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Sample records for adequate disease control

  1. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  2. Patients with Celiac Disease Are Not Followed Adequately

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Margot L.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Lahr, Brian D.; Larson, Joseph J.; Van Dyke, Carol T.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Adherence to a gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. It has been recommended that patients be followed, make regular visits to the clinic, and undergo serologic analysis for markers of celiac disease, although a follow-up procedure has not been standardized. We determined how many patients with celiac disease are actually followed. Methods We collected data on 122 patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease, diagnosed between 1996 and 2006 in Olmsted County, Minnesota (70% women, median age of 42 years) for whom complete medical records and verification of residency were available. We determined the frequency at which patients received follow-up examinations, from 6 months to 5 years after diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate event rates at 1 and 5 year(s). Patients were classified according to categories of follow-up procedures recommended by the American Gastroenterology Association (AGA). Results We estimated that by 1 and 5 year(s) after diagnosis with celiac disease, 41.0% and 88.7% of the patients had follow-up visits, 33.6% and 79.8% were assessed for compliance with a gluten-free diet, 3.3% and 15.8% met with a registered dietitian, 2.5% and 18.1% had an additional intestinal biopsy, and 22.1% and 65.6% received serologic testing for markers of celiac disease. Among 113 patients (93%) who were followed for more than 4 years, only 35% received follow-up analyses that were consistent with AGA recommendations. Conclusions Patients with celiac disease are not followed consistently. Follow-up examinations are often inadequate and do not follow AGA recommendations. Improving follow-up strategies for patients with celiac disease could improve management of this disease. PMID:22610009

  3. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  4. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  5. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  6. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  7. Pharmacological Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: Is it Progressing Adequately?

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Between 1993 and 2000 four acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were marketed as a symptomatic treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as memantine in 2003. Current research is focused on finding drugs that favorably modify the course of the disease. However, their entrance into the market does not seem to be imminent. Research Development: The aim of AD research is to find substances that inhibit certain elements of the AD pathogenic chain (beta- and gamma-secretase inhibitors, alpha-secretase stimulants, beta-amyloid aggregability reducers or disaggregation and elimination inductors, as well as tau-hyperphosphorylation, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage reducers, among other action mechanisms). Demonstrating a disease’s retarding effect demands longer trials than those necessary to ascertain symptomatic improvement. Besides, a high number of patients (thousands of them) is necessary, all of which turns out to be difficult and costly. Furthermore, it would be necessary to count on diagnosis and progression markers in the disease’s pre-clinical stage, markers for specific phenotypes, as well as high-selectivity molecules acting only where necessary. In order to compensate these difficulties, drugs acting on several defects of the pathogenic chain or showing both symptomatic and neuroprotective action simultaneously are being researched. Conclusions: There are multiple molecules used in research to modify AD progression. Although it turns out to be difficult to obtain drugs with sufficient efficacy so that their marketing is approved, if they were achieved they would lead to a reduction of AD prevalence. PMID:19461897

  8. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... data analyses performed. (c) The Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research may, on...

  9. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... data analyses performed. (c) The Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research may, on...

  10. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... data analyses performed. (c) The Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research may, on...

  11. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... data analyses performed. (c) The Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research may, on...

  12. [Bone and joint diseases in children. Adequate calcium intake and dietary habit especially breakfast in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kodama, Momoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Childhood and adolescence are important periods for body growth. Calcium is one of the critical dietary factors especially for bone growth. Although recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of calcium has been determined higher in Dietary reference intakes for Japanese, 2010, calcium intake of Japanese children and adolescent are not necessarily adequate. Furthermore, breakfast skippers in this period tend to increase. So, it is very important to acquire an adequate dietary habit from childhood and adolescent. PMID:20513944

  13. Control of diarrheal diseases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C E; Greenough, W B

    1989-01-01

    The tremendous advances made in the control of diarrheal diseases in the past few years indicate what more can be achieved. Even though the lives of an estimated three quarters of a million children are being saved each year, over three million children are still dying from readily preventable diarrheal disease. The challenge is to build on the successes thus far, to learn from experience, to promote changes in health habits that will prevent diarrhea, and to make all of these activities sustainable. From this analysis, we have three specific recommendations for CDD programs in the next decade. 1. ORT programs should move strongly toward promoting home treatment, building on local traditions of giving food-based preparations, with ORS available from health workers and health facilities for those who need it. Local assessment of people's beliefs and practices in caring for diarrhea should lead to simple methods of adapting ORT preparations that are culturally acceptable. Most of these traditional preparations have adequate amounts of the proteins and starches that are now being shown to produce better clinical results than the glucose in the standard ORS formula. Usually, the main change needed is more precision in the quantity of sodium added. Education of parents can then focus simply on how to make these adapted preparations, on starting rehydration early, and on replacing fluid volume as it is lost. The use of ORS packets in health facilities should continue, but the main indicator of progress in CDD should be ORT use including home solutions. Every packet of ORS should have printed on it the locally recommended formula for home ORT. 2. Nutritional support is just as important as rehydration. Diarrhea precipitates and accelerates the progression of malnutrition, which lowers resistance and increases the duration of diarrhea. Nutritional support through continued breast feeding and improved weaning practices using high density, easily digestible, local foods is

  14. Control of diarrheal diseases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C E; Greenough, W B

    1989-01-01

    The tremendous advances made in the control of diarrheal diseases in the past few years indicate what more can be achieved. Even though the lives of an estimated three quarters of a million children are being saved each year, over three million children are still dying from readily preventable diarrheal disease. The challenge is to build on the successes thus far, to learn from experience, to promote changes in health habits that will prevent diarrhea, and to make all of these activities sustainable. From this analysis, we have three specific recommendations for CDD programs in the next decade. 1. ORT programs should move strongly toward promoting home treatment, building on local traditions of giving food-based preparations, with ORS available from health workers and health facilities for those who need it. Local assessment of people's beliefs and practices in caring for diarrhea should lead to simple methods of adapting ORT preparations that are culturally acceptable. Most of these traditional preparations have adequate amounts of the proteins and starches that are now being shown to produce better clinical results than the glucose in the standard ORS formula. Usually, the main change needed is more precision in the quantity of sodium added. Education of parents can then focus simply on how to make these adapted preparations, on starting rehydration early, and on replacing fluid volume as it is lost. The use of ORS packets in health facilities should continue, but the main indicator of progress in CDD should be ORT use including home solutions. Every packet of ORS should have printed on it the locally recommended formula for home ORT. 2. Nutritional support is just as important as rehydration. Diarrhea precipitates and accelerates the progression of malnutrition, which lowers resistance and increases the duration of diarrhea. Nutritional support through continued breast feeding and improved weaning practices using high density, easily digestible, local foods is

  15. Diarrhoeal disease and its control*

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Nelson K.

    1960-01-01

    The diarrhoeal diseases are an important cause of illness throughout the world and a leading cause of death among infants and young children. Unfortunately, the greatest wealth of clinical material is found where the facilities for its study are least available. This article deals with a number of the many problems which therefore arise. The etiology is multiple, and often obscure. The relationship between the diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition is as yet far from being elucidated. Many epidemiological questions require an answer. There is no standard treatment. Prevention, it is universally agreed, depends largely upon improvement in environmental sanitation, especially upon the provision of a safe and adequate supply of piped water, but this apparently simple measure is fraught with difficulties. Much remains to be done before anything like satisfactory control of this group of diseases can be achieved. PMID:14428996

  16. Disease control operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. In mammals, individual disease outbreaks have killed hundreds to thousands of animals with, for example, hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer, distemper in raccoon, Errington's disease in muskrat, and sylvatic plague in wild rodents. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent n the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread though wildlife populations very fast, advance preparation is essential in preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully though-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Such well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and costs associated with disease control activities. Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involved general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, intended as a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.

  17. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  18. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  19. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  20. Is a diagnostic system based exclusively on agar gel immunodiffusion adequate for controlling the spread of equine infectious anaemia?

    PubMed

    Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Issel, Charles J; Cook, Frank R; Manna, Giuseppe; Cersini, Antonella; Rosone, Francesca; Frontoso, Raffaele; Caprioli, Andrea; Antognetti, Valeria; Antonetti, Valeria; Autorino, Gian Luca

    2013-07-26

    To improve the efficiency of the National equine infectious anaemia (EIA) surveillance program in Italy, a three-tiered diagnostic system has been adopted. This procedure involves initial screening by ELISA (Tier 1) with test-positive samples confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) (Tier 2) and, in the case of ELISA positive/AGIDT negative results, final determination by immunoblot (IB) (Tier 3). During this evaluation, 74,880 samples, principally collected from two Regions of Central Italy (Latium and Abruzzo) were examined, with 44 identified as negative in AGIDT but positive in both ELISA and IB. As the majority of these reactions occurred in mules, an observational study was conducted in this hybrid equid species to investigate if there is a correlation between plasma-associated viral loads and serological reactivity, to test the hypothesis that false-negative or very weak positive AGIDT results are associated with elite control of EIA virus (EIAV) replication accompanied by reduced transmission risks. The study animals consisted of 5 mules with positive AGIDT readings, along with another 5 giving negative or very weak positive results in this test. All mules were seropositive in Elisa and IB. Samples were collected routinely during an initial 56-day observation period, prior to dexamethasone treatment lasting 10 days, to determine the effect of immune suppression (IS) on clinical, humoral and virological responses. All mules were monitored for a further 28 days from day 0 of IS. None of the animals experienced relevant clinical responses before IS and there were no significant changes in antibody levels in ELISA, IB or AGIDT. However, plasma-associated viral-RNA (vRNA) loads, as determined using TaqMan(®) based RT-PCR, showed unexpectedly high sample to sample variation in all mules, demonstrating host-mediated control of viral replication is not constant over time. Furthermore, there was no apparent correlation between vRNA loads and antibody

  1. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  2. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  3. Communicable Diseases and Outbreak Control.

    PubMed

    Ameli, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Infectious disease during an emergency condition can raise the death rate 60 times in comparison to other causes including trauma. An epidemic, or outbreak, can occur when several aspects of the agent (pathogen), population (hosts), and the environment create an ideal situation for spread. Overcrowding, poor regional design and hygiene due to poverty, dirty drinking water, rapid climate changes, and natural disasters, can lead to conditions that allow easier transmission of disease. Once it has been established that an emergency condition exists, there must be a prompt and thorough response for communicable disease control. A camp should be created, and the disease managed rapidly. The overall goals are rapid assessment, prevention, surveillance, outbreak control, and disease management. PMID:27437528

  4. Birds and Dutch elm disease control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    Brief, factual review of information on effect of DDT and other insecticides on birds. One program for control of elm disease caused 22% decrease in number of adult birds and 56% mortality of nestlings. Quail fed 3 oz. of DDT per ton of food had 16% reduction in young hatched and 500% increase in defective chicks. Quail fed same dosage during winter and breeding seasons had 30% decrease in fertile eggs and 800% increase in defective chicks. More than 90% of their chicks died in first 6 weeks although fed no insecticide. Almost equally bad results came from feeding Pheasants diets with about 1 oz. DDT per ton. Other common insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons) also caused lowered chick survival and higher percentages of crippled chicks. From field data we know that 2 lbs. DDT/acre can affect birds and has even worse effects on cold-blooded animals. Efforts to control elm disease have left as much as 196 lbs. DDT/acre in top 3 inches of soil. Earthworms concentrate DDT in their tissues. Thus the treated areas can be traps for birds and other animals. What can be done? 1) In control of elm disease, use minimum effective amount of insecticide; mist blowers use less than sprayers. 2) Avoid applications during migration and nesting seasons. It has been reported that adequate control can be obtained with dormant sprays and that foliar applications may not be required. Tables of this paper show effects of DDT on reproduction of Quail, relative toxicity to quail of 8 insecticides, and amounts of 7 insecticides required to cause 40% or more decrease in Quail reproduction. These comparisons demonstrate that Aldrin, Endrin, and Dieldrin are 20 to 200 times as toxic as DDT and that Heptachlor and Chlordane are only slightly less toxic than Dieldrin. Methoxychlor and Strobane are less toxic to Quail than is DDT.

  5. Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Korsten, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Losses from postharvest fruit diseases range from 1 to 20 percent in the United States, depending on the commodity. The application of fungicides to fruits after harvest to reduce decay has been increasingly curtailed by the development of pathogen resistance to many key fungicides, the lack of replacement fungicides, negative public perception regarding the safety of pesticides and consequent restrictions on fungicide use. Biological control of postharvest diseases (BCPD) has emerged as an effective alternative. Because wound-invading necrotrophic pathogens are vulnerable to biocontrol, antagonists can be applied directly to the targeted area (fruit wounds), and a single application using existing delivery systems (drenches, line sprayers, on-line dips) can significantly reduce fruit decays. The pioneering biocontrol products BioSave and Aspire were registered by EPA in 1995 for control of postharvest rots of pome and citrus fruit, respectively, and are commercially available. The limitations of these biocontrol products can be addressed by enhancing biocontrol through manipulation of the environment, using mixtures of beneficial organisms, physiological and genetic enhancement of the biocontrol mechanisms, manipulation of formulations, and integration of biocontrol with other alternative methods that alone do not provide adequate protection but in combination with biocontrol provide additive or synergistic effects.

  6. Waterfowl diseases: causes, prevention, and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.; Cross, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Preventing and controlling disease in waterfowl is a difficult job. Few tools are available to deal with disease in highly mobile, unconfined animal populations, and few managers are trained and experienced in the prevention and control of avian diseases. Furthermore, the geographic distribution, frequency of occurrence, magnitude of losses, and causes of diseases in waterfowl, as in other life forms, change over time. Waterfowl mortality from infectious diseases, for example, has increased in the past 20 years (Friend 1992).

  7. The biological control of disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  8. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  9. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future.

  10. Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Changes Velopharyngeal Control in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Michael J.; Barlow, Steven M.; Lyons, Kelly E.; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Adequate velopharyngeal control is essential for speech, but may be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) improves limb function in PD, but the effects on velopharyngeal control remain unknown. We tested whether STN DBS would change aerodynamic measures of velopharyngeal…

  11. Once a year school-based deworming with praziquantel and albendazole combination may not be adequate for control of urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworm infection in Matuga District, Kwale County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) predominantly occur in resource poor settings where they often present a serious public health burden. Sustained global advocacy has been important in raising awareness of NTDs and the relatively low cost for control of helminthic NTDs using preventive chemotherapy. This enthusiasm was boosted at the London declaration on NTDs in 2012 through commitments by different partners to avail resources required for control of NTDs particularly those that employ preventive chemotherapy as the major intervention strategy. Subsequently, national NTD programmes are responding to these new opportunities by implementing preventive chemotherapy including school-based deworming (SBD). Further, with the availability of increased resources, both financial and pharma, the optimal strategies for implementing preventive chemotherapy in highly endemic settings are under debate and this paper goes some way to addressing this issue in a specific setting in coastal Kenya. Methods We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study in Matuga District, Kwale County, Kenya to evaluate the effect of school-based co-administration of praziquantel and albendazole against urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. A total of 1022 school children in 5 study schools were tested for the infections in urine and stool samples during a baseline survey in September 2009. The presence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was determined by the urine filtration method while STH infections were determined by Kato-Katz technique. Results Urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworm infection were the major parasitic infections among the children in the study area. There was significant decrease in both prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection after treatment but varying levels of rebound were observed during the period between the treatments. The school-based treatment, however, did not have any significant effect on both the

  12. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  13. Chickpea Diseases: Ecology and Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea is an important grain legume crop cultivated in semi-arid tropics, on marginal lands, or as a rotational or specialty crop. Chickpea plants suffer a number of diseases caused by bacterial, fungi, nematodes and parasitic weeds. Four of the economically important diseases are discussed in d...

  14. Control of crop diseases, third edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The authors in the Control of Crop Diseases cover a wide range of topics from crop diseases and their diagnosis and eradication to a primer on fungicides and legislation. This wide range of topics, all critical to the topic of crop diseases, thus appeals to a wide audience from molecular biologists,...

  15. Infectious animal disease and its control.

    PubMed

    Biggs, P M

    1985-09-12

    The control of infectious diseases in the main food-producing animals is considered and the main factors involved in the epizootiology of disease are presented. The properties of infectious agents and their natural history together with factors that influence the spread and development of disease are summarized. The factors in intensive animal husbandry that affect the occurrence of infectious disease and its control are considered. These include population density, population movement, management, hygiene and genetic constitution of the host. They encourage the appearance of new diseases, changes in the character of established diseases and the development of pathogenicity in infectious agents that were previously of no importance. Intensive animal husbandry has also increased the importance of multifactorial disease, which includes diseases that require more than one infectious agent or one or more infectious agents plus other factors for their cause. The methods of control of infectious disease currently available are described and the success and difficulties of their control on a global, national and local (farm or enterprise) basis are considered. Examples of diseases of global importance where national and world programmes of control and eradication have been of varying success are described. Examples of diseases that are enzootic throughout the world and the procedures used for their control are also described. The technological opportunities for the improvement of the control of infectious disease in the future are discussed. It is considered that developments in molecular biology and immunology will provide improvements in diagnostic tools and will revolutionize the development of animal resistance to disease and the production and use of vaccines.

  16. Control of virus diseases in maize.

    PubMed

    Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Zambrano, José L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by viruses are found throughout the maize-growing regions of the world and can cause significant losses for producers. In this review, virus diseases of maize and the pathogens that cause them are discussed. Factors leading to the spread of disease and measures for disease control are reviewed, as is our current knowledge of the genetics of virus resistance in this important crop. PMID:25410107

  17. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future. PMID:27044162

  18. Mitochondrial Quality Control in Cardiac Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Juliane C.; Bozi, Luiz H. M.; Bechara, Luiz R. G.; Lima, Vanessa M.; Ferreira, Julio C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis is a hallmark of cardiac diseases. Therefore, maintenance of mitochondrial integrity through different surveillance mechanisms is critical for cardiomyocyte survival. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the central role of mitochondrial quality control processes including regulation of mitochondrial redox balance, aldehyde metabolism, proteostasis, dynamics, and clearance in cardiac diseases, highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets.

  19. Sense or nonsense? Traditional methods of animal parasitic disease control.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1997-07-31

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional health-care practices in the western as well as in the developing world. In animal health, this has led to further interest in ethnoveterinary research and development, a relatively new field of study that covers traditional practices, ethnobotany and application of animal care practices embedded in local tradition. This development has practical applications for animal parasite control, whether related to epidemiology, diagnostics and therapy, or to comprehensive disease control methods leading to integrated pest/disease management. Examples are provided of traditional practices in diagnostics, herd-, grazing- and pasture-management as well as of manipulation and treatment. Many of these applications indicate a basic understanding of disease, especially epidemiology, by farmers and herders, although not always explained, or explainable, in rational western ways. Although abuse and quackery exist, the application of traditional practices seems to make sense in areas without adequate veterinary services. Moreover, acknowledgement of the value of traditional knowledge empowers local herders/farmers to try to solve their herds' disease problems in a cost-effective way. Traditional practices often make sense, albeit with some regulation to ascertain safety and to prevent abuse.

  20. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation.

  1. Chemical Plaque Control Strategies in the Prevention of Biofilm-associated Oral Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jafer, Mohammed; Patil, Shankargouda; Hosmani, Jagadish; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Chalisserry, Elna P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque is a biofilm that forms naturally on the surfaces of exposed teeth and other areas of the oral cavity. It is the primary etiological factor for the most frequently occurring oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specific, nonspecific, and ecologic plaque hypothesis explains the causation of dental and associated diseases. Adequate control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of prevention of periodontitis and dental caries. Mechanical plaque control is the mainstay for prevention of oral diseases, but it requires patient cooperation and motivation; therefore, chemical plaque control agents act as useful adjuvants for achieving the desired results. Hence, it is imperative for the clinicians to update their knowledge in chemical antiplaque agents and other developments for the effective management of plaque biofilm-associated diseases. This article explores the critical analysis of various chemical plaque control strategies and the current trends in the control and prevention of dental plaque biofilm. PMID:27340170

  2. 78 FR 11889 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National..., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of...

  3. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S

    2014-11-01

    Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses, along with economic costs and broader impacts associated with the loss of members of a species that generates income, acts as a working animal and is a companion. Endemic diseases continue to challenge, emerging diseases are an ever-present threat and outbreaks can be both destructive and disruptive. While infectious diseases can never be completely prevented, measures can be introduced to restrict the entry of pathogens into a population or limit the implications of the presence of a pathogen. Objective research regarding infection control and biosecurity in horses is limited, yet a variety of practical infection prevention and control measures can be used. Unfortunately, infection control can be challenging, because of the nature of the equine industry (e.g. frequent horse movement) and endemic pathogens, but also because of lack of understanding or motivation to try to improve practices. Recognition of the basic concepts of infection control and biosecurity, and indeed the need for measures to control infectious diseases, is the foundation for successful infection prevention and control. PMID:24802183

  4. 77 FR 12845 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  5. [Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Joutsa, Juho; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2013-01-01

    Of the patients having Parkinson's disease, up to third encounters some degree of impulse control problems and one out of seven suffers from true impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping and binge eating. Dopaminergic drugs used in anti-Parkinson therapy, especially dopamine agonists, increase the risk of these disorders. Impulse control disorders are associated with a relatively more active dopamine-mediated neurotransmission of the mesolimbic and mesocortical system. Discontinuation of dopamine agonist medication can thus be considered as the first line treatment of these disorders. PMID:24397147

  6. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  7. Role of the medical auxiliary in the control of sexually transmitted disease in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Arya, O P; Bennett, F J

    1976-04-01

    Venereal diseases are becoming a major health problem in many developing countries where the greater part of primary medical care is undertaken by medical auxiliaries. Under these circumstances, the medical auxiliary has an important role to play in the control of these diseases but he can only do this with adequate training, support, and supervision from the professional doctors and specialists. In this paper, the role of the medical auxiliary is outlined and a case is also made for a specially-trained cadre for venereal disease work in busy urban clinics in developing countries. PMID:946783

  8. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  9. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  10. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  11. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  12. Foodborne disease control: a transnational challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F. K.; Motarjemi, Y.; Bettcher, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    In the globalized political economy of the late 20th century, increasing social, political, and economic interdependence is occurring as a result of the rapid movement of people, images, values, and financial transactions across national borders. Another consequence of the increase in transnational trade, travel, and migration is the greater risk of cross-border transmission of infectious diseases. As the world becomes more interconnected, diseases spread more rapidly and effectively. With more than one million people crossing international borders every day, and with the globalization of food production, manufacturing, and marketing, the risk of infectious disease transmission is greater. Economic globalization has also increased the need for governmental budget austerity, and consequent national preparedness has been eroded. The emergence of new infectious diseases, as well as the reemergence of old ones, thus represents a crucial transnational policy issue. These problems cannot be resolved by national governments alone; they require international cooperation. This article analyzes the role of foodborne disease surveillance programs, nationally and internationally, in the control of foodborne diseases. PMID:9368787

  13. Antimicrobial peptides and plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Emilio

    2007-05-01

    Several diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi affect plant crops, resulting in losses and decreasing the quality and safety of agricultural products. Plant disease control relies mainly on chemical pesticides that are currently subject to strong restrictions and regulatory requirements. Antimicrobial peptides are interesting compounds in plant health because there is a need for new products in plant protection that fit into the new regulations. Living organisms secrete a wide range of antimicrobial peptides produced through ribosomal (defensins and small bacteriocins) or non-ribosomal synthesis (peptaibols, cyclopeptides and pseudopeptides). Several antimicrobial peptides are the basis for the design of new synthetic analogues, have been expressed in transgenic plants to confer disease protection or are secreted by microorganisms that are active ingredients of commercial biopesticides.

  14. Control of Pierce's Disease by Phage

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Ahern, Stephen J.; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xf), is a limiting factor in the cultivation of grapevines in the US. There are presently no effective control methods to prevent or treat PD. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of four virulent (lytic) phages was evaluated for control of PD. Xf levels in grapevines were significantly reduced in therapeutically or prophylactically treated grapevines. PD symptoms ceased to progress one week post-therapeutic treatment and symptoms were not observed in prophylactically treated grapevines. Cocktail phage levels increased in grapevines in the presence of the host. No in planta phage-resistant Xf isolates were obtained. Moreover, Xf mutants selected for phage resistance in vitro did not cause PD symptoms. Our results indicate that phages have great potential for biocontrol of PD and other economically important diseases caused by Xylella. PMID:26107261

  15. Control of Pierce's Disease by Phage.

    PubMed

    Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Ahern, Stephen J; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F

    2015-01-01

    Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xf), is a limiting factor in the cultivation of grapevines in the US. There are presently no effective control methods to prevent or treat PD. The therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of a phage cocktail composed of four virulent (lytic) phages was evaluated for control of PD. Xf levels in grapevines were significantly reduced in therapeutically or prophylactically treated grapevines. PD symptoms ceased to progress one week post-therapeutic treatment and symptoms were not observed in prophylactically treated grapevines. Cocktail phage levels increased in grapevines in the presence of the host. No in planta phage-resistant Xf isolates were obtained. Moreover, Xf mutants selected for phage resistance in vitro did not cause PD symptoms. Our results indicate that phages have great potential for biocontrol of PD and other economically important diseases caused by Xylella. PMID:26107261

  16. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  17. The disease management approach to controlling asthma.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T

    2002-02-01

    Asthma has become an important public health issue worldwide and certain groups, such as children, are at particular risk of the disease. Often asthma remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Despite these worrying trends, the disease management approach to asthma control can help most asthma patients achieve a 'normal' way of life. The increased prevalence and greater diagnostic awareness of asthma have placed increased demands on healthcare resources, but effective asthma control can minimize the personal, social and economic burdens of asthma. Early diagnosis and immediate anti-inflammatory treatment is the first step in gaining control of symptoms. A stepwise approach is then used to classify asthma severity and treatment, with the number and frequency of medications increasing (step up) as asthma severity increases and decreasing (step down) when asthma is under control. This stepwise approach to asthma management necessitates regular review of treatment once asthma is under control. However, effective asthma management is dependent on successful patient education, adherence to prescribed medication and good doctor patient partnerships. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of a written asthma management plan that should be agreed between the doctor and patient. These plans should cover all aspects of asthma treatment, including prevention steps for long-term control and action steps to stop attacks once a worsening in asthma has been recognized. This comprehensive approach to asthma management increases the likelihood of achieving asthma control, which in turn reduces the need for emergency visits to the hospital or clinic and reduces the limitations on physical activity previously imposed by the condition.

  18. Disease and disease control. International Leprosy Congress, Beijing, 7-12 September 1998. Workshop report.

    PubMed

    Smith, W C

    1999-03-01

    Four workshops were conducted during the congress under the disease control theme. The workshops were on the issues of defining disease and antibacterial therapy, early case detection, sustaining leprosy control in low endemic situations, and the prevention of disability. These workshops spanned the spectrum of disease and its consequences through from early detection, the definition of disease to the prevention of disability. All of these topics being important contemporary issues challenging leprosy control programmes world wide. Despite the broad spectrum of the topics it was interesting to see that a number of important themes emerged which were common to all topics. It is possible to identify five major themes arising from the output of the workshops which are now described below. Each of the workshops adopted broad and comprehensive approaches to their topic. In the past, there has been narrowness in defining disease in terms of the need for chemotherapy. The approach taken in the workshop now is for a much more comprehensive approach looking at all the consequences of the disease process rather than the requirement for antibacterial chemotherapy. Similarly broad approaches were taken to low endemic situations, considering comprehensive approaches which are inclusive rather than exclusive. Disability prevention also continues this same theme of comprehensive approaches based on multidisciplinary involvement in prevention of the consequences of the disease process. The second major theme to be identified in the output of the workshops was the importance of relevance to patients and people affected by leprosy. It is no longer adequate to view programmes in terms of their acceptance to those running the programmes. Control programmes must be acceptable to the people they are designed to benefit. This even impacts on definitions of disease in terms of what matters to patients rather than only restricting this to disease pathology. Similarly, approaches to

  19. The governance of disease control in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fox, Daniel M

    2012-12-01

    The eight articles on the governance of communicable disease control in Europe in this issue contribute information and insight to the literature on health politics, policy, and law. Each is a carefully researched and well-argued analysis of a subject on which its authors are experts. The set will be useful to scholars of comparative health policy as well as to specialists in European affairs. The articles also illustrate two methodological issues in conducting research on the governance of health policy. The first is that how researchers define governance influences what evidence they acquire and how they evaluate it. The second is that governance affects how diseases are conceptualized in order to make and implement policy. PMID:22899833

  20. 75 FR 30409 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and..., Public Health Analyst, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Office of the...

