be intoxicated than the respective controls. The results provide more evidence for public health campaigners to tackle endemic alcohol abuse and to develop diverse interventions that do not exclusively target motor vehicle drivers.

  9. Mesospheric temperature soundings with the new, daylight-capable IAP RMR lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerding, Michael; Kopp, Maren; Höffner, Josef; Baumgarten, Kathrin; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2016-08-01

    Temperature measurements by lidar are an important tool for the understanding of the mean state of the atmosphere as well as the propagation of gravity waves and thermal tides. Though, mesospheric lidar soundings are often limited to nighttime conditions (e.g., solar zenith angle > 96°) due to the low signal-to-noise ratio during the day. By this, examination of long-period gravity waves and tides is inhibited, as well as soundings in summer at polar latitudes. We developed a new daylight-capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at our site in Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E), that is in routine operation since 2010 for temperature soundings up to 90 km or ˜ 75 km (night or day) and soundings of noctilucent clouds. Here we describe the setup of the system with special emphasis on the daylight suppression methods like spatial and spectral filtering. The small bandwidth of the Fabry-Pérot etalons for spectral filtering of the received signal induces an altitude-dependent transmission of the detector. As a result, the signal is no longer proportional to the air density and the hydrostatic integration of the profile results in systematic temperature errors of up to 4 K. We demonstrate a correction method and the validity of correction by comparison with data obtained by our co-located, nighttime-only RMR lidar where no etalon is installed. As a further example a time series of temperature profiles between 20 and 80 km is presented for day and night of 9-10 March 2014. Together with the other data of March 2014 these profiles are used to calculate tidal amplitudes. It is found that tidal amplitudes vary between ˜ 1 and 5 K depending on altitude.

  10. Adverse Effects of Daylight Saving Time on Adolescents' Sleep and Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Diana; Ebben, Matthew; Milrad, Sara; Atkinson, Brianna; Krieger, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Daylight saving time (DST) has been established with the intent to reduce energy expenditure, however unintentional effects on sleep and vigilance have not been consistently measured. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that DST adversely affects high school students' sleep and vigilance on the school days following its implementation. Methods: A natural experiment design was used to assess baseline and post-DST differences in objective and subjective measures of sleep and vigilance by actigraphy, sleep diary, sleepiness scale, and psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT). Students were tested during school days immediately preceding and following DST. Results: A total of 40 high school students were enrolled in this study; 35 completed the protocol. Sleep duration declined by an average of 32 minutes on the weeknights post-DST, reflecting a cumulative sleep loss of 2 h 42 min as compared to the baseline week (p = 0.001). This finding was confirmed by sleep diary analyses, reflecting an average sleep loss of 27 min/night (p = 0.004) post-DST. Vigilance significantly deteriorated, with a decline in PVT performance post-DST, resulting in longer reaction times (p < 0.001) and increased lapses (p < 0.001). Increased daytime sleepiness was also demonstrated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The early March DST onset adversely affected sleep and vigilance in high school students resulting in increased daytime sleepiness. Larger scale evaluations of sleep impairments related to DST are needed to further quantify this problem in the population. If confirmed, measures to attenuate sleep loss post-DST should be implemented. Citation: Medina D, Ebben M, Milrad S, Atkinson B, Krieger AC. Adverse effects of daylight saving time on adolescents' sleep and vigilance. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):879–884. PMID:25979095

  11. Deterministic phase retrieval employing spherical illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carranza, J.; Falaggis, K.; Kozacki, T.

    2015-05-01

    Deterministic Phase Retrieval techniques (DPRTs) employ a series of paraxial beam intensities in order to recover the phase of a complex field. These paraxial intensities are usually generated in systems that employ plane-wave illumination. This type of illumination allows a direct processing of the captured intensities with DPRTs for recovering the phase. Furthermore, it has been shown that intensities for DPRTs can be acquired from systems that use spherical illumination as well. However, this type of illumination presents a major setback for DPRTs: the captured intensities change their size for each position of the detector on the propagation axis. In order to apply the DPRTs, reescalation of the captured intensities has to be applied. This condition can increase the error sensitivity of the final phase result if it is not carried out properly. In this work, we introduce a novel system based on a Phase Light Modulator (PLM) for capturing the intensities when employing spherical illumination. The proposed optical system enables us to capture the diffraction pattern of under, in, and over-focus intensities. The employment of the PLM allows capturing the corresponding intensities without displacing the detector. Moreover, with the proposed optical system we can control accurately the magnification of the captured intensities. Thus, the stack of captured intensities can be used in DPRTs, overcoming the problems related with the resizing of the images. In order to prove our claims, the corresponding numerical experiments will be carried out. These simulations will show that the retrieved phases with spherical illumination are accurate and can be compared with those that employ plane wave illumination. We demonstrate that with the employment of the PLM, the proposed optical system has several advantages as: the optical system is compact, the beam size on the detector plane is controlled accurately, and the errors coming from mechanical motion can be suppressed easily.

  12. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  13. Lunar Polar Illumination for Power Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents illumination analyses using the latest Earth-based radar digital elevation model (DEM) of the lunar south pole and an independently developed analytical tool. These results enable the optimum sizing of solar/energy storage lunar surface power systems since they quantify the timing and durations of illuminated and shadowed periods. Filtering and manual editing of the DEM based on comparisons with independent imagery were performed and a reduced resolution version of the DEM was produced to reduce the analysis time. A comparison of the DEM with lunar limb imagery was performed in order to validate the absolute heights over the polar latitude range, the accuracy of which affects the impact of long range, shadow-casting terrain. Average illumination and energy storage duration maps of the south pole region are provided for the worst and best case lunar day using the reduced resolution DEM. Average illumination fractions and energy storage durations are presented for candidate low energy storage duration south pole sites. The best site identified using the reduced resolution DEM required a 62 hr energy storage duration using a fast recharge power system. Solar and horizon terrain elevations as well as illumination fraction profiles are presented for the best identified site and the data for both the reduced resolution and high resolution DEMs compared. High resolution maps for three low energy storage duration areas are presented showing energy storage duration for the worst case lunar day, surface height, and maximum absolute surface slope.

  14. Quantitative phase imaging with programmable illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewoo; Edwards, Chris; Goddard, Lynford L.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    Even with the recent rapid advances in the field of microscopy, non-laser light sources used for light microscopy have not been developing significantly. Most current optical microscopy systems use halogen bulbs as their light sources to provide a white-light illumination. Due to the confined shapes and finite filament size of the bulbs, little room is available for modification in the light source, which prevents further advances in microscopy. By contrast, commercial projectors provide a high power output that is comparable to the halogen lamps while allowing for great flexibility in patterning the illumination. In addition to their high brightness, the illumination can be patterned to have arbitrary spatial and spectral distributions. Therefore, commercial projectors can be adopted as a flexible light source to an optical microscope by careful alignment to the existing optical path. In this study, we employed a commercial projector source to a quantitative phase imaging system called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM), which is an outside module for an existing phase contrast (PC) microscope. By replacing the ring illumination of PC with a ring-shaped pattern projected onto the condenser plane, we were able to recover the same result as the original SLIM. Furthermore, the ring illumination is replaced with multiple dots aligned along the same ring to minimize the overlap between the scattered and unscattered fields. This new method minimizes the halo artifact of the imaging system, which allows for a halo-free high-resolution quantitative phase microscopy system.

  15. Museum lighting: Why are some illuminants preferred?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuello, Michael; Abramov, Israel; Gordon, James; Weintraub, Steven

    2004-02-01

    We had shown earlier that viewers prefer to look at artworks under illuminants of ~3600 K. In the latest paper we tested the hypothesis that the preferred illuminant is one that appears neither warm nor cool and repeated the settings at each of four illuminances to test the stability of the findings. Observers looked at a neutral white reflectance standard hung on a matte-gray wall lit by overhead banks of lamps whose combined value could be adjusted continuously between 3000 and 4400 K while illuminance was kept constant. Illuminance ranged from 50 to 2000 lux. Observers adjusted color temperature until they were satisfied that the standard looked neither warm nor cool. The mean for a group of eight observers was approximately 3700, independent of intensity; this corresponds to a dominant wavelength of ~580 nm. In a separate study four observers scaled the apparent warmth or coolness of flashes of equiluminant monochromatic lights; the warm-cool transition was between 560 and 580 nm; warmness was completely predicted by the perceived redness of each light as derived from hue and saturation scaling functions from the same group.

  16. Innovative light collimator with afocal lens and total internal reflection lens for daylighting system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Chen, Yin-Ti; Ullah, Irfan; Chou, Chun-Han; Chan, Kai-Cyuan; Lai, Yi-Lung; Lin, Chia-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2015-10-01

    This research presents a novel design of the collimator, which uses total internal reflection (TIR), convex, and concave lenses for the natural light illumination system (NLIS). The concept of the NLIS is to illuminate building interiors with natural light, which saves energy consumption. The TIR lens is used to collimate the light, and convex and concave lenses are used to converge the light to the required area. The results have shown that the efficiency in terms of achieving collimated light using the proposed collimator at the output of the light collector is better than that of a previous system without a collimator. PMID:26479648

  17. Tolerancing free-form optics for illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timinger, A.; Unterhinninghofen, J.; Junginger, S.; Hofmann, A.

    2011-10-01

    Free form surfaces allow elegant solutions in illumination optics. A complex function of the system can be achieved by a single optical element. Free form elements are usually manufactured by reproduction techniques, such as injection moulding of plastic. Manufacturing tolerances are crucial to maintain the required function while at the same time yielding the lowest possible price. We implemented a Monte Carlo tolerancing method for illumination systems. Tolerances include shape deviations of optical elements and assembly tolerances. In the absence of standards for free form tolerances and illumination optics tolerancing, communication between optics design, manufacturing and testing is often inefficient. In order to enable a highly automated evaluation of part measurement data to assess compliance with tolerances, we developed an approach to combine information from optics design, mechanical construction, manufacturing and testing into one continuous data chain. The research project is granted by the German Ministry of Education and Research.

  18. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, David B.; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming; Strassburg, Martin; Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T.

    2006-06-01

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well.

  19. Illuminated curved vitrectomy probe for vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chalam, K V; Gupta, Shailesh K; Agarwal, Swati

    2007-01-01

    A new self-illuminated and curved vitrectomy probe was designed for better accessibility of the peripheral retina, particularly in phakic patients. This probe has a 20-gauge pneumatic cutter. The curvature at the shaft has a 19.4-mm radius and is 25 mm long. A 2.5-cm piece of polyethylene terephthalate tubing (heat-shrink tubing) is threaded over both the probe and the 0.5-mm diameter fiberoptic light source to assemble the illuminated probe. Use of this instrument avoids inadvertent trauma to the clear lens in phakic eyes and allows the surgeon to illuminate the anterior vitreous with one hand while the other hand can be used to depress the sclera. This instrument complements wide-angle viewing for safe and quick surgical treatment of peripheral retinal pathology in phakic patients. PMID:18050823

  20. 30 CFR 56.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 56.17001... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 56.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe...

  1. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001... Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe working conditions shall be provided in and on all surface structures, paths, walkways, stairways, switch...

  2. 30 CFR 56.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 56.17001... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 56.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe...

  3. 30 CFR 56.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 56.17001... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 56.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe...

  4. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001... Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe working conditions shall be provided in and on all surface structures, paths, walkways, stairways, switch...

  5. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001... Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe working conditions shall be provided in and on all surface structures, paths, walkways, stairways, switch...

  6. 30 CFR 56.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 56.17001... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 56.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe...

  7. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001... Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe working conditions shall be provided in and on all surface structures, paths, walkways, stairways, switch...

  8. Illumination-compensated non-contact imaging photoplethysmography via dual-mode temporally coded illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Non-contact camera-based imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is useful for measuring heart rate in conditions where contact devices are problematic due to issues such as mobility, comfort, and sanitation. Existing iPPG methods analyse the light-tissue interaction of either active or passive (ambient) illumination. Many active iPPG methods assume the incident ambient light is negligible to the active illumination, resulting in high power requirements, while many passive iPPG methods assume near-constant ambient conditions. These assumptions can only be achieved in environments with controlled illumination and thus constrain the use of such devices. To increase the number of possible applications of iPPG devices, we propose a dual-mode active iPPG system that is robust to changes in ambient illumination variations. Our system uses a temporally-coded illumination sequence that is synchronized with the camera to measure both active and ambient illumination interaction for determining heart rate. By subtracting the ambient contribution, the remaining illumination data can be attributed to the controlled illuminant. Our device comprises a camera and an LED illuminant controlled by a microcontroller. The microcontroller drives the temporal code via synchronizing the frame captures and illumination time at the hardware level. By simulating changes in ambient light conditions, experimental results show our device is able to assess heart rate accurately in challenging lighting conditions. By varying the temporal code, we demonstrate the trade-off between camera frame rate and ambient light compensation for optimal blood pulse detection.

  9. Design Principles of Nonimaging Waveguide Illumination Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, Thomas Arthur

    1995-01-01

    Optical systems that illuminate objects or filter planes with light exiting thick waveguides are called waveguide illumination systems. In this dissertation, we develop the optical theory that describes flux transport in waveguide illumination systems. We constructed three computer-controlled light detection systems to measure and map the flux exiting waveguide illumination system components. The goniophotometer measures and maps the intensity distributions of waveguide illumination system light sources. As an example, we use the goniophotometer to measure the intensity distribution from an incandescent light bulb. We then model the intensity pattern according to radiometric theory. The translational photometer measures and maps the existence of thick waveguides. Data from the translational photometer is evaluated for uniformity with the output uniformity index (OUI). The OUI is a statistical figure of merit based on the standard deviation. The transrotational photometer measures the angular distribution of the flux exiting thick waveguides. By applying Snell's law to the transrotational photometer data, we determine the angular distribution of the flux propagating in the waveguide. We use imaging optics theory to show that thick waveguides are nonimaging systems. We then expand existing nonimaging optics theory to describe flux transport in thick waveguides. We define the angular edge rays, and use the angular edge ray concept to develop the flux confinement properties of a thick waveguide in terms of its geometry and index of refraction. We use FCD analysis to develop a closed-form functional solution for the flux lost due to a bend in a thick rectangular waveguide. We perform an experiment that verifies the predictions of this model. In the experiment, we use the translational photometer to measure the total flux exiting a series of waveguides with bends in them. The bends range from zero to 90 degrees. Finally, we present a new streamlined technique for the

  10. Reflectance and illuminant estimation for digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicarlo, Jeffrey Michael

    Several important problems in color imaging can be traced to differences in how cameras and humans sample the spectral properties of light. Color processing within the imaging pipeline, loosely referred to as color correction, transforms the sampled camera responses to a form that matches the human responses. The accuracy of the color correction transformation is limited for two reasons. First, the human visual system and most color acquisition devices critically undersample the spectral information, making the differences in their sampling functions quite significant. Second, the human visual system derives a relatively constant surface color appearance despite variations in the illuminant, complicating color correction with the need to estimate the illuminant. Assuming complete knowledge of the illuminant, we formulate color correction as an input-referred estimation problem. In particular, we analyze how a small number of camera measurements can be used to estimate a complete spectral surface reflectance function. We introduce conventional linear color transformations, and then extend these transformations using forms of local linear regression that we refer to as submanifold estimation methods. These methods are based on the observation that for many data sets the deviations between the signal and the linear estimate is systematic; submanifold methods incorporate knowledge of these systematic deviations to improve upon linear estimation methods. We describe the geometric intuition of these methods and evaluate the submanifold method on printed material data and hyperspectral image data. Next, we discard the assumption of complete knowledge of the illuminant and analyze a technique to estimate the illuminant. Conventional algorithms rely on statistical assumptions about the scene properties (surface reflectance functions and geometry) to estimate the ambient illuminant. We introduce a new illuminant estimation paradigm that uses an active imaging method to

  11. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.

