Science.gov

Sample records for adequate energy resolution

  1. In situ sampling in coastal waters - in search for an adequate spatial resolution for chlorophyll monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolvanen, H.; Suominen, T.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow coastal archipelagos give rise to highly dynamic water quality patterns. In situ sampling inevitably loses detail of this spatio-temporal variation, regardless of the spatial and temporal resolution of the monitoring. In the shallow coastal areas of SW Finland in the Baltic Sea, the spatio-temporal variation of water properties is especially high due to the complexity of the archipelago environment and its bathymetry. Water quality monitoring is traditionally carried out in situ on a point network with 5-20 km distance between the sampling stations. Also the temporal coverage is irregular and often focused to the high summer (late July to early August) to capture the highest algal occurrences resulting from eutrophication. The amount of phytoplankton may have irregular vertical variation caused by local prevailing conditions, and therefore the biomass within the productive layer is usually measured by the amount of chlorophyll as a collective sample of the single vertical profile per station. However, the amount of phytoplankton varies also horizontally over short distances in the coastal water that may be homogenous in temperature and salinity. We tested the representativeness of the traditional single sampling station method by expanding the measurement station into six parallel sampling points within a 0.25 km2 area around the station. We measured the chlorophyll content in depth profiles from 1 m to 10 m depth using an optical water quality sonde. This sampling scheme provides us with a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of phytoplankton in the water mass. The data include three six-point stations in different parts of the coastal archipelago. All stations were sampled several times during the growing season of 2007. In this paper, we compare the results of the established one-point collective depth sampling with the locally extended sampling scheme that portrays also the small-scale horizontal variation of phytoplankton. We

  2. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moszyński, M.; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.

  3. A resolution to permit the waiving of the reading of an amendment if the text and adequate notice are provided.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2011-01-27

    01/27/2011 Resolution agreed to in Senate, having achieved 60 votes in the affirmative, without amendment by Yea-Nay Vote. 81 - 15. Record Vote Number: 3. (text: CR S327) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. The land component of the global climate system with adequate spatial resolution. Final report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, R.E.; Hahmann, A.N.; Zeng, X.; Chen, M.; Vaughan, J.; Auvine, B.A.

    1994-11-30

    The focus of the work done under this grant has been to couple global circulation models (in particular, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model Version 2 (CCM2)) to a land-surface model at a much finer mesh than that used for the atmospheric processes. The end objective has been to incorporate into the CHAMMP modeling system a state-of-the-art land model on a mesh independent of the atmospheric model resolution. Efforts have emphasized the following: development and graphical displays of the fine-mesh land surface boundary conditions; the data structures required to carry out integrations on the land fine-mesh; the physical parameterization required to diaggregate model precipitation; analyses of the NCAR 10-year control simulation of the frozen version of CM2/BATS; implementation of changes in the cloud optical properties to mitgate excess incident solar radiation and temperatures over middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere summer; prototype development of the CCM2/BASTS fine-mesh treatment.

  5. How Adequate are One- and Two-Dimensional Free Energy Landscapes for Protein Folding Dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    Maisuradze, Gia G.; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular dynamics trajectories of protein folding or unfolding, generated with the coarse-grained united-residue force field for the B domain of staphylococcal protein A, were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The folding or unfolding process was examined by using free-energy landscapes (FELs) in PC space. By introducing a novel multidimensional FEL, it was shown that the low-dimensional FELs are not always sufficient for the description of folding or unfolding processes. Similarities between the topographies of FELs along low- and high-indexed principal components were observed. PMID:19658975

  6. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  7. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  8. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wratten, Stephen D.; Porter, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  9. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  10. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  11. High resolution at low beam energy in the SEM: resolution measurement of a monochromated SEM.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    The resolution of secondary electron low beam energy imaging of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a monochromator is quantitatively measured using the contrast transfer function (CTF) method. High-resolution images, with sub-nm resolutions, were produced using low beam energies. The use of a monochromator is shown to quantitatively improve the resolution of the SEM at low beam energies by limiting the chromatic aberration contribution to the electron probe size as demonstrated with calculations and images of suitable samples. Secondary electron image resolution at low beam energies is ultimately limited by noise in the images as shown by the CTFs.