  1. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and... committee management activities for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry....

  2. 75 FR 30041 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... Disease Registry. Dated: May 20, 2010. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and Services...

  3. 75 FR 34750 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8... management activities for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: June...

  4. 75 FR 39544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: July 2, 2010. Elaine L. Baker, Director,...

  5. 78 FR 25279 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 12... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  6. 75 FR 7606 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Office of the Director,...

  7. 75 FR 30040 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:30... committee management activities, for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease...

  8. 76 FR 10371 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  9. Control of hypertension in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Banegas, J R; de la Sierra, A; Segura, J; Gorostidi, M; de la Cruz, J; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Ruilope, L M

    2009-05-15

    This observational study investigates, for the first time, the actual or out-of-office control of hypertension among coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, by using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). We used the Spanish Society of Hypertension ABPM Registry, based on a large-scale network of primary-care physicians consecutively recruiting hypertensive patients with conventional clinical indications for ABPM. The average of two office BP measurements was used for analyses. Thereafter, 24-h ABPM was performed, using a SpaceLabs 90207 device. Out-of-office control of hypertension among 2434 treated essential hypertensive patients with clinically documented CHD was much higher (46.4%) than in-office BP control (28.7%). This considerable difference was partly due to the presence of 25.2% of patients with "office resistance", i.e., normal ambulatory BP but with high office BP despite treatment. Although further efforts in controlling BP are needed in CHD patients, physicians should be also comforted by BP results better than previously believed based on office data. PMID:18353471

  10. 40 CFR 258.22 - Disease vector control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disease vector control. 258.22 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.22 Disease vector control. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must prevent or control on-site populations of disease vectors using...

  11. 77 FR 46096 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces... Secretary for Health (ASH), the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the...

  12. 40 CFR 258.22 - Disease vector control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disease vector control. 258.22 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.22 Disease vector control. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must prevent or control on-site populations of disease vectors using...

  13. 40 CFR 258.22 - Disease vector control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disease vector control. 258.22 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.22 Disease vector control. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must prevent or control on-site populations of disease vectors using...

  14. 40 CFR 258.22 - Disease vector control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disease vector control. 258.22 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.22 Disease vector control. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must prevent or control on-site populations of disease vectors using...

  15. Technologies for the marketplace from the Centers for Disease Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid-Sanden, Frances L.; Greene, R. Eric; Malvitz, Dolores M.

    1991-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control, a Public Health Service agency, is responsible for the prevention and control of disease and injury. Programs range from surveillance and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases to occupational health and injury control. These programs have produced technologies in a variety of fields, including vaccine development, new methods of disease diagnosis, and new tools to ensure a safer work environment.

  16. Control of Legionnaires' disease -- An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Broadbent, C.R.

    1999-07-01

    Major outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease (causative agent, ionella spp.) occurred in Australia during the 1980s and early 1990s. The putative sources were primarily heat rejection systems of the recirculating cooling water type (cooling towers). These outbreaks prompted engineers to carry out field studies on which to base improved design and maintenance practices for such heat rejection systems. Health authorities introduced regulations and guidelines to encourage owners to establish and maintain hygienic conditions in these and other systems. Central to this progress is the recognition that Legionella is essentially a biofilm organism and that it prefers the surfaces of warmer parts of systems for growth. This is particularly so if there are deadlegs in the system or accumulations of sediment. Biocidal water treatment approaches must therefore take biofilm control into account. A recent Australian innovation is the preparation of a national performance-based regulatory standard to complement earlier standards that are of a prescriptive nature. The aim of this new standard is to allow alternative strategies that may not necessitate system shutdown for regular cleaning yet provide for an equivalent level of system hygiene. The standard requires that a risk assessment strategy be implemented involving identification of performance indicators and control and monitoring of parameters likely to move beyond stipulated limits.

  17. Control of plant virus diseases in cool-season grain legume crops.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G; van Leur, Joop A G; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    Cool-season grain legume crops become infected with a wide range of viruses, many of which cause serious diseases and major yield losses. This review starts by discussing which viruses are important in the principal cool-season grain legume crops in different parts of the world, the losses they cause and their economic impacts in relation to control. It then describes the main types of control measures available: host resistance, phytosanitary measures, cultural measures, chemical control, and biological control. Examples are provided of successful deployment of the different types of measures to control virus epidemics in cool-season grain legume crops. Next it emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to control because single control measures used alone rarely suffice to adequately reduce virus-induced yield losses in these crops. Development of effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies depends on an interdisciplinary team approach to (i) understand the ecological and climatic factors which lead to damaging virus epidemics and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of individual control measures. In addition to using virus-resistant cultivars, other IDM components include sowing virus-tested seed stocks, selecting cultivars with low seed transmission rates, using diverse phytosanitary or cultural practices that minimize the virus source or reduce its spread, and using selective pesticides in an environmentally responsible way. The review finishes by briefly discussing the implications of climate change in increasing problems associated with control and the opportunities to control virus diseases more effectively through new technologies. PMID:25410103

  18. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  19. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  20. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  1. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  2. 25 CFR 163.31 - Insect and disease control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Insect and disease control. 163.31 Section 163.31 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.31 Insect and disease control. (a) The Secretary is authorized to protect and preserve Indian forest land from disease or insects (Sept. 20, 1922, Ch. 349, 42 Stat. 857). The...

  3. Mechanics of Disease Control in Production Operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease problems develop when the surfaces of susceptible plant tissue (part 1) are colonized by a virulent pathogen (part 2) at the time when conditions are conducive for infection and disease development (part 3). Negatively effect one or more of the three parts, then disease can be minimized or e...

  4. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction.

  5. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  6. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  7. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  8. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  9. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  10. Insect biotechnology: controllable replacement of disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-05-20

    To fight human vector-borne diseases, first releases of sterile transgenic mosquitoes have been performed. Someday, disease-refractory mosquitoes will replace wild types to stop transmission. For such population replacements, gene drive mechanisms must be established that allow local confinement and reversibility.

  11. Emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Fidler, David P

    2003-03-01

    International cooperation has become critical in controlling infectious diseases. In this article, I examine emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control. The role of international law in horizontal and vertical governance responses to infectious disease control is conceptualized; the historical development of international law regarding infectious diseases is described; and important shifts in how states, international institutions, and nonstate organizations use international law in the context of infectious disease control today are analyzed. The growing importance of international trade law and the development of global governance mechanisms, most prominently in connection with increasing access to drugs and other medicines in unindustrialized countries, are emphasized. Traditional international legal approaches to infectious disease control--embodied in the International Health Regulations--may be moribund.

  12. Control of Paratrichodorus allius and Corky Ringspot Disease in Potato with Shank-injected Metam Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, R. E.; Hamm, P. B.; Baune, M.; Merrifield, K. J.

    2007-01-01

    Corky ringspot disease (CRS) of potato produces necrotic areas in tubers that are considered quality defects that can lead to crop rejection. CRS is caused by tobacco rattle virus that is vectored by stubby-root nematodes (Paratrichodorus spp., Trichodorus spp.) at very low population densities, making disease management difficult and expensive. Fumigation with metam sodium (MS) is a common practice to control soil-borne fungi and increase potato yield. MS is generally applied in water via chemigation (water-run, WR) but is ineffective at controlling CRS when WR-applied, even at high rates. Therefore, WR MS is often used in combination with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), aldicarb or oxamyl to attain adequate CRS control. Between 1996 and 2000, fields with a history of CRS were treated with WR MS, shank-injected MS, and/or 1,3-D, and tubers were evaluated for symptoms of CRS. Shank injection of MS (SH MS) at depths of 41 cm, 15 and 30 cm, or 15, 30 and 45 cm controlled CRS over 3 years of testing. All rates of 280 liters/ha or greater were effective. Shank injection of metam potassium (MP) at rates of 448 liters/ha was also effective. 1,3-D controlled CRS alone or in combination with WR or SH MS. Proper shank application of MS or MP may adequately control CRS without the additional cost of other nematicides at low (<10 P. allius/250 g soil) to moderate (10 to 30 P. allius/250 g soil) populations of the nematode vector. Although SH MS was superior to WR MS, additional research is necessary to determine if this practice would be sufficient at higher CRS disease pressure or if addition of other nematicides would be necessary. PMID:19259496

  13. Redox Control of Prion and Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Das, Dola; Mohan, Maradumane L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Imbalance of brain metal homeostasis and associated oxidative stress by redox-active metals like iron and copper is an important trigger of neurotoxicity in several neurodegenerative conditions, including prion disorders. Whereas some reports attribute this to end-stage disease, others provide evidence for specific mechanisms leading to brain metal dyshomeostasis during disease progression. In prion disorders, imbalance of brain-iron homeostasis is observed before end-stage disease and worsens with disease progression, implicating iron-induced oxidative stress in disease pathogenesis. This is an unexpected observation, because the underlying cause of brain pathology in all prion disorders is PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a β-sheet–rich conformation of a normal glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Whether brain-iron dyshomeostasis occurs because of gain of toxic function by PrPSc or loss of normal function of PrPC remains unclear. In this review, we summarize available evidence suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in prion-disease pathogenesis. Subsequently, we review the biology of PrPC to highlight its possible role in maintaining brain metal homeostasis during health and the contribution of PrPSc in inducing brain metal imbalance with disease progression. Finally, we discuss possible therapeutic avenues directed at restoring brain metal homeostasis and alleviating metal-induced oxidative stress in prion disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1271–1294. PMID:19803746

  14. Control of Paratrichodorus allius and Corky Ringspot Disease of Potato in the Columbia Basin of Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, R. E.; Hamm, P. B.; Willams, R. E.; Swanson, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Corky ringspot disease (CRS) of potato, caused by tobacco rattle virus that is vectored by stubby-root nematodes (Paratrichodorus spp.), is often controlled by aldicarb. When use of aldicarb on potato was suspended in 1989, an increase in crops rejected due to CRS in the Columbia Basin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest occurred. During 1992-94, several fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides were tested alone and in combination for control of P. allius and CRS. Aldicarb alone significantly reduced CRS but not to acceptable levels. Metam sodium or ethoprop alone did not control CRS, but metam sodium plus ethoprop provided adequate control under light disease pressure. Two or three postemergence applications of oxamyl, either with or without metham sodium, appeared to control CRS at low pressure. Fosthiazate reduced CRS incidence when used alone but not in combination with metam sodium. At low P. allius population densities, 1,3 dichloropropene (1,3-D) controlled CRS at 94 liters/ha, and rates of 140 liters/ha or greater were adequate at higher population densities. Treatment with 1,3-D plus chloropicrin was no better than 1,3-D alone and did not always control CRS. Combinations of 1,3-D at 94 liters/ha or greater plus metam sodium at 374 liters/ha or greater controlled CRS. Paratrichodorus allius numbers were higher and severity of CRS greater after wheat than after field corn, but P. allius declined rapidly after potato was planted and remained at low levels until harvest. PMID:19271011

  15. WHO and the future of disease control programmes.

    PubMed

    Dye, Christopher; Mertens, Thierry; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Mpanju-Shumbusho, Winnie; Newman, Robert D; Raviglione, Mario C; Savioli, Lorenzo; Nakatani, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    Huge increases in funding for international health over the past two decades have led to a proliferation of donors, partnerships, and health organisations. Over the same period, the global burden of non-communicable diseases has increased absolutely and relative to communicable diseases. In this changing landscape, national programmes for the control of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases must be reinforced and adapted for three reasons: the global burden of these communicable diseases remains enormous, disease control programmes have an integral and supporting role in developing health systems, and the health benefits of these control programmes go beyond the containment of specific infections. WHO's traditional role in promoting communicable disease control programmes must also adapt to new circumstances. Among a multiplicity of actors, WHO's task is to enhance its normative role as convenor, coordinator, monitor, and standard-setter, fostering greater coherence in global health. PMID:23374479

  16. 40 CFR 258.22 - Disease vector control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disease vector control. 258.22 Section 258.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.22 Disease vector control. (a) Owners or...

  17. [Views for research development of control of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin-Ping; Dong, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Ming-Sen

    2013-12-01

    With the social and technological development, new understandings have been emerged for the research development of the control of parasitic diseases. The present review argues that: the traditional point of view for the control of parasitic diseases, eliminating parasites/media, should be updated. For the long-term interests of science and human perspective, biological diversity, including the parasite biodiversity, and ecological environment should be paid much more attention during the control of parasitic diseases. The leading role of society, economy and culture should be fully developed in the control of parasitic diseases with the progress of scientific and technology, to find a final way of sustainable development in the control of parasitic diseases. PMID:24490386

  18. Autophagy: controlling cell fate in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Jason S; Kapoor, Mohit

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy, an endogenous process necessary for the turnover of organelles, maintains cellular homeostasis and directs cell fate. Alterations to the regulation of autophagy contribute to the progression of various rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Implicit in the progression of these diseases are cell-type-specific responses to surrounding factors that alter autophagy: chondrocytes within articular cartilage show decreased autophagy in OA, leading to rapid cell death and cartilage degeneration; fibroblasts from patients with SSc have restricted autophagy, similar to that seen in aged dermal fibroblasts; fibroblast-like synoviocytes from RA joints show altered autophagy, which contributes to synovial hyperplasia; and dysregulation of autophagy in haematopoietic lineage cells alters their function and maturation in SLE. Various upstream mechanisms also contribute to these diseases by regulating autophagy as part of their signalling cascades. In this Review, we discuss the links between autophagy, immune responses, fibrosis and cellular fates as they relate to pathologies associated with rheumatic diseases. Therapies in clinical use, and in preclinical or clinical development, are also discussed in relation to their effects on autophagy in rheumatic diseases. PMID:27334205

  19. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  20. Exploiting the potential of vector control for disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Townson, H.; Nathan, M. B.; Zaim, M.; Guillet, P.; Manga, L.; Bos, R.; Kindhauser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Although vector control has proven highly effective in preventing disease transmission, it is not being used to its full potential, thereby depriving disadvantaged populations of the benefits of well tried and tested methods. Following the discovery of synthetic residual insecticides in the 1940s, large-scale programmes succeeded in bringing many of the important vector-borne diseases under control. By the late 1960s, most vector-borne diseases--with the exception of malaria in Africa--were no longer considered to be of primary public health importance. The result was that control programmes lapsed, resources dwindled, and specialists in vector control disappeared from public health units. Within two decades, many important vector-borne diseases had re-emerged or spread to new areas. The time has come to restore vector control to its key role in the prevention of disease transmission, albeit with an increased emphasis on multiple measures, whether pesticide-based or involving environmental modification, and with a strengthened managerial and operational capacity. Integrated vector management provides a sound conceptual framework for deployment of cost-effective and sustainable methods of vector control. This approach allows for full consideration of the complex determinants of disease transmission, including local disease ecology, the role of human activity in increasing risks of disease transmission, and the socioeconomic conditions of affected communities. PMID:16462987

  1. Prion diseases: risks, characteristics, and infection control considerations in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bali, Zarina; Bali, Rishi K; Nagrath, Saurabh

    2011-11-01

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are rapidly progressive and fatal, with no definite cure. There are no reported cases of prion disease transmission arising from dental procedures. Nevertheless, there is a theoretical but real risk of transmission of prion disease from dental instruments. A review was made of studies up to 2008 to provide an update of the characteristics, risk of transmission, and the infection-control implications of prions in the field of dentistry. As the prions are resistant to conventional sterilization methods, highly-specific, cross-infection control measures are required when managing patients infected with these.

  2. Meeting migratory bird management needs by integrated disease control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1984-01-01

    The need to combat diseases of migratory birds more effectively will intensify because of need to counteract effects of continual habitat losses. Degradation of habitat will increase potential for disease transmission and the emergence of new disease problems. Migratory bird mobility provides a ready mechanism for spread of disease to locations greatly removed from the site of initial outbreaks. Disease control and management on a flyway basis is needed to combat disease problems of migratory birds more effectively. Modifications in the flyway council system are suggested for implementation of an integrated approach to disease control. Flyway management of disease problems is not a new concept and has been used for addressing lead poisoning in waterfowl (Greenwalt 1976). However, integration of disease concepts in the management of migratory birds on a flyway basis has not been attempted to the extent identified in this paper. Information and communication needs to achieve the goal of minimizing losses of migratory birds to disease are also identified. The limited resources available for disease investigations dictate that sound planning efforts serve as the foundation for program development, priority assessment, and coordination of efforts. Effective disease control in migratory birds is achievable. However, disease control will not happen without adjustments in current perspectives and approaches to disease problems. 'A prime requisite of long range planning for animal disease control or eradication is an attitude of mind that sustains an unflagging optimism toward the ultimate accomplishment of desired results, coupled with an equally persistent skepticism toward dogmatic formulae promising either certain success or certain failure. A long range plan cannot remain inviolate. It must undergo constant critical review and modification as necessary to: accommodate newly acquired scientific or practical information; meet changing economic conditions; account for

  3. Temporal network structures controlling disease spreading.

    PubMed

    Holme, Petter

    2016-08-01

    We investigate disease spreading on eight empirical data sets of human contacts (mostly proximity networks recording who is close to whom, at what time). We compare three levels of representations of these data sets: temporal networks, static networks, and a fully connected topology. We notice that the difference between the static and fully connected networks-with respect to time to extinction and average outbreak size-is smaller than between the temporal and static topologies. This suggests that, for these data sets, temporal structures influence disease spreading more than static-network structures. To explain the details in the differences between the representations, we use 32 network measures. This study concurs that long-time temporal structures, like the turnover of nodes and links, are the most important for the spreading dynamics. PMID:27627315

  4. Temporal network structures controlling disease spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter

    2016-08-01

    We investigate disease spreading on eight empirical data sets of human contacts (mostly proximity networks recording who is close to whom, at what time). We compare three levels of representations of these data sets: temporal networks, static networks, and a fully connected topology. We notice that the difference between the static and fully connected networks—with respect to time to extinction and average outbreak size—is smaller than between the temporal and static topologies. This suggests that, for these data sets, temporal structures influence disease spreading more than static-network structures. To explain the details in the differences between the representations, we use 32 network measures. This study concurs that long-time temporal structures, like the turnover of nodes and links, are the most important for the spreading dynamics.

  5. Temporal network structures controlling disease spreading.

    PubMed

    Holme, Petter

    2016-08-01

    We investigate disease spreading on eight empirical data sets of human contacts (mostly proximity networks recording who is close to whom, at what time). We compare three levels of representations of these data sets: temporal networks, static networks, and a fully connected topology. We notice that the difference between the static and fully connected networks-with respect to time to extinction and average outbreak size-is smaller than between the temporal and static topologies. This suggests that, for these data sets, temporal structures influence disease spreading more than static-network structures. To explain the details in the differences between the representations, we use 32 network measures. This study concurs that long-time temporal structures, like the turnover of nodes and links, are the most important for the spreading dynamics.

  6. Control of vectors and insecticide resistance: Implications for disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective management of insect and mite vectors of plant pathogens is of crucial importance to minimizing vector-borne diseases in crops. Insecticides play an important role in managing vector populations by reducing the number of individuals that can acquire and transmit a virus, thereby potentiall...

  7. Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2014-06-14

    Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

  8. Controlling Foliar Disease with ZeroTol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ZeroTol is a disinfestant labeled for direct application on plants. Laboratory, field, and greenhouse experiments were performed to determine the rates and intervals in days between applications needed to control daylily rust. In laboratory trials, a very high rate was required to achieve 100% morta...

  9. Optimising Control of Disease Spread on Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, B.; Kleczkowski, A.; Gilligan, C. A.

    2005-05-01

    We consider models for control of epidemics on local, global, small-world and scale-free networks, with only partial information accessible about the status of individuals and their connections. The effectiveness of local (e.g. ring vaccination or culling) versus global (e.g. random vaccination) control measures is evaluated, with the aim of minimising the total cost of an epidemic. The costs include direct costs of treating infected individuals as well as costs of treatment. We first consider a random (global) vaccination strategy designed to stop any potential outbreak. We show that if the costs of the preventive vaccination are ignored, the optimal strategy is to vaccinate the whole population, although most of the resources are wasted on preventing a small number of cases. If the vaccination costs are included, or if a local strategy (within a certain neighbourhood of a symptomatic individual) is chosen, there is an optimum number of treated individuals. Inclusion of non-local contacts (``small-worlds'' or scale-free networks) increases the levels of preventive (random) vaccination and radius of local treatment necessary for stopping the outbreak at a minimal cost. The number of initial foci also influences our choice of optimal strategy. The size of epidemics and the number of treated individuals increase for outbreaks that are initiated from a larger number of initial foci, but the optimal radius of local control actually decreases. The results are important for designing control strategies based on cost effectiveness.

  10. Plant Disease Control by the Use of Chemicals. MP-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, William D.; Bridgmon, George H.

    This document has been prepared as a reference manual providing information regarding plant diseases. The text concerns itself with the identification and development of infectious and non-infectious diseases and associated control measures. An appendix includes a glossary of plant pathological terms and a bibliography. (CS)

  11. The Centers for Disease Control partners with Lysol manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and the makers of Lysol join a partnership to create a program for prevention methods called "An Ounce of Prevention Keeps the Germs Away." This program teaches the general public, especially families with young children ages 2 to 12, seven simple and inexpensive ways to prevent the spread of infectious disease. PMID:10186409

  12. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  13. Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206

  14. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  15. Review: Evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Using Fault Tree Analysis.

    PubMed

    Isoda, N; Kadohira, M; Sekiguchi, S; Schuppers, M; Stärk, K D C

    2015-06-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) causes huge economic losses and animal welfare problems. Although much can be learnt from past FMD outbreaks, several countries are not satisfied with their degree of contingency planning and aiming at more assurance that their control measures will be effective. The purpose of the present article was to develop a generic fault tree framework for the control of an FMD outbreak as a basis for systematic improvement and refinement of control activities and general preparedness. Fault trees are typically used in engineering to document pathways that can lead to an undesired event, that is, ineffective FMD control. The fault tree method allows risk managers to identify immature parts of the control system and to analyse the events or steps that will most probably delay rapid and effective disease control during a real outbreak. The present developed fault tree is generic and can be tailored to fit the specific needs of countries. For instance, the specific fault tree for the 2001 FMD outbreak in the UK was refined based on control weaknesses discussed in peer-reviewed articles. Furthermore, the specific fault tree based on the 2001 outbreak was applied to the subsequent FMD outbreak in 2007 to assess the refinement of control measures following the earlier, major outbreak. The FMD fault tree can assist risk managers to develop more refined and adequate control activities against FMD outbreaks and to find optimum strategies for rapid control. Further application using the current tree will be one of the basic measures for FMD control worldwide.

  16. Wolbachia: A biological control strategy against arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ipsita; Rath, Animesha; Mahapatra, Namita; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes like Dengue are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in human population. There are no effective vaccines or treatment against dengue fever till date and the control methods are limited. So, new approaches are urgently in need to reverse these trends. Vector control is currently the primary intervention tool. Strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. Wolbachia an endosymbiont of arthropod vectors is being explored as a novel ecofriendly control strategy. Studies in Drosophila have shown that Wolbachia can confer resistance to diverse RNA viruses and protect flies from virus-induced mortality. This review was focused on biology of the Wolbachia and its implication as a control measure for arboviral diseases mainly Dengue and Chikungunya. PMID:27681542

  17. Wolbachia: A biological control strategy against arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Ipsita; Rath, Animesha; Mahapatra, Namita; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes like Dengue are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in human population. There are no effective vaccines or treatment against dengue fever till date and the control methods are limited. So, new approaches are urgently in need to reverse these trends. Vector control is currently the primary intervention tool. Strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. Wolbachia an endosymbiont of arthropod vectors is being explored as a novel ecofriendly control strategy. Studies in Drosophila have shown that Wolbachia can confer resistance to diverse RNA viruses and protect flies from virus-induced mortality. This review was focused on biology of the Wolbachia and its implication as a control measure for arboviral diseases mainly Dengue and Chikungunya.

  18. Wolbachia endosymbionts and human disease control.

    PubMed

    Slatko, Barton E; Luck, Ashley N; Dobson, Stephen L; Foster, Jeremy M

    2014-07-01

    Most human filarial nematode parasites and arthropods are hosts for a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. In filaria, Wolbachia are required for normal development, fertility and survival, whereas in arthropods, they are largely parasitic and can influence development and reproduction, but are generally not required for host survival. Due to their obligate nature in filarial parasites, Wolbachia have been a target for drug discovery initiatives using several approaches including diversity and focused library screening and genomic sequence analysis. In vitro and in vivo anti-Wolbachia antibiotic treatments have been shown to have adulticidal activity, a long sought goal of filarial parasite drug discovery. In mosquitoes, it has been shown that the presence of Wolbachia can inhibit the transmission of certain viruses, such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever, West Nile, as well as the infectivity of the malaria-causing protozoan, Plasmodium and filarial nematodes. Furthermore, Wolbachia can cause a form of conditional sterility that can be used to suppress populations of mosquitoes and additional medically important insects. Thus Wolbachia, a pandemic endosymbiont offers great potential for elimination of a wide-variety of devastating human diseases. PMID:25046729

  19. Blood pressure control in acute cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Owens, William B

    2011-03-01

    Acute cerebrovascular diseases (ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage) affect 780,000 Americans each year. Physicians who care for patients with these conditions must be able to recognize when acute hypertension requires treatment and should understand the principles of cerebral autoregulation and perfusion. Physicians should also be familiar with the various pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of cerebrovascular emergencies. Acute ischemic stroke frequently presents with hypertension, but the systemic blood pressure should not be treated unless the systolic pressure exceeds 220 mm Hg or the diastolic pressure exceeds 120 mm Hg. Overly aggressive treatment of hypertension can compromise collateral perfusion of the ischemic penumbra. Hypertension associated with intracerebral hemorrhage can be treated more aggressively to minimize hematoma expansion during the first 3 to 6 hours of illness. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is usually due to aneurysmal rupture; systolic blood pressure should be kept <150 mm Hg to prevent re-rupture of the aneurysm. Nicardipine and labetalol are recommended for rapidly treating hypertension during cerebrovascular emergencies. Sodium nitroprusside is not recommended due to its adverse effects on cerebral autoregulation and intracranial pressure. Hypoperfusion of the injured brain should be avoided at all costs.

  20. Wolbachia endosymbionts and human disease control.

    PubMed

    Slatko, Barton E; Luck, Ashley N; Dobson, Stephen L; Foster, Jeremy M

    2014-07-01

    Most human filarial nematode parasites and arthropods are hosts for a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. In filaria, Wolbachia are required for normal development, fertility and survival, whereas in arthropods, they are largely parasitic and can influence development and reproduction, but are generally not required for host survival. Due to their obligate nature in filarial parasites, Wolbachia have been a target for drug discovery initiatives using several approaches including diversity and focused library screening and genomic sequence analysis. In vitro and in vivo anti-Wolbachia antibiotic treatments have been shown to have adulticidal activity, a long sought goal of filarial parasite drug discovery. In mosquitoes, it has been shown that the presence of Wolbachia can inhibit the transmission of certain viruses, such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever, West Nile, as well as the infectivity of the malaria-causing protozoan, Plasmodium and filarial nematodes. Furthermore, Wolbachia can cause a form of conditional sterility that can be used to suppress populations of mosquitoes and additional medically important insects. Thus Wolbachia, a pandemic endosymbiont offers great potential for elimination of a wide-variety of devastating human diseases.