    1985-12-23

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  12. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  13. Resolution enhancement using simultaneous couple illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Anwar; Martínez Fuentes, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    A super-resolution technique based on structured illumination created by a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) is presented. Single and simultaneous pairs of tilted beams are generated to illuminate a target object. Resolution enhancement of an optical 4f system is demonstrated by using numerical simulations. The resulting intensity images are recorded at a charged couple device (CCD) and stored in the computer memory for further processing. One dimension enhancement can be performed with only 15 images. Two dimensional complete improvement requires 153 different images. The resolution of the optical system is extended three times compared to the band limited system.

  14. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOEpatents

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2012-01-24

    An organic light emitting device an a method of obtaining illumination from such a device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient than an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  15. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  16. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  17. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  18. Fused off-axis object illumination direct-to-digital holography with a plurality of illumination sources

    DOEpatents

    Price, Jeffery R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2005-11-08

    Systems and methods are described for rapid acquisition of fused off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording a plurality of off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms, each of the off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes digitally recording, with a first illumination source of an interferometer, a first off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; and digitally recording, with a second illumination source of the interferometer, a second off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis.

  19. MSIM: multistage illumination modeling of dermatological photographs for illumination-corrected skin lesion analysis.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Jeffrey; Amelard, Robert; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2013-07-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer and it is costly for dermatologists to screen every patient for melanoma. There is a need for a system to assess the risk of melanoma based on dermatological photographs of a skin lesion. However, the presence of illumination variation in the photographs can have a negative impact on lesion segmentation and classification performance. A novel multistage illumination modeling algorithm is proposed to correct the underlying illumination variation in skin lesion photographs. The first stage is to compute an initial estimate of the illumination map of the photograph using a Monte Carlo nonparametric modeling strategy. The second stage is to obtain a final estimate of the illumination map via a parametric modeling strategy, where the initial nonparametric estimate is used as a prior. Finally, the corrected photograph is obtained using the final illumination map estimate. The proposed algorithm shows better visual, segmentation, and classification results when compared to three other illumination correction algorithms, one of which is designed specifically for lesion analysis.

  20. Gnostic inner illumination and Carl Jung's individuation.

    PubMed

    Pennachio, J

    1992-09-01

    The ancient religious system of Gnosticism argued for the transcendence of the physical world and the divinity of self-knowledge. More recently, a similar argument was made by Carl Jung through his concept of individuation. This paper examines some of the similarities between Gnostic inner illumination and Jung's concept of individuation.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illumination. 1926.56 Section 1926.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illumination. 1926.56 Section 1926.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illumination. 1926.56 Section 1926.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illumination. 1926.56 Section 1926.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.56 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illumination. 1926.56 Section 1926.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

  6. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  7. Deconvolution methods for structured illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chakrova, Nadya; Rieger, Bernd; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2016-07-01

    We compare two recently developed multiple-frame deconvolution approaches for the reconstruction of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) data: the pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography algorithm (piFP) and the joint Richardson-Lucy deconvolution (jRL). The quality of the images reconstructed by these methods is compared in terms of the achieved resolution improvement, noise enhancement, and inherent artifacts. Furthermore, we study the issue of object-dependent resolution improvement by considering the modulation transfer functions derived from different types of objects. The performance of the considered methods is tested in experiments and benchmarked with a commercial SIM microscope. We find that the piFP method resolves periodic and isolated structures equally well, whereas the jRL method provides significantly higher resolution for isolated objects compared to periodic ones. Images reconstructed by the piFP and jRL algorithms are comparable to the images reconstructed using the generalized Wiener filter applied in most commercial SIM microscopes. An advantage of the discussed algorithms is that they allow the reconstruction of SIM images acquired under different types of illumination, such as multi-spot or random illumination. PMID:27409703

  8. Beam uniformity analysis of infrared laser illuminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Dixon, Roberta E.; Proffitt, R. Patrick; Fung, Susan; Ramboyong, Len; Soyka, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    Uniform near-infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) illuminators are desired in low ambient light detection, recognition, and identification of military applications. Factors that contribute to laser illumination image degradation are high frequency, coherent laser speckle and low frequency nonuniformities created by the laser or external laser cavity optics. Laser speckle analysis and beam uniformity improvements have been independently studied by numerous authors, but analysis to separate these two effects from a single measurement technique has not been published. In this study, profiles of compact, diode laser NIR and SWIR illuminators were measured and evaluated. Digital 12-bit images were recorded with a flat-field calibrated InGaAs camera with measurements at F/1.4 and F/16. Separating beam uniformity components from laser speckle was approximated by filtering the original image. The goal of this paper is to identify and quantify the beam quality variation of illumination prototypes, draw awareness to its impact on range performance modeling, and develop measurement techniques and methodologies for military, industry, and vendors of active sources.

  9. Selective plane illumination microscopy on a chip.

    PubMed

    Paiè, Petra; Bragheri, Francesca; Bassi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto

    2016-04-26

    Selective plane illumination microscopy can image biological samples at a high spatiotemporal resolution. Complex sample preparation and system alignment normally limit the throughput of the method. Using femtosecond laser micromachining, we created an integrated optofluidic device that allows obtaining continuous flow imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction and high-throughput analysis of large multicellular spheroids at a subcellular resolution.

  10. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  11. 49 CFR 230.86 - Required illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.86 Required illumination. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive used between sunset and sunrise shall be equipped with an operable headlight...

  12. 49 CFR 230.86 - Required illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.86 Required illumination. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive used between sunset and sunrise shall be equipped with an operable headlight...

  13. 49 CFR 230.86 - Required illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.86 Required illumination. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive used between sunset and sunrise shall be equipped with an operable headlight...

  14. 49 CFR 230.86 - Required illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.86 Required illumination. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive used between sunset and sunrise shall be equipped with an operable headlight...

  15. 49 CFR 230.86 - Required illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.86 Required illumination. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive used between sunset and sunrise shall be equipped with an operable headlight...

  16. Headborne illuminator for the partially sighted.

    PubMed

    Goodlaw, E I; Genensky, S M

    1978-12-01

    An inexpensive, headborne device is described that provides a bright spot of light on reading material even when the material is brought within 1 or 2 cm of the viewing eye. This aid has been used with great success by one of the authors for about 2 yr. This illuminator, or modifications of it, should prove valuable to other partially sighted people.

  17. 29 CFR 1918.92 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions described in the regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard (33 CFR 154.570) exist for specific operations, illumination for cargo transfer operations shall be of a minimum light intensity of five foot-candles (54 lux). Where work tasks require more light to be performed safely, supplemental lighting...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.92 - Illumination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions described in the regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard (33 CFR 154.570) exist for specific operations, illumination for cargo transfer operations shall be of a minimum light intensity of five foot-candles (54 lux). Where work tasks require more light to be performed safely, supplemental lighting...

  19. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  20. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    PubMed

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  1. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    PubMed Central

    McCann, John J.; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation. PMID:24478738

  2. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  3. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  4. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  5. The effects on human sleep and circadian rhythms of 17 days of continuous bedrest in the absence of daylight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Billy, B. D.; Kennedy, K. S.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a larger bedrest study involving various life science experiments, a study was conducted on the effects of 17 days of continuous bedrest and elimination of daylight on circadian rectal temperature rhythms, mood, alertness, and sleep (objective and diary) in eight healthy middle-aged men. Sleep was timed from 2300 to 0700 hours throughout. Three 72-hour measurement blocks were compared: ambulatory prebedrest, early bedrest (days 5-7), and late bedrest (days 15-17). Temperature rhythms showed reduced amplitude and later phases resulting from the bedrest conditions. This was associated with longer nocturnal sleep onset latencies and poorer subjectively rated sleep but with no reliable changes in any of the other sleep parameters. Daily changes in posture and/or exposure to daylight appear to be important determinants of a properly entrained circadian system.

  6. Exposure to non-extreme solar UV daylight: spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-12-23

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320-400 nm and UVB, 280-320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  7. Polarization-discrimination technique to maximize the lidar signal-to-noise ratio for daylight operations.

    PubMed

    Hassebo, Yasser Y; Gross, Barry; Oo, Min; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Samir

    2006-08-01

    The impact and potential of a polarization-selection technique to reduce the sky background signal for linearly polarized monostatic elastic backscatter lidar measurements are examined. Taking advantage of naturally occurring polarization properties in scattered skylight, we devised a polarization-discrimination technique in which both the lidar transmitter and the receiver track and minimize detected sky background noise while maintaining maximum lidar signal throughput. Lidar elastic backscatter measurements, carried out continuously during daylight hours at 532 nm, show as much as a factor of square root 10 improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over conventional unpolarized schemes. For vertically pointing lidars, the largest improvements are limited to the early morning and late afternoon hours, while for lidars scanning azimuthally and in elevation at angles other than vertical, significant improvements are achievable over more extended time periods with the specific times and improvement factors depending on the specific angle between the lidar and the solar axes. The resulting diurnal variations in SNR improvement sometimes show an asymmetry with the solar angle that analysis indicates can be attributed to changes in observed relative humidity that modifies the underlying aerosol microphysics and observed optical depth.

  8. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure. PMID:25546388

  9. Polarization-discrimination technique to maximize the lidar signal-to-noise ratio for daylight operations.

    PubMed

    Hassebo, Yasser Y; Gross, Barry; Oo, Min; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Samir

    2006-08-01

    The impact and potential of a polarization-selection technique to reduce the sky background signal for linearly polarized monostatic elastic backscatter lidar measurements are examined. Taking advantage of naturally occurring polarization properties in scattered skylight, we devised a polarization-discrimination technique in which both the lidar transmitter and the receiver track and minimize detected sky background noise while maintaining maximum lidar signal throughput. Lidar elastic backscatter measurements, carried out continuously during daylight hours at 532 nm, show as much as a factor of square root 10 improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over conventional unpolarized schemes. For vertically pointing lidars, the largest improvements are limited to the early morning and late afternoon hours, while for lidars scanning azimuthally and in elevation at angles other than vertical, significant improvements are achievable over more extended time periods with the specific times and improvement factors depending on the specific angle between the lidar and the solar axes. The resulting diurnal variations in SNR improvement sometimes show an asymmetry with the solar angle that analysis indicates can be attributed to changes in observed relative humidity that modifies the underlying aerosol microphysics and observed optical depth. PMID:16855650

  10. Roof aperture system for selective collection and control of solar energy for building heating, cooling and daylighting

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, William J.; Snyder, Marvin K.; Harter, James W.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade.

  11. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  12. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  13. Integrating motion, illumination, and structure in video sequences with applications in illumination-invariant tracking.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yilei; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we present a theory for combining the effects of motion, illumination, 3D structure, albedo, and camera parameters in a sequence of images obtained by a perspective camera. We show that the set of all Lambertian reflectance functions of a moving object, at any position, illuminated by arbitrarily distant light sources, lies "close" to a bilinear subspace consisting of nine illumination variables and six motion variables. This result implies that, given an arbitrary video sequence, it is possible to recover the 3D structure, motion, and illumination conditions simultaneously using the bilinear subspace formulation. The derivation builds upon existing work on linear subspace representations of reflectance by generalizing it to moving objects. Lighting can change slowly or suddenly, locally or globally, and can originate from a combination of point and extended sources. We experimentally compare the results of our theory with ground truth data and also provide results on real data by using video sequences of a 3D face and the entire human body with various combinations of motion and illumination directions. We also show results of our theory in estimating 3D motion and illumination model parameters from a video sequence. PMID:17356200

  14. Illumination normalization of face image based on illuminant direction estimation and improved Retinex.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jizheng; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Xue, Yuli; Rovetta, Alberto; Caleanu, Catalin-Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Illumination normalization of face image for face recognition and facial expression recognition is one of the most frequent and difficult problems in image processing. In order to obtain a face image with normal illumination, our method firstly divides the input face image into sixteen local regions and calculates the edge level percentage in each of them. Secondly, three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, are selected to calculate the final illuminant direction according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model. After knowing the final illuminant direction of the input face image, the Retinex algorithm is improved from two aspects: (1) we optimize the surround function; (2) we intercept the values in both ends of histogram of face image, determine the range of gray levels, and stretch the range of gray levels into the dynamic range of display device. Finally, we achieve illumination normalization and get the final face image. Unlike previous illumination normalization approaches, the method proposed in this paper does not require any training step or any knowledge of 3D face and reflective surface model. The experimental results using extended Yale face database B and CMU-PIE show that our method achieves better normalization effect comparing with the existing techniques. PMID:25906370

  15. Fast linear method of illumination classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ted J.; Baqai, Farhan A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple method for estimating the scene illuminant for images obtained by a Digital Still Camera (DSC). The proposed method utilizes basis vectors obtained from known memory color reflectance to identify the memory color objects in the image. Once the memory color pixels are identified, we use the ratios of the red/green and blue/green to determine the most likely illuminant in the image. The critical part of the method is to estimate the smallest set of basis vectors that closely represent the memory color reflectances. Basis vectors obtained from both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) are used. We will show that only two ICA basis vectors are needed to get an acceptable estimate.

  16. Insulator Surface Flashover Due to UV Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Javedani, J B; Houck, T L; Lahowe, D A; Vogtlin, G E; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    The surface of an insulator under vacuum and under electrical charge will flashover when illuminated by a critical dose of ultra-violet (UV) radiation - depending on the insulator size and material, insulator cone angle, the applied voltage and insulator shot-history. A testbed comprised of an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm, {approx}16 MW, 30 ns FWHM,), a vacuum chamber, and a negative polarity dc high voltage power supply ({le} -60 kV) were assembled to test 1.0 cm thick angled insulators for surface-flashover. Several candidate insulator materials, e.g. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Rexolite{reg_sign} 1400, Macor{trademark} and Mycalex, of varying cone angles were tested against UV illumination. Commercial energy meters were used to measure the UV fluence of the pulsed laser beam. In-house designed and fabricated capacitive probes (D-dots, >12 GHz bandwidth) were embedded in the anode electrode underneath the insulator to determine the time of UV arrival and time of flashover. Of the tested insulators, the +45 degree Rexolite insulator showed more resistance to UV for surface flashover; at UV fluence level of less than 13 mJ/cm{sup 2}, it was not possible to induce a flashover for up to -60 kV of DC potential across the insulator's surface. The probes also permitted the electrical charge on the insulator before and after flashover to be inferred. Photon to electron conversion efficiency for the surface of Rexolite insulator was determined from charge-balance equation. In order to understand the physical mechanism leading to flashover, we further experimented with the +45 degree Rexolite insulator by masking portions of the UV beam to illuminate only a section of the insulator surface; (1) the half nearest the cathode and subsequently, (2) the half nearest the anode. The critical UV fluence and time to flashover were measured and the results in each case were then compared with the base case of full-beam illumination. It was discovered that the time for the

  17. Quantitative phase imaging with partially coherent illumination.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T H; Edwards, C; Goddard, L L; Popescu, G

    2014-10-01

    In this Letter, we formulate a mathematical model for predicting experimental outcomes in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) when the illumination field is partially spatially coherent. We derive formulae that apply to QPI and discuss expected results for two classes of QPI experiments: common path and traditional interferometry, under varying degrees of spatial coherence. In particular, our results describe the physical relationship between the spatial coherence of the illuminating field and the halo effect, which is well known in phase-contrast microscopy. We performed experiments relevant to this common situation and found that our theory is in excellent agreement with the data. With this new understanding of the effects of spatial coherence, our formulae offer an avenue for removing halo artifacts from phase images. PMID:25360915

  18. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  19. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL provide FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  20. LED illuminator for a microdisplay projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarill, Simon

    2012-10-01

    An illumination system for a microdisplay projector with a two-step imaging system is described here. In the first step, an imaging condenser creates an image of the LED at the color combiner entrance window. In the second step, we relay the image of the integrator exit window onto the micro-display. The illuminator demonstrates high collection efficiency, small footprint, and efficient mixing of light from RGB LEDs that provides required uniformity. A variety of approaches to collecting light emitted from LEDs of various types are compared, leading to the two-step design. A design example using a 0.55" diagonal DLP-based optical engine is presented with the following characteristics: Footprint: 3.9"x3.3"x2.0" (25.7 cubic inches) Light output: 338 white lumens Efficiency: 4.7 lm/watt

  1. Repetitively pulsed plasma illumination source improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.; Falkos, Paul

    1999-05-01

    A repetitively pulsed broad band visible illumination system has been developed that is suitable for capturing images of high speed motion over sizable areas. At full pulse energy, a two lamp system can illuminate 60 square feet for movies at f/4 with 400 ASA color film and framing rates as high as 1700 fps. At reduced energy, for smaller area applications, the framing rate can be doubled. The short pulse length (4.5 microsecond(s) at full energy, 1.5 microsecond(s) at reduced energy) produces sharp images of high speed objects. This paper reports developments since the last presentation, including: (1) higher pulse repetition rates (a few kilohertz), (2) synchronization with high speed camera, (3) full scale burst of several thousand pulses, (4) characteristics of a compact demonstration system, and (5) demonstration of the ability of the short pulse to freeze motion.