  12. Composition and Energy Resolution with HAWC300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel-Arias, Zigfried

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a ground based TeV gamma-ray detector currently being deployed on the slopes of Volc'an Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The HAWC Observatory is an air shower array that will consist of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each equipped with 4 upward-facing photomultiplier tubes, covering a total instrumented area of 22,000 m^2 at an altitude of 4100 m asl. We will discuss a proposed primary particle and energy estimator that uses the lateral distribution of a given air shower, i.e. the distribution of charge as a function of the distance to the central core of the shower. For a given event hit-pattern on the HAWC array, we use a maximum likelihood approach to identify the most likely mass and energy of the primary particle. The likelihood of hit patterns is calculated using probability tables based on simulated gamma-ray and hadronic showers that trigger the HAWC detector. Prior information, such as the core distribution of triggered events and the relative abundance of protons and gammas, can be taken into account. We will report on the efficiency for identifying the primary particle and the energy resolution of the proposed technique.

  13. EFTEM spectrum imaging at high-energy resolution.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bernhard; Kothleitner, Gerald; Grogger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of high-energy resolution EFTEM image series and the corrections needed for reliable data interpretation. The detail of spectral information gained from an image series is largely determined by the intrinsic energy resolution. In this work we show that energy resolution values of as low as 0.8 eV in spectra extracted from EFTEM image series can be obtained with a small energy-selecting slit. At this resolution level aberrations of the energy filter, in particular the non-isochromaticity, can no longer be neglected. We show that the four most prominent factors for EFTEM image series data correction--spatial drift, non-isochromaticity, energy drift and image distortion--must not be treated independently but have to be corrected in unison. We present an efficient algorithm for this correction, and demonstrate the applied correction for the case of a GaN/AlN multilayer sample. PMID:16872748

  14. Photon Detector For Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy With Improved Energy Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.

    2011-07-15

    We present the results from newly designed and fabricated double window photon detector to improve the overall energy resolution for inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). This simple design allows us to introduce an absorption gas (Krypton) to decrease the band-width of the energy selective photon detector and thus improve the resolution. Resonance absorption line of Kr of wavelength of 123.6 nm was used. By fitting the Fermi edge of the IPES spectrum of silver, we find an overall energy resolution improved by 73 meV. The design is modular and ensures ease and safety of handling.

  15. A high resolution WRF model for wind energy forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Liu, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of wind energy into national electricity markets has increased the demand for accurate surface layer wind forecasts. There has recently been a focus on forecasting the wind at wind farm sites using both statistical models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent advances in computing capacity and non-hydrostatic NWP models means that it is possible to nest mesoscale models down to Large Eddy Simulation (LES) scales over the spatial area of a typical wind farm. For example, the WRF model (Skamarock 2008) has been run at a resolution of 123 m over a wind farm site in complex terrain in Colorado (Liu et al. 2009). Although these modelling attempts indicate a great hope for applying such models for detailed wind forecasts over wind farms, one of the obvious challenges of running the model at this resolution is that while some boundary layer structures are expected to be modelled explicitly, boundary layer eddies into the inertial sub-range can only be partly captured. Therefore, the amount and nature of sub-grid-scale mixing that is required is uncertain. Analysis of Liu et al. (2009) modelling results in comparison to wind farm observations indicates that unrealistic wind speed fluctuations with a period of around 1 hour occasionally occurred during the two day modelling period. The problem was addressed by re-running the same modelling system with a) a modified diffusion constant and b) two-way nesting between the high resolution model and its parent domain. The model, which was run with horizontal grid spacing of 370 m, had dimensions of 505 grid points in the east-west direction and 490 points in the north-south direction. It received boundary conditions from a mesoscale model of resolution 1111 m. Both models had 37 levels in the vertical. The mesoscale model was run with a non-local-mixing planetary boundary layer scheme, while the 370 m model was run with no planetary boundary layer scheme. It was found that increasing the

  16. High resolution energy analyzer for broad ion beam characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kanarov, V.; Hayes, A.; Yevtukhov, R.; Siegfried, D.; Sferlazzo, P.

    2008-09-15

    Characterization of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) of low energy high current density ion beams by conventional retarding field and deflection type energy analyzers is limited due to finite ion beam emittance and beam space charge spreading inside the analyzer. These deficiencies are, to a large extent, overcome with the recent development of the variable-focusing retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA), which has a cylindrical focusing electrode preceding the planar retarding grid. The principal concept of this analyzer is conversion of a divergent charged particle beam into a quasiparallel beam before analyzing it by the planar retarding field. This allows analysis of the beam particle total kinetic energy distribution with greatly improved energy resolution. Whereas this concept was first applied to analyze 5-10 keV pulsed electron beams, the present authors have adapted it to analyze the energy distribution of a low energy ({<=}1 KeV) broad ion beam. In this paper we describe the RFEA design, which was modified from the original, mainly as required by the specifics of broad ion beam energy analysis, and the device experimental characterization and modeling results. Among the modifications, an orifice electrode placed in front of the RFEA provides better spatial resolution of the broad ion beam ion optics emission region and reduces the beam plasma density in the vicinity of analyzer entry. An electron repeller grid placed in front of the RFEA collector was found critical for suppressing secondary electrons, both those incoming to the collector and those released from its surface, and improved energy spectrum measurement repeatability and accuracy. The use of finer mesh single- and double-grid retarding structures reduces the retarding grid lens effect and improves the analyzer energy resolution and accuracy of the measured spectrum mean energy. However, additional analyzer component and configuration improvements did not further change the analyzed

  17. Inelastic x-ray scattering at modest energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, K. D.; Tischler, J. Z.; Larson, B. C.