  1. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  2. [Role of vaccination in chronic disease prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuoqun; Huang, Shue; Zhao, Yanfang; Zhao, Wenhua; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2015-08-01

    Chronic non-communicable disease is a major public health problem affecting the health of residents in china. Evidence shows that, in addition to four major risk factors, i.e. unreasonable dietary, lack of physical activity, smoking and drinking, epidemic and severe outcome of chronic disease is associated with many infectious diseases. Increasingly cancers have been shown to have an infectious etiology. There is also a significantly increased risk of infectious disease such as influenza, pneumonia and other infectious disease in people with pre-existing chronic non-communicable diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and lung diseases. And more than that, there is a high risk of susceptibility to death and severe outcomes among them. Epidemiological studies has confirmed, that through targeted vaccine inoculation, liver cancer, cervical cancer can be effectively prevented, while influenza or pneumonia vaccine are related to reduced risk of hospitalization or death and hospitalization expenses regarding with a variety of chronic diseases. World Health Organization and several other professional organizations have put forward recommendations on vaccine inoculation of chronic disease patients. Programs targeting infectious factors are also an important aspect of chronic diseases prevention and control, therefore, related researches need to be strengthened in the future. PMID:26733040

  3. The control of hookworm disease in Commonwealth Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, Elisha S; Chadee, Dave D; Rawlins, Samuel C

    2011-01-01

    Like other countries around the globe where conditions existed for the parasites causing hookworm disease to thrive, this disease was a serious problem to settlers in countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, i.e. those countries that were formerly part of the British Empire. Early in the 20th century, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) assisted the southern United States in controlling this disease. Soon other countries requested assistance and the Rockefeller Foundation responded by creating their International Health Commission to target the problem. Guyana (then British Guiana) was the first country where work was started. Through a system of chemotherapy, sanitation with the provision of latrines and health education the RF assisted the Commonwealth Caribbean countries during the period 1914-1925 in controlling the disease. Most countries continued the programmes started by the Rockefeller Foundation and this paper provides evidence through a series of surveys to show that hookworm disease is no longer a public health problem.

  4. Communicable disease control in England; recommendations from an American.

    PubMed

    Detels, R

    1994-12-01

    The problems associated with the Wakefield salmonella and the Stafford Legionnaires' disease outbreaks and the recommendations of the Acheson Committee formed in response led to the creation of the position of Consultant in Communicable Disease Control (CCDC) within the District Health Authorities. The reality of the position as implemented differs from that envisaged by the Acheson Committee and has resulted in ambiguities about the role of the CsCDC, the source of their support, and the range of their responsibilities. This paper, by an American invited to review the position, outlines the history of the position, the current status of CsCDC, and the barriers to effective performance of the position. It ends with a series of recommendations for improving disease control within England by solidifying the position, establishing its role in disease control within the National Health Service and recommending an educational/training pathway to attract and prepare physicians for the position.

  5. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  6. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  7. Rheumatic heart disease and its control in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Samantha M; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Kado, Joseph H; Steer, Andrew C

    2009-12-01

    Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease continue to be a huge public-health burden on many Pacific Island countries. Prevalence reported in some nations are some of the highest seen globally, yet many countries in the region do not have national disease registers. Despite the will of many Pacific Island countries, there are a number of barriers to the implementation and sustainability of effective coordinated prevention programs, including limited funding and competing health priorities. In promising recent developments, a number of countries in the region have been able to develop or strengthen national rheumatic heart disease registers. These registers allow for more effective delivery of secondary prophylaxis, the mainstay of disease control in the Pacific. Primary prevention of rheumatic fever and screening for rheumatic heart disease are important adjunctive strategies. Recent advances in screening methods, focusing on portable echocardiography, may allow for the early detection of rheumatic heart disease in the community.

  8. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

  9. The effect of sprout and disease control products on disease development and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato industry utilizes various sprout and disease control products prior to storage and/or packing. Some of these products have not been tested for interference of wound healing and whether effects observed equate to greater disease development or weight loss. The objectives of this study we...

  10. 29 CFR 505.5 - Adequate assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of a weekly or monthly salary, talent or performance fee, hourly rate or other basis on which... requirements in paragraph (b) were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  11. 29 CFR 505.5 - Adequate assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amount of a weekly or monthly salary, talent or performance fee, hourly rate or other basis on which... requirements in paragraph (b) were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  12. Backward bifurcation and control in transmission dynamics of arboviral diseases.

    PubMed

    Abboubakar, Hamadjam; Claude Kamgang, Jean; Tieudjo, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we derive and analyze a compartmental model for the control of arboviral diseases which takes into account an imperfect vaccine combined with individual protection and some vector control strategies already studied in the literature. After the formulation of the model, a qualitative study based on stability analysis and bifurcation theory reveals that the phenomenon of backward bifurcation may occur. The stable disease-free equilibrium of the model coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the reproduction number, R0, is less than unity. Using Lyapunov function theory, we prove that the trivial equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. When the disease-induced death is not considered, or/and, when the standard incidence is replaced by the mass action incidence, the backward bifurcation does not occur. Under a certain condition, we establish the global asymptotic stability of the disease-free equilibrium of the principal model. Through sensitivity analysis, we determine the relative importance of model parameters for disease transmission. Numerical simulations show that the combination of several control mechanisms would significantly reduce the spread of the disease, if we maintain the level of each control high, and this, over a long period. PMID:27321192

  13. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  14. Controlling disease spread on networks with incomplete knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, B.; Kleczkowski, A.; Gilligan, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    Models for control of highly infectious diseases on local, small-world, and scale-free networks are considered, with only partial information accessible about the status of individuals and their connections. We consider a case when individuals can be infectious before showing symptoms and thus before detection. For small to moderately severe incidence of infection with a small number of nonlocal links, it is possible to control disease spread by using purely local methods applied in a neighborhood centered around a detected infectious individual. There exists an optimal radius for such a control neighborhood leading to the lowest severity of the epidemic in terms of economic costs associated with disease and treatment. The efficiency of a local control strategy is very sensitive to the choice of the radius. Below the optimal radius, the local strategy is unsuccessful; the disease spreads throughout the system, necessitating treatment of the whole population. At the other extreme, a strategy involving a neighborhood that is too large controls the disease but is wasteful of resources. It is not possible to stop an epidemic on scale-free networks by preventive actions, unless a large proportion of the population is treated.

  15. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Educational Research Centers, Program... recommendations to the Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and...

  16. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training Projects Grants, Request for... Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health...

  17. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  18. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  19. International efforts to control infectious diseases, 1851 to the present.

    PubMed

    Stern, Alexandra Minna; Markel, Howard

    2004-09-22

    Many 21st-century observers explain international efforts to control infectious diseases as a function of globalization and recent transformations in international commerce, transportation, and human migration. However, these contemporary global health initiatives can be more fully understood by also exploring the origins of international health organizations and regulations, which were initially dedicated exclusively to stemming the tide of infectious epidemics. This article reviews 3 eras of international approaches to controlling infectious diseases (1851-1881, 1881-1945, and 1945 to the present) and concludes by assessing how nations have a strong fiscal and humanitarian incentive to invest in infectious disease control programs and infrastructures in and beyond their own borders. PMID:15383519

  20. Prevention and control of viral diseases of salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    Three viral diseases of salmonids are of worldwide concern: infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Six principal approaches are being used to prevent or control these diseases: 1) preventing contact o the pathogen with the host, 2) environmental manipulation, 3) immunization, 4) chemotherapy, 5 selective breeding for disease resistance, and 6) reducing stress conditions which augment disease conditions. Preventing the introduction of a pathogen into a new stock of fish has been accomplished mainly by implementing stringent laws to prevent transport of infected fish into uninfected areas. Stocks of fish already infected are sometimes destroyed, and the hatchery is disinfected and restocked with fish free of specific pathogens. Environmental manipulation (elevated water temperature) has been successfully used to control IHN. Chemotherapeutics such as povidone-iodine for IPN and benzipyrene for IHN show promise of controlling mortalities; however, the practicality of using these drugs to eliminate the carrier fish has not been evaluated. Salmonids are capable of developing immune responses to viruses; however, development of effective vaccines, selective breeding for disease resistance, and identification of stress conditions which augment disease are still in the experimental phase.

  1. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    PubMed

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  2. Use of sevelamer in chronic kidney disease: beyond phosphorus control.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Osorio, Laura; Zambrano, Diana Pazmiño; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus; González Parra, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Sevelamer is a non-calcium phosphate binder used in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in dialysis for hyperphosphataemia control. Several experimental, observational studies and clinical trials have shown that sevelamer has pleiotropic effects, beyond hyperphosphataemia control, including actions on inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profile and atherogenesis, vascular calcification, endothelial dysfunction and the reduction of several uremic toxins. This is the biological basis for its global effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review focuses on these pleiotropic actions of sevelamer and their impact on cardiovascular health, with the experience published after more than ten years of clinical expertise.

  3. Mitochondrial quality control: decommissioning power plants in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Rukmini; Chakrabarti, Oishee

    2013-01-01

    The cell has an intricate quality control system to protect its mitochondria from oxidative stress. This surveillance system is multi-tiered and comprises molecules that are present inside the mitochondria, in the cytosol, and in other organelles like the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. These molecules cross talk with each other and protect the mitochondria from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a fundamental part of early disease pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. These disorders also damage the cellular quality control machinery that protects the cell against oxidative stress. This exacerbates the oxidative damage and causes extensive neuronal cell death that is characteristic of neurodegeneration. PMID:24288463

  4. History of the control of foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Blancou, Jean

    2002-10-01

    From the many existing documents on the history of foot and mouth disease, it is possible to describe the practical measures adopted for disease surveillance and control from ancient times until the 20th century. Surveillance was based on diagnosis or post-mortem examination, and also on knowledge of the conditions under which infection occurred: aetiology, pathogenesis, mode of infection, susceptible species, virulent material, etc. The historical facts are assembled and compared, with comments on each of these points. Control was based upon the application of isolation, then slaughter or aphtisation, then vaccination. A study of these various procedures makes it possible to compare their efficacy.

  5. Use of sevelamer in chronic kidney disease: beyond phosphorus control.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Osorio, Laura; Zambrano, Diana Pazmiño; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus; González Parra, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Sevelamer is a non-calcium phosphate binder used in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in dialysis for hyperphosphataemia control. Several experimental, observational studies and clinical trials have shown that sevelamer has pleiotropic effects, beyond hyperphosphataemia control, including actions on inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid profile and atherogenesis, vascular calcification, endothelial dysfunction and the reduction of several uremic toxins. This is the biological basis for its global effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review focuses on these pleiotropic actions of sevelamer and their impact on cardiovascular health, with the experience published after more than ten years of clinical expertise. PMID:26300515

  6. Towards model-based control of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Modern model-based control theory has led to transformative improvements in our ability to track the nonlinear dynamics of systems that we observe, and to engineer control systems of unprecedented efficacy. In parallel with these developments, our ability to build computational models to embody our expanding knowledge of the biophysics of neurons and their networks is maturing at a rapid rate. In the treatment of human dynamical disease, our employment of deep brain stimulators for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease is gaining increasing acceptance. Thus, the confluence of these three developments—control theory, computational neuroscience and deep brain stimulation—offers a unique opportunity to create novel approaches to the treatment of this disease. This paper explores the relevant state of the art of science, medicine and engineering, and proposes a strategy for model-based control of Parkinson’s disease. We present a set of preliminary calculations employing basal ganglia computational models, structured within an unscented Kalman filter for tracking observations and prescribing control. Based upon these findings, we will offer suggestions for future research and development. PMID:20368246

  7. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  8. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    PubMed

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  9. Dynamics and control of diseases in networks with community structure.

    PubMed

    Salathé, Marcel; Jones, James H

    2010-04-08

    The dynamics of infectious diseases spread via direct person-to-person transmission (such as influenza, smallpox, HIV/AIDS, etc.) depends on the underlying host contact network. Human contact networks exhibit strong community structure. Understanding how such community structure affects epidemics may provide insights for preventing the spread of disease between communities by changing the structure of the contact network through pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical interventions. We use empirical and simulated networks to investigate the spread of disease in networks with community structure. We find that community structure has a major impact on disease dynamics, and we show that in networks with strong community structure, immunization interventions targeted at individuals bridging communities are more effective than those simply targeting highly connected individuals. Because the structure of relevant contact networks is generally not known, and vaccine supply is often limited, there is great need for efficient vaccination algorithms that do not require full knowledge of the network. We developed an algorithm that acts only on locally available network information and is able to quickly identify targets for successful immunization intervention. The algorithm generally outperforms existing algorithms when vaccine supply is limited, particularly in networks with strong community structure. Understanding the spread of infectious diseases and designing optimal control strategies is a major goal of public health. Social networks show marked patterns of community structure, and our results, based on empirical and simulated data, demonstrate that community structure strongly affects disease dynamics. These results have implications for the design of control strategies.

  10. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S; Ward, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894

  11. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  12. Fluctuations in epidemic modeling - disease extinction and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ira

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of infectious disease fluctuations has recently seen an increasing rise in the use of new tools and models from stochastic dynamics and statistical physics. Examples arise in modeling fluctuations of multi-strain diseases, in modeling adaptive social behavior and its impact on disease fluctuations, and in the analysis of disease extinction in finite population models. Proper stochastic model reduction [1] allows one to predict unobserved fluctuations from observed data in multi-strain models [2]. Degree alteration and power law behavior is predicted in adaptive network epidemic models [3,4]. And extinction rates derived from large fluctuation theory exhibit scaling with respect to distance to the bifurcation point of disease onset with an unusual exponent [5]. In addition to outbreak prediction, another main goal of epidemic modeling is one of eliminating the disease to extinction through various control mechanisms, such as vaccine implementation or quarantine. In this talk, a description will be presented of the fluctuational behavior of several epidemic models and their extinction rates. A general framework and analysis of the effect of non-Gaussian control actuations which enhance the rate to disease extinction will be described. In particular, in it is shown that even in the presence of a small Poisson distributed vaccination program, there is an exponentially enhanced rate to disease extinction. These ideas may lead to improved methods of controlling disease where random vaccinations are prevalent. [4pt] Recent papers:[0pt] [1] E. Forgoston and I. B. Schwartz, ``Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales,'' arXiv:0809.1345 2008.[0pt] [2] L. B. Shaw, L. Billings, I. B. Schwartz, ``Using dimension reduction to improve outbreak predictability of multi-strain diseases,'' J. Math. Bio. 55, 1 2007.[0pt] [3] L. B. Shaw and I. B. Schwartz, ``Fluctuating epidemics on adaptive networks,'' Physical Review E 77, 066101 2008.[0pt] [4] L. B

  13. Molecular technology: improving strategies for controlling hydatid disease and cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    McManus, D P

    1990-06-01

    Recombinant DNA and related technologies are providing valuable, novel reagents for application in control strategies against the major parasitic diseases, including hydatid disease and cysticercosis. The impact of these powerful techniques for improving diagnosis and identification of various life cycle stages of Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium, essential pre-requisites for epidemiological studies and for evaluating control programs, is beyond question. Furthermore, the use of molecular technology for characterizing sub-specific variants of strains of both Echinococcus and T. solium has led to important revisions of our understanding of the diseases they cause. In light of the recent remarkable development of a recombinant vaccine against T. ovis, the first practical parasite vaccine to be produced, the prospects for rapid development of similar vaccines against the medically important taeniids appear to be very encouraging.

  14. Sexually transmitted disease control in China (1949-1994).

    PubMed

    Shao, C; Xu, W; Ye, G

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes the historical experiences in venereal disease control in China during the 1950s. Venereal diseases had been all but eliminated in the whole country till 1964. However, along with the implementation of open-door policy and economic reform in the 1980s, the social environment was changed to a great extent in this country. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were re-introduced in the Chinese mainland and new foci of infection established themselves in some cities. During the recent 8 years the national STD case-reporting and sentinel surveillance systems have been set up. The results of surveillance show that the annual incidence of STD has been on the increase. The existing factors associated with the increasing incidence of STD mainly are; population movement, increasing affluence in a part of population, the availability of multiple sexual partners (including the prostitution) and asymptomatic STD increased. Finally, the strategies for STD control are discussed in detail. PMID:9387394

  15. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  16. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  17. Mapping communicable disease control in the European union.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Heather A; Jones, David K; Greer, Scott L

    2012-12-01

    Understanding both the current performance of communicable disease control in Europe and the scale of the differences among systems is crucial to understanding its present performance and possible Europeanization. We attempt to identify the structure of authority in communicable disease control in each European Union (EU) member state. The primary sources of information were the competent bodies list posted on the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control website and the Health in Transition reports produced by the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Three key patterns emerge to answer the question of who does what. First, the landscape is full and crowded, with many actors involved. Second, the landscape is highly fragmented, with many organizations performing overlapping functions in each country. Third, regional patterns describe which types of organizations are assigned which functions. These full, fragmented, and regionally disparate systems show no signs of constituting a shared model. As a result, if there is an EU model of communicable disease control today, it is at most an aspiration. PMID:22899840

  18. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  19. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  20. Intensive Blood-Pressure Control in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Lawrence J.; Wright, Jackson T.; Greene, Tom; Agodoa, Lawrence Y.; Astor, Brad C.; Bakris, George L.; Cleveland, William H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Contreras, Gabriel; Faulkner, Marquetta L.; Gabbai, Francis B.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Hebert, Lee A.; Jamerson, Kenneth A.; Kopple, Joel D.; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Lea, Janice P.; Lewis, Julia B.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Massry, Shaul G.; Miller, Edgar R.; Norris, Keith; Phillips, Robert A.; Pogue, Velvie A.; Randall, Otelio S.; Rostand, Stephen G.; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw J.; Toto, Robert D.; Wang, Xuelei

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In observational studies, the relationship between blood pressure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is direct and progressive. The burden of hypertension-related chronic kidney disease and ESRD is especially high among black patients. Yet few trials have tested whether intensive blood-pressure control retards the progression of chronic kidney disease among black patients. METHODS We randomly assigned 1094 black patients with hypertensive chronic kidney disease to receive either intensive or standard blood-pressure control. After completing the trial phase, patients were invited to enroll in a cohort phase in which the blood-pressure target was less than 130/80 mm Hg. The primary clinical outcome in the cohort phase was the progression of chronic kidney disease, which was defined as a doubling of the serum creatinine level, a diagnosis of ESRD, or death. Follow-up ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 years. RESULTS During the trial phase, the mean blood pressure was 130/78 mm Hg in the intensive-control group and 141/86 mm Hg in the standard-control group. During the cohort phase, corresponding mean blood pressures were 131/78 mm Hg and 134/78 mm Hg. In both phases, there was no significant between-group difference in the risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio in the intensive-control group, 0.91; P = 0.27). However, the effects differed according to the baseline level of proteinuria (P = 0.02 for interaction), with a potential benefit in patients with a protein-to-creatinine ratio of more than 0.22 (hazard ratio, 0.73; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In overall analyses, intensive blood-pressure control had no effect on kidney disease progression. However, there may be differential effects of intensive blood-pressure control in patients with and those without baseline proteinuria. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, and others.) PMID:20818902

  1. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  2. Quantifying prion disease penetrance using large population control cohorts.

    PubMed

    Minikel, Eric Vallabh; Vallabh, Sonia M; Lek, Monkol; Estrada, Karol; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Sathirapongsasuti, J Fah; McLean, Cory Y; Tung, Joyce Y; Yu, Linda P C; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Blevins, Janis; Zhang, Shulin; Cohen, Yvonne; Chen, Wei; Yamada, Masahito; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Collins, Steven J; Boyd, Alison; Will, Robert G; Knight, Richard; Ponto, Claudia; Zerr, Inga; Kraus, Theo F J; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Giese, Armin; Calero, Miguel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Haïk, Stéphane; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Capellari, Sabina; Parchi, Piero; Poleggi, Anna; Ladogana, Anna; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne H; Karczewski, Konrad J; Marshall, Jamie L; Boehnke, Michael; Laakso, Markku; Mohlke, Karen L; Kähler, Anna; Chambert, Kimberly; McCarroll, Steven; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Purcell, Shaun M; Sklar, Pamela; van der Lee, Sven J; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Jansen, Casper; Hofman, Albert; Kraaij, Robert; van Rooij, Jeroen G J; Ikram, M Arfan; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Daly, Mark J; MacArthur, Daniel G

    2016-01-20

    More than 100,000 genetic variants are reported to cause Mendelian disease in humans, but the penetrance-the probability that a carrier of the purported disease-causing genotype will indeed develop the disease-is generally unknown. We assess the impact of variants in the prion protein gene (PRNP) on the risk of prion disease by analyzing 16,025 prion disease cases, 60,706 population control exomes, and 531,575 individuals genotyped by 23andMe Inc. We show that missense variants in PRNP previously reported to be pathogenic are at least 30 times more common in the population than expected on the basis of genetic prion disease prevalence. Although some of this excess can be attributed to benign variants falsely assigned as pathogenic, other variants have genuine effects on disease susceptibility but confer lifetime risks ranging from <0.1 to ~100%. We also show that truncating variants in PRNP have position-dependent effects, with true loss-of-function alleles found in healthy older individuals, a finding that supports the safety of therapeutic suppression of prion protein expression. PMID:26791950

  3. The Innovative Vector Control Consortium: improved control of mosquito-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet; Beaty, Barry J; Rowland, Mark; Scott, Thomas W; Sharp, Brian L

    2006-07-01

    Few new insecticides have been produced for control of disease vectors for public health in developing countries over the past three decades, owing to market constraints, and the available insecticides are often poorly deployed. The Innovative Vector Control Consortium will address these market failures by developing a portfolio of chemical and technological tools that will be directly and immediately accessible to populations in the developing world. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has supported this new initiative to enable industry and academia to change the vector control paradigm for malaria and dengue and to ensure that vector control, alongside drugs, case management and vaccines, can be better used to reduce disease.

  4. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Elaine L....

  5. Control of pome and stone fruit virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Barba, Marina; Ilardi, Vincenza; Pasquini, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    Many different systemic pathogens, including viruses, affect pome and stone fruits causing diseases with adverse effects in orchards worldwide. The significance of diseases caused by these pathogens on tree health and fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of control measures both nationally and internationally. Control measures depend on the identification of diseases and their etiological agents. Diagnosis is the most important aspect of controlling fruit plant viruses. Early detection of viruses in fruit trees or in the propagative material is a prerequisite for their control and to guarantee a sustainable agriculture. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce spread of viruses among countries during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Also certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of "quarantine" organisms under the national legislation but also of important "nonquarantine" pathogens. The control of insect vectors plays an important role in the systemic diseases management, but it must be used together with other control measures as eradication of infected plants and use of certified propagation material. Apart from the control of the virus vector and the use of virus-free material, the development of virus-resistant cultivars appears to be the most effective approach to achieve control of plant viruses, especially for perennial crops that are more exposed to infection during their long life span. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars and/or rootstocks could be potentially the most important aspect of virus disease management, especially in areas in which virus infections are endemic. The

  6. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  7. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  8. 75 FR 6675 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., National Center for HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for...

  9. 75 FR 52356 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral Surveillance... Disease Registry. Dated: August 18, 2010. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and...

  10. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  11. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

  12. Global perspective for foot and mouth disease control.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, M M; Astudillo, V M

    2002-12-01

    The world distribution of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is almost a mirror image of the global economic structure. In general, industrialised countries are free while the disease is endemic in developing countries. In recent years, several incursions of FMD have been recorded in countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), all of which have been financially and socially costly to eliminate. At the same time, this single disease bars many developing countries from participation in formal trade, both regionally and internationally. However, recent studies have predicted an unprecedented high demand for animal protein, which can only be met through enhanced participation of developing countries in trade in livestock products. Accordingly, globalisation trends will exacerbate the exclusion of poor communities and countries from markets unless a long-term strategy is implemented to progressively build market opportunities for these countries, without placing the livestock of industrialised countries at undue risk from FMD and other major transboundary animal diseases. The authors submit that there is sufficient knowledge of FMD to make an international initiative for the progressive control of FMD a viable objective. Consequently, a four-stage pathway is proposed for developing a global FMD programme. The proposed strategy involves a build-up of the epidemiology and global status of FMD, including establishing an international early warning system, a risk-reduction phase to lower the incidence of FMD in the primary endemic areas and a control phase leading to the creation of zones of assured FMD-freedom. The authors also propose that an international FMD programme be co-ordinated, based on the experience of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme, the Hemispheric Plan for the eradication of FMD for the Americas, the South-East Asia Foot and Mouth Disease control and eradication campaign and the European Commission for the

  13. Global perspective for foot and mouth disease control.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, M M; Astudillo, V M

    2002-12-01

    The world distribution of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is almost a mirror image of the global economic structure. In general, industrialised countries are free while the disease is endemic in developing countries. In recent years, several incursions of FMD have been recorded in countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), all of which have been financially and socially costly to eliminate. At the same time, this single disease bars many developing countries from participation in formal trade, both regionally and internationally. However, recent studies have predicted an unprecedented high demand for animal protein, which can only be met through enhanced participation of developing countries in trade in livestock products. Accordingly, globalisation trends will exacerbate the exclusion of poor communities and countries from markets unless a long-term strategy is implemented to progressively build market opportunities for these countries, without placing the livestock of industrialised countries at undue risk from FMD and other major transboundary animal diseases. The authors submit that there is sufficient knowledge of FMD to make an international initiative for the progressive control of FMD a viable objective. Consequently, a four-stage pathway is proposed for developing a global FMD programme. The proposed strategy involves a build-up of the epidemiology and global status of FMD, including establishing an international early warning system, a risk-reduction phase to lower the incidence of FMD in the primary endemic areas and a control phase leading to the creation of zones of assured FMD-freedom. The authors also propose that an international FMD programme be co-ordinated, based on the experience of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme, the Hemispheric Plan for the eradication of FMD for the Americas, the South-East Asia Foot and Mouth Disease control and eradication campaign and the European Commission for the

  14. Molecular mechanism of size control in development and human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolong; Xu, Tian

    2011-01-01

    How multicellular organisms control their size is a fundamental question that fascinated generations of biologists. In the past 10 years, tremendous progress has been made toward our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying size control. Original studies from Drosophila showed that in addition to extrinsic nutritional and hormonal cues, intrinsic mechanisms also play important roles in the control of organ size during development. Several novel signaling pathways such as insulin and Hippo-LATS signaling pathways have been identified that control organ size by regulating cell size and/or cell number through modulation of cell growth, cell division, and cell death. Later studies using mammalian cell and mouse models also demonstrated that the signaling pathways identified in flies are also conserved in mammals. Significantly, recent studies showed that dysregulation of size control plays important roles in the development of many human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and hypertrophy. PMID:21483452

  15. Targeting Transmission Pathways for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance and Control

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Elizabeth H.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Olival, Kevin J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Johnson, Christine K.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Karesh, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used literature searches and a database of all reported emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to analyze the most important transmission pathways (e.g., vector-borne, aerosol droplet transmitted) for emerging zoonoses. Our results suggest that at the broad scale, the likelihood of transmission occurring through any one pathway is approximately equal. However, the major transmission pathways for zoonoses differ widely according to the specific underlying drivers of EID events (e.g., land-use change, agricultural intensification). These results can be used to develop better targeting of surveillance for, and more effective control of newly emerged zoonoses in regions under different underlying pressures that drive disease emergence. PMID:26186515

  16. Controlling Malaria and Other Diseases Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing offers the vantage of monitoring a vast area of the Earth continuously. Once developed and launched, a satellite gives years of service in collecting data from the land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. Since the 1980s, attempts have been made to relate disease occurrence with remotely sensed environmental and geophysical parameters, using data from Landsat, SPOT, AVHRR, and other satellites. With higher spatial resolution, the recent satellite sensors provide a new outlook for disease control. At sub-meter to I 10m resolution, surface types associated with disease carriers can be identified more accurately. The Ikonos panchromatic sensor with I m resolution, and the Advanced Land Imager with 1 Om resolution on the newly launched Earth Observing-1, both have displayed remarkable mapping capabilities. In addition, an entire array of geophysical parameters can now be measured or inferred from various satellites. Airborne remote sensing, with less concerns on instrument weight, size, and power consumption, also offers a low-cost alternative for regional applications. NASA/GSFC began to collaborate with the Mahidol University on malaria and filariasis control using remote sensing in late 2000. The objectives are: (1) To map the breeding sites for the major vector species; (2) To identify the potential sites for larvicide and insecticide applications; (3) To explore the linkage of vector population and transmission intensity to environmental variables; (4) To monitor the impact of climate change and human activities on vector population and transmission; and (5) To develop a predictive model for disease distribution. Field studies are being conducted in several provinces in Thailand. Data analyses will soon begin. Malaria data in South Korea are being used as surrogates for developing classification techniques. GIS has been shown to be invaluable in making the voluminous remote sensing data more readily understandable. It will be used throughout this study