  2. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  3. Optical mapping at increased illumination intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Martišienė, Irma; Jurevičius, Jonas; Vosyliūtė, Rūta; Navalinskas, Antanas; Treinys, Rimantas; Matiukas, Arvydas; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2012-09-01

    Voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes have become a major tool in cardiac and neuro-electrophysiology. Achieving high signal-to-noise ratios requires increased illumination intensities, which may cause photobleaching and phototoxicity. The optimal range of illumination intensities varies for different dyes and must be evaluated individually. We evaluate two dyes: di-4-ANBDQBS (excitation 660 nm) and di-4-ANEPPS (excitation 532 nm) in the guinea pig heart. The light intensity varies from 0.1 to 5 mW/mm2, with the upper limit at 5 to 10 times above values reported in the literature. The duration of illumination was 60 s, which in guinea pigs corresponds to 300 beats at a normal heart rate. Within the identified duration and intensity range, neither dye shows significant photobleaching or detectable phototoxic effects. However, light absorption at higher intensities causes noticeable tissue heating, which affects the electrophysiological parameters. The most pronounced effect is a shortening of the action potential duration, which, in the case of 532-nm excitation, can reach ˜30%. At 660-nm excitation, the effect is ˜10%. These findings may have important implications for the design of optical mapping protocols in biomedical applications.

  4. Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Peter; Kudaev, Serge; Dannberg, Peter; Zeitner, Uwe D.

    2005-08-01

    Efficient homogeneous illumination of rectangular or circular areas with LEDs is a promising application for doublesided microlens arrays. Such illumination schemes employ a primary optics - which can be realized with a concentrator or a collimation lens - and a secondary optics with one or more double-sided microlens arrays and a collection optics for superposing the light from the individual array channels. The main advantage of this design is the achievable short system length compared to integrating lightpipe designs with subsequent relay optics. We describe design rules for the secondary optics derived from simple ABCD-matrix formalism. Based on these rules, sequential raytracing is used for the actual optics system design. Double-sided arrays are manufactured by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. With cylindrical lens arrays we assembled high-brightness RGB-illumination systems for rectangular areas. Hexagonal packed double-sided arrays of spherical lenslets were applied for a miniaturized circular spotlight. Black matrix polymer apertures attached to the lens array helped to avoid unwanted straylight.

  5. Pulsed Laser Illumination of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland; Jenkins, Philip; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. The induction FEL and the radio-frequency (RF) FEL both produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work, we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format, producing 50 ps pulses at a frequency of 78 MHz. A variety of Si, GaAs, CaSb and CdInSe2 (CIS) solar cells are tested at average incident powers between 4 mW/sq cm and 425 mW/sq cm. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced by using a pulsed laser source compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. Because the pulse separation is less than or approximately equal to the minority carrier lifetime, the illumination conditions are effectively those of a continuous wave laser. The time dependence of the voltage and current response of the cells are also measured using a sampling oscilloscope equipped with a high frequency voltage probe and current transformer. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments shows that the RF FEL pulse format yields much more efficient photovoltaic conversion of light than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  6. An illumination planner for Lambertian polyhedral objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Fredric; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1994-10-01

    The measurement of shape is a basic object inspection task. We use a noncontact method to determine shape called photometric stereo. The method uses three light sources which sequentially illuminate the object under inspection and a video camera for taking intensity images of the object. A significant problem with using photometric stereo is determining where to place the three light sources and the video camera. In order to solve this problem, we have developed an illumination planner that determines how to position the three light sources and the video camera around the object. The planner determines how to position light sources around an object so that we illuminate a specified set of faces in an efficient manner, and so that we obtain an accurate measurement. We predict the uncertainty in our measurements due to sensor noise by performing a statistical simulation in our planner. This gives us the capability to determine when a measured shape differs in a statistically significant way from what we expect. From a high level, our planner has three major inputs: the CAD model of the object to be inspected, a noise model for our sensor, and a reflectance model for the object to be inspected. We have experimentally verified that the plans generated by the planner are valid and accurate. In most cases, the uncertainty predictions made by the planner were accurate to within 10%.

  7. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  8. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  9. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  10. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  11. Illumination requirements for orbital SAR - Experience from SIR-B Canadian Shield experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D.; Masuoka, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar illumination requirements for accurate rendition of geological structure in low-relief regions of uniform radar roughness are considered, along with the effect of illumination azimuth biasing. Results of two Shuttle imaging radar Canadian Shield experiments are discussed with emphasis on look azimuth, look direction, and look angle. It is found out that at least two look azimuths, preferably orthogonal, are essential for adequate rendition of regional structure of the area, while four nearly-orthogonal looks are necessary to compensate for slope orientation. This can be accomplished by orbital design with crossing ground tracks or utilizing a squint mode. Attention is given to the acquisition of coverage from look directions 180 deg apart and to multiple look angles desirable for geological applications.

  12. 10 CFR 431.202 - Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs § 431.202 Definitions concerning illuminated exit...) Is designed to be permanently fixed in place to identify an exit; and (2) Consists of an...

  13. Incidence of myocardial infarction with shifts to and from daylight savings time.

    PubMed

    Jiddou, Monica R; Pica, Mark; Boura, Judy; Qu, Lihua; Franklin, Barry A

    2013-03-01

    Modulators of normal bodily functions such as the duration and quality of sleep might transiently influence cardiovascular risk. The transition to daylight savings time (DST) has been associated with a short-term increased incidence ratio (IR) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present retrospective study examined the IR of AMIs that presented to our hospitals the week after DST and after the autumn switch to standard time, October 2006 to April 2012, with specific reference to the AMI type. Our study population (n = 935 patients; 59% men, 41% women) was obtained from the electronic medical records of the Royal Oak and Troy campuses of the Beaumont Hospitals in Michigan. Overall, the frequency of AMI was similar in the spring and autumn, 463 (49.5%) and 472 (50.5%), respectively. The IR for the first week after the spring shift was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.36). After the transition from DST in the autumn, the IR for the same period was lower, but not significantly different, 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.16). Nevertheless, the greatest increase in AMI occurred on the first day (Sunday) after the spring shift to DST (1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.02; p <0.05). Also, a significantly greater incidence was found of non-ST-segment myocardial infarction after the transition to DST in the study group compared with that in the control group (p = 0.022). In conclusion, these data suggest that shifts to and from DST might transiently affect the incidence and type of acute cardiac events, albeit modestly.

  14. Transition into and out of daylight saving time and spontaneous delivery: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    László, Krisztina D; Cnattingius, Sven; Janszky, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the circadian rhythm disruption following the transition into and out of daylight saving time (DST) is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous delivery. Design We compared the number of spontaneous deliveries in the Swedish Medical Birth Register during the week after the change to and the week after the change from DST (exposure periods) with the average number of spontaneous deliveries in the control period, defined as the week before and the week after each exposure period. Setting Sweden, 1993–2006. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcomes were the weekly and the daily number of spontaneous deliveries in the exposure and the control periods. In secondary analyses we also compared the mean length of pregnancy of the women with spontaneous deliveries in the exposure and control periods. Results The number of deliveries during the week after the transition into or out of DST was similar to that in the comparison period (18 519 observed vs 18 434 expected in case of the spring shift and 19 073 observed vs 19 122 expected in case of the autumn shift); the corresponding incidence ratio and 95% CIs were 1.005 (0.990 to 1.019) and 0.997 (0.983 to 1.012), respectively. There were no differences in the length of gestation of the deliveries in the exposure and the control periods. Conclusions Our results do not support the hypothesis that a minor circadian rhythm disruption is associated with an increased short-term risk of spontaneous delivery. PMID:27630067

  15. Amnioscopic endofetal illumination with infrared-guided fiber.

    PubMed

    Calvano, C J; Moran, M E; Mehlhaff, B A; Sachs, B L; Mandell, J

    1997-08-01

    Minimally invasive amnioscopic surgery has several potential advantages over traditional open hysterotomy, including the reduction of the risk of preterm labor and spontaneous abortion. Adequate visibility of the fetal target organ is obligate to the success of in utero procedures. This is a preliminary report on the use of an end-emitting infrared fiber (750 microns; 810-nm wavelength) that allows image fusion with Infravision videocamera systems (Gabriel Medical, Lafayette, LA). Once placed, this fiber can serve as a homing beacon to identify the fetal bladder in the surgical creation of an amnioscopic vesicostomy for the relief of obstructive uropathies. Under general endotracheal halothane anesthesia, amnioscopic access was established in time-dated pregnant ewes using one 3.7-mm and two radially dilating 2-mm to 5-mm trocars. This access allowed the investigation of several methods of intravesicular infrared fiber placement. Ultrasound-guided direct needle puncture is the quickest method of accessing the fetal bladder but is unreliable when the bladder is empty. Accurate placement of the access needle directly over the suprapubic region was accomplished with amnioscopic assistance. The fiber was also placed transurethrally in one female and one male fetus, with subsequent perforation of the female's bladder. Successful infrared bladder illumination was accomplished in all animals. The fusion integration of this camera system allows simultaneous viewing by visible spectrum and near-infrared wavelengths. We believe that this system provides a further degree of safety for amnioscopic procedures.

  16. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  17. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  18. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  19. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  20. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001 Section 57.17001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of...

  1. 30 CFR 56.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 56.17001 Section 56.17001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Illumination § 56.17001 Illumination of...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  7. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  8. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  9. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  10. 32 CFR 707.10 - Wake illumination light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake illumination light. 707.10 Section 707.10... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.10 Wake illumination light. Naval vessels may display a white spot light located near the stern to illuminate the wake....

  11. 10 CFR 429.48 - Illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illuminated exit signs. 429.48 Section 429.48 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.48 Illuminated exit signs. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to illuminated exit...

  12. 10 CFR 429.48 - Illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illuminated exit signs. 429.48 Section 429.48 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.48 Illuminated exit signs. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to illuminated exit...

  13. 10 CFR 429.48 - Illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illuminated exit signs. 429.48 Section 429.48 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.48 Illuminated exit signs. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to illuminated exit...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  16. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Jens B.; Tanneti, Nikhila S.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution. PMID:26600461

  17. Open LED Illuminator: A Simple and Inexpensive LED Illuminator for Fast Multicolor Particle Tracking in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jens B; Tanneti, Nikhila S; Hogue, Ian B; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-01-01

    Dual-color live cell fluorescence microscopy of fast intracellular trafficking processes, such as axonal transport, requires rapid switching of illumination channels. Typical broad-spectrum sources necessitate the use of mechanical filter switching, which introduces delays between acquisition of different fluorescence channels, impeding the interpretation and quantification of highly dynamic processes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), however, allow modulation of excitation light in microseconds. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol to enable any scientist to build a research-grade LED illuminator for live cell microscopy, even without prior experience with electronics or optics. We quantify and compare components, discuss our design considerations, and demonstrate the performance of our LED illuminator by imaging axonal transport of herpes virus particles with high temporal resolution.

  18. Ultra Deep Wave Equation Imaging and Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander M. Popovici; Sergey Fomel; Paul Sava; Sean Crawley; Yining Li; Cristian Lupascu

    2006-09-30

    In this project we developed and tested a novel technology, designed to enhance seismic resolution and imaging of ultra-deep complex geologic structures by using state-of-the-art wave-equation depth migration and wave-equation velocity model building technology for deeper data penetration and recovery, steeper dip and ultra-deep structure imaging, accurate velocity estimation for imaging and pore pressure prediction and accurate illumination and amplitude processing for extending the AVO prediction window. Ultra-deep wave-equation imaging provides greater resolution and accuracy under complex geologic structures where energy multipathing occurs, than what can be accomplished today with standard imaging technology. The objective of the research effort was to examine the feasibility of imaging ultra-deep structures onshore and offshore, by using (1) wave-equation migration, (2) angle-gathers velocity model building, and (3) wave-equation illumination and amplitude compensation. The effort consisted of answering critical technical questions that determine the feasibility of the proposed methodology, testing the theory on synthetic data, and finally applying the technology for imaging ultra-deep real data. Some of the questions answered by this research addressed: (1) the handling of true amplitudes in the downward continuation and imaging algorithm and the preservation of the amplitude with offset or amplitude with angle information required for AVO studies, (2) the effect of several imaging conditions on amplitudes, (3) non-elastic attenuation and approaches for recovering the amplitude and frequency, (4) the effect of aperture and illumination on imaging steep dips and on discriminating the velocities in the ultra-deep structures. All these effects were incorporated in the final imaging step of a real data set acquired specifically to address ultra-deep imaging issues, with large offsets (12,500 m) and long recording time (20 s).

  19. The multiple junction edge illuminated solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. I.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Riley, T. J.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The multiple junction edge illuminated solar cell was devised for high voltage low current applications. Devices to be flight tested in early 1974 with 96 series connected PNN+ junctions in a 2 cm X 2.3 cm size deliver 36 volts at 1 milliampere. Test data of M-J cells fabricated with resistivities of 10, 50, 100, 200, 450, and 1000 ohm cm silicon are presented and problem areas are discussed. An additional potential application of the M-J cell lies in ultilization of its high intensity performance that has been demonstrated at levels in excess of 100 AMO suns.

  20. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOEpatents

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2010-02-16

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient that an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  1. HMC and fibroblast illuminating experiments using microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Chung-Jen; Shen, Ching-I.; Ou, Chung-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Techniques like optical neural guiding, photodynamic therapy and photosynthesis of the cell all required specific spatial energy distribution. Influences factors like the wavelength, polarization, spatial intensity distribution are all required, and the appropriate illumination condition for the cells inside the incubator are required to meet more complicated conditions. We report the system that using of the spatial light modulator to provide a multi-points control for the cell culturing. This system is modified from the commercialized projection system to reduce the cost. It is now possible to apply it to other bio-culturing related applications. Results for Human Melanocyte HMC, Glia cell and fibroblast cell are discussed.