  17. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  18. Insect olfaction from model systems to disease control

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Allison F.; Carlson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of insect olfaction in recent years. Receptors, neurons, and circuits have been defined in considerable detail, and the mechanisms by which they detect, encode, and process sensory stimuli are being unraveled. We provide a guide to recent progress in the field, with special attention to advances made in the genetic model organism Drosophila. We highlight key questions that merit additional investigation. We then present our view of how recent advances may be applied to the control of disease-carrying insects such as mosquitoes, which transmit disease to hundreds of millions of people each year. We suggest how progress in defining the basic mechanisms of insect olfaction may lead to means of disrupting host-seeking and other olfactory behaviors, thereby reducing the transmission of deadly diseases. PMID:21746926

  19. Global Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases and Non-Communicable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    This article on global health reviews the environment surrounding health strategies and plans, as well as lessons learned from the first 15 years of the 21st century, followed by a discussion on the quest for a new paradigm for disease control efforts and challenges and opportunities for Japan. PMID:26947953

  20. The role of cancer research in noncommunicable disease control.

    PubMed

    Wild, Christopher Paul

    2012-07-18

    Noncommunicable diseases were estimated to claim more than 36 million lives worldwide in 2008. Major contributors to this burden were cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes. The United Nations General Assembly held a high-level meeting on noncommunicable diseases in September 2011 for heads of states and governments, conscious of the projected increases in disease incidence, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This meeting followed the Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2001, the only other high-level meeting to discuss a health topic and orient the global political agenda toward a growing threat to human development. Proposed strategies for control of noncommunicable diseases focused mainly on the shared risk factors of tobacco, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet. However, for cancer, a broader response is required. Notably, the heterogeneity of cancer with respect to its geographical distribution, etiology, and pathology all demand a more nuanced, regional, or even local approach. Preparations for the meeting elicited enormous attention from governments and nongovernmental organizations, but the engagement of the research community was less evident. This commentary calls for the involvement of the cancer research community in response to the further action detailed in the United Nations Political Declaration emanating from the meeting, identifies a number of cancer-specific priorities, including vaccination against hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus, cervical cancer screening, and early detection of breast cancer, and suggests areas where cancer research can provide the evidence base for cancer control, notably in improving the quality and coverage of cancer registration, elucidating cancer etiology, and evaluating interventions, including their implementation in low-resource health-care settings. Finally, the need for global cooperation in developing a research agenda for low- and

  1. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-12-01

    triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  2. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  3. Visceral Leishmaniasis in China: an Endemic Disease under Control

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Shui; Chen, Yun-Fu; Wang, Jun-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liao, Li-Fu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chow, Larry M. C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania spp. is an important vector-borne and largely zoonotic disease. In China, three epidemiological types of VL have been described: anthroponotic VL (AVL), mountain-type zoonotic VL (MT-ZVL), and desert-type ZVL (DT-ZVL). These are transmitted by four different sand fly species: Phlebotomus chinensis, P. longiductus, P. wui, and P. alexandri. In 1951, a detailed survey of VL showed that it was rampant in the vast rural areas west, northwest, and north of the Yangtze River. Control programs were designed and implemented stringently by the government at all administrative levels, resulting in elimination of the disease from most areas of endemicity, except the western and northwestern regions. The control programs consisted of (i) diagnosis and chemotherapy of patients, (ii) identification, isolation, and disposal of infected dogs, and (iii) residual insecticide indoor spraying for vector control. The success of the control programs is attributable to massive and effective mobilization of the general public and health workers to the cause. Nationally, the annual incidence is now very low, i.e., only 0.03/100,000 according to the available 2011 official record. The overwhelming majority of cases are reported from sites of endemicity in the western and northwestern regions. Here, we describe in some depth and breadth the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease, with particular reference to the control programs. Pertinent information has been assembled from scattered literature of the past decades in different languages that are not readily accessible to the scientific community. The information provided constitutes an integral part of our knowledge on leishmaniasis in the global context and will be of special value to those interested in control programs. PMID:26354822

  4. Deep-brain stimulator and control of Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Harbaugh, Robert; Abraham, Jose K.

    2004-07-01

    The design of a novel feedback sensor system with wireless implantable polymer MEMS sensors for detecting and wirelessly transmitting physiological data that can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of various neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, head injury, stroke, hydrocephalus, changes in pressure, patient movements, and tremors is presented in this paper. The sensor system includes MEMS gyroscopes, accelerometers, and pressure sensors. This feedback sensor system focuses on the development and integration of implantable systems with various wireless sensors for medical applications, particularly for the Parkinson's disease. It is easy to integrate and modify the sensor network feed back system for other neurological disorders mentioned above. The monitoring and control of tremor in Parkinson's disease can be simulated on a skeleton via wireless telemetry system communicating with electroactive polymer actuator, and microsensors attached to the skeleton hand and legs. Upon sensing any abnormal motor activity which represent the characteristic rhythmic motion of a typical Parkinson's (PD) patient, these sensors will generate necessary control pulses which will be transmitted to a hat sensor system on the skeleton head. Tiny inductively coupled antennas attached to the hat sensor system can receive these control pulses, demodulate and deliver it to actuate the parts of the skeleton to control the abnormal motor activity. This feedback sensor system can further monitor and control depending on the amplitude of the abnormal motor activity. This microsystem offers cost effective means of monitoring and controlling of neurological disorders in real PD patients. Also, this network system offers a remote monitoring of the patients conditions without visiting doctors office or hospitals. The data can be monitored using PDA and can be accessed using internet (or cell phone). Cellular phone technology will allow a health care worker to be

  5. Mosquito-borne disease surveillance by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Zeller, H; Marrama, L; Sudre, B; Van Bortel, W; Warns-Petit, E

    2013-08-01

    For a few years, a series of traditionally tropical mosquito-borne diseases, such as chikungunya fever and dengue, have posed challenges to national public health authorities in the European region. Other diseases have re-emerged, e.g. malaria in Greece, or spread to other countries, e.g. West Nile fever. These diseases are reportable within the European Union (EU), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control collects information in various ways to provide EU member states with topical assessments of disease threats, risks and trends for prompt and appropriate public health action. Using disease-specific expert networks, the European Surveillance System (TESSy) collects standardized comparable information on all statutory communicable diseases in a database. In addition, the event-based surveillance aims to detect potential public health threats early, and to allow timely response and support to blood deferral decisions for pathogens that can be transmitted through blood donation. Laboratory capacity for early detection is implemented through external quality assessments. Other activities include the development of guidelines for the surveillance of mosquito vectors, and the production of regularly updated maps on the currently known occurrence of mosquito vector species.

  6. Growth Control and Disease Mechanisms in Computational Embryogeny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Andrew A.; Yogev, Or; Antonsson, Erik K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents novel approach to applying growth control and diseases mechanisms in computational embryogeny. Our method, which mimics fundamental processes from biology, enables individuals to reach maturity in a controlled process through a stochastic environment. Three different mechanisms were implemented; disease mechanisms, gene suppression, and thermodynamic balancing. This approach was integrated as part of a structural evolutionary model. The model evolved continuum 3-D structures which support an external load. By using these mechanisms we were able to evolve individuals that reached a fixed size limit through the growth process. The growth process was an integral part of the complete development process. The size of the individuals was determined purely by the evolutionary process where different individuals matured to different sizes. Individuals which evolved with these characteristics have been found to be very robust for supporting a wide range of external loads.

  7. [Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].

    PubMed

    Kostiuk, A V

    2014-03-01

    Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection.

  8. Considerations for using bacteriophages for plant disease control

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey B.; Vallad, Gary E.; Iriarte, Fanny B.; Obradović, Aleksa; Wernsing, Mine H.; Jackson, Lee E.; Balogh, Botond; Hong, Jason C.; Momol, M.Timur

    2012-01-01

    The use of bacteriophages as an effective phage therapy strategy faces significant challenges for controlling plant diseases in the phyllosphere. A number of factors must be taken into account when considering phage therapy for bacterial plant pathogens. Given that effective mitigation requires high populations of phage be present in close proximity to the pathogen at critical times in the disease cycle, the single biggest impediment that affects the efficacy of bacteriophages is their inability to persist on plant surfaces over time due to environmental factors. Inactivation by UV light is the biggest factor reducing bacteriophage persistence on plant surfaces. Therefore, designing strategies that minimize this effect are critical. For instance, application timing can be altered: instead of morning or afternoon application, phages can be applied late in the day to minimize the adverse effects of UV and extend the time high populations of phage persist on leaf surfaces. Protective formulations have been identified which prolong phage viability on the leaf surface; however, UV inactivation continues to be the major limiting factor in developing more effective bacteriophage treatments for bacterial plant pathogens. Other strategies, which have been developed to potentially increase persistence of phages on leaf surfaces, rely on establishing non-pathogenic or attenuated bacterial strains in the phyllosphere that are sensitive to the phage(s) specific to the target bacterium. We have also learned that selecting the correct phages for disease control is critical. This requires careful monitoring of bacterial strains in the field to minimize development of bacterial strains with resistance to the deployed bacteriophages. We also have data that indicate that selecting the phages based on in vivo assays may also be important when developing use for field application. Although bacteriophages have potential in biological control for plant disease control, there are major

  9. The need for effective disease control in international aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hill, B J

    2005-01-01

    Globally, aquaculture is steadily expanding both in terms of total production and the range of species farmed. At an overall annual growth rate of about 10%, it is by far the fastest growing sector of food animal production in the world and is providing an increasing proportion of the total production of fish and shellfish for human consumption. However, diseases continue to cause significant economic losses in international aquaculture production and to have a detrimental effect on valuable export trade for some countries. Financial losses have been drastic in some cases and the national economies of some developing countries have been adversely affected. Even just at the local level, disease can have a serious impact on the livelihoods and food security of many individual small farmers and their families, particularly in poorer countries. Despite all the problems caused, diseases continue to be spread internationally even where import health safeguards are in place. Recent examples of such spread are presented and some reasons for the appearance of a disease in a country for the first time are given. It is an unfortunate fact that despite many years of damaging economic and social impact of disease in different sectors of aquaculture, and large sums being spent on research around the world, there are relatively few effective and officially approved products available to control or prevent them. Despite the potential market, there are as yet no commercial vaccines available to prevent the damaging effects of many of the most serious diseases. Without such vaccines, it is likely that the serious impact of diseases in international aquaculture will continue for many years to come. PMID:15962465

  10. The need for effective disease control in international aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hill, B J

    2005-01-01

    Globally, aquaculture is steadily expanding both in terms of total production and the range of species farmed. At an overall annual growth rate of about 10%, it is by far the fastest growing sector of food animal production in the world and is providing an increasing proportion of the total production of fish and shellfish for human consumption. However, diseases continue to cause significant economic losses in international aquaculture production and to have a detrimental effect on valuable export trade for some countries. Financial losses have been drastic in some cases and the national economies of some developing countries have been adversely affected. Even just at the local level, disease can have a serious impact on the livelihoods and food security of many individual small farmers and their families, particularly in poorer countries. Despite all the problems caused, diseases continue to be spread internationally even where import health safeguards are in place. Recent examples of such spread are presented and some reasons for the appearance of a disease in a country for the first time are given. It is an unfortunate fact that despite many years of damaging economic and social impact of disease in different sectors of aquaculture, and large sums being spent on research around the world, there are relatively few effective and officially approved products available to control or prevent them. Despite the potential market, there are as yet no commercial vaccines available to prevent the damaging effects of many of the most serious diseases. Without such vaccines, it is likely that the serious impact of diseases in international aquaculture will continue for many years to come.

  11. Cytokine therapy: a natural alternative for disease control.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, J W; O'Neil, T E; David, A; Strom, G; Andrew, M E

    1999-12-15

    Disease control in food production animals is normally mediated through the use of vaccines, chemicals and antibiotics. However, the extensive use of antibiotics and chemicals in livestock has resulted in environmental and human health concerns, particularly with regard to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria in the food chain. In fact, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has now urged meat producers to use environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators of the immune response, offer exciting alternatives to conventional therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible with the recent cloning of a number of cytokine genes. Since the chicken's immune system is similar to that of mammals, they offer an attractive model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review our recent studies on the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10614508

  12. A controlled, longitudinal study of dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Biggins, C A; Boyd, J L; Harrop, F M; Madeley, P; Mindham, R H; Randall, J I; Spokes, E G

    1992-01-01

    Serial assessments of cognition, mood, and disability were carried out at nine month intervals over a 54 month period on a cohort of 87 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and a matched cohort of 50 control subjects. Dementia was diagnosed from data by rigorously applying DSM-III-R criteria. Initially, 6% (5/87) PD patients were demented, compared with none of the 50 control subjects. A further 10 PD patients met the dementia criteria during the follow up period; this was equivalent, with survival analysis, to a cumulative incidence of 19%. With the number of person years of observation as the denominator, the incidence was 47.6/1000 person years of observation. None of the control subjects fulfilled dementia criteria during the follow up period. The patients with PD who became demented during follow up were older at onset of Parkinson's disease than patients who did not become demented, had a longer duration of Parkinson's disease, and were older at inclusion to the study. PMID:1640232

  13. Control of mitochondrial integrity in ageing and disease

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Radek; Nooteboom, Marco; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2014-01-01

    Various molecular and cellular pathways are active in eukaryotes to control the quality and integrity of mitochondria. These pathways are involved in keeping a ‘healthy’ population of this essential organelle during the lifetime of the organism. Quality control (QC) systems counteract processes that lead to organellar dysfunction manifesting as degenerative diseases and ageing. We discuss disease- and ageing-related pathways involved in mitochondrial QC: mtDNA repair and reorganization, regeneration of oxidized amino acids, refolding and degradation of severely damaged proteins, degradation of whole mitochondria by mitophagy and finally programmed cell death. The control of the integrity of mtDNA and regulation of its expression is essential to remodel single proteins as well as mitochondrial complexes that determine mitochondrial functions. The redundancy of components, such as proteases, and the hierarchies of the QC raise questions about crosstalk between systems and their precise regulation. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms on the genomic, proteomic, organellar and cellular levels holds the key for the development of interventions for mitochondrial dysfunctions, degenerative processes, ageing and age-related diseases resulting from impairments of mitochondria. PMID:24864310

  14. 76 FR 13414 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: March...

  15. Motor Skill Learning, Retention, and Control Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance. PMID:21760898

  16. Vaccine-preventable diseases: the role of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Kramarz, P; Lopalco, P L; Huitric, E; Pastore Celentano, L

    2014-05-01

    The role of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is to strengthen the capacity of the European Union (EU) Member States to protect human health through the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The main objective of the programme on vaccine-preventable diseases and invasive bacterial infections (VPD) is to provide robust evidence and high-quality technical support to the EU Member States to help them in their efforts to prevent and control VPD. Since the establishment of ECDC, several existing VPD surveillance networks have been transferred to ECDC, namely EU-IBIS, DIPNET and EUVAC. In addition to surveillance of diseases, ECDC is collecting information and monitoring other parameters that are of crucial importance for a well-functioning immunization system, including vaccination coverage. The VPD programme also provides independent scientific opinions in the area of immunization and initiates and coordinates scientific studies in the area of vaccination to answer specific questions of public health importance, including risk perception and analysis of behaviour in different population groups. One of the overall ECDC priorities over recent years is the Centre's involvement in measles elimination. The 'Message' tool and the 'Measles Atlas' are examples of work aiming at supporting the efforts of Member States in the elimination phase.

  17. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1 p.m.-2 p.m... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  18. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  19. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  20. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Agency...

  1. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and... Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  2. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  3. Redox Control of the Cell Cycle in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarsour, Ehab H.; Kumar, Maneesh G.; Chaudhuri, Leena; Kalen, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The cellular oxidation and reduction (redox) environment is influenced by the production and removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years, several reports support the hypothesis that cellular ROS levels could function as “second messengers” regulating numerous cellular processes, including proliferation. Periodic oscillations in the cellular redox environment, a redox cycle, regulate cell-cycle progression from quiescence (G0) to proliferation (G1, S, G2, and M) and back to quiescence. A loss in the redox control of the cell cycle could lead to aberrant proliferation, a hallmark of various human pathologies. This review discusses the literature that supports the concept of a redox cycle controlling the mammalian cell cycle, with an emphasis on how this control relates to proliferative disorders including cancer, wound healing, fibrosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesize that reestablishing the redox control of the cell cycle by manipulating the cellular redox environment could improve many aspects of the proliferative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2985–3011. PMID:19505186

  4. Infectious disease and health systems modelling for local decision making to control neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have complex life cycles and are challenging to control. The “2020 goals” of control and elimination as a public health programme for a number of NTDs are the subject of significant international efforts and investments. Beyond 2020 there will be a drive to maintain these gains and to push for true local elimination of transmission. However, these diseases are affected by variations in vectors, human demography, access to water and sanitation, access to interventions and local health systems. We therefore argue that there will be a need to develop local quantitative expertise to support elimination efforts. If available now, quantitative analyses would provide updated estimates of the burden of disease, assist in the design of locally appropriate control programmes, estimate the effectiveness of current interventions and support ‘real-time’ updates to local operations. Such quantitative tools are increasingly available at an international scale for NTDs, but are rarely tailored to local scenarios. Localised expertise not only provides an opportunity for more relevant analyses, but also has a greater chance of developing positive feedback between data collection and analysis by demonstrating the value of data. This is essential as rational program design relies on good quality data collection. It is also likely that if such infrastructure is provided for NTDs there will be an additional impact on the health system more broadly. Locally tailored quantitative analyses can help achieve sustainable and effective control of NTDs, but also underpin the development of local health care systems.

  5. Disease control during the colonial period in Australia.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J

    2011-07-01

    The first permanent European settlers of Australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). As the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland Australia. During the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. The arrival of William Tyson Kendall and coordinated action with Graham Mitchell led to the establishment of a private veterinary college following the passage of veterinary surgeons legislation in Victoria. From this time, veterinarians came to be appointed to positions formerly occupied by lay inspectors and the veterinary profession was able to take up the role of planning and executing government-led disease control programs. From a colony relying on wool for export to the UK, technical advancements in meat freezing and pasture improvement widened the range and increased the quantity of exported products. Before the advent of veterinary advances, sheep scab was eradicated, a vaccine was developed for anthrax and glanders infection of horses was prevented entry to Australia. Graduates from the Melbourne Veterinary College spread across Australia and in this period a conservative quarantine policy was developed following inaction to control an outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and the escape of rabbits to form a plague across the continent. Coordinated control of CBPP had to await the next century and advancement of technology increased our understanding of bacteriology and immunity of infectious diseases. Veterinary services were provided to the militia sent by the colonies to the Boer Wars in South Africa 1987-1901 and the veterinarians from Victoria were led by an Australian trained veterinarian.

  6. Controlling sickle cell disease in Ghana - ethics and options

    PubMed Central

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for “crimes” only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels – preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience. PMID:22187596

  7. Controlling Sickle Cell Disease in Ghana--ethics and options.

    PubMed

    Kyerewaa Edwin, Ama; Edwin, Frank; Etwire, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a significant public health burden in Ghana. Recent studies indicate that 2% of Ghanaian newborns are affected by SCD; one in three Ghanaians has the hemoglobin S and/or C gene. As a means of controlling the disease, some authorities have recommended prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion. In the current era, SCD has a good prognosis and fairly reasonable quality of life. Advances in bone marrow transplantation have shown the disease is curable in selected patients. PND and selective abortion therefore raises a myriad of ethical dilemmas which are considered in this review. In the light of the demonstration of improved prognosis in recent times, PND and selective abortion appears to be applying capital punishment to the unborn child for "crimes" only the parents can be responsible for. In this review, we recommend control of SCD on three levels--preconception genetic testing and strategic reproductive choices, PND and education for carrier parents, and holistic management of persons with SCD. We emphasize the critical importance of self-management, especially self-awareness, in assuring a good quality of life for persons with SCD. We believe such an approach is cost-effective, and consistent with sound ethical principles and good conscience.

  8. Animal disease outbreak control: the use of crisis management tools.

    PubMed

    Kroschewski, K; Kramer, M; Micklich, A; Staubach, C; Carmanns, R; Conraths, F J

    2006-04-01

    In this era of globalisation the effective control of animal disease outbreaks requires powerful crisis management tools. In the 1990s software packages for different sectors of the government and agricultural industry began to be developed. In 2004, as a special application for tracking the movement of animals and animal products, the European Union developed the Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES) on the basis of its predecessor, the ANImal MOvement (ANIMO) project. The nationwide use of the ANIMO system by the veterinary authorities in Germany marked the beginning of the development in 1993 of a computerised national animal disease reporting system--the TierSeuchenNachrichten (TSN)--using the ANIMO hardware and software components. In addition to TRACES and TSN the third pillar for the management of animal disease outbreaks and crises in Germany is the national cattle and swine database--called Herkunftssicherungs- und Informationssystem für Tiere. A high degree of standardisation is necessary when integrating the different solutions at all levels of government and with the private sector. In this paper, the authors describe the use of these tools on the basis of their experience and in relation to what we can do now and what we should opt for in the future.

  9. The role of nanotechnology in control of human diseases: perspectives in ocular surface diseases.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Padovani, Felipe Hering; Alves, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Nanotechnology is the creation and use of materials and devices on the same scale as molecules and intracellular structures, typically less than 100 nm in size. It is an emerging science and has made its way into pharmaceuticals to significantly improve the delivery and efficacy of drugs in a number of therapeutic areas, due to development of various nanoparticle-based products. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that nanotechnology can help to overcome many of the ocular diseases and hence researchers are keenly interested in this science. Nanomedicines offer promise as viable alternatives to conventional drops, gels or ointments to improve drug delivery to the eye. Because of their small size, they are well tolerated, thus preventing washout, increase bioavailability and also help in specific drug delivery. This review describes the application of nanotechnology in the control of human diseases with special emphasis on various eye and ocular surfaces diseases.

  10. Communicable disease control in China: From Mao to now.

    PubMed

    Hipgrave, David

    2011-12-01

    China's progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People's Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status. These early successes can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery, and occurred despite political instability and slow economic progress. The 10-year Cultural Revolution from 1966 brought many hardships, but also clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers. These people-focused approaches broke down with China's market reforms from 1980. Village doctors turned to private practice as community funding ceased, and the attention paid to rural public health declined. CDC relied on vertical programs, some of them successful (such as elimination of lymphatic filariasis and child immunisation), but others (such as control of schistosomiasis and tuberculosis) demonstrating only intermittent progress due to failed strategies or reliance on support by the poorest governments and health workers, who could not or would not collaborate. In addition, China's laissez-faire approach to public health placed it at great risk, as evidenced by the outbreak in 2003 of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Since then, major changes to disease reporting, the priority given to CDC including through major new domestic resources and reform of China's health system offer encouragement for CDC. While decentralized funding and varying quality diagnosis, reporting and treatment of

  11. Communicable disease control in China: From Mao to now

    PubMed Central

    Hipgrave, David

    2011-01-01

    China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status. These early successes can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery, and occurred despite political instability and slow economic progress. The 10-year Cultural Revolution from 1966 brought many hardships, but also clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers. These people-focused approaches broke down with China’s market reforms from 1980. Village doctors turned to private practice as community funding ceased, and the attention paid to rural public health declined. CDC relied on vertical programs, some of them successful (such as elimination of lymphatic filariasis and child immunisation), but others (such as control of schistosomiasis and tuberculosis) demonstrating only intermittent progress due to failed strategies or reliance on support by the poorest governments and health workers, who could not or would not collaborate. In addition, China’s laissez-faire approach to public health placed it at great risk, as evidenced by the outbreak in 2003 of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Since then, major changes to disease reporting, the priority given to CDC including through major new domestic resources and reform of China’s health system offer encouragement for CDC. While decentralized funding and varying quality diagnosis, reporting and

  12. Heritable strategies for controlling insect vectors of disease

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are causing a substantial burden of mortality, morbidity and economic loss in many parts of the world, despite current control efforts, and new complementary approaches to controlling these diseases are needed. One promising class of new interventions under development involves the heritable modification of the mosquito by insertion of novel genes into the nucleus or of Wolbachia endosymbionts into the cytoplasm. Once released into a target population, these modifications can act to reduce one or more components of the mosquito population's vectorial capacity (e.g. the number of female mosquitoes, their longevity or their ability to support development and transmission of the pathogen). Some of the modifications under development are designed to be self-limiting, in that they will tend to disappear over time in the absence of recurrent releases (and hence are similar to the sterile insect technique, SIT), whereas other modifications are designed to be self-sustaining, spreading through populations even after releases stop (and hence are similar to traditional biological control). Several successful field trials have now been performed with Aedes mosquitoes, and such trials are helping to define the appropriate developmental pathway for this new class of intervention. PMID:24821918

  13. Heritable strategies for controlling insect vectors of disease.

    PubMed

    Burt, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are causing a substantial burden of mortality, morbidity and economic loss in many parts of the world, despite current control efforts, and new complementary approaches to controlling these diseases are needed. One promising class of new interventions under development involves the heritable modification of the mosquito by insertion of novel genes into the nucleus or of Wolbachia endosymbionts into the cytoplasm. Once released into a target population, these modifications can act to reduce one or more components of the mosquito population's vectorial capacity (e.g. the number of female mosquitoes, their longevity or their ability to support development and transmission of the pathogen). Some of the modifications under development are designed to be self-limiting, in that they will tend to disappear over time in the absence of recurrent releases (and hence are similar to the sterile insect technique, SIT), whereas other modifications are designed to be self-sustaining, spreading through populations even after releases stop (and hence are similar to traditional biological control). Several successful field trials have now been performed with Aedes mosquitoes, and such trials are helping to define the appropriate developmental pathway for this new class of intervention. PMID:24821918

  14. Harnessing mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis for vector and disease control.

    PubMed

    Bourtzis, Kostas; Dobson, Stephen L; Xi, Zhiyong; Rasgon, Jason L; Calvitti, Maurizio; Moreira, Luciano A; Bossin, Hervé C; Moretti, Riccardo; Baton, Luke Anthony; Hughes, Grant L; Mavingui, Patrick; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito species, members of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, are the major vectors of human pathogens including protozoa (Plasmodium sp.), filariae and of a variety of viruses (causing dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile). There is lack of efficient methods and tools to treat many of the diseases caused by these major human pathogens, since no efficient vaccines or drugs are available; even in malaria where insecticide use and drug therapies have reduced incidence, 219 million cases still occurred in 2010. Therefore efforts are currently focused on the control of vector populations. Insecticides alone are insufficient to control mosquito populations since reduced susceptibility and even resistance is being observed more and more frequently. There is also increased concern about the toxic effects of insecticides on non-target (even beneficial) insect populations, on humans and the environment. During recent years, the role of symbionts in the biology, ecology and evolution of insect species has been well-documented and has led to suggestions that they could potentially be used as tools to control pests and therefore diseases. Wolbachia is perhaps the most renowned insect symbiont, mainly due to its ability to manipulate insect reproduction and to interfere with major human pathogens thus providing new avenues for pest control. We herein present recent achievements in the field of mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis with an emphasis on Aedes albopictus. We also discuss how Wolbachia symbiosis can be harnessed for vector control as well as the potential to combine the sterile insect technique and Wolbachia-based approaches for the enhancement of population suppression programs. PMID:24252486

  15. Harnessing mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis for vector and disease control.

    PubMed

    Bourtzis, Kostas; Dobson, Stephen L; Xi, Zhiyong; Rasgon, Jason L; Calvitti, Maurizio; Moreira, Luciano A; Bossin, Hervé C; Moretti, Riccardo; Baton, Luke Anthony; Hughes, Grant L; Mavingui, Patrick; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito species, members of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, are the major vectors of human pathogens including protozoa (Plasmodium sp.), filariae and of a variety of viruses (causing dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile). There is lack of efficient methods and tools to treat many of the diseases caused by these major human pathogens, since no efficient vaccines or drugs are available; even in malaria where insecticide use and drug therapies have reduced incidence, 219 million cases still occurred in 2010. Therefore efforts are currently focused on the control of vector populations. Insecticides alone are insufficient to control mosquito populations since reduced susceptibility and even resistance is being observed more and more frequently. There is also increased concern about the toxic effects of insecticides on non-target (even beneficial) insect populations, on humans and the environment. During recent years, the role of symbionts in the biology, ecology and evolution of insect species has been well-documented and has led to suggestions that they could potentially be used as tools to control pests and therefore diseases. Wolbachia is perhaps the most renowned insect symbiont, mainly due to its ability to manipulate insect reproduction and to interfere with major human pathogens thus providing new avenues for pest control. We herein present recent achievements in the field of mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis with an emphasis on Aedes albopictus. We also discuss how Wolbachia symbiosis can be harnessed for vector control as well as the potential to combine the sterile insect technique and Wolbachia-based approaches for the enhancement of population suppression programs.