  2. Analysis of daylight performance of solar light pipes influenced by size and shape of sunlight captures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Jin, Rendong; Zhang, Wenming; Liu, Li; Zou, Dachao

    2009-11-01

    Experimental investigations on three different sunlight captures with diameter 150mm, 212mm, 300mm were carried out under different conditions such as sunny conditions, cloudy conditions and overcast conditions and the two different size solar light pipes with diameter 360mm and 160mm under sunny conditions. The illuminance in the middle of the sunlight capture have relationship with its size, but not linear. To improve the efficiency of the solar light pipes, the structure and the performance of the sunlight capture must be enhanced. For example, University of Science and Technology Beijing Gymnasium, Beijing 2008 Olympic events of Judo and Taekwondo, 148 solar light pipes were installed with the diameter 530mm for each light pipe. Two sunlight captures with different shape were installed and tested. From the measuring results of the illuminance on the work plane of the gymnasium, the improvement sunlight captures have better effects with the size of augmenting and the machining of the internal surface at the same time, so that the refraction increased and the efficiency of solar light pipes improved. The better effects of supplementary lighting for the gymnasium have been achieved.

  3. Development of flying spot illumination system for stage lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Hisashi; Ishii, Katsunori; Koshiro, Hikari; Baba, Junko; Wakaki, Moriaki

    2014-02-01

    The system to control the area of illumination is important for the luminaires used for stages and TV studios. Presently the methods to change the distance between a lamp and lenses, or to use a zooming projection of the aperture illuminated by the lamp are used to control the area. However, these methods require many optical components or mechanical components. Moreover, the energy of the light source is partially consumed by the absorption of the shutter on adjusting the illumination area. On the other hand, the control of the illuminance over the illuminated area is not possible by the methods. In this study, we developed the lighting system which enables to control both the illuminated area and the illuminance distribution within the area by scanning the beam from a LED array light source. The area of illumination was expanded along one dimension by scanning the LED beam using a rotating polygon mirror. The selection of the illuminated width and the control of the illuminance distribution were achieved by synchronizing the pulse width modulation (PWM) control of the LED with the rotation of the mirror using a time sharing control. As a result, various illuminance distributions can be realized at real time by using software control for the luminaire. The developed system has the merits of compact and high efficiency.

  4. Decoupling Illumination from Isosurface Generation Using 4D Light Transport

    PubMed Central

    Banks, David C.; Beason, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    One way to provide global illumination for the scientist who performs an interactive sweep through a 3D scalar dataset is to pre-compute global illumination, resample the radiance onto a 3D grid, then use it as a 3D texture. The basic approach of repeatedly extracting isosurfaces, illuminating them, and then building a 3D illumination grid suffers from the non-uniform sampling that arises from coupling the sampling of radiance with the sampling of isosurfaces. We demonstrate how the illumination step can be decoupled from the isosurface extraction step by illuminating the entire 3D scalar function as a 3-manifold in 4-dimensional space. By reformulating light transport in a higher dimension, one can sample a 3D volume without requiring the radiance samples to aggregate along individual isosurfaces in the pre-computed illumination grid. PMID:19834238

  5. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  6. Effects of illuminants and illumination time on lettuce growth, yield and nutritional quality in a controlled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. Z.; Guo, S. S.; Ai, W. D.; Tang, Y. K.

    2014-07-01

    Effects of illuminants and illumination time on the growth of lettuce were researched. Red-blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, 90% red light +10% blue light) and white light fluorescent (WF) lamps were compared as the illuminants for plant cultivation. Under each type of illuminant, lettuce was grown at 4 illumination times: 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h, with the same light intensity of 600 μmolm-2s-1. The leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the two illuminants was comparable but the shape of lettuce was obviously affected by the illuminant. The WF lamps produced more compact plant, while red-blue LED resulted in less but longer leaves. However, the total leaf area was not significantly affected by the illuminant. The red-blue LED produced nearly same aboveground biomass with far less energy consumption relative to WF lamps. The underground biomass was lowered under red-blue LED in comparison with WF lamps. Red-blue LED could improve the nutritional quality of lettuce by increasing the concentration of soluble sugar and vitamin C (VC) and reducing the concentration of nitrate. Under each type of illuminant, longer illumination time resulted in higher Pn, more leaves and larger leaf area. The total chlorophyll concentration increased while the concentration ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased with the extension of illumination time. Illumination time had highly significant positive correlation with biomass. Moreover, when total daily light input was kept the same, longer illumination time increased the biomass significantly as well. In addition, longer illumination time increased the concentration of crude fiber, soluble sugar and VC and reduced the concentration of nitrate. In summary, red-blue LEDs and 24 h illumination time were demonstrated to be more suitable for lettuce cultivation in the controlled environment.

  7. Fatal accidents following changes in daylight savings time: the American experience.

    PubMed

    Varughese; Allen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examines specific hypotheses that both sleep loss and behavioral changes occurring with the time shifts for Daylight Savings Time (DST) significantly effect the number of fatal traffic accidents in the United States of America.Background: It has been reported that there is a significant increase in the number of automobile accidents in the spring shift to DST due to the loss of 1 h of sleep. But the extra hour gained at night with the shift from DST in the fall has been variably reported to be associated with increases and decreases in the number of automobile accidents which may reflect either behavioral anticipation with an extended late night prior to the change or the benefit of extra sleep after the change.Methods: Data from 21 years of United States' fatal automobile accidents were gathered. The mean number of accidents on the days at the time of the shifts (Saturday, Sunday and Monday) was compared to the average of the corresponding mean number of accidents on the matching day of the weeks preceding and following the shift. This was repeated for each DST shift. The number of accidents for a particular shift was also correlated with the year of the accidents.Results: There was a significant increase in accidents for the Monday immediately following the spring shift to DST (t=1.92, P=0.034). There was also a significant increase in number of accidents on the Sunday of the fall shift from DST (P<0.002). No significant changes were observed for the other days. A significant negative correlation with the year was found between the number of accidents on the Saturdays and Sundays but not Mondays.Conclusions: The sleep deprivation on the Monday following shift to DST in the spring results in a small increase in fatal accidents. The behavioral adaptation anticipating the longer day on Sunday of the shift from DST in the fall leads to an increased number of accidents suggesting an increase in late night (early Sunday morning) driving when

  8. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-07-11

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild-moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex(©) camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1-3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL

  9. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild−moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex© camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1–3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL

  10. Compact laser illumination system for endoscopic interventions.

    PubMed

    Blase, Bastian

    2015-08-01

    External cold light sources as well as LEDs are commonly used for abdominal illumination in minimally invasive surgery. Still, both feature certain disadvantages. A new illumination system for endoscopes based on laser diodes is placed in the handle. No external light cables are needed. High conversion and coupling efficiencies and small package size allow for several diodes to be integrated, enabling color mixing and the adjustment of color temperatures. An optical module to collimate and combine the light is described. The heat to be dissipated is stored in a passive latent heat storage based on phase change materials surrounding the optical module. Thereby, operation time is considerably extended, as the handle's temperature is stabilized. To reduce the negative effect of coherent light on optical rough surfaces leading to patterns of spots, several devices for speckle reduction are developed and tested. By combining these components, an assembly of a powerful RGB laser light module for the integration in standard sized endoscopes is formed. PMID:26737628

  11. Laser scattering by transcranial rat brain illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2012-06-01

    Due to the great number of applications of Low-Level-Laser-Therapy (LLLT) in Central Nervous System (CNS), the study of light penetration through skull and distribution in the brain becomes extremely important. The aim is to analyze the possibility of precise illumination of deep regions of the rat brain, measure the penetration and distribution of red (λ = 660 nm) and Near Infra-Red (NIR) (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light and compare optical properties of brain structures. The head of the animal (Rattus Novergicus) was epilated and divided by a sagittal cut, 2.3 mm away from mid plane. This section of rat's head was illuminated with red and NIR lasers in points above three anatomical structures: hippocampus, cerebellum and frontal cortex. A high resolution camera, perpendicularly positioned, was used to obtain images of the brain structures. Profiles of scattered intensities in the laser direction were obtained from the images. There is a peak in the scattered light profile corresponding to the skin layer. The bone layer gives rise to a valley in the profile indicating low scattering coefficient, or frontal scattering. Another peak in the region related to the brain is an indication of high scattering coefficient (μs) for this tissue. This work corroborates the use of transcranial LLLT in studies with rats which are subjected to models of CNS diseases. The outcomes of this study point to the possibility of transcranial LLLT in humans for a large number of diseases.

  12. Design and analysis of illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoechling, Guenter

    1991-01-01

    Illuminance at a detector is calculated by means of raytracing. A method of synthesis already known from related fields - is demonstrated: the Edge Ray Principle. 1. 1 Concepts of photometry 1. ANALYSIS We have to recall the basic physical concepts of photometry namely luminance light intensity light flux and illuminance [21 The definition of a Lambertian Source is given here again due to its fundamental importance: we call a radiating surface a Lambertian Source its luminance is independent of surface coordinates and viewing angle. An equivalent formulation is: the source obeys ''Lamberts cosine law of intensity'' for any surface element dA and any angle B dl L * cos B * dA (1) L luminance dA surface element at source I intensity B angle between surface normal and viewing direction The Lambertian Source has several interesting attributes for instance that we cannot judge its position or shape by just looking at it. A more precise formulation of this phenomenon can be stated as following: 1. 2 Pseudo luminance of the hole Let D be some area on a detector H be a hole in an opaque screen (both not necessarily small) and Si and S2 be lambertian radiating surfaces (alternatively existing) then the following theorem holds: SPIE Vol. 1354 International Lens Design Conference (1990) / 617 y D (p y H (p Fig. i

  13. Construction of an instant structured illumination microscope

    PubMed Central

    Curd, Alistair; Cleasby, Alexa; Makowska, Katarzyna; York, Andrew; Shroff, Hari; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in biological imaging is to capture high-resolution images at fast frame rates in live cells. The “instant structured illumination microscope” (iSIM) is a system designed for this purpose. Similarly to standard structured illumination microscopy (SIM), an iSIM provides a twofold improvement over widefield microscopy, in x, y and z, but also allows much faster image acquisition, with real-time display of super-resolution images. The assembly of an iSIM is reasonably complex, involving the combination and alignment of many optical components, including three micro-optics arrays (two lenslet arrays and an array of pinholes, all with a pitch of 222 μm) and a double-sided scanning mirror. In addition, a number of electronic components must be correctly controlled. Construction of the system is therefore not trivial, but is highly desirable, particularly for live-cell imaging. We report, and provide instructions for, the construction of an iSIM, including minor modifications to a previous design in both hardware and software. The final instrument allows us to rapidly acquire fluorescence images at rates faster than 100 fps, with approximately twofold improvement in resolution in both x–y and z; sub-diffractive biological features have an apparent size (full width at half maximum) of 145 nm (lateral) and 320 nm (axial), using a 1.49 NA objective and 488 nm excitation. PMID:26210400

  14. Illuminating Chaucer through Poetry, Manuscript Illuminations, and a Critical Rap Album

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Tom Liam

    2007-01-01

    Drawing connections between Chaucer, Eminem, and social issues, New York City high school teacher Tom Liam Lynch helped students become familiar with "The Canterbury Tales." Students wrote poems of rhymed couplets about today's social and political issues, created illuminated manuscripts, and recorded a rap CD. A book and album were published for…

  15. Effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal foraging of waders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Carlos D.; Miranda, Ana C.; Granadeiro, José P.; Lourenço, Pedro M.; Saraiva, Sara; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2010-03-01

    Large areas of natural and semi-natural habitats are exposed to artificial illumination from adjacent urban areas and roads. Estuarine and coastal wetlands are particularly exposed to such illumination because shorelines often are heavily utilized by man. However, the impact of artificial illumination on the waders that forage in these highly productive habitats is virtually unknown. We evaluated the effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal habitat selection and foraging behaviour of six wader species with different feeding strategies: three visual foragers, two species that alternate visual and tactile strategies (mixed foragers), and one tactile forager. We quantified the number of birds and their foraging behaviour at sites affected and not affected by streetlights, and also before and after illuminating experimental sites. Areas illuminated by streetlights were used more during the night by visual foragers, and to a lesser extent by mixed foragers, than non-illuminated areas. Visual foragers increased their foraging effort in illuminated areas, and mixed foragers changed to more efficient visual foraging strategies. These behavioural shifts improved prey intake rate by an average of 83% in visual and mixed foragers. We have showed that artificial illumination has a positive effect on the nocturnal foraging of waders, but on the other hand may draw them to degraded areas close to urban centres, and potentially raises their exposure to predators. Our findings suggest that artificial illumination is worth investigation as a tool in the management of intertidal habitats for waders.

  16. Optimal color temperature adjustment for mobile devices under varying illuminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of mobile devices, display color reproduction has become extremely important. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimal color temperature for mobile displays under varying illuminants. The effect of the color temperature and the illuminance of ambient lighting on user preferences were observed. For a visual examination, a total of 19 nuanced whites were examined under 20 illuminants. A total of 19 display stimuli with different color temperatures (2,500 K ~ 19,600 K) were presented on an iPad3 (New iPad). The ambient illuminants ranged in color temperature from 2,500 K to 19,800 K and from 0 lx to 3,000 lx in illuminance. Supporting previous studies of color reproduction, there was found to be a positive correlation between the color temperature of illuminants and that of optimal whites. However, the relationship was not linear. Based on assessments by 56 subjects, a regression equation was derived to predict the optimal color temperature adjustment under varying illuminants, as follows: [Display Tcp = 5138.93 log(Illuminant Tcp) - 11956.59, p<.001, R2=0.94]. Moreover, the influence of an illuminant was positively correlated with the illuminance level, confirming the findings of previous studies. It is expected that the findings of this study can be used as the theoretical basis when designing a color strategy for mobile display devices.

  17. Black light: how sensors filter spectral variation of the illuminant.

    PubMed

    Brainard, D H; Wandell, B A; Cowan, W B

    1989-01-01

    Visual sensor responses may be used to classify objects on the basis of their surface reflectance functions. In a color image, the image data are represented as a vector of sensor responses at each point in the image. This vector depends both on the surface reflectance function and on the spectral power distribution of the ambient illumination. Algorithms designed to classify objects on the basis of their surface reflectance functions typically attempt to overcome the dependence of the sensor responses on the illuminant by integrating sensor data collected from multiple surfaces. In machine vision applications, we show that it is often possible to design the sensor spectral responsivities so that the vector direction of the sensor responses does not depend upon the illuminant. We state the conditions under which this is possible and perform an illustrative calculation. In biological systems, where the sensor responsivities are fixed, we show that some changes in the illumination cause no change in the sensor responses. We call such changes in illuminant black illuminants. It is possible to express any illuminant as the sum of two unique components. One component is a black illuminant. We call the second component the visible component. The visible component of an illuminant completely characterizes the effect of the illuminant on the vector of sensor responses.