  16. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-31

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  17. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-11-22

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  18. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-30

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  19. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-29

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  20. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  1. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  4. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  5. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  6. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  7. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  8. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  9. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  10. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  15. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  16. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  4. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  5. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  6. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  7. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  8. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, Efrat; Boop, Frederick A.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods.

  9. Advanced pancreatic cancer - how to choose an adequate treatment option

    PubMed Central

    Korkeila, Eija A

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is poor, making it one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. The 5-year overall survival rate remains below 5% and little progress is made during the past decade. Only about 10%-20% of patients are eligible for curative-intent surgery and the majority end up having recurring disease even after radical surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapy in metastatic disease is palliative at best, aiming at disease and symptom control and prolongation of life. Treatment always causes side effects, the degree of which varies from patient to patient, depending on the patient’s general condition, concomitant morbidities as well as on the chosen treatment modality. Why is pancreatic cancer so resistant to treatment? How to best help the patient to reach the set treatment goals? PMID:26478662

  10. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    SciTech Connect

    Azizullah, Azizullah Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  11. [Acceptance of alternative disease control strategies in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Nigsch, Annette; Depner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission intends to change its animal disease control strategy following the slogan "Prevention is better than cure". Vaccination and diagnostics should play a major role in emergency situations. A policy paper regarding the use of vaccines has been discussed with all Member States and the main aspects were evaluated in a questionnaire. In principle, the majority of Member States are in favour of a future strategy in which vaccination is replacing culling. However, questions regarding the pathogen freedom and the trade of vaccinated animals and animal products from vaccinated animals still remain open.

  12. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Towards Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Boakye A.; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Prichard, Roger K.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Barakat, Rashida M.; García, Héctor H.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Grant, Warwick N.; McCarthy, James S.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Sripa, Banchob; Yang, Guo-Jing; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Human helminthiases are of considerable public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The acknowledgement of the disease burden due to helminth infections, the availability of donated or affordable drugs that are mostly safe and moderately efficacious, and the implementation of viable mass drug administration (MDA) interventions have prompted the establishment of various large-scale control and elimination programmes. These programmes have benefited from improved epidemiological mapping of the infections, better understanding of the scope and limitations of currently available diagnostics and of the relationship between infection and morbidity, feasibility of community-directed or school-based interventions, and advances in the design of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) protocols. Considerable success has been achieved in reducing morbidity or suppressing transmission in a number of settings, whilst challenges remain in many others. Some of the obstacles include the lack of diagnostic tools appropriate to the changing requirements of ongoing interventions and elimination settings; the reliance on a handful of drugs about which not enough is known regarding modes of action, modes of resistance, and optimal dosage singly or in combination; the difficulties in sustaining adequate coverage and compliance in prolonged and/or integrated programmes; an incomplete understanding of the social, behavioural, and environmental determinants of infection; and last, but not least, very little investment in research and development (R&D). The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to undertake a comprehensive review of recent advances in helminthiases research, identify research gaps, and rank priorities for an R&D agenda for the control and elimination of these infections. This review presents the processes undertaken

  13. Theory of feedback controlled brain stimulations for Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzeni, A.; Celani, A.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Limb tremor and other debilitating symptoms caused by the neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease are currently treated by administering drugs and by fixed-frequency deep brain stimulation. The latter interferes directly with the brain dynamics by delivering electrical impulses to neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. While deep brain stimulation has shown therapeutic benefits in many instances, its mechanism is still unclear. Since its understanding could lead to improved protocols of stimulation and feedback control, we have studied a mathematical model of the many-body neural network dynamics controlling the dynamics of the basal ganglia. On the basis of the results obtained from the model, we propose a new procedure of active stimulation, that depends on the feedback of the network and that respects the constraints imposed by existing technology. We show by numerical simulations that the new protocol outperforms the standard ones for deep brain stimulation and we suggest future experiments that could further improve the feedback procedure.

  14. How can we define well-controlled chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed

    Molina París, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The main objectives in the management of chronic disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are: to suppress or minimize symptoms; to prevent and reduce exacerbations; to avoid limitations in activities of daily living, and thus to enable the patient to lead a normal, or nearly normal, life. COPD has become a serious public-health concern. The disease, which may be life-threatening if not properly managed, often goes undiagnosed. COPD accounts for significant healthcare, social and personal costs, as it can cause disability and lead to marked impairment in patients' quality of life. The primary goal in the management of COPD should be to maintain patients' clinical stability so as to lessen the impact of the disease. This implies achieving an adequate patient control with as few limitations of everyday activities as possible. In an attempt to optimize their quality of life, patients should be symptom-free or virtually symptom-free. In addition, exacerbations, which involve a high consumption of both healthcare and personal resources, must be prevented. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death among men in Europe. As its prevalence is expected to increase, it might become the third cause of mortality by 2030. In Spain, COPD management has recently been reviewed in the Spanish COPD Guidelines (GesEPOC). The COPD National Health System Strategy, developed by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality under the Quality Plan, aims at implementing a set of measures to improve both the efficacy and the quality of healthcare services for patients with COPD.

  15. Asymptomatic spread of huanglongbing and implications for disease control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jo Ann; Halbert, Susan E; Dawson, William O; Robertson, Cecile J; Keesling, James E; Singer, Burton H

    2015-06-16

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Mitigation of HLB has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. These interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of HLB do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. Limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is exemplified by the heretofore unknown length of time from initial infection of newly developing cluster of young leaves, called flush, by adult psyllids until the flush become infectious. We present experimental evidence showing that young flush become infectious within 15 d after receiving an inoculum of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (bacteria). Using this critical fact, we specify a microsimulation model of asymptomatic disease spread and intensity in a grove of citrus trees. We apply a range of psyllid introduction scenarios to show that entire groves can become infected with up to 12,000 psyllids per tree in less than 1 y, before most of the trees show any symptoms. We also show that intervention strategies that reduce the psyllid population by 75% during the flushing periods can delay infection of a full grove, and thereby reduce the amount of insecticide used throughout a year. This result implies that psyllid surveillance and control, using a variety of recently available technologies, should be used from the initial detection of invasion and throughout the asymptomatic period.

  16. Asymptomatic spread of huanglongbing and implications for disease control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jo Ann; Halbert, Susan E.; Dawson, William O.; Robertson, Cecile J.; Keesling, James E.; Singer, Burton H.

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Mitigation of HLB has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. These interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of HLB do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. Limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is exemplified by the heretofore unknown length of time from initial infection of newly developing cluster of young leaves, called flush, by adult psyllids until the flush become infectious. We present experimental evidence showing that young flush become infectious within 15 d after receiving an inoculum of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (bacteria). Using this critical fact, we specify a microsimulation model of asymptomatic disease spread and intensity in a grove of citrus trees. We apply a range of psyllid introduction scenarios to show that entire groves can become infected with up to 12,000 psyllids per tree in less than 1 y, before most of the trees show any symptoms. We also show that intervention strategies that reduce the psyllid population by 75% during the flushing periods can delay infection of a full grove, and thereby reduce the amount of insecticide used throughout a year. This result implies that psyllid surveillance and control, using a variety of recently available technologies, should be used from the initial detection of invasion and throughout the asymptomatic period. PMID:26034273

  17. Asymptomatic spread of huanglongbing and implications for disease control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jo Ann; Halbert, Susan E; Dawson, William O; Robertson, Cecile J; Keesling, James E; Singer, Burton H

    2015-06-16

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a bacterial infection of citrus trees transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Mitigation of HLB has focused on spraying of insecticides to reduce the psyllid population and removal of trees when they first show symptoms of the disease. These interventions have been only marginally effective, because symptoms of HLB do not appear on leaves for months to years after initial infection. Limited knowledge about disease spread during the asymptomatic phase is exemplified by the heretofore unknown length of time from initial infection of newly developing cluster of young leaves, called flush, by adult psyllids until the flush become infectious. We present experimental evidence showing that young flush become infectious within 15 d after receiving an inoculum of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (bacteria). Using this critical fact, we specify a microsimulation model of asymptomatic disease spread and intensity in a grove of citrus trees. We apply a range of psyllid introduction scenarios to show that entire groves can become infected with up to 12,000 psyllids per tree in less than 1 y, before most of the trees show any symptoms. We also show that intervention strategies that reduce the psyllid population by 75% during the flushing periods can delay infection of a full grove, and thereby reduce the amount of insecticide used throughout a year. This result implies that psyllid surveillance and control, using a variety of recently available technologies, should be used from the initial detection of invasion and throughout the asymptomatic period. PMID:26034273

  18. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  19. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  20. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  1. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  2. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  3. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  4. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  5. 76 FR 3908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  6. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director, Extramural Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  7. 75 FR 13769 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... More Information: Donald Blackman, PhD., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  8. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Health Analyst, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: TIME AND DATE: 8:30 a.m.-6...

  9. 76 FR 49771 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  10. 75 FR 18848 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  11. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  12. 75 FR 28625 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Assessment of Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, Funding...-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome,'' FOA CK10-004. Contact Person for More Information: Maurine Goodman,...

  13. Wolbachia strains for disease control: ecological and evolutionary considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ary A; Ross, Perran A; Rašić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbionts found in many insects with the potential to suppress vectorborne diseases, particularly through interfering with pathogen transmission. Wolbachia strains are highly variable in their effects on hosts, raising the issue of which attributes should be selected to ensure that the best strains are developed for disease control. This depends on their ability to suppress viral transmission, invade host populations, persist without loss of viral suppression and not interfere with other control strategies. The potential to achieve these objectives is likely to involve evolutionary constraints; viral suppression may be limited by the ability of infections to spread due to deleterious host fitness effects. However, there are exceptions to these patterns in both natural infections and in novel associations generated following interspecific transfer, suggesting that pathogen blockage, deleterious fitness effects and changes to reproductive biology might be at least partly decoupled to achieve ideal infection attributes. The stability of introduced Wolbachia and its effects on viral transmission remain unclear, but rapid evolutionary changes seem unlikely. Although deliberate transfers of Wolbachia across species remain particularly challenging, the availability of strains with desirable attributes should be expanded, taking advantage of the diversity available across thousands of strains in natural populations. PMID:26366194

  14. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Building Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Building Capacity for State-Based Occupational Health Surveillance... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  15. 77 FR 58847 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency...

  16. 75 FR 46952 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral Surveillance... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  17. 75 FR 13285 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in accordance with 40 CFR 2.309(c) and 2.308(h)(2). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will perform work for OPP under an Interagency Agreement...

  18. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  19. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  20. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  1. 77 FR 14805 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the... Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health...

  2. Parkinson's Disease-Related Impairments in Body Movement, Coordination and Postural Control Mechanisms When Performing 80° Lateral Gaze Shifts.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2015-09-01

    We investigated early signs of Parkinson's disease-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Thirty-six participants (18 Hoehn & Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition and 18 healthy controls) were studied in a stationary gaze condition and when performing 80° lateral gaze shifts at 0.125 and 0.25 Hz. Body sway, coordination and postural control mechanisms were analyzed. All participants performed the visual tasks adequately. The patients were not unstable in the stationary gaze condition. In both groups, mediolateral ankle- and hip-based postural control mechanisms were significantly more active under gaze shift conditions than under the stationary gaze condition. As expected, the patients exhibited significantly greater angular movements of the lower back and significantly lower angular movements of the head (relative to controls) when performing gaze shifts. When considering linear displacements (rather than angular movements), the patients exhibited significantly greater displacements of the lower back and lower, slower displacements of the head than controls under gaze shift conditions. Relative to controls, the patients performed "en block" body movements. Overall, our results show that the patients' ankle- and hip-based mediolateral postural control mechanisms did not adapt to the difficulty of the visual task being performed.

  3. Which Aspects of Postural Control Differentiate between Patients with Parkinson's Disease with and without Freezing of Gait?

    PubMed Central

    Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly assigned tests: (1) sensory organization test (SOT) to evaluate the effective use of sensory information, (2) motor control test (MCT) to assess automatic postural reactions in response to platform perturbations, and (3) rhythmic weight shift test (RWS) to evaluate the ability to voluntarily move the center of gravity (COG) mediolaterally and anterior-posteriorly (AP). The respective outcome measures were equilibrium and postural strategy scores, response strength and amplitude of weight shift. Patients were in the “on” phase of the medication cycle. In general, freezers performed similarly on SOT and MCT compared to nonfreezers. Freezers showed an intact postural strategy during sensory manipulations and an appropriate response to external perturbations. However, during voluntary weight shifting, freezers showed poorer directional control compared to nonfreezers and controls. This suggests that freezers have adequate automatic postural control and sensory integration abilities in quiet stance, but show specific directional control deficits when weight shifting is voluntary. PMID:23936729

  4. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  5. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  6. World malaria situation, 1988. Division of Control of Tropical Diseases.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    or shortage of trained personnel for the planning, organization, monitoring and evaluation of programmes remains one of the major constraints in many countries. The policy advocated is the development of malaria control within the framework of primary health care at the district level. The aim is the prevention and reduction of malaria mortality by providing prompt diagnosis or recognition and adequate treatment of malaria cases through the basic health services and primary health care. This implies also the creation of efficient referral systems for the management of severe and complicated cases, and for treatment failures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. One Community’s Effort to Control Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Puffenberger, Erik G.; Morton, D. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    In 1989, we established a small community health clinic to provide care for uninsured Amish and Mennonite children with genetic disorders. Over 20 years, we have used publicly available molecular data and sophisticated technologies to improve diagnostic efficiency, control laboratory costs, reduce hospitalizations, and prevent major neurological impairments within a rural underserved community. These actions allowed the clinic’s 2010 operating budget of $1.5 million to save local communities an estimated $20 to $25 million in aggregate medical costs. This exposes an unsettling fact: our failure to improve the lot of most people stricken with genetic disease is no longer a matter of scientific ignorance or prohibitive costs but of choices we make about how to implement existing knowledge and resources. PMID:22594747

  8. CT pulmonary densitovolumetry in patients with acromegaly: a comparison between active disease and controlled disease

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Gustavo B; Carvalho, Alysson R S; Machado, Dequitier C; Mogami, Roberto; Melo, Pedro L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to compare the findings of CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function in patients with active acromegaly and controlled acromegaly and, secondarily, to correlate these findings. Methods: 11 patients with active acromegaly, 18 patients with controlled acromegaly and 17 control subjects, all non-smokers, underwent quantification of lung volume using multidetector CT (Q-MDCT) and pulmonary function tests. Results: Patients with active acromegaly had larger total lung mass (TLM) values than the controls and larger amounts of non-aerated compartments than the other two groups. Patients with active acromegaly also had larger amounts of poorly aerated compartments than the other two groups, a difference that was observed in both total lung volume (TLV) and TLM. TLV as measured by inspiratory Q-MDCT correlated significantly with total lung capacity, whereas TLV measured using expiratory Q-MDCT correlated significantly with functional residual capacity. Conclusion: Patients with active acromegaly have more lung mass and larger amounts of non-aerated and poorly aerated compartments. There is a relationship between the findings of CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function test parameters. Advances in knowledge: Although the nature of our results demands further investigation, our data suggest that both CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function tests can be used as useful tools for patients with acromegaly by assisting in the prediction of disease activity. PMID:26246281

  9. Alterations in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qian; Tammineni, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the earliest and most prominent features in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. Neurons are metabolically active cells, causing them to be particularly dependent on mitochondrial function for survival and maintenance. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria are characterized by a balance of fusion and fission, transport, and mitophagy, all of which are essential for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy can therefore be identified as key pathways in mitochondrial quality control. Tremendous progress has been made in studying changes in these key aspects of mitochondrial biology in the vulnerable neurons of AD brains and mouse models, and the potential underlying mechanisms of such changes. This review highlights recent findings on alterations in the mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in AD and discusses how these abnormalities impact mitochondrial quality control and thus contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. PMID:26903809

  10. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  11. The infection control information system of the Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Manangan, L P

    1996-12-01

    In December 1990 the Investigation and Prevention Branch, Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed the Hospital Infections Program infection control information system (HIP ICIS) to respond more efficiently to more than 200 public inquiries (telephone or written) that HIP receives daily. The HIP ICIS allows anyone with a Touch-Tone telephone, fax machine, or computer to access CDC information that answers the most commonly asked questions from infection control practitioners and other health care workers. The HIP ICIS has received approximately 56,608 inquiries; of these, 33% were about CDC guidelines on prevention and control of nosocomial infections, 25% about issues related to HIV, 16% about sterilization and disinfection of medical devices, 8% about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 3% about long-term care facilities, and 17% miscellaneous topics (e.g., nosocomial infection rates, infection control courses, and ventilation, construction, and renovation of hospitals). The HIP ICIS is an efficient method of providing infection control guidance to the infection control community. In this article, we a) review the history of the HIP ICIS, b) present data on HIP ICIS usage, c) summarize the current HIP ICIS contents, and d) present step-by-step instructions on how to access the HIP ICIS.

  12. [A case-control study of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K

    1994-01-01

    Lifestyles and risk factors liable to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) were evaluated in a case-control study. 95 cases were studied along with their matched (1:2) controls. Cases were diagnosed at the Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University. Each given case was matched to two resident controls according to sex, age (+/- 1 year) and location (residents in the Sapporo area). 218 questions about preclinical life events (diet; exercise and physique; alcohol and smoking; personal relations; personality etc.) were asked in a one-to-one interview conducted by 3 staff members. Univariate results: 1) Diet: From infancy to 40, there were deficient intakes of meat, fruit, milk and dairy products, particularly prior to pubescence. Dietary behaviors after 40 showed no association. 2) Alcohol and smoking: Cases tended to smoke and drink less. 3) Exercise and Physique: Cases were inclined to dislike sports/exercise, to be physically slow, to have poor athletic ability, to have poor flexibility in adolescence and to have fair skin. 4) Personal relations: Cases had a tendency not to read books/newspapers, write letters, use the telephone and visit friends/relatives. Cases also refused leadership roles. 5) Personality: Cases were apt to be unsociable, taciturn, unobliging, and to have slow speech. Multivariate models: In order to study the joint effects and the combined effects of the major variables identified in univariate results, unconditional logistic regression analysis was carried out. The 9 variables were screened using stepwise procedure. From these variables, 4 independent variables were selected: deficient intake of fruit from middle school to 19 years old, fair skin, poor letter-writing ability and unsociability. The 4 independent variables were applied to one model, and resulted in a combined odds ratio figure. When the cases have none of the 4 independent variables, the combined odds ratio figure is 1. If the cases have all of them, then the combined odds

  13. The role of plant disease in the development of controlled ecological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Plant diseases could be important factors affecting growth of higher plants in Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Disease control, therefore, will be needed to maintain healthy plants. The most important controls should be aimed at preventing the introduction, reproduction and spread of pathogens and preventing plant infection. An integrared ease control program will maximize that approach. In the design and operation of CELSS, plant disease should be considered an important aspect of plant growth. The effects of plant diseases are reviewed and several disease control measures are discussed.

  14. 76 FR 27327 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Virologic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Among Humans, Funding Opportunity Announcement, IP11-001 Correction: The notice was published in the... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  15. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Building Assistance for High Impact HIV Prevention, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) PS14-1403...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and...

  16. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV-Infected Young Women of Reproductive Age...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  17. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  18. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  19. 43 CFR 6304.22 - What special provisions apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of fire, insects, and diseases? 6304.22 Section 6304.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases? BLM may prescribe measures to control fire, noxious weeds, non-native invasive plants, insects, and diseases. BLM may require restoration concurrent with...

  20. 43 CFR 6304.22 - What special provisions apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of fire, insects, and diseases? 6304.22 Section 6304.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases? BLM may prescribe measures to control fire, noxious weeds, non-native invasive plants, insects, and diseases. BLM may require restoration concurrent with...

  1. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  2. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  3. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  4. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  5. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  6. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  7. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  8. 43 CFR 6304.22 - What special provisions apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of fire, insects, and diseases? 6304.22 Section 6304.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases? BLM may prescribe measures to control fire, noxious weeds, non-native invasive plants, insects, and diseases. BLM may require restoration concurrent with...

  9. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  10. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  11. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  12. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  13. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  14. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  15. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  16. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  17. 43 CFR 6304.22 - What special provisions apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of fire, insects, and diseases? 6304.22 Section 6304.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... apply to control of fire, insects, and diseases? BLM may prescribe measures to control fire, noxious weeds, non-native invasive plants, insects, and diseases. BLM may require restoration concurrent with...

  18. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  19. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  20. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  1. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  2. Wildlife and pastoral society--shifting paradigms in disease control.

    PubMed

    Kock, Richard; Kebkiba, Bidjeh; Heinonen, Risto; Bedane, Berhanu

    2002-10-01

    The dramatic changes in the human and animal populations in Africa over the last century demand the re-examination of priorities and policies. The introduction of developed medical and other human technologies into the continent has contributed to increases in population and a rapid, unsustainable increase in the utilization of resources. This in turn has led to the destruction of flora and fauna on an unprecedented scale with little real improvement in the human condition. One factor in this has been the increase in livestock in line with human demographic growth, as it is a traditional livelihood of many African peoples. In recent years the growth in livestock populations has slowed owing to a cycle of degradation and disease, affecting especially traditional pastoral systems with a close physical association between people, livestock, and wild animals. Pathogens benefit hugely from the dynamic state created by animal migration, although to some extent the livestock and certainly wildlife show considerable tolerance to this. One of the grave economic consequences of this increase in disease has been collapse of the export trade. In order for Africa to fully benefit and share in world trade, the zoosanitary situation must show improvement. To do this without destroying the natural resource base and traditional pastoral systems, will require a careful, future-oriented land-use policy along ecologically sound criteria. Export livestock will have to be maintained in areas, probably free of ruminant wildlife, with strict veterinary controls. If this can be balanced with sufficient areas retained for traditional pastoralism and wildlife, with perhaps the main income from recreational tourism and local consumption, the benefits will be considerable. The answer may be community-based, low-cost, decentralized health systems for pastoral communities, with less stringent sanitary mandates, a private/parastatal sector servicing, with specialization in wildlife, dairy or

  3. 76 FR 12122 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  4. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Information: Donald Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: May 20, 2010. Andre Tyler, Acting...

  5. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention, Program Announcement (PA) Number PAR-11... Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention, PAR-11-022, initial review.'' Contact... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  6. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, FOA DP 13-001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2... to ``Prevalence and Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, FOA DP 13-001, initial review.'' Contact... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  7. 76 FR 9020 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Ability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK11-005... (ITM) Technologies To Reduce the Entomological Risk of Lyme Disease, FOA CK11-005.'' Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  8. Vascular and Alzheimer's disease markers independently predict brain atrophy rate in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative controls.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Josephine; Carmichael, Owen T; Leung, Kelvin K; Schwarz, Christopher; Ridgway, Gerard R; Bartlett, Jonathan W; Malone, Ian B; Schott, Jonathan M; Rossor, Martin N; Biessels, Geert Jan; DeCarli, Charlie; Fox, Nick C

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed relationships among white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology markers, and brain volume loss. Subjects included 197 controls, 331 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 146 individuals with AD with serial volumetric 1.5-T MRI. CSF Aβ1-42 (n = 351) and tau (n = 346) were measured. Brain volume change was quantified using the boundary shift integral (BSI). We assessed the association between baseline WMH volume and annualized BSI, adjusting for intracranial volume. We also performed multiple regression analyses in the CSF subset, assessing the relationships of WMH and Aβ1-42 and/or tau with BSI. WMH burden was positively associated with BSI in controls (p = 0.02) but not MCI or AD. In multivariable models, WMH (p = 0.003) and Aβ1-42 (p = 0.001) were independently associated with BSI in controls; in MCI Aβ1-42 (p < 0.001) and tau (p = 0.04) were associated with BSI. There was no evidence of independent effects of WMH or CSF measures on BSI in AD. These data support findings that vascular damage is associated with increased brain atrophy in the context of AD pathology in pre-dementia stages.

  9. A proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Molin-Capeti, K C; Sepulveda, L; Terra, F; Torres-Pioli, M F; Costa-Casagrande, T; França, S C; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2013-02-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control in Brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA). The FMD vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), at 28 days post-vaccination. Biological product testing using large animals is expensive and unwieldy. Thus, alternative testing procedures using laboratory animals have been proposed for quality control of these products. Such biological methods for vaccine evaluation using animals from vivarium facilities can have a significant impact through reduced costs, easier handling, and shorter testing times. The present study was designed to access Balb/C mice's humoral immune responses to a FMDV experimental vaccine, the composition of which contains three virus serotypes of FMDV (O1 Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, and C3 Indaial). Balb/C mice were immunized at doses that were 5% and 10% of the vaccine volume administered in cattle. Immunized mice had their antibody titers probed at 14, 21, and 28 DPV (days post vaccination). The results obtained were compared to those previously known from cattle's immune responses to the FMDV vaccine. An adequate immune response to the vaccine was seen with 10% formulation at 21 DPV. The study results are encouraging and indicate that the mouse model can be used for quality control in experimental vaccine testing.

  10. Communicating public health preparedness information to pregnant and postpartum women: an assessment of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web pages.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Brianna; Felter, Elizabeth; Downes, Amia; Trauth, Jeanette

    2015-04-01

    Pregnant and postpartum women have special needs during public health emergencies but often have inadequate levels of disaster preparedness. Thus, improving maternal emergency preparedness is a public health priority. More research is needed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to how preparedness information is communicated to these women. A sample of web pages from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intended to address the preparedness needs of pregnant and postpartum populations was examined for suitability for this audience. Five of the 7 web pages examined were considered adequate. One web page was considered not suitable and one the raters split between not suitable and adequate. None of the resources examined were considered superior. If these resources are considered some of the best available to pregnant and postpartum women, more work is needed to improve the suitability of educational resources, especially for audiences with low literacy and low incomes.

  11. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA... More Information: Harriette Lynch, Public Health Analyst, Extramural Programs, National Center for...

  12. Beauveria bassiana: endophytic colonization and plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ownley, Bonnie H; Griffin, Mary R; Klingeman, William E; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Moulton, J Kevin; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-07-01

    Seed application of Beauveria bassiana 11-98 resulted in endophytic colonization of tomato and cotton seedlings and protection against plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium myriotylum. Both pathogens cause damping off of seedlings and root rot of older plants. The degree of disease control achieved depended upon the population density of B. bassiana conidia on seed. Using standard plating techniques onto selective medium, endophytic 11-98 was recovered from surface-sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of tomato, cotton, and snap bean seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. As the rate of conidia applied to seed increased, the proportion of plant tissues from which B. bassiana 11-98 was recovered increased. For rapid detection of B. bassiana 11-98 in cotton tissues, we developed new ITS primers that produce a PCR product for B. bassiana 11-98, but not for cotton. In cotton samples containing DNA from B. bassiana11-98, the fungus was detected at DNA ratios of 1:1000; B. bassiana 11-98 was detected also in seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. Using SEM, hyphae of B. bassiana11-98 were observed penetrating epithelial cells of cotton and ramifying through palisade parenchyma and mesophyll leaf tissues. B. bassiana11-98 induced systemic resistance in cotton against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (bacterial blight). In parasitism assays, hyphae of B. bassiana 11-98 were observed coiling around hyphae of Pythium myriotylum.

  13. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  14. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  19. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  20. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  1. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  2. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  3. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  4. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  5. 77 FR 34045 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Research... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., July...

  6. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control.

  7. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control. PMID:27476746

  8. Control of the uteroplacental circulation in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Asśali, N S; Nuwayhid, B; Zugaib, M

    1978-02-01

    The various neurohumoral and intrinsic factors that control the uteroplacental hemodynamics in health and disease and in responses to physiologic and pharmacologic stimuli have been reviewed. The following conclusions may be derived: We still need improvement in our methodology of monitoring uterine blood flow. The present methods, which have some reliability, are not easily applicable to human subjects and even in animals their use presents problems of accuracy and sensitivity with which the investigator must become familiar. The marked and progressive increase in uterine blood flow that occurs during pregnancy is caused by complex factors, some of which are hormonal and hemodynamic in nature. The increased vascularity of the pregnant uterus and the opening of the arterioles during the process of formation of the intervillous space are important factors that facilitate the increase in uterine blood flow. The increment seems to be totally derived from the increment in the cardiac output that occurs during pregnancy. There seems to be no redistribution among the regional blood flows of the body. In the anesthetized condition the blood flow to the uterus depends largely on the perfusing pressure; the critical closing pressure seems to be around the 40 mm Hg level. This linear flow-pressure relationship does not, however, apply to the unanesthetized condition. A rise or fall in the perfusing pressure in the conscious state may be accompanied by an increase or decrease in the uterine blood flow, depending on the underlying mechanisms. Factors that lead to alpha-adrenergic stimulation produce an increase in uterine vascular resistance and a decrease in flow, irrespective of the status of the perfusing pressure. beta-adrenergic stimulation may increase uterine blood flow either through their vasodilating action or through their myometrial relaxing effects. Hypertensive diseases are most often accompanied by a decrease in uterine blood flow, whereas hypoxic states may

  9. Contemporary Risk Factor Control and Walking Dysfunction in Individuals with Peripheral Arterial Disease: NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Selvin, Elizabeth; Hirsch, Alan T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Selected studies have demonstrated less intense risk factor management and diminished mobility in individuals with PAD as compared to individuals with clinical recognized CHD. However, comparable data have not been reported from a nationally representative population. Objectives To assess the prevalence, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors among individuals with PAD as defined by an ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.90 (but without recognized CHD) as compared with individuals with recognized CHD (but without PAD). A second objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of measures of walking dysfunction to identify individuals with PAD. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed data from 7,571 participants aged 40 or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population. Results The prevalence of PAD without CHD was 4.1% (95%CI 3.6, 4.5) compared to 7.9% (7.1, 8.9) for CHD (without PAD). Hypertension prevalence was similar, but treatment and control rates were lower among individuals with PAD compared to CHD (treatment: 69% vs 84%, p<0.001; control: 50% vs 63%, p=0.01). Treatment of hypercholesterolemia was lower among individuals with PAD (54% vs 79%, p<0.001) but control was similar (83% vs 85%, p=0.78). Diabetes awareness, treatment, and control did not differ between the two groups. Walking mobility limitations were specific, but insensitive, for the identification of individuals with PAD. Conclusion PAD in the absence of clinically recognized CHD is under-treated and poorly controlled in the general U.S. population. Leg symptoms are not adequate to identify individuals with PAD, who are at high risk of ischemic events. PMID:18395208

  10. Patient-controlled analgesia versus continuous infusion of morphine during vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease, a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Eduard J; van Tuijn, Charlotte F J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T; Friederich, Philip W; Vranken, Jan H; Biemond, Bart J

    2007-11-01

    Intravenous morphine is the treatment of choice for severe pain during vaso- occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, side effects of morphine may hamper effective treatment, and high plasma levels of morphine are associated with severe complications such as acute chest syndrome. Furthermore, adequate dosing remains a problem since no objective measurement of pain severity exists and analgesia should be titrated upon the patient's reported pain. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) may therefore be an interesting alternative since patients can titrate the level of analgesia themselves. In this randomized controlled study, the efficacy of intravenous morphine administration with PCA was compared with continuous infusion (CI) of morphine in patients with SCD during vaso-occlusive crisis. Twenty five consecutive episodes of vaso-occlusive crisis in 19 patients with SCD were included in the study. Patients in the PCA-group had a markedly and significant lower mean and cumulative morphine consumption when compared with the patients in the CI-group (0.5 mg/hr versus 2.4 mg/hr (P < 0.001) and 33 mg versus 260 mg (P = 0.018, respectively). The mean daily pain scores were comparable (4.9 versus 5.3). The lower mean and cumulative morphine consumption in the PCA-group led to significant less nausea and constipation during treatment when compared with the CI-group (area under the curve, respectively, 11 versus 18 (P = 0.045) and 30 versus 45 (P = 0.021). Furthermore, a nonsignificant reduction in the duration of hospital admission of 3 days was observed in the PCA-group. PCA results in adequate pain relief at a much lower morphine consumption and should considered to be the first choice in morphine administration to sickle cell patients admitted with vaso-occlusive crisis.

  11. Control of Ebola virus disease - firestone district, liberia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Erik J; Mabande, Lyndon G; Thoroughman, Douglas A; Arwady, M Allison; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-10-24

    On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs). PMID:25340914

  12. Reevaluation of Acromegalic Patients in Long-Term Remission according to Newly Proposed Consensus Criteria for Control of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Emanuele; Malchiodi, Elena; Sala, Elisa; Giavoli, Claudia; Arosio, Maura; Lania, Andrea Gerardo; Ronchi, Cristina Lucia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly guidelines updated in 2010 revisited criteria of disease control: if applied, it is likely that a percentage of patients previously considered as cured might present postglucose GH nadir levels not adequately suppressed, with potential implications on management. This study explored GH secretion, as well as hormonal, clinical, neuroradiological, metabolic, and comorbid profile in a cohort of 40 acromegalic patients considered cured on the basis of the previous guidelines after a mean follow-up period of 17.2 years from remission, in order to assess the impact of the current criteria. At the last follow-up visit, in the presence of normal IGF-I concentrations, postglucose GH nadir was over 0.4 μg/L in 11 patients (Group A) and below 0.4 μg/L in 29 patients (Group B); moreover, Group A showed higher basal GH levels than Group B, whereas a significant decline of both GH and postglucose GH nadir levels during the follow-up was observed in Group B only. No differences in other evaluated parameters were found. These results seem to suggest that acromegalic patients considered cured on the basis of previous guidelines do not need a more intensive monitoring than patients who met the current criteria of disease control, supporting instead that the cut-off of 0.4 mcg/L might be too low for the currently used GH assay. PMID:25587273

  13. [Effects of resveratrol-induced cellular autophagy in control of neurodegenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Wang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Cellular autophagy is a major degradative pathway for clearance of aggregate-prone proteins and damaged organelles. It plays an important role in regulating cellular homeostasis, cell growth and development, and disease development. Dysfunctional autophagy contributes to the pathology of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, in which specific pathological protein accumulation occurs. A growing body of evidence suggests that resveratrol plays a significantly role in the regulation of autophagy and clearance of pathological proteins. Resveratrol is a potential drug for neurodegenerative diseases therapy. This review focuses on the effects of resveratrol on cellular autophagy and clinical application in the control of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27405156

  14. Olfactory disruption: towards controlling important insect vectors of disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical repellents are used to decrease contacts between insect disease vectors and their hosts, thus reducing the probability of disease transmission. The molecular mechanisms by which repellents have their effects are poorly understood and remain a controversial topic. Here we present recent re...

  15. Control of invasive meningococcal disease: is it achievable?

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen; Wang, Bing; Wesselingh, Steve; Snape, Matthew; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Neisseria meningitidis still leads to deaths and severe disability in children, adolescents and adults. Six different capsular groups of N. meningitidis cause invasive meningococcal disease in the form of meningitis and septicaemia in humans. Although conjugate meningococcal vaccines have been developed to provide protection against four of the capsular groups causing most diseases in humans, vaccines against capsular group B, which causes 85% of cases in Australia and the United Kingdom, have only recently been developed. A capsular group B meningococcal vaccine - 4CMenB (Bexsero) - has recently been licensed in the European Union, Canada and Australia. In Australia, a submission for inclusion of 4CMenB in the funded national immunization programme has recently been rejected. The vaccine will now be introduced into the national immunization programme in the United Kingdom following negotiation of a cost-effective price. With the current low incidence of invasive meningococcal disease in many regions, cost-effectiveness of a new capsular group B meningococcal vaccine is borderline in both the United Kingdom and Australia. Cost-effectiveness of an infant programme is determined largely by the direct protection of those vaccinated and is driven by the higher rate of disease in this age group. However, for an adolescent programme to be cost-effective, it must provide both long-term protection against both disease and carriage. The potential of vaccination to reduce the rate of severe invasive disease is a real possibility. A dual approach using both an infant and adolescent immunization programme to provide direct protection to those age groups at highest risk of meningococcal disease and to optimize the potential herd immunity effects is likely to be the most effective means of reducing invasive meningococcal disease. This commentary aims to describe the known disease burden and consequences of meningococcal disease, and the development and potential effectiveness of

  16. Multiplicity of mechanisms govern efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation for soil-borne disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies demonstrated that carbon input type influenced control of various fungi, oomycetes and plant parasitic nematodes with anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD). Findings implicated multiple mechanisms may contribute to the overall level of disease control attained. In strawberry field trials, ASD ...

  17. Nosocomial outbreak of Legionnaires' disease: molecular epidemiology and disease control measures.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J M; Latham, R H; Meier, F A; Green, J A; Boshard, R; Mooney, B R; Edelstein, P H

    1987-02-01

    Molecular laboratory techniques were used to study the epidemiology of an outbreak of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. All patient isolates were Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and showed identical plasmid profiles and reactions with serogroup-specific monoclonal antibodies. L pneumophila was also cultured from four of five cooling tower water samples; however, the isolate from only one tower was serogroup 1 of the same subtype as patient isolates. Since the cases were temporally clustered and epidemiologically associated with exposure to cooling tower aerosols, the single cooling tower implicated by molecular analysis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Chlorination of cooling tower ponds has eradicated the epidemic strain. Since potable water also harbored the infecting organism and was the probable source for cooling tower contamination, decontamination of the hospital water system was also undertaken. Superchlorination of hot water holding tanks to 17 ppm on a weekly basis has effectively eradicated L pneumophila from the potable water system and appears to be a reasonable, simple, and relatively inexpensive alternative to previously described methods of control.

  18. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  19. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Research on Use of Mobile Applications (``app'') to Increase HIV Testing Behavior and HIV Prevention with... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  20. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease.

  1. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Emi; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; de Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole. PMID:24676660

  2. Strand I - Physical Health; Disease Prevention and Control for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, sees man's struggle to discover new knowledge for the prevention and control of disease in historical perspective. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover the nature of disease, the history of disease, modern approaches to disease…

  3. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  4. De-Politicizing Parasites: Reflections on Attempts to Control the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of funding are being allocated to the control of neglected tropical diseases. Strategies primarily rely on the mass distribution of drugs to adults and children living in endemic areas. The approach is presented as morally appropriate, technically effective, and context-free. Drawing on research undertaken in East Africa, we discuss ways in which normative ideas about global health programs are used to set aside social and biological evidence. In particular, there is a tendency to ignore local details, including information about actual drug take up. Ferguson’s ‘anti-politics’ thesis is a useful starting point for analyzing why this happens, but is overly deterministic. Anti-politics discourse about healing the suffering poor may shape thinking and help explain cognitive dissonance. However, use of such discourse is also a means of strategically promoting vested interests and securing funding. Whatever the underlying motivations, rhetoric and realities are conflated, with potentially counterproductive consequences. PMID:24761976

  5. Emerging Trends in International Law Concerning Global Infectious Disease Control1

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    International cooperation has become critical in controlling infectious diseases. In this article, I examine emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control. The role of international law in horizontal and vertical governance responses to infectious disease control is conceptualized; the historical development of international law regarding infectious diseases is described; and important shifts in how states, international institutions, and nonstate organizations use international law in the context of infectious disease control today are analyzed. The growing importance of international trade law and the development of global governance mechanisms, most prominently in connection with increasing access to drugs and other medicines in unindustrialized countries, are emphasized. Traditional international legal approaches to infectious disease control—embodied in the International Health Regulations—may be moribund. PMID:12643821

  6. 76 FR 4703 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001...

  7. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel D, Initial Review In accordance...

  8. 78 FR 18602 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the.... Place: CDC, Building 21, Rooms 1204 A/B, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Status: Open...

  9. 78 FR 60876 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Place: CDC, Building 21, Rooms 1204 A/B, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Status: Open...

  10. 78 FR 60876 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., 2013. Place: CDC, Building 21, Rooms 1204 A/B, 1600 Clifton Road NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30333....

  11. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family History and Diamond Blackfan Anemia, DD11- 010,...

  12. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention... (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis...

  13. 76 FR 367 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Minority HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Minority HIV/AIDS Research Initiative (MARI) To Build Capacity in Black and Hispanic Communities and Among Black and Hispanic Researchers To Conduct...

  14. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity Building Assistance for High Impact...

  15. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging..., Georgia 30337, Telephone: (770) 997-1100. Contact Person For More Information: Amy Yang, Ph.D.,...

  16. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns..., initial review, published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 191, Page...

  17. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health...

  18. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  19. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  20. 77 FR 44618 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns the World...

  1. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  2. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  3. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member...

  4. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers...

  5. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National...

  6. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002,...

  7. Hansen's disease control in the State of São Paulo: a historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Opromolla, Paula Araujo; Laurenti, Ruy

    2011-02-01

    Leprosy is an infectious contagious disease known since Biblical times. Global effort for disease control reveals intricate convergences of national history and of medical, governmental, and international policies. The study describes the history of Hansen's disease and control actions undertaken in the state of São Paulo starting in the 19th century and its connection with the development of public health in that state, by means of a bibliographic and documental analysis.

  8. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  9. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Lokuge, Kamalini; Caleo, Grazia; Greig, Jane; Duncombe, Jennifer; McWilliam, Nicholas; Squire, James; Lamin, Manjo; Veltus, Emily; Wolz, Anja; Kobinger, Gary; de la Vega, Marc-Antoine; Gbabai, Osman; Nabieu, Sao; Lamin, Mohammed; Kremer, Ronald; Danis, Kostas; Banks, Emily; Glass, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas. Methods Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not), time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC), work-related exposures (health worker or not) and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods—June to July (the early period of response), and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved). A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected. Results There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased

  10. [Dengue fever. Another infectious disease out of control?].

    PubMed

    Jensenius, M; Gundersen, S G

    1997-11-30

    In the 1950s dengue fever left its home in South-East Asia. The result, as we see it 40 years later, is terrifying. From being an almost unknown infection, dengue fever is today's most common arboviral disease with up to 100 million cases annually. In addition, the clinical picture has changed from a benign influenza-like disorder (classic dengue fever) to a serious disease with bleeding and hypovolemic shock (dengue hemorrhagic fever). In this article the authors give an overview of the present epidemiology, prognosis and possible preventive measures against dengue fever.

  11. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  12. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  13. The architecture and effect of participation: a systematic review of community participation for communicable disease control and elimination. Implications for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community engagement and participation has played a critical role in successful disease control and elimination campaigns in many countries. Despite this, its benefits for malaria control and elimination are yet to be fully realized. This may be due to a limited understanding of the influences on participation in developing countries as well as inadequate investment in infrastructure and resources to support sustainable community participation. This paper reports the findings of an atypical systematic review of 60 years of literature in order to arrive at a more comprehensive awareness of the constructs of participation for communicable disease control and elimination and provide guidance for the current malaria elimination campaign. Methods Evidence derived from quantitative research was considered both independently and collectively with qualitative research papers and case reports. All papers included in the review were systematically coded using a pre-determined qualitative coding matrix that identified influences on community participation at the individual, household, community and government/civil society levels. Colour coding was also carried out to reflect the key primary health care period in which community participation programmes originated. These processes allowed exhaustive content analysis and synthesis of data in an attempt to realize conceptual development beyond that able to be achieved by individual empirical studies or case reports. Results Of the 60 papers meeting the selection criteria, only four studies attempted to determine the effect of community participation on disease transmission. Due to inherent differences in their design, interventions and outcome measures, results could not be compared. However, these studies showed statistically significant reductions in disease incidence or prevalence using various forms of community participation. The use of locally selected volunteers provided with adequate training, supervision and

  14. Control of neglected tropical diseases needs a long-term commitment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases are widespread, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting over 2 billion individuals. Control of these diseases has gathered pace in recent years, with increased levels of funding from a number of governmental or non-governmental donors. Focus has currently been on five major 'tool-ready' neglected tropical diseases (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and trachoma), using a package of integrated drug delivery according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy. Discussion Success in controlling these neglected tropical diseases has been achieved in a number of countries in recent history. Experience from these successes suggests that long-term sustainable control of these diseases requires: (1) a long-term commitment from a wider range of donors and from governments of endemic countries; (2) close partnerships of donors, World Health Organization, pharmaceutical industries, governments of endemic countries, communities, and non-governmental developmental organisations; (3) concerted action from more donor countries to provide the necessary funds, and from the endemic countries to work together to prevent cross-border disease transmission; (4) comprehensive control measures for certain diseases; and (5) strengthened primary healthcare systems as platforms for the national control programmes and capacity building through implementation of the programmes. Conclusions The current level of funding for the control of neglected tropical diseases has never been seen before, but it is still not enough to scale up to the 2 billion people in all endemic countries. While more donors are sought, the stakeholders must work in a coordinated and harmonised way to identify the priority areas and the best delivery approaches to use the current funds to the maximum effect. Case management and other necessary control measures should be supported through the

  15. Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global climate greatly influences local conditions that can affect vector-borne arboviral disease patterns because the viruses, their vectors, and hosts are sensitive to temperature moisture, and other ambient environmental conditions. In this presentation we examine in detail linkages between clima...

  16. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for soilborne disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne disease management without chemical fumigants is a major challenge for strawberry production in California. Current re-registrations and regulations are likely to intensify this obstacle by severely limiting availability of fumigants on a large percentage of strawberry acreage. Anaerobic s...

  17. Taking Control of Alzheimer's Disease: A Training Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Nina M.; Sherman, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a training program for persons with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and their care partners. Care partners were mailed two surveys, one for themselves and one for the person with dementia. Domains covered in the training included an overview of cognitive disorders, treatment of symptoms including…

  18. Manipulating the banana rhizosphere microbiome for biological control of Panama disease.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao; Penton, C Ryan; Shen, Zongzhuan; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Li, Rong; Ruan, Yunze; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection on banana is devastating banana plantations worldwide. Biological control has been proposed to suppress Panama disease, though the stability and survival of bio-control microorganisms in field setting is largely unknown. In order to develop a bio-control strategy for this disease, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial community of a disease-suppressive soil. Bacillus was identified as the dominant bacterial group in the suppressive soil. For this reason, B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from the suppressive soil was selected as a potential bio-control agent. A bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), formulated by combining this isolate with compost, was applied in nursery pots to assess the bio-control of Panama disease. Results showed that BIO significantly decreased disease incidence by 68.5%, resulting in a doubled yield. Moreover, bacterial community structure was significantly correlated to disease incidence and yield and Bacillus colonization was negatively correlated with pathogen abundance and disease incidence, but positively correlated to yield. In total, the application of BIO altered the rhizo-bacterial community by establishing beneficial strains that dominated the microbial community and decreased pathogen colonization in the banana rhizosphere, which plays an important role in the management of Panama disease. PMID:26242751

  19. Manipulating the banana rhizosphere microbiome for biological control of Panama disease

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chao; Ryan Penton, C.; Shen, Zongzhuan; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Li, Rong; Ruan, Yunze; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection on banana is devastating banana plantations worldwide. Biological control has been proposed to suppress Panama disease, though the stability and survival of bio-control microorganisms in field setting is largely unknown. In order to develop a bio-control strategy for this disease, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial community of a disease-suppressive soil. Bacillus was identified as the dominant bacterial group in the suppressive soil. For this reason, B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from the suppressive soil was selected as a potential bio-control agent. A bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), formulated by combining this isolate with compost, was applied in nursery pots to assess the bio-control of Panama disease. Results showed that BIO significantly decreased disease incidence by 68.5%, resulting in a doubled yield. Moreover, bacterial community structure was significantly correlated to disease incidence and yield and Bacillus colonization was negatively correlated with pathogen abundance and disease incidence, but positively correlated to yield. In total, the application of BIO altered the rhizo-bacterial community by establishing beneficial strains that dominated the microbial community and decreased pathogen colonization in the banana rhizosphere, which plays an important role in the management of Panama disease. PMID:26242751

  20. The Wild Side of Disease Control at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gortazar, Christian; Diez-Delgado, Iratxe; Barasona, Jose Angel; Vicente, Joaquin; De La Fuente, Jose; Boadella, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The control of diseases shared with wildlife requires the development of strategies that will reduce pathogen transmission between wildlife and both domestic animals and human beings. This review describes and criticizes the options currently applied and attempts to forecast wildlife disease control in the coming decades. Establishing a proper surveillance and monitoring scheme (disease and population wise) is the absolute priority before even making the decision as to whether or not to intervene. Disease control can be achieved by different means, including: (1) preventive actions, (2) arthropod vector control, (3) host population control through random or selective culling, habitat management or reproductive control, and (4) vaccination. The alternative options of zoning or no-action should also be considered, particularly in view of a cost/benefit assessment. Ideally, tools from several fields should be combined in an integrated control strategy. The success of disease control in wildlife depends on many factors, including disease ecology, natural history, and the characteristics of the pathogen, the availability of suitable diagnostic tools, the characteristics of the domestic and wildlife host(s) and vectors, the geographical spread of the problem, the scale of the control effort and stakeholders’ attitudes. PMID:26664926

  1. A controlled study of cognitive deficits in children with chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Tager, F A; Fallon, B A; Keilp, J; Rissenberg, M; Jones, C R; Liebowitz, M R

    2001-01-01

    Although neurologic Lyme disease is known to cause cognitive dysfunction in adults, little is known about its long-term sequelae in children. Twenty children with a history of new-onset cognitive complaints after Lyme disease were compared with 20 matched healthy control subjects. Each child was assessed with measures of cognition and psychopathology. Children with Lyme disease had significantly more cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Cognitive deficits were still found after controlling for anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Lyme disease in children may be accompanied by long-term neuropsychiatric disturbances, resulting in psychosocial and academic impairments. Areas for further study are discussed.

  2. Parkinson's disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye-hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects.

    PubMed

    Lukos, J R; Snider, J; Hernandez, M E; Tunik, E; Hillyard, S; Poizner, H

    2013-12-19

    The effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on hand-eye coordination and corrective response control during reach-to-grasp tasks remains unclear. Moderately impaired PD patients (n=9) and age-matched controls (n=12) reached to and grasped a virtual rectangular object, with haptic feedback provided to the thumb and index fingertip by two 3-degree of freedom manipulanda. The object rotated unexpectedly on a minority of trials, requiring subjects to adjust their grasp aperture. On half the trials, visual feedback of finger positions disappeared during the initial phase of the reach, when feedforward mechanisms are known to guide movement. PD patients were tested without (OFF) and with (ON) medication to investigate the effects of dopamine depletion and repletion on eye-hand coordination online corrective response control. We quantified eye-hand coordination by monitoring hand kinematics and eye position during the reach. We hypothesized that if the basal ganglia are important for eye-hand coordination and online corrections to object perturbations, then PD patients tested OFF medication would show reduced eye-hand spans and impoverished arm-hand coordination responses to the perturbation, which would be further exasperated when visual feedback of the hand was removed. Strikingly, PD patients tracked their hands with their gaze, and their movements became destabilized when having to make online corrective responses to object perturbations exhibiting pauses and changes in movement direction. These impairments largely remained even when tested in the ON state, despite significant improvement on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Our findings suggest that basal ganglia-cortical loops are essential for mediating eye-hand coordination and adaptive online responses for reach-to-grasp movements, and that restoration of tonic levels of dopamine may not be adequate to remediate this coordinative nature of basal ganglia-modulated function.

  3. Lncing epigenetic control of transcription to cardiovascular development and disease.

    PubMed

    Rizki, Gizem; Boyer, Laurie A

    2015-07-01

    Transcriptional and epigenetic regulation is critical for proper heart development, cardiac homeostasis, and pathogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs have emerged as key components of the transcriptional regulatory pathways that govern cardiac development as well as stress response, signaling, and remodeling in cardiac pathologies. Within the past few years, studies have identified many long noncoding RNAs in the context of cardiovascular biology and have begun to reveal the key functions of these transcripts. In this review, we discuss the growing roles of long noncoding RNAs in different aspects of cardiovascular development as well as pathological responses during injury or disease. In addition, we discuss diverse mechanisms by which long noncoding RNAs orchestrate cardiac transcriptional programs. Finally, we explore the exciting potential of this novel class of transcripts as biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases.