  18. Illuminating Asset Value through New Seismic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsberg-Dahl, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ability to reduce risk and uncertainty across the full life cycle of an asset is directly correlated to creating an accurate subsurface image that enhances our understanding of the geology. This presentation focuses on this objective in areas of complex overburden in deepwater. Marine 3D seismic surveys have been acquired in essentially the same way for the past decade. This configuration of towed streamer acquisition, where the boat acquires data in one azimuth has been very effective in imaging areas in fairly benign geologic settings. As the industry has moved into more complicated geologic settings these surveys no longer meet the imaging objectives for risk reduction in exploration through production. In shallow water, we have seen increasing use of ocean bottom cables to meet this challenge. For deepwater, new breakthroughs in technology were required. This will be highlighted through examples of imaging below large salt bodies in the deep water Gulf of Mexico. GoM - Mad Dog: The Mad Dog field is located approximately 140 miles south of the Louisiana coastline in the southern Green Canyon area in water depths between 4100 feet to 6000 feet. The complex salt canopy overlying a large portion of the field results in generally poor seismic data quality. Advanced processing techniques improved the image, but gaps still remained even after several years of effort. We concluded that wide azimuth acquisition was required to illuminate the field in a new way. Results from the Wide Azimuth Towed Streamer (WATS) survey deployed at Mad Dog demonstrated the anticipated improvement in the subsalt image. GoM - Atlantis Field: An alternative approach to wide azimuth acquisition, ocean bottom seismic (OBS) node technology, was developed and tested. In 2001 deepwater practical experience was limited to a few nodes owned by academic institutions and there were no commercial solutions either available or in development. BP embarked on a program of sea trials designed to both

  19. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  20. Color constancy enhancement under poor illumination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shao, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Qimin

    2011-12-15

    In this Letter, the color constancy and its realization were studied and a novel color constancy image enhancement algorithm under poor illumination was presented. The purpose of this algorithm is to maintain the hue of an image during the processing so that the change of saturation can be minimized. The original image was first multiplied by a scale parameter obtained by the adaptive quadratic function to enhance the luminance, and then the edge details were restored by a shifting parameter. Numerical results of the Simon Fraser University (SFU) image database indicated that the proposed algorithm performed much better in preserving the hue and saturation and avoiding color distortion compared with the existing image enhancement algorithms. PMID:22179895

  1. Nonlinearity calibrating algorithm for structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Shuaijun; Lau, Daniel L.; Barner, Kenneth E.; Kiamilev, Fouad

    2014-05-01

    In structured light illumination (SLI), the nonlinear distortion of the optical devices dramatically ruins accuracy of three-dimensional reconstruction when using only a small number of projected patterns. We propose a universal algorithm to calibrate these device nonlinearities to accurately precompensate the patterns. Thus, no postprocessing is needed to correct for the distortions while the number of patterns can be reduced down to as few as possible. Theoretically, the proposed method can be applied to any SLI pattern strategy. Using a three-pattern SLI method, our experimental results will show a 25× to 60× reduction in surface variance for a flat target, depending upon any surface smoothing that might be applied to remove Gaussian noise.

  2. Achromatic illumination system for small targets

    DOEpatents

    Sigler, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    A pair of light beams is directed to provide illumination that is substantially uniform from all directions on a small target by a system comprising a pair of corrector windows, a pair of planar reflecting surfaces, a pair of paraboloidal mirrors and a reflecting mirror cavity. The components are arranged so that each of the beams passes through a corrector and is reflected from the planar surface to the paraboloidal mirror, from which it is focused through a hole in the planar surface to the interior of the cavity. The surface of the interior portion of the cavity is shaped to reflect the focused beam three times before the focused reflected beam strikes the target.

  3. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  4. Scene Illumination as an Indicator of Image Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli

    The goal of blind image forensics is to distinguish original and manipulated images. We propose illumination color as a new indicator for the assessment of image authenticity. Many images exhibit a combination of multiple illuminants (flash photography, mixture of indoor and outdoor lighting, etc.). In the proposed method, the user selects illuminated areas for further investigation. The illuminant colors are locally estimated, effectively decomposing the scene in a map of differently illuminated regions. Inconsistencies in such a map suggest possible image tampering. Our method is physics-based, which implies that the outcome of the estimation can be further constrained if additional knowledge on the scene is available. Experiments show that these illumination maps provide a useful and very general forensics tool for the analysis of color images.

  5. Laser agile illumination for object tracking and classification - Feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.; Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.; Scholl, James W.

    1988-01-01

    The 'agile illumination' concept for discrimination between ICBM warheads and decoys involves a two-aperture illumination with coherent light, diffraction of light by propagation, and a resulting interference pattern on the object surface. A scanning two-beam interference pattern illuminates one object at a time; depending on the shape, momentum, spinning, and tumbling characteristics of the interrogated object, different temporal signals will be obtained for different classes of objects.

  6. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  10. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  11. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  12. Lighting direction and visual field modulate perceived intensity of illumination

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Mark E.; Blakeslee, Barbara; Padmanabhan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting object shape from shading the visual system exhibits a strong bias that illumination comes from above and slightly from the left. We asked whether such biases in the perceived direction of illumination might also influence its perceived intensity. Arrays of nine cubes were stereoscopically rendered where individual cubes varied in their 3D pose, but possessed identical triplets of visible faces. Arrays were virtually illuminated from one of four directions: Above-Left, Above-Right, Below-Left, and Below-Right (±24.4° azimuth; ±90° elevation). Illumination intensity possessed 15 levels, resulting in mean cube array luminances ranging from 1.31–3.45 cd/m2. A “reference” array was consistently illuminated from Above-Left at mid-intensity (mean array luminance = 2.38 cd/m2). The reference array's illumination was compared to that of matching arrays which were illuminated from all four directions at all intensities. Reference and matching arrays appeared in the left and right visual field, respectively, or vice versa. Subjects judged which cube array appeared to be under more intense illumination. Using the method of constant stimuli we determined the illumination level of matching arrays required to establish subjective equality with the reference array as a function of matching cube visual field, illumination elevation, and illumination azimuth. Cube arrays appeared significantly more intensely illuminated when they were situated in the left visual field (p = 0.017), and when they were illuminated from below (p = 0.001), and from the left (p = 0.001). An interaction of modest strength was that the effect of illumination azimuth was greater for matching arrays situated in the left visual field (p = 0.042). We propose that objects lit from below appear more intensely illuminated than identical objects lit from above due to long-term adaptation to downward lighting. The amplification of perceived intensity of illumination for stimuli situated

  13. Optimal illumination for visual enhancement based on color entropy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junfei; Chang, Shengqian; Wang, Huihui; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2016-08-22

    Object visualization is influenced by the spectral distribution of an illuminant impinging upon it. In this paper, we proposed a color entropy evaluation method to provide the optimal illumination that best helps surgeons distinguish tissue features. The target-specific optimal illumination was obtained by maximizing the color entropy value of our sample tissue, whose spectral reflectance was measured using multispectral imaging. Sample images captured under optimal light were compared with that under commercial white light emitting diodes (3000K, 4000K and 5500K). Results showed images under the optimized illuminant had better visual performance such as more subtle details exhibited. PMID:27557255

  14. Robust beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Miyazawa, K.; Someya, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper an optimized new HIB illumination scheme is presented in order to realize a robust illumination scheme against a displacement of a direct-driven fuel pellet in an ICF reactor. In heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF) heavy ion beam (HIB) precise illumination is essentially important to obtain a sufficient fusion energy output. In direct-driven pellet implosion, HIBs illuminate a spherical target and the HIB deposition non-uniformity should be suppressed less than a few %. In our study, we developed a 3D HIB illumination code [1] and a hydrodynamic implosion code for HIF studies. We have obtained an optimal HIB illumination scheme to minimize the HIB illumination non-uniformity on a direct-driven fuel pellet and to make the illumination scheme robust against a little pellet displacement dz in a fusion reactor chamber. The optimized HIB illumination scheme allows 200-300 [micron m] of dz in HIF [2]. [1] T. Someya, et.al, Phy.Rev.STAB, 7, 044701 (2004). [2] S. Miyazawa, et al., Phys. of Plasma, 12, 122702 (2005)

  15. Application of covert illumination to intrusion surveillance, assessment, and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Melvin C.; Scherbarth, Stefan

    1995-05-01

    Covert illumination is an important element in providing surveillance, detection, and assessment for security applications. IR illumination is increasingly providing this function; however, conventional filament-based illuminators have limited performance and life. A new variety of light emitting diode (LED) illuminators is described that provides long life at low power. A further advance is to use a planar array of LED's with lenses to optimize the uniformity of scene illumination and maximize the illumination range. Modern CCD cameras have an inherently high IR sensitivity so are well matched to work with this illumination. Further enhancements are to integrate the combination of low-light camera and LED illuminator in a discrete column type package to make the overall illumination and assessment system unobtrusive. Finally, these components can be further combined with automated assessment aids to turn the surveillance device into a true detection sensor that can operate stand-alone without active personnel monitoring. A review of the major IR design considerations is included, along with several examples of systems to illustrate potential applications.

  16. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In

  17. Illuminance and luminance distributions of a prototype ambient illumination system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullican, R. C.; Hayes, B. C.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of research conducted in the late 1970's indicate that perceptual qualities of an enclosure can be influenced by the distribution of illumination within the enclosure. Subjective impressions such as spaciousness, perceptual clarity, and relaxation or tenseness, among others, appear to be related to different combinations of surface luminance. A prototype indirect ambient illumination system was developed which will allow crew members to alter surface luminance distributions within an enclosed module, thus modifying perceptual cues to match crew preferences. A traditional lensed direct lighting system was compared to the prototype utilizing the full-scale mockup of Space Station Freedom developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. The direct lensed system was installed in the habitation module with the indirect prototype deployed in the U.S. laboratory module. Analysis centered on the illuminance and luminance distributions resultant from these systems and the implications of various luminaire spacing options. All test configurations were evaluated for compliance with NASA Standard 3000, Man-System Integration Standards.

  18. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The

  19. Considerations on Daylight Operation of 1.6-VERSUS 3.7-µm Channel on NOAA and Metop Satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cattani, Elsa; Melani, Samantha; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2004-06-01

    The transition from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)/2 to AVHRR/3 on NOAA polar orbiters was associated with a switching from daylight operations of the 3.7- to 1.6-µm wave band, while retaining 3.7 µm for nighttime operations. Investigations of the daylight applicability of the two channels suggest that the 1.6-µm wave band for daylight operations does not prove to be the better choice, at least for cloud applications. The 3.7-µm wave band is much less affected by surface contamination, and measures more faithfully and unambiguously the particle effective radius near cloud tops. The 1.6-µm radiation penetrates deeper into the cloud, supplying an integrated signal throughout the inner portions of the cloud, including surface contribution. Therefore, a synergetic use of the two wave bands can provide an improved retrieval of cloud microstructure and precipitation than from any of the channels alone. However, when one channel must be selected for the AVHRR/3, 3.7 µm performs much better for these applications. Both wave bands identify equally well microphysical features in the anvils of severe storms. For other applications, such as detection of ice and snow over vegetated surfaces and desert dust aerosols, the 1.6-µm wave band does not present clear advantages with respect to 3.7 µm, except that it can be used directly as is, whereas the 3.7-µm wave band has to be corrected for the thermal emission and water vapor absorption. Anyway, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can be used instead for the applications to the relatively slowly changing surface properties, while prioritizing the AVHRR for the faster varying atmospheric applications. Finally, the 3.7-mm wave band is more effective in detecting fog, fires, and hot spots. All these factors need to be considered by the operators of AVHRR/3 making a justifiable choice of the channels for the maximum benefit of the user community.

  20. Illumination of mesospheric irregularity by lightning discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; Velde, Oscar; Evans, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical model calculations recently predicted the existence of mesospheric irregularities which assist the initiation of sprites. Here we report the experimental detection of a ˜3-19 km3 large mesospheric irregularity at ˜80-85 km height which is illuminated by the electromagnetic field of an intense positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharge. While the lightning discharge causes a prompt group of four sprites above the lightning discharge, the mesospheric irregularity is found at a horizontal distance at least ˜15-20 km away from the sprite group and it rebrightens ˜40-60 ms after the sprite group occurrence. This rebrightening is driven by a local quasi-static electric field enhancement with a charge moment ˜4-20 Ckm which causes the irregularity to develop a downward descending luminous column from ˜75-85 km height. The quasi-static electric field enhancement is caused by the reorganization of residual charge inside the thundercloud during a high-level activity of intracloud discharges with ˜10-20 pulses per ms. Such mesospheric irregularities might have an effect on the wave propagation of 100 kHz radio waves which are used for atomic time transfer and marine navigation.

  1. Fast stereo matching under varying illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunagiri, Sarala; Contreras, Adriana; Gallardo, Esthela; DattaGupta, Aritra; Teller, Patricia J.; Deroba, Joseph C.; Nguyen, Lam H.

    2012-06-01

    Stereo matching is a technique of finding the disparity map or correspondence points between two images acquired from different sensor positions; it is a core process in stereoscopy. Automatic stereo processing, which involves stereo matching, is an important process in many applications including vision-based obstacle avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), extraction of weak targets in clutter, and automatic target detection. Due to its high computational complexity, stereo matching algorithms are one of the most heavily investigated topics in computer vision. Stereo image pairs captured under real conditions, in contrast to those captured under controlled conditions are expected to be different from each other in aspects such as scale, rotation, radiometric differences, and noise. These factors contribute to and enhance the level of difficulty of efficient and accurate stereo matching. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of cost functions based on Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) and Zero mean Normalized Cross Correlation (ZNCC) on images containing speckle noise, differences in level of illumination, and both of these. This is achieved via experiments in which these cost functions are employed by a fast version of an existing modern algorithm, the graph-cut algorithm, to perform stereo matching on 24 image pairs. Stereo matching performance is evaluated in terms of execution time and the quality of the generated output measured in terms of two types of Root Mean Square (RMS) error of the disparity maps generated.

  2. Illumination-invariant hand gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Morales, América I.; Miramontes-Jaramillo, Daniel; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, human-computer interaction (HCI) has received a lot of interest in industry and science because it provides new ways to interact with modern devices through voice, body, and facial/hand gestures. The application range of the HCI is from easy control of home appliances to entertainment. Hand gesture recognition is a particularly interesting problem because the shape and movement of hands usually are complex and flexible to be able to codify many different signs. In this work we propose a three step algorithm: first, detection of hands in the current frame is carried out; second, hand tracking across the video sequence is performed; finally, robust recognition of gestures across subsequent frames is made. Recognition rate highly depends on non-uniform illumination of the scene and occlusion of hands. In order to overcome these issues we use two Microsoft Kinect devices utilizing combined information from RGB and infrared sensors. The algorithm performance is tested in terms of recognition rate and processing time.

  3. A novel phase shifting structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veena; Dubey, Vishesh; Ahmad, Azeem; Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a new and novel phase shifting technique for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement in microscopy. We have developed a phase shifting device which is robust, inexpensive and involves no mechanical movement. In this method, phase shifting is implemented using LED array, beam splitters and defocused projection of Ronchi grating. The light from the LEDs are made incident on the beam splitters at spatially different locations. Due to variation in the geometrical distances of LEDs from the Ronchi grating and by sequentially illuminating the grating by switching on one LED at a time the phase shifted grating patterns are generated. The phase shifted structured patterns are projected onto the sample using microscopic objective lens. The phase shifted deformed patterns are recorded by a CCD camera. The initial alignment of the setup involves a simple procedure for the calibration for equal fringe width and intensity such that the phase shifted fringes are at equal phase difference. Three frame phase shifting algorithm is employed for the reconstruction of the phase map. The method described here is fully automated so that the phase shifted images are recorded just by switching of LEDs and has been used for the shape measurement of microscopic industrial objects. The analysis of the phase shifted images provides qualitative as well as quantitative information about the sample. Thus, the method is simple, robust and low cost compared to PZT devices commonly employed for phase shifting.