  4. [Pain control of bone and joint diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Soen, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    The decline of multiple physiological processes, even in the absence of disease, combined should logically influence treatment options. Decreased gastric secretions, intestinal motility, and vitamin D receptors lead to loss of appetite, malnutrition. Increased arterial thickening and rigidity elevate cardiac risk, while decreased elasticity in the lungs potentially exacerbates breathing disorders. Memory impairment and cognitive decline progress as neurons become less resilient to stress over time. Reduced hepatic and renal blood flow limit metabolism and filtration, increasing the risk for accumulation of toxic substances. Physiologic changes, drug-drug interactions resulting from polypharmacy, and drug-disease interactions combine to make elderly patients more sensitive to the AEs of medications. Effective pain management in the elderly is challenging. The purpose of this review is to highlight the use of several treatment options for elderly patients. PMID:25509813

  5. Update on Legionnaires’ disease: pathogenesis, epidemiology, detection and control

    PubMed Central

    Hilbi, Hubert; Jarraud, Sophie; Hartland, Elizabeth; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Summary Legionellosis or Legionnaires’ disease is an emerging and often-fatal form of pneumonia that is most severe in elderly and immunocompromised people, an ever-increasing risk group for infection. In recent years, the genomics of Legionella spp. has significantly increased our knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease by providing new insights into the evolution and genetic and physiological basis of Legionella–host interactions. The 7th international conference on Legionella, Legionella 2009, illustrated many recent conceptual advances in epidemiology, pathogenesis and ecology. Experts in different fields presented new findings on basic mechanisms of pathogen–host interactions and bacterial evolution, as well as the clinical management and environmental prevalence and persistence of Legionella. The presentations revealed remarkable facts about the genetic and metabolic basis of the intracellular lifestyle of Legionella and reported on its striking ability to manipulate host cell processes by molecular mimicry. Together, these investigations will lead to new approaches for the treatment and prevention of Legionnaires’ disease. PMID:20149105

  6. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  7. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  8. Control of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease: results of a control programme in Satipo Province, Peru.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Arlt, Doris; Garcia, Luis Miguel Leon; Rosales, Milena; de Jesus Sanchez, Juan; Alvarez, Eugenia; Lonlas, Sylvaine; Conte, Mado; Bertoletti, Guillermo; Fournier, Christophe; Huari, Roberto; Torreele, Els; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2005-09-01

    Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is an important health problem in many rural areas of Latin America, but there are few data on the results of programmatic approaches to control the disease. We report the results of a control programme in San Martin de Pangoa District, which reports one of the highest prevalences of MCL in Peru. For 2 years (2001--2002), the technicians at the health post were trained in patient case management, received medical support and were supplied with antimonials. An evaluation after 2 years showed the following main achievements: better diagnosis of patients, who were confirmed by microscopy in 34% (82/240) of the cases in 2001 and 60% of the cases (153/254) in 2002; improved follow-up during treatment: 237 of 263 (90%) patients who initiated an antimonial therapy ended the full treatment course; improved follow-up after treatment: 143 of 237 (60%) patients who ended their full treatment were correctly monitored during the required period of 6 (cutaneous cases) or 12 (mucosal cases) months after the end of treatment. These achievements were largely due to the human and logistical resources made available, the constant availability of medications and the close collaboration between the Ministry of Health, a national research institute and an international non-governmental organization. At the end of this period, the health authorities decided to register a generic brand of sodium stibogluconate, which is now in use. This should allow the treatment of a significant number of additional patients, while saving money to invest in other facets of the case management. PMID:16135192

  9. The Potential Trajectory of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, an Emerging Threat to Health-Care Facilities, and the Impact of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Wong, Kim F.; McKinnell, James A.; Slayton, Rachel B.; Miller, Loren G.; Cao, Chenghua; Kim, Diane S.; Kallen, Alexander J.; Jernigan, John A.; Huang, Susan S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a group of pathogens resistant to most antibiotics and associated with high mortality, are a rising emerging public health threat. Current approaches to infection control and prevention have not been adequate to prevent spread. An important but unproven approach is to have hospitals in a region coordinate surveillance and infection control measures. Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA) simulation model and detailed Orange County, California, patient-level data on adult inpatient hospital and nursing home admissions (2011–2012), we simulated the spread of CRE throughout Orange County health-care facilities under 3 scenarios: no specific control measures, facility-level infection control efforts (uncoordinated control measures), and a coordinated regional effort. Aggressive uncoordinated and coordinated approaches were highly similar, averting 2,976 and 2,789 CRE transmission events, respectively (72.2% and 77.0% of transmission events), by year 5. With moderate control measures, coordinated regional control resulted in 21.3% more averted cases (n = 408) than did uncoordinated control at year 5. Our model suggests that without increased infection control approaches, CRE would become endemic in nearly all Orange County health-care facilities within 10 years. While implementing the interventions in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CRE toolkit would not completely stop the spread of CRE, it would cut its spread substantially, by half. PMID:26861238

  10. The Potential Trajectory of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, an Emerging Threat to Health-Care Facilities, and the Impact of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; McKinnell, James A; Slayton, Rachel B; Miller, Loren G; Cao, Chenghua; Kim, Diane S; Kallen, Alexander J; Jernigan, John A; Huang, Susan S

    2016-03-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a group of pathogens resistant to most antibiotics and associated with high mortality, are a rising emerging public health threat. Current approaches to infection control and prevention have not been adequate to prevent spread. An important but unproven approach is to have hospitals in a region coordinate surveillance and infection control measures. Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA) simulation model and detailed Orange County, California, patient-level data on adult inpatient hospital and nursing home admissions (2011-2012), we simulated the spread of CRE throughout Orange County health-care facilities under 3 scenarios: no specific control measures, facility-level infection control efforts (uncoordinated control measures), and a coordinated regional effort. Aggressive uncoordinated and coordinated approaches were highly similar, averting 2,976 and 2,789 CRE transmission events, respectively (72.2% and 77.0% of transmission events), by year 5. With moderate control measures, coordinated regional control resulted in 21.3% more averted cases (n = 408) than did uncoordinated control at year 5. Our model suggests that without increased infection control approaches, CRE would become endemic in nearly all Orange County health-care facilities within 10 years. While implementing the interventions in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CRE toolkit would not completely stop the spread of CRE, it would cut its spread substantially, by half.

  11. The Potential Trajectory of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, an Emerging Threat to Health-Care Facilities, and the Impact of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; McKinnell, James A; Slayton, Rachel B; Miller, Loren G; Cao, Chenghua; Kim, Diane S; Kallen, Alexander J; Jernigan, John A; Huang, Susan S

    2016-03-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a group of pathogens resistant to most antibiotics and associated with high mortality, are a rising emerging public health threat. Current approaches to infection control and prevention have not been adequate to prevent spread. An important but unproven approach is to have hospitals in a region coordinate surveillance and infection control measures. Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA) simulation model and detailed Orange County, California, patient-level data on adult inpatient hospital and nursing home admissions (2011-2012), we simulated the spread of CRE throughout Orange County health-care facilities under 3 scenarios: no specific control measures, facility-level infection control efforts (uncoordinated control measures), and a coordinated regional effort. Aggressive uncoordinated and coordinated approaches were highly similar, averting 2,976 and 2,789 CRE transmission events, respectively (72.2% and 77.0% of transmission events), by year 5. With moderate control measures, coordinated regional control resulted in 21.3% more averted cases (n = 408) than did uncoordinated control at year 5. Our model suggests that without increased infection control approaches, CRE would become endemic in nearly all Orange County health-care facilities within 10 years. While implementing the interventions in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CRE toolkit would not completely stop the spread of CRE, it would cut its spread substantially, by half. PMID:26861238

  12. Integration of selective breeding and vaccination to improve disease resistance in aquaculture: Application to control bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. A goal of the NCCCWA breeding program is to produce germplasm with superior growth and survival following exposure to infe...

  13. Historical perspective on biological control of postharvest diseases – past, present, and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The birth of the field of biological control of postharvest diseases can be traced back to 1984 when a researcher testing an antagonist (Bacillus subtilis) in the field to control brown rot of peaches (caused by Monilinia fructicola ) decided to apply the antagonist directly to the peach to control ...

  14. Taking Control of Castleman Disease: Leveraging Precision Medicine Technologies to Accelerate Rare Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Samantha Kass; Jayanthan, Raj K.; Mitchell, Grant W.; Carreras Tartak, Jossie A.; Croglio, Michael P.; Suarez, Alexander; Liu, Amy Y.; Razzo, Beatrice M.; Oyeniran, Enny; Ruth, Jason R.; Fajgenbaum, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy that may occur in a single lymph node (unicentric) or multiple lymph nodes (multicentric), the latter typically occurring secondary to excessive proinflammatory hypercytokinemia. While a cohort of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) cases are caused by Human Herpes Virus-8 (HHV-8), the etiology of HHV-8 negative, idiopathic MCD (iMCD), remains unknown. Breakthroughs in “omics” technologies that have facilitated the development of precision medicine hold promise for elucidating disease pathogenesis and identifying novel therapies for iMCD. However, in order to leverage precision medicine approaches in rare diseases like CD, stakeholders need to overcome several challenges. To address these challenges, the Castleman Disease Collaborative Network (CDCN) was founded in 2012. In the past 3 years, the CDCN has worked to transform the understanding of the pathogenesis of CD, funded and initiated genomics and proteomics research, and united international experts in a collaborative effort to accelerate progress for CD patients. The CDCN’s collaborative structure leverages the tools of precision medicine and serves as a model for both scientific discovery and advancing patient care. PMID:26604862

  15. Abnormal visual gain control in a Parkinson's disease model

    PubMed Central

    Afsari, Farinaz; Christensen, Kenneth V.; Smith, Garrick Paul; Hentzer, Morten; Nippe, Olivia M.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.; Wade, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been revolutionized by the discovery of disease-causing genetic mutations. The most common of these is the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 kinase gene, which leads to increased kinase activity. However, the link between increased kinase activity and PD is unclear. Previously, we showed that dopaminergic expression of the human LRRK2-G2019S transgene in flies led to an activity-dependent loss of vision in older animals and we hypothesized that this may have been preceded by a failure to regulate neuronal activity correctly in younger animals. To test this hypothesis, we used a sensitive measure of visual function based on frequency-tagged steady-state visually evoked potentials. Spectral analysis allowed us to identify signals from multiple levels of the fly visual system and wild-type visual response curves were qualitatively similar to those from human cortex. Dopaminergic expression of hLRRK2-G2019S increased contrast sensitivity throughout the retinal network. To test whether this was due to increased kinase activity, we fed Drosophila with kinase inhibitors targeted at LRRK2. Contrast sensitivity in both day 1 and day 14 flies was normalized by a novel LRRK2 kinase inhibitor ‘BMPPB-32’. Biochemical and cellular assays suggested that BMPPB-32 would be a more specific kinase inhibitor than LRRK2-IN-1. We confirmed this in vivo, finding that dLRRK− null flies show large off-target effects with LRRK2-IN-1 but not BMPPB-32. Our data link the increased Kinase activity of the G2019S-LRRK2 mutation to neuronal dysfunction and demonstrate the power of the Drosophila visual system in assaying the neurological effects of genetic diseases and therapies. PMID:24718285

  16. Predicting and controlling infectious disease epidemics using temporal networks

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases can be considered to spread over social networks of people or animals. Mainly owing to the development of data recording and analysis techniques, an increasing amount of social contact data with time stamps has been collected in the last decade. Such temporal data capture the dynamics of social networks on a timescale relevant to epidemic spreading and can potentially lead to better ways to analyze, forecast, and prevent epidemics. However, they also call for extended analysis tools for network epidemiology, which has, to date, mostly viewed networks as static entities. We review recent results of network epidemiology for such temporal network data and discuss future developments. PMID:23513178

  17. mTOR signaling in growth control and disease

    PubMed Central

    Laplante, Mathieu; Sabatini, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway senses and integrates a variety of environmental cues to regulate organismal growth and homeostasis. The pathway regulates many major cellular processes and is implicated in an increasing number of pathological conditions, including cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the mTOR pathway and its role in health and disease as well as aging. We further discuss pharmacological approaches to treat human pathologies linked to mTOR deregulation. PMID:22500797

  18. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in 2012 resulted in an increased concern of the spread of the infection globally. MERS-CoV infection had previously caused multiple health-care-associated outbreaks and resulted in transmission of the virus within families. Community onset MERS-CoV cases continue to occur. Dromedary camels are currently the most likely animal to be linked to human MERS-CoV cases. Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels. The control of MERS-CoV infection relies on prompt identification of cases within health care facilities, with institutions applying appropriate infection control measures. In addition, determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25395865

  19. Launching the first postgraduate diploma in medical entomology and disease vector control in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rathor, H R; Mnzava, A; Bile, K M; Hafeez, A; Zaman, S

    2010-01-01

    The Health Services Academy has launched a 12-month postgraduate diploma course in medical entomology and disease vector control. The objective is to create a core of experts trained to prevent and control vector-borne diseases. The course is a response to the serious health and socioeconomic burden caused by a number of vector-borne diseases in Pakistan. The persistence, emergence and re-emergence of these diseases is mainly attributed to the scarcity of trained vector-control experts. The training course attempts to fill the gap in trained manpower and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality due to these diseases, resulting in incremental gains to public health. This paper aims to outline the steps taken to establish the course and the perceived challenges to be addressed in order to sustain its future implementation.

  20. Toward Proof of Concept of a One Health Approach to Disease Prediction and Control

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Richard; Kachani, Malika; Kunkel, Rebekah; Thomas, Jason; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Wallace, Robert; Blackmore, Carina; Wong, David; Karesh, William; Natterson, Barbara; Dugas, Raymond; Rubin, Carol

    2013-01-01

    A One Health approach considers the role of changing environments with regard to infectious and chronic disease risks affecting humans and nonhuman animals. Recent disease emergence events have lent support to a One Health approach. In 2010, the Stone Mountain Working Group on One Health Proof of Concept assembled and evaluated the evidence regarding proof of concept of the One Health approach to disease prediction and control. Aspects examined included the feasibility of integrating human, animal, and environmental health and whether such integration could improve disease prediction and control efforts. They found evidence to support each of these concepts but also identified the need for greater incorporation of environmental and ecosystem factors into disease assessments and interventions. The findings of the Working Group argue for larger controlled studies to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the One Health approach. PMID:24295136

  1. Facts about teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, and birth control.

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    This patient update presents information about teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. In the US, one million teenagers become pregnant each year, and 85% of these pregnancies are unplanned. Pregnancy can occur the first time a person has sexual intercourse, and, without the use of contraception, 90% of sexually active teenagers will become pregnant within a year. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted during first intercourse, and about 25% of sexually active teenagers (three million) get an STD each year. The best protection against STDs and AIDS is abstinence, followed by use of a latex male condom or a female condom. It is known that many teenagers are afraid to use contraceptives because they fail to realize that contraception is safer than pregnancy and delivery. Common fears about oral contraceptives (that the body need a "rest" from their use and that they cause cancer, weight gain, future problems with pregnancy, and birth defects) arise from misinformation. In fact, this type of contraception has many beneficial effects. Similarly, fears about the condom (it is not effective, it may break, it will interfere with pleasure), contraceptive implants (they will hurt, they are not safe, they can break in the arm), and injectables (they are not effective, they cause heavy menstrual bleeding, and they cause cancer) are also ill-founded. This patient information sheet provides accurate information in each case.

  2. Mitochondrial control of autophagic lysosomal pathway in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, S M; Pereira, C F; Moreira, P I; Arduino, D M; Esteves, A R; Oliveira, C R

    2010-06-01

    When first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907, AD was seen as a disorder that causes dementia and characterized by two defining neuropathological lesions, later associated with all forms of AD. While the etiology of AD remains largely unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs prior to the onset of symptoms in AD. Mitochondria are exceptionally poised to play a crucial role in neuronal cell survival or death because they are regulators of both energy metabolism and apoptotic pathways. This review is mainly focused in the discussion of evidence suggesting a clear association between mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy impairment and amyloid-beta accumulation in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The knowledge that autophagic insufficiency may compromise the cellular degradation mechanisms that may culminate in the progressive accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, aberrant protein aggregates buildup and lysossomal burden shield new insights to the way we address Alzheimer's disease. In line with this knowledge an innovative window for new therapeutic strategies aimed to activate or ameliorate macroautophagy may be opened.

  3. Celiac disease diagnosis and gluten-free food analytical control.

    PubMed

    da Silva Neves, Marta Maria Pereira; González-Garcia, Maria Begoña; Nouws, Hendrikus Petrus Antonius; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa-García, Agustín

    2010-07-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by an inappropriate T-cell-mediated immune response to the ingestion of certain dietary cereal proteins in genetically susceptible individuals. This disorder presents environmental, genetic, and immunological components. CD presents a prevalence of up to 1% in populations of European ancestry, yet a high percentage of cases remain underdiagnosed. The diagnosis and treatment should be made early since untreated disease causes growth retardation and atypical symptoms, like infertility or neurological disorders. The diagnostic criteria for CD, which requires endoscopy with small bowel biopsy, have been changing over the last few decades, especially due to the advent of serological tests with higher sensitivity and specificity. The use of serological markers can be very useful to rule out clinical suspicious cases and also to help monitor the patients, after adherence to a gluten-free diet. Since the current treatment consists of a life-long gluten-free diet, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement, the standardization of an assay to assess in an unequivocal way gluten in gluten-free foodstuff is of major importance.

  4. Serotonin 6 receptor controls Alzheimer's disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-09-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression in late life are one of the most severe health problems in the world disorders. Serotonin 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has caused much interest for potential roles in AD and depression. However, a causative role of perturbed 5-HT6R function between two diseases was poorly defined. In the present study, we found that a 5-HT6R antagonist, SB271036 rescued memory impairment by attenuating the generation of Aβ via the inhibition of γ-secretase activity and the inactivation of astrocytes and microglia in the AD mouse model. It was found that the reduction of serotonin level was significantly recovered by SB271036, which was mediated by an indirect regulation of serotonergic neurons via GABA. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine significantly improved cognitive impairment and behavioral changes. In human brain of depression patients, we then identified the potential genes, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2 (APBA2), well known AD modulators by integrating datasets from neuropathology, microarray, and RNA seq. studies with correlation analysis tools. And also, it was demonstrated in mouse models and patients of AD. These data indicate functional network of 5-HT6R between AD and depression. PMID:26449188

  5. Volume of interest-based [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET discriminates MCI converting to Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls. A European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) study.

    PubMed

    Pagani, M; De Carli, F; Morbelli, S; Öberg, J; Chincarini, A; Frisoni, G B; Galluzzi, S; Perneczky, R; Drzezga, A; van Berckel, B N M; Ossenkoppele, R; Didic, M; Guedj, E; Brugnolo, A; Picco, A; Arnaldi, D; Ferrara, M; Buschiazzo, A; Sambuceti, G; Nobili, F

    2015-01-01

    An emerging issue in neuroimaging is to assess the diagnostic reliability of PET and its application in clinical practice. We aimed at assessing the accuracy of brain FDG-PET in discriminating patients with MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. Sixty-two patients with amnestic MCI and 109 healthy subjects recruited in five centers of the European AD Consortium were enrolled. Group analysis was performed by SPM8 to confirm metabolic differences. Discriminant analyses were then carried out using the mean FDG uptake values normalized to the cerebellum computed in 45 anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) in each hemisphere (90 VOIs) as defined in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) Atlas and on 12 meta-VOIs, bilaterally, obtained merging VOIs with similar anatomo-functional characteristics. Further, asymmetry indexes were calculated for both datasets. Accuracy of discrimination by a Support Vector Machine and the AAL VOIs was tested against a validated method (PALZ). At the voxel level SMP8 showed a relative hypometabolism in the bilateral precuneus, and posterior cingulate, temporo-parietal and frontal cortices. Discriminant analysis classified subjects with an accuracy ranging between .91 and .83 as a function of data organization. The best values were obtained from a subset of 6 meta-VOIs plus 6 asymmetry values reaching an area under the ROC curve of .947, significantly larger than the one obtained by the PALZ score. High accuracy in discriminating MCI converters from healthy controls was reached by a non-linear classifier based on SVM applied on predefined anatomo-functional regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetries. Data pre-processing was automated and simplified by an in-house created Matlab-based script encouraging its routine clinical use. Further validation toward nonconverter MCI patients with adequately long follow-up is needed.

  6. Filariasis in northern Ghana: some cultural beliefs and practices and their implications for disease control.

    PubMed

    Gyapong, M; Gyapong, J O; Adjei, S; Vlassoff, C; Weiss, M

    1996-07-01

    This article reports on how some endemic rural communities in northern Ghana perceive and manage lymphatic filariasis. The disease was mainly attributed to supernatural and spiritual factors. Except for a few instances of neglect, the community was generally caring towards people with the disease. Issues related to marriage, stigma, concealment and leadership are discussed. On the whole, the importance of social and cultural perceptions of a disease and its relevance to control cannot be over emphasized.

  7. Guidelines for Analysis of Communicable Disease Control Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 1: Communicable Diseases Control Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, James

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this first of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with planning and evaluation of communicable disease control programs. The first…

  8. Johne’s disease in Canada Part II: Disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Shawn L.B.; Keefe, Greg P.; Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John; Barkema, Herman W.

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne’s disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures are presented to enable Canadian bovine practitioners to successfully implement control strategies and participate in control programs. In cattle positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, there is a 2.4 times increase in the risk of their being culled, and their lactational 305-day milk production is decreased by at least 370 kg. Reduced slaughter value and premature culling account for losses of CDN$1330 per year per infected 50-cow herd. Research has failed to show a consistent association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis test status and reduced fertility or risk of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Host level factors include age and level of exposure, along with source of exposure, such as manure, colostrum, or milk. Agent factors involve the dose of infectious agent and strains of bacteria. Environmental management factors influence the persistence of the bacteria and the level of contamination in the environment. Emphasizing a risk factor approach, various control strategies are reviewed, including a number of national control programs currently in place throughout the world, specifically Australia, The Netherlands, and the United States. By reviewing the scientific literature about Johne’s disease, control of the disease could be pursued through informed implementation of rational biosecurity efforts and the strategic use of testing and culling. PMID:17147140

  9. 75 FR 7606 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the... Information: Anne C. Haddix, PhD, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S...

  10. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Announcement (FOA) CK13-001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA CK13-001.'' Contact Person...

  11. 75 FR 8366 - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... procedures for considering petitions by classes of nuclear weapons workers to be added to the ``Special...)--Extension--National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control...

  12. Biological control of soilborne diseases in organic potato production as affected by varying environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed, particularly in organic production, where control options are limited. Selected biocontrol organisms, including two naturally-occurring hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani (Rhs1a1 ...

  13. The role of vision in Parkinson's disease locomotion control: free walking task.

    PubMed

    Vitório, Rodrigo; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Raile, Vivian; Batistela, Rosangela Alice; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2012-02-01

    The current study addressed the role of visual information in the control of locomotion in people with Parkinson's disease. Twelve healthy individuals and 12 mild to moderate Parkinson's disease patients were examined while walking at self-selected velocities, under three visual sampling conditions: dynamic (normal lighting), static (static visual samples) and voluntary visual sampling. Subjects wore liquid crystal glasses for visual manipulation. Outcome measures included spatial-temporal parameters, braking and propulsive impulses, number of samples and total duration of voluntary visual samples. Interaction between groups and visual conditions was not observed for kinematic parameters or braking and propulsive impulses. There were no significant differences between groups for voluntary visual sampling variables. These findings suggest that the visual control of locomotion in Parkinson's disease patients was similar to that observed in controls. Furthermore, Parkinson's disease patients were not more dependent on visual information than healthy individuals for the locomotion control.

  14. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  15. Moving towards the global control of foot and mouth disease: an opportunity for donors.

    PubMed

    Forman, S; Le Gall, F; Belton, D; Evans, B; François, J L; Murray, G; Sheesley, D; Vandersmissen, A; Yoshimura, S

    2009-12-01

    Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases are still a major constraint on economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Among the most significant diseases is foot and mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious, multi-species animal disease with a devastating impact on national economies and trade. Less obvious is the severe constraint that FMD places on both development and the reduction of poverty in developing countries where this disease is endemic. As a result of its global implications and the high costs that it imposes on society, FMD is an infectious disease whose control and prevention are recognised as being a global public good. Moving towards the global control of FMD should be considered a priority for donors, but will require long-term commitment from all parties, strong political will from governments and concerted financial support from donors. Areas of intervention must fall within the framework of programmes developed by international organisations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), through the FAO/OIE Global Framework for the Progressive Control of FMD and Other Transboundary Animal Diseases, as well as the disease control programmes of the regions concerned. Such a goal should specifically focus on analytical work (micro-economic impact and cost-benefit analyses of FMD at the household level and on the poor), research, surveillance networks, communication, monitoring and evaluation, and continuous strengthening of Veterinary Services.

  16. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN)--Coordinating Center, SIP12-061 and Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network...

  17. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  18. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA GH12-001, and Research and Technical Assistance for Public Health Laboratories in Haiti to Support Post Earthquake Reconstruction, Cholera and HIV/AIDS Response, FOA...

  19. Moving towards the global control of foot and mouth disease: an opportunity for donors.

    PubMed

    Forman, S; Le Gall, F; Belton, D; Evans, B; François, J L; Murray, G; Sheesley, D; Vandersmissen, A; Yoshimura, S

    2009-12-01

    Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases are still a major constraint on economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Among the most significant diseases is foot and mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious, multi-species animal disease with a devastating impact on national economies and trade. Less obvious is the severe constraint that FMD places on both development and the reduction of poverty in developing countries where this disease is endemic. As a result of its global implications and the high costs that it imposes on society, FMD is an infectious disease whose control and prevention are recognised as being a global public good. Moving towards the global control of FMD should be considered a priority for donors, but will require long-term commitment from all parties, strong political will from governments and concerted financial support from donors. Areas of intervention must fall within the framework of programmes developed by international organisations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), through the FAO/OIE Global Framework for the Progressive Control of FMD and Other Transboundary Animal Diseases, as well as the disease control programmes of the regions concerned. Such a goal should specifically focus on analytical work (micro-economic impact and cost-benefit analyses of FMD at the household level and on the poor), research, surveillance networks, communication, monitoring and evaluation, and continuous strengthening of Veterinary Services. PMID:20462147

  20. A Model of Self-Regulation for Control of Chronic Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noreen M.; Gong, Molly; Kaciroti, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease poses increasing threat to individual and community health. The day-to-day manager of disease is the patient who undertakes actions with the guidance of a clinician. The ability of the patient to control the illness through an effective therapeutic plan is significantly influenced by social and behavioral factors. This article…

  1. Anaerobic soil disinfestation disease control performance in strawberry as influenced by environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainability of the California strawberry industry is challenged by soil-borne diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been studied as a non-fumigant measure for control of these diseases. This ...

  2. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  3. International forum for surveillance and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript provides highlights of presentations given at the 1st International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Disease in Beijing, China. Topics covered in this 4-day forum included: diseases, surveillance, insecticides, physiology and ecology, behavior, inv...

  4. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA),...

  5. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., Feasibility Study to Link Data from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP... Disadvantaged Communities, SIP11-041, Feasibility Study to Link Data from the National Breast and...

  6. Development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. Although mortality is low, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate FMD. The causing virus (FMDV) is a highly vari...

  7. Redox control of brain calcium in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Carrasco, M Angélica

    2011-04-01

    Calcium ion is a highly versatile cellular messenger. Calcium signals-defined as transient increments in intracellular-free calcium concentration-elicit a multiplicity of responses that depend on cell type and signal properties such as their intensity, duration, cellular localization, and frequency. The vast literature available on the role of calcium signals in brain cells, chiefly centered on neuronal cells, indicates that calcium signals regulate essential neuronal functions, including synaptic transmission, gene expression, synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory, and survival or death. The eight articles comprising this forum issue address different and novel aspects of calcium signaling in normal neuronal function, including how calcium signals interact with the generation of reactive species of oxygen/nitrogen with various functional consequences, and focus also on how abnormal calcium homeostasis and signaling, plus oxidative stress, affect overall brain physiology during aging and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. PMID:21050143

  8. Arousal, motor control, and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Luster, B.; D’Onofrio, S.; Mahaffey, S.

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the most important discovery in the reticular activating system (RAS) in the last 10 years, the manifestation of gamma band activity in cells of the RAS, especially in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which is in charge of the high frequency states of waking and REM sleep. This discovery is critical to understanding the modulation of movement by the RAS and how it sets the background over which we generate voluntary and triggered movements. The presence of gamma band activity in the RAS is proposed to participate in the process of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. Early findings using stimulation of this region to induce arousal, and also to elicit stepping, are placed in this context. This finding also helps explain the novel use of PPN deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), although considerable work remains to be done.

  9. [Drug development for cardiorenal disease based on oxidative stress control].

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Masaki; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Sakurada, Takumi; Ishizawa, Yuki; Yamano, Noriko; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced as a result of redox reactions in various cells, have been recognized as key chemical mediators causing cellular damage and organ dysfunction in CVD and CKD. Nifedipine, a well-known calcium channel blocker, is extremely sensitive to light which gets converted to its nitroso analog, nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) in the presence of ultraviolet and visible light. The so formed NO-NIF blocks calcium channel quite weakly compared to that of nifedipine. However, we elucidated for the first time that NO-NIF is converted to NO-NIF radical which acquires extremely strong antioxidant property via reaction with unsaturated fatty acid or endothelial cells. We have already reported that NO-NIF reduces the cytotoxicity of cumene hydroperoxide, which hampers the integrity of cell membrane through oxidative stress, in endothelial cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that NO-NIF restored acetylcholine-responsive vascular relaxation and suppressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the aorta of N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-treated rats, a model of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF ameliorates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling via antioxidative effects in vivo and in vitro. These observations point towards the plausible, unique role of NO-NIF as a novel antioxidant which improves vascular dysfunction for overcoming CVD and CKD and the same has been highlighted in this review.

  10. Evolution of Chagas disease screening programs and control programs: historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease remains an important health problem in Latin America, affecting approximately 8 million to 10 million individuals. This disease originated from an ancient enzootic cycle, and human infection has been detected in 4,000- to 9,000-year-old mummies and has expanded with European colonization, reaching its peak prevalence in the 20th century. Discovered in 1909, the disease remained obscure and uncontrolled until the 1950s, when the generalization of serology, the characterization of chronic cardiomyopathy, and effective insecticides began. By the 1960s, national control programs were launched and incidence began to decrease as a result. During this time, scientific improvements became increasingly available to address disease management. Presently, challenges in managing Chagas disease include maintaining sustainable epidemiological surveillance, the spread of the disease to nonendemic countries, the apparent spread of oral transmission, and new symptoms and manifestations. This review discusses the possibilities and challenges in facing Chagas disease in the coming decades.

  11. Apple replant disease: role of microbial ecology in cause and control.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Manici, Luisa M

    2012-01-01

    Replant disease of apple is common to all major apple growing regions of the world. Difficulties in defining disease etiology, which can be exacerbated by abiotic factors, have limited progress toward developing alternatives to soil fumigation for disease control. However, the preponderance of data derived from studies of orchard soil biology employing multidisciplinary approaches has defined a complex of pathogens/parasites as causal agents of the disease. Approaches to manipulate microbial resources endemic to the orchard soil system have been proposed to induce a state of general soil suppressiveness to replant disease. Such a long-term strategy may benefit the existing orchard through extending the period of economic viability and reduce overall disease pressure to which young trees are exposed during establishment of successive plantings on the site. Alternatively, more near-term methods have been devised to achieve specific quantitative and qualitative changes in soil biology during the period of orchard renovation that may lead to effective disease suppression.

  12. [Verbal ability of Alzheimer's disease patients and very elderly control patients using the Aachen aphasia test].

    PubMed

    Ecklin, R; Schönenberger, P M

    1992-01-01

    We assessed language function, using the Aachen aphasia test (AAT), in 14 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 6 control patients. Aphasia did not occur in control patients, but in 11 of 14 Alzheimer's disease patients. Impairment of object naming was the most prevalent abnormality. Performance in AAT subtests repetition, written language, object naming, comprehension and token test correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State scores.

  13. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Probert, William J. M.; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Runge, Michael C.; Carpenter, Tim E.; Durr, Salome; Garner, M. Graeme; Harvey, Neil; Stevenson, Mark A.; Webb, Colleen T.; Werkman, Marleen; Tildesley, Michael J.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease models upon which to compare control actions. The output of our analysis frames subsequent discourse between policy-makers, modellers and other stakeholders, by highlighting areas of discord among different management objectives and also among different models used in the analysis. We illustrate this approach in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Cumbria, UK using outputs from five rigorously-studied simulation models of FMD spread. We present both relative rankings and relative performance of controls within each model and across a range of objectives. Results illustrate how control actions change across both the base metric used to measure management success and across the statistic used to rank control actions according to said metric. This work represents a first step towards reconciling the extensive modelling work on disease control problems with frameworks for structured decision making.

  14. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  15. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  16. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  17. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  18. PARKINSON'S DISEASE PATIENTS WITH DOMINANT HEMIBODY AFFECTED BY THE DISEASE RELY MORE ON VISION TO MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSTURAL CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Juliana; Pereira, Marcelo Pinto; Pelicioni, Paulo Henrique Silva; De Morais, Luana Carolina; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2015-12-01

    This study assesses the association between disease onset side (dominant or non-dominant) and vision on postural control of Parkinson's disease patients. Patient volunteers composed two groups, according to the onset side affected: Dominant group (n=9; M age=66.1 yr., SD=7.2; 6 women, 3 men) and Non-dominant group (n=9; M age=67.4 yr., SD=6.4; 6 women, 3 men). The groups' postural control was assessed by posturography during quiet upright stance in two conditions, Eyes open and Eyes closed. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs; group×condition) with repeated measures for the second factor assessed the differences associated with affected hemibody and vision on postural control. Analyses indicated that patients with the dominant side affected also presented significantly greater variation in center of pressure than those with the non-dominant side affected, mainly in the Eyes closed condition. The results demonstrate a higher reliance on vision in the dominant side, possibly to compensate somatosensory system impairments. These results also highlight the importance of analyzing the hemibody affected by the disease when postural control is assessed in this population.

  19. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks.

  20. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are β-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma

  1. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are β-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma

  2. Extramammary Paget disease of the perianal region: the potential role of imiquimod in achieving disease control

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Stephen R.; Proby, Charlotte; Ziyaie, Dorin; Carey, Frank; Koch, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare perineal neoplasia associated with a high rate of local recurrence. Surgical excision is the standard treatment; however, this has high rates of post-operative morbidity in combination with potentially mutilating results. Previous literature has demonstrated good response with imiquimod 5% cream in patients with vulval EMPD, yet its effectiveness in primary perianal disease is unknown. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman presenting with EMPD of the perianal region, providing detailed histological and pictoral evidence of its response to topical imiquimod 5% cream over a 16-week period, which initially resulted in remission prior to metastatic lymph node recurrence. This case demonstrates the potential for topical imiquimod cream to avoid major surgery and its associated complications in patients presenting with EMPD of the perianal region. We discuss the current evidence for treating this rare condition with medical therapy, how this case adds to current literature and possible future directions. PMID:27511910

  3. Ecological theory to enhance infectious disease control and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine F; Dobson, Andrew P; McKenzie, F Ellis; Real, Leslie A; Smith, David L; Wilson, Mark L

    2005-02-01

    Through the work of international public health organizations and advancements in the biological and technological sciences, substantial progress has been made in our ability to prevent, control, locally eliminate, and in one case eradicate infectious diseases. Yet each successful control or local elimination has been met with the emergence of new pathogens, the evolution of novel strains, or different epidemiological circumstances that have limited or reversed control methods. To respond to the increasing threat of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism it is vital that we design and implement efficient programs that prevent and control infectious pathogen transmission. The theoretical tools of ecology and epidemiology may be the cornerstone in constructing future programs aimed at preventing and controlling infectious diseases throughout the world. PMID:19838319

  4. Ecological theory to enhance infectious disease control and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine F; Dobson, Andrew P; McKenzie, F Ellis; Real, Leslie A; Smith, David L; Wilson, Mark L

    2005-02-01

    Through the work of international public health organizations and advancements in the biological and technological sciences, substantial progress has been made in our ability to prevent, control, locally eliminate, and in one case eradicate infectious diseases. Yet each successful control or local elimination has been met with the emergence of new pathogens, the evolution of novel strains, or different epidemiological circumstances that have limited or reversed control methods. To respond to the increasing threat of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism it is vital that we design and implement efficient programs that prevent and control infectious pathogen transmission. The theoretical tools of ecology and epidemiology may be the cornerstone in constructing future programs aimed at preventing and controlling infectious diseases throughout the world.

  5. Diseases, dilemmas, decisions-Converting epidemiological dilemmas into successful disease control decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, Roger S

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes 50 years of personal experience in dealing with a range of animal and zoonotic diseases at national and global level, using a series of selected examples to illustrate both the nature of the various dilemmas and difficulties faced, and the way in which they were solved using the tools and techniques that were available at the particular time. A major theme throughout has been the dependence on advancing computer technology, which initially allowed only simple analyses and modelling activities to be undertaken, but as computers have grown increasingly powerful, techniques such as Bayesian spatial regression have become available to the epidemiologist, making possible forms of analysis and disease modelling which had been mere dreams in earlier decades. There is now a need to integrate these tools and techniques into a toolbox which allows both epidemiological and economic analysis to be applied to virtually any type of disease, thereby further extending the capacity of epidemiologists to solve even more difficult problems in the future. PMID:26072199

  6. 75 FR 7483 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES); Correction AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting; meeting time correction. SUMMARY:...

  7. Diversified Control Paths: A Significant Way Disease Genes Perturb the Human Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingbo; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Qingfang; Li, Aimin; Deng, Yue; Guo, Xingli

    2015-01-01

    Background The complexity of biological systems motivates us to use the underlying networks to provide deep understanding of disease etiology and the human diseases are viewed as perturbations of dynamic properties of networks. Control theory that deals with dynamic systems has been successfully used to capture systems-level knowledge in large amount of quantitative biological interactions. But from the perspective of system control, the ways by which multiple genetic factors jointly perturb a disease phenotype still remain. Results In this work, we combine tools from control theory and network science to address the diversified control paths in complex networks. Then the ways by which the disease genes perturb biological systems are identified and quantified by the control paths in a human regulatory network. Furthermore, as an application, prioritization of candidate genes is presented by use of control path analysis and gene ontology annotation for definition of similarities. We use leave-one-out cross-validation to evaluate the ability of finding the gene-disease relationship. Results have shown compatible performance with previous sophisticated works, especially in directed systems. Conclusions Our results inspire a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive pathological processes. Diversified control paths offer a basis for integrated intervention techniques which will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26284649

  8. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  9. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  10. Epidemiology and detection as options for control of viral and parasitic foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jaykus, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Human enteric viruses and protozoal parasites are important causes of emerging food and waterborne disease. Epidemiologic investigation and detection of the agents in clinical, food, and water specimens, which are traditionally used to establish the cause of disease outbreaks, are either cumbersome, expensive, and frequently unavailable or unattempted for the important food and waterborne enteric viruses and protozoa. However, the recent introduction of regulatory testing mandates, alternative testing strategies, and increased epidemiologic surveillance for food and waterborne disease should significantly improve the ability to detect and control these agents. We discuss new methods of investigating foodborne viral and parasitic disease and the future of these methods in recognizing, identifying, and controlling disease agents. PMID:9366607

  11. Comprehensive strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Africa: future directions.

    PubMed

    Muna, Walinjom F T

    2013-01-01

    The countries of the Sub Saharan African region have insufficient resources and healthcare systems that are poorly adapted to cope with the longstanding burden associated with communicable diseases and the ongoing HIV/AIDS pandemic. In addition, the rising burden of non-communicable diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and their risk factors, poses additional challenges. These countries need to urgently develop strategies to address these challenges of disease prevention and control. These strategies will require a new vision and more relevant and 'suitable' vocabulary in dealing with healthcare design, planning and implementation (using a cross-sectorial approach). Lessons learnt from the past (e.g. primary health care) in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions of the world may equally prove useful in developing strategies for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Any potential strategy must emphasize the crucial role of economic, social, and environmental health determinants as well as the use of appropriate health technology.

  12. A model of self-regulation for control of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Clark, Noreen M; Gong, Molly; Kaciroti, Niko

    2014-10-01

    Chronic disease poses increasing threat to individual and community health. The day-to-day manager of disease is the patient who undertakes actions with the guidance of a clinician. The ability of the patient to control the illness through an effective therapeutic plan is significantly influenced by social and behavioral factors. This article presents a model of patient management of chronic disease that accounts for intrapersonal and external influences on management and emphasizes the central role of self-regulatory processes in disease control. Asthma serves as a case for exploration of the model. Findings from a 5-year study of 637 children with asthma and their care-taking parents supported that the self-regulation elements of the model were reasonably stable over time and baseline values were predictive of important disease management outcomes.

  13. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

  14. Neglected tropical disease control in post-war Sierra Leone using the Onchocerciasis Control Programme as a platform.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary E; Koroma, Joseph B; Sonnie, Mustapha; Kennedy, Ngozi; Cotter, Emily; Macarthur, Chad

    2011-06-01

    Strategic investments in the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) spearheaded by the US Government, the British Government and other bilateral donors such as foundations and key pharmaceutical partners have enabled the treatment of millions of people for the five targeted debilitating diseases (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and trachoma), paving the way for the potential elimination as public health problems of some of these diseases. Like many other countries, Sierra Leone has a high burden of these major NTDs. Despite the fragile infrastructure of a health system emerging from a devastating 10-year civil war, the country has successfully implemented the National NTD Control Programme, reaching national coverage in 2010. The NTD Control Programme uses the existing Onchocerciasis Control Programme as a platform and involves primary health workers. The programme has provided extensive training opportunities to health workers at national, district and community levels. The country currently has 31 161 trained community volunteers treating a population of five million people. It is shown that the investments in NTD control are not only to control NTDs but also to strengthen health systems, particularly at the primary level, through extensive capacity building of frontline health workers and community-directed distributors. PMID:24038179

  15. Indirect measurement of sinoatrial conduction time in patients with sinoatrial disease and in controls.

    PubMed Central

    Crook, B; Kitson, D; McComish, M; Jewitt, D

    1977-01-01

    Clinical recognition of sinoatrial disease currently depends on the presence of transient sinus bradycardia, sinoatrial block, or supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The value of clinical electrophysiological assessment in these patients is not clear. Using intracardiac electrophysiological recordings and programmed stimulation we have examined 14 patients with sinoatrial disease and 11 control patients undergoing investigation for chest pain. Intracardiac conduction times were normal in all patients. There was no significant difference of sinus node recovery times between the sinoatrial disease and control groups. Sinoatrial conduction times were measured by the indirect method and two populations were identified. However, the mean values of 128 +/- 27 ms in patients and 112 +/- 30 ms in controls were not significantly different and major overlap rendered this measurement clinically valueless. It is concluded that no current electrophysiological measurement has diagnostic value in patients with sinoatrial disease. PMID:884027

  16. New Insights into Mechanisms Controlling the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Its Role in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Nardo, Dominic; De Nardo, Christine M.; Latz, Eicke

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes are large macromolecular signaling complexes that control the proteolytic activation of two highly proinflammatory IL-1 family cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is of special interest because it can assemble in response to a diverse array of stimuli and because the inflammation it triggers has been implicated in a wide variety of disease pathologies. To avoid aberrant activation, the NLRP3 inflammasome is modulated on multiple levels, ranging from transcriptional control to post-translational protein modifications. Emerging genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that NLRP3 inflammasome activation may also be involved in acute lung inflammation after viral infection and during progression of several chronic pulmonary diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. Here, we review the most recent contributions to our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and discuss the contribution of the NLRP3 inflammasome to the pathology of lung diseases. PMID:24183846

  17. Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts.

    PubMed

    Marais, Ben J; Lönnroth, Knut; Lawn, Stephen D; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Mwaba, Peter; Glaziou, Philippe; Bates, Matthew; Colagiuri, Ruth; Zijenah, Lynn; Swaminathan, Soumya; Memish, Ziad A; Pletschette, Michel; Hoelscher, Michael; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hasan, Rumina; Zafar, Afia; Pantaleo, Guiseppe; Craig, Gill; Kim, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-05-01

    Recent data for the global burden of disease reflect major demographic and lifestyle changes, leading to a rise in non-communicable diseases. Most countries with high levels of tuberculosis face a large comorbidity burden from both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Traditional disease-specific approaches typically fail to recognise common features and potential synergies in integration of care, management, and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases. In resource-limited countries, the need to tackle a broader range of overlapping comorbid diseases is growing. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS persist as global emergencies. The lethal interaction between tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in adults, children, and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa exemplifies the need for well integrated approaches to disease management and control. Furthermore, links between diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcoholism, chronic lung diseases, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment, malnutrition, and tuberculosis are well recognised. Here, we focus on interactions, synergies, and challenges of integration of tuberculosis care with management strategies for non-communicable and communicable diseases without eroding the functionality of existing national programmes for tuberculosis. The need for sustained and increased funding for these initiatives is greater than ever and requires increased political and funder commitment.

  18. Public policy for the control of tobacco-related disease.

    PubMed

    Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A

    1992-03-01

    Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual

  19. Modelling geographic variation in the cost-effectiveness of control policies for infectious vector diseases: the example of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Chalabi, Zaid; Lord, Joanne; Guhl, Felipe; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Davies, Clive; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2008-03-01

    Few cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models have accounted for geographic variation in input parameters. This paper describes a deterministic discrete-time multi-state model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of vector control policies for Chagas disease, where implementation varies according to village characteristics. The model outputs include the total number of new infections, disability adjusted life years (DALYs) incurred, costs of associated healthcare, and total costs of the Ministry of Health's control policy for house surveillance and spraying. Incremental net benefits were estimated to determine Colombian villages in which it is cost-effective to implement the control policy. The robustness of these conclusions was evaluated by deterministic sensitivity analyses. The model should help provide a decision-support system to compare control policies and to allocate resources geographically. PMID:18222556

  20. Control selection strategies in case-control studies of childhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaomei; Buffler, Patricia A; Layefsky, Michael; Does, Monique B; Reynolds, Peggy

    2004-05-15

    To address concerns regarding the representativeness of controls in case-control studies, two selection strategies were evaluated in a study of childhood leukemia, which commenced in California in 1995. The authors selected two controls per case: one from among children identified by using computerized birth records and located successfully, the other from a roster of friends; both were matched on demographic factors. Sixty-four birth certificate-friend control pairs were enrolled (n = 128). Additionally, 192 "ideal" controls were selected without tracing from the birth records. Data on parental ages, parental education, mother's reproductive history, and birth weight were obtained from the birth certificates of all 320 subjects. For all variables except birth weight, the differences between birth certificate and ideal controls were smaller than those between friend and ideal controls. None of the differences between birth certificate and ideal controls was significant, whereas two factors were significantly different between friend and ideal controls. These findings suggest that friend controls may be less representative than birth certificate controls. Despite difficulty in tracing and a seemingly low participation rate (49.0% for 560 enrolled birth certificate controls), using birth records to recruit controls appears to provide a representative sample of children and an opportunity to assess the representativeness of controls. PMID:15128601

  1. Alternative splicing of the beta A4 amyloid gene of Alzheimer's disease in cortex of control and Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    König, G; Salbaum, J M; Wiestler, O; Lang, W; Schmitt, H P; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1991-02-01

    An S1 nuclease protection assay was designed to study the splicing pattern of the alternatively spliced beta A4 amyloid gene (APP gene) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We determined the splicing pattern of the APP gene in fetal, adult, aged adult and AD human cortex. The results suggest that alternative splicing of the APP gene in AD is not significantly different from age-matched controls, but distinct from the developing fetal brain.

  2. Disease and Polygenic Architecture: Avoid Trio Design and Appropriately Account for Unscreened Control Subjects for Common Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peyrot, Wouter J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Wray, Naomi R.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are an optimal design for discovery of disease risk loci for diseases whose underlying genetic architecture includes many common causal loci of small effect (a polygenic architecture). We consider two designs that deserve careful consideration if the true underlying genetic architecture of the trait is polygenic: parent-offspring trios and unscreened control subjects. We assess these designs in terms of quantification of the total contribution of genome-wide genetic markers to disease risk (SNP heritability) and power to detect an associated risk allele. First, we show that trio designs should be avoided when: (1) the disease has a lifetime risk > 1%; (2) trio probands are ascertained from families with more than one affected sibling under which scenario the SNP heritability can drop by more than 50% and power can drop as much as from 0.9 to 0.15 for a sample of 20,000 subjects; or (3) assortative mating occurs (spouse correlation of the underlying liability to the disorder), which decreases the SNP heritability but not the power to detect a single locus in the trio design. Some studies use unscreened rather than screened control subjects because these can be easier to collect; we show that the estimated SNP heritability should then be scaled by dividing by (1 − K × u)2 for disorders with population prevalence K and proportion of unscreened control subjects u. When omitting to scale appropriately, the SNP heritability of, for example, major depressive disorder (K = 0.15) would be underestimated by 28% when none of the control subjects are screened. PMID:26849113

  3. [The importance of adequate medical history taking in dentistry].

    PubMed

    van Diermen, D E; Brand, H S; Vissink, A

    2006-05-01

    A patient's medical history is a vital part of his or her dental history and increases the dentist's awareness of diseases and medication which might interfere with the patient's dental treatment. This article describes the essential characteristics of a solid medical history, according to the Dutch Guidelines for Dental Education published in 1997. In future the importance of patients' medical histories will increase along with the number of medically complex patients who visit the dental general practice. PMID:16729560

  4. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... the Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs for the Elimination and Control of Neglected Tropical... review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Strengthening the Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs for the Elimination and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in...

  5. Schistosomiasis: The Social Challenge of Controlling a Man-Made Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemma, Aklilu

    1973-01-01

    There is an indication of a method for curbing or controlling schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. Modern technological advances in applied pharmacology have not provided a satisfactory remedy but a simple natural product, an endod berry, has been used to control the disease on a self-help basis. (EB)

  6. Efficacious insect and disease control with laser-guided air-assisted sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of a newly developed air-assisted variable-rate sprayer was investigated for the control of arthropod pests and plant diseases in six commercial fields. The sprayer was integrated with a high-speed laser scanning sensor, a custom-designed signal processing program, an automatic flow control...

  7. 75 FR 27561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... dictate. Contact Person For More Information: Jane Suen, Dr.P.H., M.S., National Center for Injury... Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Date: 1 p.m.-4 p.m., July 8... Services Office Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  8. Statistical Colocalization of Genetic Risk Variants for Related Autoimmune Diseases in the Context of Common Controls

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Mary D.; Guo, Hui; Burren, Oliver; Schofield, Ellen; Walker, Neil M.; Ban, Maria; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Bowes, John; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Ann; Eyre, Steve; Todd, John A.; Wallace, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Identifying whether potential causal variants for related diseases are shared can identify overlapping etiologies of multifactorial disorders. Colocalization methods disentangle shared and distinct causal variants. However, existing approaches require independent datasets. Here we extend two colocalization methods to allow for the shared control design commonly used in comparison of genome-wide association study results across diseases. Our analysis of four autoimmune diseases, type 1 diabetes (T1D), rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease and multiple sclerosis, revealed 90 regions that were associated with at least one disease, 33 (37%) of which with two or more disorders. Nevertheless, for 14 of these 33 shared regions there was evidence that causal variants differed. We identified novel disease associations in 11 regions previously associated with one or more of the other three disorders. Four of eight T1D-specific regions contained known type 2 diabetes candidate genes: COBL, GLIS3, RNLS and BCAR1, suggesting a shared cellular etiology. PMID:26053495

  9. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  10. Ending versus controlling versus employing addiction in the tobacco-caused disease endgame: moral psychological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2013-01-01

    Even though interest in reducing or eliminating tobacco-caused diseases is a common goal in tobacco control, many experts hold different views on addiction as a target of intervention. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a tobacco-caused disease to be eliminated alongside the other diseases. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a much lower priority disease to be eliminated, and a subset of this group is prepared to employ addiction to tobacco (nicotine) as a tool to reduce other tobacco-caused disease. These varying attitudes towards ending, controlling or employing tobacco addiction to reduce damage from tobacco use constitute quite different approaches to tobacco control and cause conflict among those in tobacco control. Moral psychological analyses argue that there is more than scientific evidence involved in supporting this continuum of approaches. Divergent values also influence positions in tobacco control. Attention to these values as well as the scientific evidence should be included in policy and practice in tobacco control. It is not that one constellation of values is necessarily superior, but debates need to be informed by and engage discussions of these values as well as the scientific evidence. PMID:23591503

  11. Occupational risk factors and Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Shalat, S.L.; Seltzer, B.; Baker, E.L. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    A case-control study was conducted to assess occupational exposure to organic solvents and lead as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. All case subjects were diagnosed at a Veterans Administration Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts. Control subjects were selected from Massachusetts voter registration lists and matched by sex, year of birth, and town of residence. Information on occupational history was assessed by mailed questionnaire sent to the spouse or next of kin of the study subject. A total of 98 case and 162 control subjects were included in the matched analysis. No apparent association of increased risk of Alzheimer's disease was observed for ever having occupational exposure to organic solvents or lead.

  12. New insights into mycoviruses and exploration for the biological control of crop fungal diseases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong

    2014-01-01

    Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi. A growing number of novel mycoviruses have expanded our knowledge of virology, particularly in taxonomy, ecology, and evolution. Recent progress in the study of mycoviruses has comprehensively improved our understanding of the properties of mycoviruses and has strengthened our confidence to explore hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses that control crop diseases. In this review, the advantages of using hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses to control crop diseases are discussed, and, as an example, the potential for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1) to control the stem rot of rapeseed (Brassica napus) is also introduced. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is likely to be the key factor that limits the wide utilization of mycoviruses to control crop diseases; however, there are suggested strategies for resolving this problem. PMID:25001452

  13. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  14. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

  15. Recent advances in molecular medicine techniques for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    França, R F O; da Silva, C C; De Paula, S O

    2013-06-01

    In recent years we have observed great advances in our ability to combat infectious diseases. Through the development of novel genetic methodologies, including a better understanding of pathogen biology, pathogenic mechanisms, advances in vaccine development, designing new therapeutic drugs, and optimization of diagnostic tools, significant infectious diseases are now better controlled. Here, we briefly describe recent reports in the literature concentrating on infectious disease control. The focus of this review is to describe the molecular methods widely used in the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases with regard to the innovation of molecular techniques. Since the list of pathogenic microorganisms is extensive, we emphasize some of the major human infectious diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, rotavirus, herpes virus, viral hepatitis, and dengue fever). As a consequence of these developments, infectious diseases will be more accurately and effectively treated; safe and effective vaccines are being developed and rapid detection of infectious agents now permits countermeasures to avoid potential outbreaks and epidemics. But, despite considerable progress, infectious diseases remain a strong challenge to human survival. PMID:23339016

  16. Recent advances in molecular medicine techniques for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    França, R F O; da Silva, C C; De Paula, S O

    2013-06-01

    In recent years we have observed great advances in our ability to combat infectious diseases. Through the development of novel genetic methodologies, including a better understanding of pathogen biology, pathogenic mechanisms, advances in vaccine development, designing new therapeutic drugs, and optimization of diagnostic tools, significant infectious diseases are now better controlled. Here, we briefly describe recent reports in the literature concentrating on infectious disease control. The focus of this review is to describe the molecular methods widely used in the diagnosis, prevention, and control of infectious diseases with regard to the innovation of molecular techniques. Since the list of pathogenic microorganisms is extensive, we emphasize some of the major human infectious diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, rotavirus, herpes virus, viral hepatitis, and dengue fever). As a consequence of these developments, infectious diseases will be more accurately and effectively treated; safe and effective vaccines are being developed and rapid detection of infectious agents now permits countermeasures to avoid potential outbreaks and epidemics. But, despite considerable progress, infectious diseases remain a strong challenge to human survival.

  17. The evolutions of medical building network structure for emerging infectious disease protection and control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Zhang, Hongzhe; Zhang, Shanshan

    2014-12-01

    Emerging infectious disease is one of the most minatory threats in modern society. A perfect medical building network system need to be established to protect and control emerging infectious disease. Although in China a preliminary medical building network is already set up with disease control center, the infectious disease hospital, infectious diseases department in general hospital and basic medical institutions, there are still many defects in this system, such as simple structural model, weak interoperability among subsystems, and poor capability of the medical building to adapt to outbreaks of infectious disease. Based on the characteristics of infectious diseases, the whole process of its prevention and control and the comprehensive influence factors, three-dimensional medical architecture network system is proposed as an inevitable trend. In this conception of medical architecture network structure, the evolutions are mentioned, such as from simple network system to multilayer space network system, from static network to dynamic network, and from mechanical network to sustainable network. Ultimately, a more adaptable and corresponsive medical building network system will be established and argued in this paper.

  18. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Haidar; Al-Jawad, Abdulfatah; Al-Shayeb, Mahdi; Al-Ali, Ali; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This is a pilot case-control study conducted to investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease and examine the possible association between oral health deterioration and SCD severity in a sample of Saudi SCD patients residing in the city of Al-Qatif, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods Dental examination to determine the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and plaque index system were recorded for 33 SCD patients and 33 age and sex-matched controls in the Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Self-administered surveys used to assess socio-economic status; oral health behaviors for both SCD patients and controls were recorded. In addition, the disease severity index was established for all patients with SCD. SPSS data analysis software package version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Numerical variables were described as mean with a standard deviation. Results Decayed teeth were significantly more in individuals with ages ranging from 18 to 38 years with SCD compared to the control group (p = 0.036) due to oral hygiene negligence. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in individuals with SCD when compared to the control group (p = 0.015) due to the lack of appropriate and timely treatment reflected in the survey responses of SCD patients as 15.2% only taking oral care during hospitalization. There were differences between the cases and controls in the known caries risk factors such as income level, flossing, and brushing habit. The DMFT, CPI, and plaque index systems did not differ significantly between the SCD patients and the control group. Conclusion Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD. PMID:25544813

  19. [Disease control in the Red Army during the final stages of the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Butakov, S S; Berskii, O V; Zetkin, A Yu; Zobov, A E

    2015-05-01

    Forms and methods of disease, control in troops were fully developed during the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 years. An improvement of anti-epidemic organization in the Red Army was based on military medical doctrine, which demanded united views on methods of disease prevention and in accordance with the 'main tasks of medical support of the army, including prevention of epidemic outbreaks in the army. Disease control system in the Red Army during the war was a series of targeted, science-based and proved by military practice measures .aimed at both the prevention and the immediate elimination of epidemic diseases. when they occur. The questions of disease control forces in the final stage of the Great Patriotic War (January 1944 - May 1945). Depending on the progress of the war and the conditions of the fighting, given the period laid down in the principles of disease control of military operations, discussed aspects of the organization of sanitary-epidemiological (preventive) measures in the armed forces.

  20. Sugarcane smut and its control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...