  4. Tachistoscopic illumination and masking of real scenes

    PubMed Central

    Chichka, David; Philbeck, John W.; Gajewski, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Tachistoscopic presentation of scenes has been valuable for studying the emerging properties of visual scene representations. The spatial aspects of this work have generally been focused on the conceptual locations (e.g., next to the refrigerator) and the directional locations of objects in 2D arrays and/or images. Less is known about how the perceived egocentric distance of objects develops. Here we describe a novel system for presenting brief glimpses of a real-world environment, followed by a mask. The system includes projectors with mechanical shutters for projecting the fixation and masking images, a set of LED floodlights for illuminating the environment, and computer-controlled electronics to set the timing and initiate the process. Because a real environment is used, most visual distance and depth cues may be manipulated using traditional methods. The system is inexpensive, robust, and its components are readily available in the marketplace. This paper describes the system and the timing characteristics of each component. Verification of the ability to control exposure to time scales as low as a few milliseconds is demonstrated. PMID:24519496

  5. Efficient White SSL Component for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Evans

    2011-01-31

    Cree has developed a new, high-efficiency, low-cost, light emitting diode (LED) module that should be capable of replacing standard, halogen, fluorescent and metal halide lamps based on the total cost of ownership. White LEDs are produced by combining one or more saturated color LEDs with a phosphor or other light down-converting media to achieve white broad-band illumination. This two year project addressed LED chip, package and phosphor efficiency improvements to establish a technology platform suitable for low-cost, high-efficiency commercial luminaires. New phosphor materials with improved quantum efficiency at 'real-life' operating conditions were developed along with new package technology to improve the efficiency of warm white LED modules compared to the baseline technology. Specifically, Cree has successfully demonstrated warm white LED modules providing 540 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3000 K. The LED module had an efficacy of 102.8 lumens per watt (LPW) using 1 mm2 chips biased at 350 mA - a 27% improvement over the technology at project start (81 LPW at 3000K). The white modules also delivered an efficacy of 88 LPW at elevated junction temperatures of 125 C. In addition, a proof-of-concept 4-inch downlight luminaire produced a flux of 1183 lumens at a CCT of 2827 K and a color rendering index (CRI) of 80 using this project's phosphor developments.

  6. Beyond perspective dual photography with illumination masks.

    PubMed

    Koppal, Sanjeev J; Narasimhan, Srinivasa G

    2015-07-01

    Scene appearance from the point of view of a light source is called a reciprocal or dual view. Since there exists a large diversity in illumination, these virtual views may be nonperspective and multiviewpoint in nature. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of occluding masks to recover these dual views, which we term shadow cameras. We first show how to render a single reciprocal scene view by swapping the camera and light source positions. We then extend this technique for multiple views by both building a virtual shadow camera array and by exploiting area sources. We also capture nonperspective views such as orthographic, cross-slit and a pushbroom variant, while introducing novel applications such as converting between camera projections and removing refractive and catadioptric distortions. Finally, since a shadow camera is artificial, we can manipulate any of its intrinsic parameters, such as camera skew, to create perspective distortions. We demonstrate a variety of indoor and outdoor results and show a rendering application for capturing the light-field of a light-source. PMID:25794389

  7. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  8. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  9. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  10. 46 CFR 112.43-11 - Illumination for launching operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illumination for launching operations. 112.43-11 Section 112.43-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Lighting Systems § 112.43-11 Illumination for...

  11. Source polarization and OPC effects on illumination optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brist, Travis; Bailey, George E.; Drozdov, Alexander; Torres, Andres; Estroff, Andrew; Hendrickx, Eric

    2005-11-01

    To perform a thorough source optimization during process development is becoming more critical as we move to leading edge-technology nodes. With each new node the acceptable process margin continues to shrink as a result of lowering k1 factors. This drives the need for thorough source optimization prior to locking down a process in order to attain the maximum common depth of focus (DOF) the process will allow. Optical proximity correction (OPC) has become a process-enabling tool in lithography by providing a common process window for structures that would otherwise not have overlapping windows. But what effect does this have on the source optimization? With the introduction of immersion lithography there is yet another parameter, namely source polarization, that may need to be included in an illumination optimization process. This paper explored the effect polarization and OPC have on illumination optimization. The Calibre ILO (Illumination Optimization) tool was used to perform the illumination optimization and provided plots of DOF vs. various parametric illumination settings. This was used to screen the various illumination settings for the one with optimum process margins. The resulting illumination conditions were then implemented and analyzed at a full chip level. Based on these results, a conclusion was made on the impact source polarization and OPC would have on the illumination optimization process.

  12. Fraunhofer Diffraction Patterns from Apertures Illuminated with Nonparallel Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsporn, Paul E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several aspects of Fraunhofer diffraction patterns from apertures illuminated by diverging light. Develops a generalization to apertures of arbitrary shape which shows that the sizes of the pattern are related by a simple scale factor. Uses the Abbe theory of image formation by diffraction to discuss the intensity of illumination of the…

  13. Lightness of an object under two illumination levels.

    PubMed

    Zdravković, Suncica; Economou, Elias; Gilchrist, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Anchoring theory (Gilchrist et al, 1999 Psychological Review 106 795-834) predicts a wide range of lightness errors, including failures of constancy in multi-illumination scenes and a long list of well-known lightness illusions seen under homogeneous illumination. Lightness values are computed both locally and globally and then averaged together. Local values are computed within a given region of homogeneous illumination. Thus, for an object that extends through two different illumination levels, anchoring theory produces two values, one for the patch in brighter illumination and one for the patch in dimmer illumination. Observers can give matches for these patches separately, but they can also give a single match for the whole object. Anchoring theory in its current form is unable to predict these object matches. We report eight experiments in which we studied the relationship between patch matches and object matches. The results show that the object match represents a compromise between the match for the patch in the field of highest illumination and the patch in the largest field of illumination. These two principles are parallel to the rules found for anchoring lightness: highest luminance rule and area rule.

  14. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  15. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  16. Lightness of an object under two illumination levels.

    PubMed

    Zdravković, Suncica; Economou, Elias; Gilchrist, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Anchoring theory (Gilchrist et al, 1999 Psychological Review 106 795-834) predicts a wide range of lightness errors, including failures of constancy in multi-illumination scenes and a long list of well-known lightness illusions seen under homogeneous illumination. Lightness values are computed both locally and globally and then averaged together. Local values are computed within a given region of homogeneous illumination. Thus, for an object that extends through two different illumination levels, anchoring theory produces two values, one for the patch in brighter illumination and one for the patch in dimmer illumination. Observers can give matches for these patches separately, but they can also give a single match for the whole object. Anchoring theory in its current form is unable to predict these object matches. We report eight experiments in which we studied the relationship between patch matches and object matches. The results show that the object match represents a compromise between the match for the patch in the field of highest illumination and the patch in the largest field of illumination. These two principles are parallel to the rules found for anchoring lightness: highest luminance rule and area rule. PMID:17120840

  17. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  18. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section 892.1890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator....

  20. 50. STREET LIGHTING & ILLUMINATED SIGNS, NORTH & SOUTH APPROACHES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. STREET LIGHTING & ILLUMINATED SIGNS, NORTH & SOUTH APPROACHES, DETAILS OF ILLUMINATED SIGNS (Sheet 2 of 3 sheets), June 29, 1932 - West End-North Side Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, approximately 1 mile downstream from confluence of Monongahela & Allegheny rivers, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Mixing and Simplex Search for Optimal Illumination in Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungTae; Cho, KyeongYong; Jin, Kyungchan; Yoon, JooSung; Cho, YoungJune

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-color illumination affects the quality of images in industrial vision system and it is important to optimize color and intensity for image acquisition. This study used simplex search to find the optimal illumination in a short amount of time. A typical color mixer synthesized various color of lights by changing the inputs of RGB power LEDs and passing the lights through an optical system. The image quality under mixed-color illumination was calculated according to the sharpness. For the purpose of optimal illumination using simplex search, a probe network was organized with N + 1probing points for N inputs. The shape of the probe network, simplex, was varied through procedures of extension, contraction, and shrinkage. The inputs of the color mixer were changed until the size of the simplex became smaller than a threshold. The simplex search was tested for commercial semiconductor patterns, and was useful for finding the optimal illumination.

  2. Designing single LED illumination distribution for direct-type backlight.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinbo; Qian, Keyuan

    2013-10-01

    This study presents a new method for achieving uniform illumination of an LED array by designing single LED illumination distribution (SLID) on the target plane. The SLID with the least coefficient of variation of the root mean squared error is calculated. For square LED arrays, the uniformity of illumination reaches 0.94. A secondary lens was designed to achieve the calculated SLID. Simulation results show that the uniformity of illumination reaches 0.92 when the distance-height ratio is 3.33. The calculated SLID can be used in different distance-height ratios. When the distance-height ratio is 5, the uniformity of illumination reaches 0.91. The calculation method can be used in different kinds of LED arrays. A feedback method of lens design is presented for a real direct-type backlight system. PMID:24085218

  3. A statistical analysis of the energy policy act of 2005, its changes to the daylight saving program, and impact on residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Patrick L.

    Government programs designed to decrease resource consumption, improve productivity and capitalize on extended daylight hours in the summer have been developed and implemented throughout the world for nearly three hundred years. In 2005, The United States government adopted an extended daylight savings program that increases the number of weeks where the country observes Daylight Saving Time (DST) from 31 to 35 weeks. The program took effect in March 2007. Arguments in support of DST programs highlight the portion of electricity consumption attributed to residential lighting in the evening hours. Adjusting clocks forward by one hour in summer months is believed to reduce electricity consumption due to lighting and therefore significantly reduce residential energy consumption during the period of DST. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the changes to DST resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The study focuses on changes to household electricity consumption during the extended four weeks of DST. Arizona, one of two states that continue to opt out of DST serves as the study's control for a comparison with neighboring states, Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and Utah. Results from the regression analysis of a Difference in Difference model indicate that contrary to evaluations by Congress and the Department of Energy, the four week period of Extended Daylight Saving Time does not produce a significant decrease in per capita electricity consumption in Southwestern states.

  4. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    2005-01-26

    Control system development and lighting energy monitoring of ceramic thin-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale window systems test-bed facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. The new facility consists of three identically configured side-by-side private offices with large-area windows that face due south. In one room, an array of EC windows with a center-of-glass visible transmittance T_v range of 0.05-0.60 was installed. In the two other rooms, unshaded windows with a T_v = 0.50 or 0.15 were used as reference. The same dimmable fluorescent lighting system was used in all three rooms. This study explains the design and commissioning of an integrated EC window-lighting control system, and then illustrates its performance in the test-bed under clear, partly cloudy, and overcast sky conditions during the equinox period. The performance of an early prototype EC window controller is also analyzed. Lighting energy savings data are presented. Daily lighting energy savings were 44-59% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.15 and 8-23% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.50. The integrated window-lighting control system maintained interior illuminance levels to within +/- 10% of the setpoint range of 510-700 lx for 89-99% of the day. Further work is planned to refine the control algorithms and monitor cooling load, visual comfort, and human factor impacts of this emerging technology. (author)

  5. Intra-field overlay correction for illumination based distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Michael; Brunner, Timothy; Morgenfeld, Bradley; Jing, Nan; Wiltshire, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    The use of extreme freeform illumination conditions and multi patterning processes used to generate sub 40nm images can result in significant intra-field overlay errors. When levels with differing illumination conditions are aligned to each other, these intra-field distortions can result in overlay errors which are uncorrectable using normal linear feedback corrections. We use a double exposure method, previously described by Minghetti [1] et al. to isolate and measure intra-field overlay distortions caused by tool lens signatures and different illumination conditions. A full field test reticle is used to create a dual level expose pattern. The same pattern is exposed twice, but with two different illumination conditions. The first exposure is done with a standard reference illumination. The second exposure is the target illumination condition. The test reticle has overlay target pairs that are measurable when the 2nd exposure is offset in the Y direction by the designed amount. This allows for a high density, 13x13, intra-field overlay measurement to be collected and modeled to determine 2nd and 3rd order intra-field terms. Since the resulting illumination and scanner lens specific intra field corrections are independent of field size, the sub-recipes can be applied to any product exposure independent of field size, which use the same illumination conditions as the test exposures. When the method is applied to all exposure levels in a product build cycle, the overlay errors contributed by the reference illumination condition cancel out. The remaining errors are due exclusively to the impact of the illumination condition on that scanner lens. Actual results correlated well with the model with more than 80% of the predicted overlay improvement being achieved.

  6. Exemplar-Based Color Constancy and Multiple Illumination.

    PubMed

    Joze, Hamid Reza Vaezi; Drew, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Exemplar-based learning or, equally, nearest neighbor methods have recently gained interest from researchers in a variety of computer science domains because of the prevalence of large amounts of accessible data and storage capacity. In computer vision, these types of technique have been successful in several problems such as scene recognition, shape matching, image parsing, character recognition, and object detection. Applying the concept of exemplar-based learning to the problem of color constancy seems odd at first glance since, in the first place, similar nearest neighbor images are not usually affected by precisely similar illuminants and, in the second place, gathering a dataset consisting of all possible real-world images, including indoor and outdoor scenes and for all possible illuminant colors and intensities, is indeed impossible. In this paper, we instead focus on surfaces in the image and address the color constancy problem by unsupervised learning of an appropriate model for each training surface in training images. We find nearest neighbor models for each surface in a test image and estimate its illumination based on comparing the statistics of pixels belonging to nearest neighbor surfaces and the target surface. The final illumination estimation results from combining these estimated illuminants over surfaces to generate a unique estimate. We show that it performs very well, for standard datasets, compared to current color constancy algorithms, including when learning based on one image dataset is applied to tests from a different dataset. The proposed method has the advantage of overcoming multi-illuminant situations, which is not possible for most current methods since they assume the color of the illuminant is constant all over the image. We show a technique to overcome the multiple illuminant situation using the proposed method and test our technique on images with two distinct sources of illumination using a multiple-illuminant color constancy

  7. Illuminate Knowledge Elements in Geoscience Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are numerous dark data hidden in geoscience literature. Efficient retrieval and reuse of those data will greatly benefit geoscience researches of nowadays. Among the works of data rescue, a topic of interest is illuminating the knowledge framework, i.e. entities and relationships, embedded in documents. Entity recognition and linking have received extensive attention in news and social media analysis, as well as in bioinformatics. In the domain of geoscience, however, such works are limited. We will present our work on how to use knowledge bases on the Web, such as ontologies and vocabularies, to facilitate entity recognition and linking in geoscience literature. The work deploys an un-supervised collective inference approach [1] to link entity mentions in unstructured texts to a knowledge base, which leverages the meaningful information and structures in ontologies and vocabularies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Our work is still in the initial stage towards the detection of knowledge frameworks in literature, and we have been collecting geoscience ontologies and vocabularies in order to build a comprehensive geoscience knowledge base [2]. We hope the work will initiate new ideas and collaborations on dark data rescue, as well as on the synthesis of data and knowledge from geoscience literature. References: 1. Zheng, J., Howsmon, D., Zhang, B., Hahn, J., McGuinness, D.L., Hendler, J., and Ji, H. 2014. Entity linking for biomedical literature. In Proceedings of ACM 8th International Workshop on Data and Text Mining in Bioinformatics, Shanghai, China. 2. Ma, X. Zheng, J., 2015. Linking geoscience entity mentions to the Web of Data. ESIP 2015 Summer Meeting, Pacific Grove, CA.

  8. Effect of noise intensity and illumination intensity on visual performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chiuan

    2014-10-01

    The results of Experiment 1 indicated that noise and illumination intensity have a significant effect on character identification performance, which was better at 30 dBA than at 60 and 90 dBA, and better at 500 and 800 lux than at 200 lux. However, the interaction of noise and illumination intensity did not significantly affect visual performance. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that noise and illumination intensity also had a significant effect on reading comprehension performance, which was better at 30 dBA than at 60 and 90 dBA, and better at 500 lux than at 200 and 800 lux. Furthermore, reading comprehension performance was better at 500 lux lighting and 30 dBA noise than with 800 lux and 90 dBA. High noise intensity impaired visual performance, and visual performance at normal illumination intensity was better than at other illumination intensities. The interaction of noise and illumination had a significant effect on reading comprehension. These results indicate that noise intensity lower than 30 dBA and illumination intensity approximately 500 lux might be the optimal conditions for visual work.

  9. Steerable diffraction limited line illumination system using deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Koichi; Kim, Dae Wook; Shimura, Kei; Burge, James H.

    2013-09-01

    Many scientific and industrial applications often require high performance optical systems utilizing spatially shaped illumination patterns of laser beams. Precisely shaped line illumination can be used for various line scanning systems or surface inspection devices. In order to achieve the highest resolution or superior signal to noise ratio limited by the fundamental theory, a diffraction limited illumination optical system (e.g. <0.8 Strehl ratio) gives the narrowest illumination line width determined by the system's NA (Numerical Aperture) value. For high precision and in-factory industrial applications, the Diffraction Limited Line Illumination (DLLI) needs to be controlled in three dimensional space rapidly as the target object under the illumination may not be always aligned with respect to the illumination system. A steerable DLLI system with three degrees of freedom (i.e. axial displacement, rotation, and tilt) is developed using an adaptive optics system. By electronically controlling the Zernike based surface shapes of the deformable mirror, the DLLI in free space is actively positioned and oriented with high accuracy. The geometrical optics based mathematical model to control the Zernike modes of the deformable mirror and the performance of a bench-top proof-ofconcept system will be presented with experimental data and analysis results.

  10. Dual-illumination planar Doppler velocimetry using a single camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrett, Tom O. H.; Ford, Helen D.; Nobes, David S.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2003-11-01

    A Planar Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) illumination system has been designed which is able to generate two beams, separated in frequency by about 600 MHz. This allows a common-path imaging head to be constructed, using a single imaging camera instead of the usual camera pair. Both illumination beams can be derived from a single laser, using acousto-optic modulators to effect the frequency shifts. One illumination frequency lies on an absorption line of gaseous iodine, and the other just off the absorption line. The beams sequentially illuminate a plane within a seeded flow and Doppler-shifted scattered light passes through an iodine vapor cell onto the camera. The beam that lies at an optical frequency away from the absorption line is not affected by passage through the cell, and provides a reference image. The other beam, the frequency of which coincides with an absorption line, encodes the velocity information as a variation in transmission dependent upon the Doppler shift. Images of the flow under both illumination frequencies are formed on the same camera, ensuring registration of the reference and signal images. This removes a major problem of a two-camera imaging head, and cost efficiency is also improved by the simplification of the system. The dual illumination technique has been shown to operate successfully with a spinning disc as a test object. The benefits of combining the dual illumination system with a three-component, fiber-linked imaging head developed at Cranfield will be discussed.

  11. Effect of noise intensity and illumination intensity on visual performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chiuan

    2014-10-01

    The results of Experiment 1 indicated that noise and illumination intensity have a significant effect on character identification performance, which was better at 30 dBA than at 60 and 90 dBA, and better at 500 and 800 lux than at 200 lux. However, the interaction of noise and illumination intensity did not significantly affect visual performance. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that noise and illumination intensity also had a significant effect on reading comprehension performance, which was better at 30 dBA than at 60 and 90 dBA, and better at 500 lux than at 200 and 800 lux. Furthermore, reading comprehension performance was better at 500 lux lighting and 30 dBA noise than with 800 lux and 90 dBA. High noise intensity impaired visual performance, and visual performance at normal illumination intensity was better than at other illumination intensities. The interaction of noise and illumination had a significant effect on reading comprehension. These results indicate that noise intensity lower than 30 dBA and illumination intensity approximately 500 lux might be the optimal conditions for visual work. PMID:25153619

  12. Improved illumination system of laparoscopes using an aspherical lens array

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rengmao; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current fiber-based illumination systems of laparoscopes are unable to uniformly illuminate a large enough area in abdomen due to the limited numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber bundle. Most energy is concentrated in a small region at the center of the illumination area. This limitation becomes problematic in laparoscopes which require capturing a wide field of view. In this paper, we propose an aspherical lens array which is used to direct the outgoing rays from the fiber bundle of laparoscope to produce a more uniformly illuminated, substantially larger field coverage than standalone fiber source. An intensity feedback method is developed to design the aspherical lens unit for extended non-Lambertian sources, which is the key to the design of this lens array. By this method, the lens unit is obtained after only one iteration, and the lens array is constructed by Boolean operation. Then, the ray-tracing technique is used to verify the design. Further, the lens array is fabricated and experimental tests are performed. The results clearly show that the well-illuminated area is increased to about 0.107m2 from 0.02m2 (about 5x larger than a standard fiber illumination source). More details of the internal organs can be clearly observed under this improved illumination condition, which also reflects the significant improvement in the optical performance of the laparoscope. PMID:27375940

  13. Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Zhang, W.; Xie, J.; Zhang, H.; Dai, D.

    2014-08-01

    In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  14. Photoactivation and optogenetics with micro mirror enhanced illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückerl, F.; Berndt, D.; Heber, J.; Shorte, S.

    2014-05-01

    Photoactivation and "optogenetics" require the precise control of the illumination path in optical microscopes. It is equally important to shape the illumination spatially as well as to have control over the intensity and the duration of the illumination. In order to achieve these goals we use programmable, diffractive Micro Mirror Arrays (MMA) as fast spatial light modulators for beam steering. By combining two MMAs with 256×256 mirrors each, our illumination setup allows for fast angular and spatial control at a wide spectral range (260-1000 nm). Illumination pulses can be as short as 50 μs, or can also extend to several seconds. The specific illumination modes of the individual areas results in a precise control over the light dose to the sample, giving significant advantage when investigating dosage dependent activation inasmuch as both the duration and the intensity can be controlled distinctly. The setup is integrated to a microscope and allows selective illumination of regions in the sample, enabling the precise, localized activation of fluorescent probes and the activation and deactivation of cellular and subcellular signaling cascades using photo activated ion channels. The high reflectivity in the UV range (up to 260nm) further allows gene silencing using UV activated constructs (e.g. caged morpholinos).

  15. Improved illumination system of laparoscopes using an aspherical lens array.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rengmao; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The current fiber-based illumination systems of laparoscopes are unable to uniformly illuminate a large enough area in abdomen due to the limited numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber bundle. Most energy is concentrated in a small region at the center of the illumination area. This limitation becomes problematic in laparoscopes which require capturing a wide field of view. In this paper, we propose an aspherical lens array which is used to direct the outgoing rays from the fiber bundle of laparoscope to produce a more uniformly illuminated, substantially larger field coverage than standalone fiber source. An intensity feedback method is developed to design the aspherical lens unit for extended non-Lambertian sources, which is the key to the design of this lens array. By this method, the lens unit is obtained after only one iteration, and the lens array is constructed by Boolean operation. Then, the ray-tracing technique is used to verify the design. Further, the lens array is fabricated and experimental tests are performed. The results clearly show that the well-illuminated area is increased to about 0.107m(2) from 0.02m(2) (about 5x larger than a standard fiber illumination source). More details of the internal organs can be clearly observed under this improved illumination condition, which also reflects the significant improvement in the optical performance of the laparoscope. PMID:27375940

  16. Research on infrared imaging illumination model based on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-he; Feng, Chao-yin; Guo, Chang-geng; Zheng, Hai-jing; Han, Qiang; Hu, Hai-yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to effectively simulate infrared features of the scene and infrared high light phenomenon, Based on the visual light illumination model, according to the optical property of all material types in the scene, the infrared imaging illumination models are proposed to fulfill different materials: to the smooth material with specular characteristic, adopting the infrared imaging illumination model based on Blinn-Phone reflection model and introducing the self emission; to the ordinary material which is similar to black body without highlight feature, ignoring the computation of its high light reflection feature, calculating simply the material's self emission and its reflection to the surrounding as its infrared imaging illumination model, the radiation energy under zero range of visibility can be obtained according to the above two models. The OpenGl rendering technology is used to construct infrared scene simulation system which can also simulate infrared electro-optical imaging system, then gets the synthetic infrared images from any angle of view of the 3D scenes. To validate the infrared imaging illumination model, two typical 3D scenes are made, and their infrared images are calculated to compare and contrast with the real collected infrared images obtained by a long wave infrared band imaging camera. There are two major points in the paper according to the experiment results: firstly, the infrared imaging illumination models are capable of producing infrared images which are very similar to those received by thermal infrared camera; secondly, the infrared imaging illumination models can simulate the infrared specular feature of relative materials and common infrared features of general materials, which shows the validation of the infrared imaging illumination models. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulation images are similar to the collected images in the aspects of main features, but their histogram distribution does not match very well, the

  17. Efficient color representation for image segmentation under nonwhite illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Byung

    2003-10-01

    Color image segmentation algorithms often consider object color to be a constant property of an object. If the light source dominantly exhibits a particular color, however, it becomes necessary to consider the color variation induced by the colored illuminant. This paper presents a new approach to segmenting color images that are photographed under non-white illumination conditions. It also addresses how to estimate the color of illuminant in terms of the standard RGB color values rather than the spectrum of the illuminant. With respect to the illumination axis that goes through the origin and the centroid of illuminant color clusters (prior given by the estimation process), the RGB color space is transformed into our new color coordinate system. Our new color scheme shares the intuitiveness of the HSI (HSL or HSV) space that comes from the conical (double-conical or cylindrical) structure of hue and saturation aligned with the intensity variation at its center. It has been developed by locating the ordinary RGB cube in such a way that the illumination axis aligns with the vertical axis (Z-axis) of a larger Cartesian (XYZ) space. The work in this paper uses the dichromatic reflection model [1] to interpret the physics about light and optical effects in color images. The linearity proposed in the dichromatic reflection model is essential and is well preserved in the RGB color space. By proposing a straightforward color model transduction, we suggest dimensionality reduction and provide an efficient way to analyze color images of dielectric objects under non-white illumination conditions. The feasibility of the proposed color representation has been demonstrated by our experiment that is twofold: 1) Segmentation result from a multi-modal histogram-based thresholding technique and 2) Color constancy result from discounting illumination effect further by color balancing.

  18. IODC 2014 Illumination design problem: the Cinderella Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassarly, William J.

    2014-12-01

    For the 3rd time, the International Optical Design Conference (IODC) included an Illumination Design contest. This year, the contest involved designing the illuminator to project the 1950 Walt Disney "Cinderella" movie using a box of optical knick-knacks. The goal of the problem was to provide the highest screen lumens with greater than 30% uniformity. There were 12 entries from 3 different countries. Three different commercial optical/illumination design packages were used. The winning solution, provided by Alois Herkommer, provided 371 screen lumens.

  19. How discord underlies the noise resilience of quantum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-01

    The benefits of entanglement can outlast entanglement itself. In quantum illumination, entanglement is employed to better detect reflecting objects in environments so noisy that all entanglement is destroyed. Here, we show that quantum discord—a more resilient form of quantum correlations—explains the resilience of quantum illumination. We introduce a quantitative relation between the performance gain in quantum illumination and the amount of discord used to encode information about the presence or absence of a reflecting object. This highlights discords role preserving the benefits of entanglement in entanglement breaking noise.

  20. Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yuval; Peleg, Edna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri; Solomon, Arieh S

    2012-10-01

    Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during light-dark cycles and in continuous light, and the role of retinal dopamine release in illuminance dependent refractive development. Newly hatched chicks (n = 166) were divided into two experimental groups, a dopamine (n = 88) and a refraction group (n = 78). Both groups were further divided into six illumination groups for exposure of chicks to illuminances of 50, 500 or 10,000 lux of incandescent illumination (referred to throughout as low, medium, and high illuminance, respectively), either under a light-dark cycle with lights on between 7 AM and 7 PM or under continuous illumination. For the dopamine experiment, chicks were euthanized and vitreous was extracted on day 14 post-hatching at 7, 8 AM and 1 PM. Vitreal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and dopamine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. For the refraction experiment, chicks underwent refraction, keratometry and A-scan ultrasonography on days 30, 60 and 90 post-hatching, and each of those measurements was correlated with vitreal DOPAC concentration measured at 1 PM (representing the index of retinal dopamine release). The results showed that under light-dark cycles, vitreal DOPAC concentration was strongly correlated with log illuminance, and was significantly correlated with the developing refraction, corneal radius of curvature, and axial length values. On day 90, low vitreal DOPAC concentrations were associated with myopia (-2.41 ± 1.23 D), flat cornea, deep anterior and vitreous chambers, and thin lens. Under continuous light, vitreal DOPAC concentrations measured at 1 PM in the low, medium

  1. Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sametoglu, Ferhat

    2008-11-01

    Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of expanded uncertainties in luminous intensity and illuminance calibrations.

    PubMed

    Sametoglu, Ferhat

    2008-11-01

    Detector-based calibrating methods and expressions for calculation of photometric uncertainties related to uncertainties in the calibrations of luminous intensity of a light source, illuminance responsivity of a photometer head, and calibration factors of an illuminance meter are discussed. These methods permit luminous intensity calibrations of incandescent light sources, luminous responsivity calibrations of photometer heads, and calibration factors of illuminance meters to be carried out with relative expanded uncertainties (with a level of confidence of 95.45%) of 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively.

  3. Novel non-imaging optic design for uniform illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadi, S.; Ramirez-Iniguez, R.; Boutaleb, T.; Mallick, T.

    2016-03-01

    The Dielectric Totally Internally Reflecting Concentrator (DTIRC) has been developed in the past for wireless infrared communications and solar energy applications. This paper proposes a novel non-imaging optic design based on the DTIRC family of concentrators for use in illumination applications. The novel optic can be integrated with a light emitting diode (LED) and can be tailored to meet specific requirements. The proposed optic can be used as a first or secondary optic to provide uniform illumination within a circular footprint with a desired radius. The results from this work show that, with the optimised DTIRC, it is possible to achieve a uniformity of illuminance of over 95%.

  4. Morphological changes in the retina in Pacific ocean salmon Oncorhynchus masou fry in response to neutralization of the geomagnetic field in conditions of normal illumination.

    PubMed

    Maksimovich, A A; Kondrashev, S L; Gnyubkina, V P

    2008-10-01

    The studies reported here provide the first demonstration that retinal responses in both the fry of the migratory salmon trout Oncorhynchus masou and the dwarf form of this species changed in conditions of experimental neutralization of the geomagnetic field (GMF); migratory salmon trout fry and dwarves showed different changes. The responses of different types of retinal photoreceptor in migratory salmon trout fry to neutralization of the GMF differed: while rods and double cones perceived neutralization of the GMF as the onset of darkness (the scotopic reaction), single (generally blue-sensitive) cones responded to neutralization of the GMF both as presentation of blue light or (very rarely) ultraviolet irradiation. The retina of dwarf male salmon trout responded to neutralization of the GMF with a double response: rods showed a light (photopic) response, while double (red/green-sensitive) cones produced dark (scotopic) responses. Single (blue-sensitive) cones responded to neutralization of the GMF as bright blue light. Thus, the morphological picture of the retina in dwarf male salmon trout in these experimental conditions corresponds to the perception of blue light. The initial conditions were different--normal diffuse daylight with a brightness of about 7.5 Lx. It is likely that neutralization of the magnetic field had no effect on rods, while double, red-green, cones responded as to darkness, i.e., the fish did not perceive red or green light in the visible spectrum, but perceived only blue and, possibly, ultraviolet light by means of central blue-sensitive and accessory cones. Thus, these experiments demonstrated that in conditions of normal daylight illumination, retinal photoreceptors in salmon fry respond to changes in the earth's magnetic field, i.e., objectively function as magnetoreceptors.

  5. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  6. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  7. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  15. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  18. Illumination-invariant face recognition in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhihong; Healey, Glenn E.; Prasad, Manish; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2003-09-01

    We examine the performance of illumination-invariant face recognition in hyperspectral images on a database of 200 subjects. The images are acquired over the near-infrared spectral range of 0.7-1.0 microns. Each subject is imaged over a range of facial orientations and expressions. Faces are represented by local spectral information for several tissue types. Illumination variation is modeled by low-dimensional linear subspaces of reflected radiance spectra. One hundred outdoor illumination spectra measured at Boulder, Colorado are used to synthesize the radiance spectra for the face tissue types. Weighted invariant subspace projection over multiple tissue types is used for recognition. Illumination-invariant face recognition is tested for various face rotations as well as different facial expressions.

  19. Auxiliary Illumination For Viewing Along A Welding Torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Auxiliary optical subsystem provides additional illumination for through-torch vision system of type used in automated or semiautomated arc welding. Also useful during operation of torch to view parts in shadows cast by arc light.

  20. Illumination and Reflectance Estimation with its Application in Foreground Detection.

    PubMed

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to estimate the illumination and reflectance of an image. The approach is based on illumination-reflectance model and wavelet theory. We use a homomorphic wavelet filter (HWF) and define a wavelet quotient image (WQI) model based on dyadic wavelet transform. The illumination and reflectance components are estimated by using HWF and WQI, respectively. Based on the illumination and reflectance estimation we develop an algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings which are captured in complex farrowing pens. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm can be applied to detect the domestic animals in complex environments such as light changes, motionless foreground objects and dynamic background.

  1. An inexpensive programmable illumination microscope with active feedback

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Nathan; Fraden, Seth

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a programmable illumination system capable of tracking and illuminating numerous objects simultaneously using only low-cost and reused optical components. The active feedback control software allows for a closed-loop system that tracks and perturbs objects of interest automatically. Our system uses a static stage where the objects of interest are tracked computationally as they move across the field of view allowing for a large number of simultaneous experiments. An algorithmically determined illumination pattern can be applied anywhere in the field of view with simultaneous imaging and perturbation using different colors of light to enable spatially and temporally structured illumination. Our system consists of a consumer projector, camera, 35-mm camera lens, and a small number of other optical and scaffolding components. The entire apparatus can be assembled for under $4,000.

  2. Scalable illumination robust face identification using harmonic representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cong; Chen, Jiansheng; Yang, Chang; Wang, Jing; Liu, Jing; Su, Guangda; Zhang, Gang

    2013-07-01

    Evaluations of both academic face recognition algorithms and commercial systems have shown that the recognition performance degrades significantly due to the variation of illumination. Previous methods for illumination robust face recognition usually involve computationally expensive 3D model transformations or optimization base reconstruction using multiple gallery face images, making them infeasible in practical large scale face identification applications. In this paper, we propose an alternative face identification framework, in which one image per person is used for enrollment as is commonly practiced in real life applications. Several probe images captured under different illumination conditions are synthesized to imitate the illumination condition of the enrolled gallery face image. We assume Lambertian reflectance of human faces and use the harmonic representations of lighting. We demonstrate satisfactory performance on the Yale B database, both visually and quantitatively. The proposed method is of very low complexity when linear facial feature are used, and is therefore scalable for large scale applications.

  3. An inexpensive programmable illumination microscope with active feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Nathan; Fraden, Seth

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a programmable illumination system capable of tracking and illuminating numerous objects simultaneously using only low-cost and reused optical components. The active feedback control software allows for a closed-loop system that tracks and perturbs objects of interest automatically. Our system uses a static stage where the objects of interest are tracked computationally as they move across the field of view allowing for a large number of simultaneous experiments. An algorithmically determined illumination pattern can be applied anywhere in the field of view with simultaneous imaging and perturbation using different colors of light to enable spatially and temporally structured illumination. Our system consists of a consumer projector, camera, 35-mm camera lens, and a small number of other optical and scaffolding components. The entire apparatus can be assembled for under 4,000. Supplemental matlab code is available to assist in the setup of the active feedback software.

  4. Illumination from space with orbiting solar-reflector spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canady, J. E., Jr.; Allen, J. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using orbiting mirrors to reflect sunlight to Earth for several illumination applications is studied. A constellation of sixteen 1 km solar reflector spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit can illuminate a region 333 km in diameter to 8 lux, which is brighter than most existing expressway lighting systems. This constellation can serve one region all night long or can provide illumination during mornings and evenings to five regions across the United States. Preliminary cost estimates indicate such an endeavor is economically feasible. The studies also explain how two solar reflectors can illuminate the in-orbit nighttime operations of Space Shuttle. An unfurlable, 1 km diameter solar reflector spacecraft design concept was derived. This spacecraft can be packaged in the Space, Shuttle, transported to low Earth orbit, unfurled, and solar sailed to operational orbits up to geosynchronous. The necessary technical studies and improvements in technology are described, and potential environmental concerns are discussed.

  5. On the spectral quality of scanner illumination with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chengwu

    2013-01-01

    Document scanner illumination has evolved along with general illumination technologies. LEDs have become more and more popular as the illumination sources for document scanning. LED technologies provide a wide range of choices both in terms of structural design and spectral compositions. In this report, we examine some popular LED technologies used for document scanner. We evaluate the color rendering performance of scanner models with different illumination technologies by examining their rendering of the Macbeth ColorChecker™ in sRGB. We found that more phosphors in phosphor conversion types of white LEDs may not be necessarily advantageous in terms of scanner color rendering performance. Also CIS type of scanner may be sensitive to the peak wavelength shift and can be particularly problematic when the peaks are out of certain range.

  6. Analytical illuminance and caustic surface calculations in geometrical optics.

    PubMed

    Shealy, D L

    1976-10-01

    The analytical illuminance monitoring technique provides an exact expression within the geometrical optics limit for the illuminance over an image surface for light that has passed through a multiinterface optical system. The light source may be collimated rays, a point source, or an extended source. The geometrical energy distributions can be graphically displayed as a line or point spread function over selected image planes. The analytical illuminance technique gives a more accurate and efficient computer technique for evaluating the energy distribution over an image surface than the traditional scanning of the spot diagram mathematically with a narrow slit. The analytical illuminance monitoring technique also provides a closed form expression for the caustic surface of the optical system. It is shown by examining the caustic surface for anumber of lens systems from the literature that the caustic is a valuable merit function for evaluating the aberrations and the size of the focal region.

  7. Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Peng, Yuan-yuan; Guo, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recently emerged as a promising imaging technique for prostate cancer. But there was still a lot of challenge in the PAI for prostate cancer detection, such as laser illumination modality. Knowledge of absorbed light distribution in prostate tissue was essential since the distribution characteristic of absorbed light energy would influence the imaging depth and range of PAI. In order to make a comparison of different laser illumination modality of photoacoustic imaging technique for prostate cancer, optical model of human prostate was established and combined with Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the light absorption distribution in the prostate tissue. Characteristic of light absorption distribution of transurethral and trans-rectal illumination case, and of tumor at different location was compared with each other.The relevant conclusions would be significant for optimizing the light illumination in a PAI system for prostate cancer detection.

  8. An inexpensive programmable illumination microscope with active feedback

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Nathan; Fraden, Seth

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a programmable illumination system capable of tracking and illuminating numerous objects simultaneously using only low-cost and reused optical components. The active feedback control software allows for a closed-loop system that tracks and perturbs objects of interest automatically. Our system uses a static stage where the objects of interest are tracked computationally as they move across the field of view allowing for a large number of simultaneous experiments. An algorithmically determined illumination pattern can be applied anywhere in the field of view with simultaneous imaging and perturbation using different colors of light to enable spatially and temporally structured illumination. Our system consists of a consumer projector, camera, 35-mm camera lens, and a small number of other optical and scaffolding components. The entire apparatus can be assembled for under $4,000. PMID:27642182

  9. Illumination requirements for operating a space remote manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, George O.; Smith, Randy L.; Wheelwright, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Critical issues and requirements involved in illuminating remote manipulator operations in space help establish engineering designs for these manipulators. A remote manipulator is defined as any mechanical device that is controlled indirectly or from a distance by a human operator for the purpose of performing potentially dangerous or hazardous tasks to increase safety, reliability, and efficiency. Future space flights will rely on remote manipulators for a variety of tasks including satellite repair and servicing, structural assembly, data collection and analysis, and performance of contingency tasks. Carefully designed illumination of these manipulators will assure that these tasks will be completed efficiently and successfully. Studies concerning the influence of illumination on operation of a remote manipulator are few. Available results show that illumination can influence how successfully a human operates a remote manipulator. The intent of this study was to more fully examine this topic.

  10. Circular, explosion-proof lamp provides uniform illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Circular explosion-proof fluorescent lamp is fitted around a TV camera lens to provide shadowless illumination with a low radiant heat flux. The lamp is mounted in a transparent acrylic housing sealed with clear silicone rubber.

  11. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

    1998-04-07

    A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

  12. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1998-01-01

    A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

  13. Effect of illumination uniformity on GaAs photoconductive switches

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, W.R.; Mu, L. . Lab. for Laser Energetics)

    1994-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a GaAs photoconductive switch was studied with an electro-optic imaging system during the first 2 ns after optical illumination. The switch behavior changed as a function of the spatial distribution of the optical illumination. Symmetric and asymmetric illumination schemes were investigated experimentally with their electro-optic imaging system. The electric fields were significantly enhanced in the regions of low photo-carrier density. Approximately 1 ns after illumination the simple longitudinal variation of the electric field gave way to nonuniform transverse structure. The experimental results were modeled by treating the switch as an integral part of a transmission line consisting of discrete elements. The experimental results matched the predictions of the transmission-line model in terms of the electric-field enhancements and efficiency.

  14. Two bumblebee genomes illuminate the route to advanced social living

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Social living represents a major evolutionary transition. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolutionary route from solitary to highly eusocial insect societies, for which molecular level information is largely lacking. Additionally, bumblebees are invaluable natu...

  15. Shallow gas cloud illumination analysis by the focal beam method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latiff, Abdul Halim Abdul

    2016-02-01

    This research will address the illumination issue of seismic data below a shallow gas cloud, also known as shallow gas accumulation. In general, poor and distorted seismic data underneath gas zones depend on four major factors; namely the velocity of the gas zones, the depth of the target reflector, the location of the source and the receiver during seismic acquisition, and the frequency of the seismic signals. These factors will be scrutinized in detail by using the focal beam method. The focal beam method incorporates the double focusing concept in order to obtain two important attributes for illumination analysis: (i) Resolution function beam, (ii) amplitude versus ray parameter (AVP) imprint, which is obtained by transforming the modelled data into the radon domain. Both illumination attributes are then applied to a gas-affected field in the Malaysia Basin. The results show well-defined illumination beneath the shallow anomalies and provide a better representation of the subsurface.

  16. Optimization and integration of LED array for uniform illumination distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ding-hui; Wang, Jia-wen; Su, Zhou-ping

    2014-09-01

    A design method for light-emitting diode (LED) array is proposed to achieve a good uniform illumination distribution on target plane. By using random walk algorithm, the basic LED array modules are optimized firstly. The optimized basic arrays can generate uniform illumination distribution on their target plane. The optimized basic LED array modules can be integrated into a large LED array module with more than tens of LEDs. In the large array, we can select a sub-array with K LEDs ( K>7), which can produce the good uniform illumination distribution. By this way, we design two LED arrays which consist of 21 and 25 LEDs, respectively. The 21-LED array and 25-LED array can generate uniform illumination distributions with the uniformities of 95% and 90%, respectively.

  17. Fiber Coupled Laser Diodes with Even Illumination Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An optical fiber for evenly illuminating a target. The optical fiber is coupled to a laser emitting diode and receives laser light. The la ser light travels through the fiber optic and exits at an exit end. T he exit end has a diffractive optical pattern formed thereon via etch ing, molding or cutting, to reduce the Gaussian profile present in co nventional fiber optic cables The reduction of the Gaussian provides an even illumination from the fiber optic cable.

  18. Preservation of rat skeletal muscle energy metabolism by illumination.

    PubMed

    Lindgård, Ann; Lundberg, Jonas; Rakotonirainy, Olivier; Elander, Anna; Soussi, Bassam

    2003-04-25

    Skeletal muscle viability is crucially dependent on the tissue levels of its high energy phosphates. In this study we investigated the effect of the preservation medium Perfadex and illumination with Singlet Oxygen Energy (SOE). Singlet oxygen can be produced photochemically by energy transfer from an excited photosensitizer. The energy emitted from singlet oxygen upon relaxation to its triplet state is captured as photons at 634 nm and is here referred to as SOE. Rat hind limb rectus femoris muscles were preserved for five hours at 22 degrees C in Perfadex, saline, SOE illuminated Perfadex or SOE illuminated saline. Extracts of the muscles were analysed by 31P NMR. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance and are given as mean values micromol/g dry weight) +/- SEM. The ATP concentration was higher (p = 0.006) in saline groups (4.52) compared with Perfadex groups (2.82). There was no statistically significant difference in PCr between the saline groups (1.25) and Perfadex groups (0.82). However, there were higher (p = 0.003) ATP in the SOE illuminated groups (4.61) compared with the non-illuminated groups (2.73). The PCr was also higher (p < 0.0001) in the SOE illuminated groups (1.89) compared with the non-illuminated groups (0.18). In conclusion, Perfadex in this experimental model was incapable of preserving the high energy phosphates in skeletal muscle during 5 hours of ischemia. Illumination with SOE at 634 nm improved the preservation potential, in terms of a positive effect on the energy status of the muscle cell.

  19. Transfer function analysis in epi-illumination Fourier ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Shaun; Salahieh, Basel; Milster, Tom; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-01-01

    This letter explores Fourier ptychography (FP) using epi-illumination. The approach effectively modifies the FP transfer function to be coherent-like out to the incoherent limit of twice the numerical aperture over the wavelength 2NA/λ. Images reconstructed using this approach are shown to have higher contrast at finer details compared with images using incoherent illumination, indicating that the FP transfer function is superior in high spatial frequency regions. PMID:26565870

  20. Optical device for intravascular low-power laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelny, Andrzej; Palasz, Zbigniew; Beres-Pawlik, Elzbieta M.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.; Derkacz, Arkadiusz; Bialy, Dariusz; Protasiewicz, Marcin

    2003-04-01

    The treatment method presented in this paper is an adjunct to coronary angioplasty. It consists in irradiating a previously dilated artery with laser light which stimulates endothelium proliferation and reduces local inflammation. The influence of 808 nm laser light on the endothelium was studied in vitro. Because of the location of atherosclerotic plaques, illumination of the endothelium poses a problem. To overcome it, we have designed and built a laser set-up for homogeneous intravascular illumination in vivo.