    1997-07-01

    We report results from the development of an inelastic scattering spectrometer designed to take advantage of high energy synchrotron radiation available at CHESS. The device allows a large increase of the effective scattering volume in the sample by permitting measurements to be made in an energy range up to 25 KeV. The highest useable energy appears limited by the efficiency of the analyzers under consideration. At 20 KeV a novel 4-bounce, sagittal focusing monochromator passes 10e11 photons/second with Darwin width limited energy resolution. In the scattering plane, the monochromator images the electron beam producing a small scattering source for the analyzing optics. Analyzer systems under study include a cooled mosaic crystal in para-focusing geometry, and an adjustable spherically bent silicon crystal respectively for parallel and point-by-point collection of the energy loss spectrum. This paper discusses the optical configurations presents results from our early measurements and suggests directions for improvements.

  18. Higher signal harmonics, LISA's angular resolution, and dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Arun, K. G.; Iyer, Bala R.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Broeck, Chris van den; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2007-11-15

    It is generally believed that the angular resolution of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for binary supermassive black holes (SMBH) will not be good enough to identify the host galaxy or galaxy cluster. This conclusion, based on using only the dominant harmonic of the binary SMBH signal, changes substantially when higher signal harmonics are included in assessing the parameter estimation problem. We show that in a subset of the source parameter space the angular resolution increases by more than a factor of 10, thereby making it possible for LISA to identify the host galaxy/galaxy cluster. Thus, LISA's observation of certain binary SMBH coalescence events could constrain the dark energy equation of state to within a few percent, comparable to the level expected from other dark energy missions.

  19. A diamond 14 MeV neutron energy spectrometer with high energy resolution.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H; Ochiai, Kentaro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Shimmyo, Hiroaki; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Shikata, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki

    2016-02-01

    A self-standing single-crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond was obtained using lift-off method. It was fabricated into a radiation detector and response function measurements for 14 MeV neutrons were taken at the fusion neutronics source. 1.5% of high energy resolution was obtained by using the (12)C(n, α)(9)Be reaction at an angle of 100° with the deuteron beam line. The intrinsic energy resolution, excluding energy spreading caused by neutron scattering, slowing in the target and circuit noises was 0.79%, which was also the best resolution of the diamond detector ever reported.

  20. Picowatt Resolution Calorimetry for Micro and Nanoscale Energy Transport Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Seid H.

    Precise quantification of energy transport is key to obtaining insights into a wide range of phenomena across various disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This thesis describes technical advancements into heat-flow calorimetry which enable measurement of energy transport at micro and nanoscales with picowatt resolution. I have developed two types of microfabricated calorimeter devices and demonstrated single digit picowatt resolution at room temperature. Both devices incorporate two distinct features; an active area isolated by a thermal conductance (GTh) of less than 1 microW/K and a high resolution thermometer with temperature resolution (DeltaTres) in the micro kelvin regime. These features enable measurements of heat currents (q) with picowatt resolution (q= Th xDeltaTres). In the first device the active area is suspended via silicon nitride beams with excellent thermal isolation (~600 nW/K) and a bimaterial cantilever (BMC) thermometer with temperature resolution of ~6 microK. Taken together this design enabled calorimetric measurements with 4 pW resolution. In the second device, the BMC thermometry technique is replaced by a high-resolution resistance thermometry scheme. A detailed noise analysis of resistance thermometers, confirmed by experimental data, enabled me to correctly predict the resolution of different measurement schemes and propose techniques to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of resistive thermometers. By incorporating resistance thermometers with temperature resolution of ~30 microK, combined with a thermal isolation of ~150 nW/K, I demonstrated an all-electrical calorimeter device with a resolution of ~ 5 pW. Finally, I used these calorimeters to study Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer (NF-RHT). Using these devices, we studied--for the first time--the effect of film thickness on the NF-RHT between two dielectric surfaces. We showed that even a very thin film (~50 nm) of silicon

  1. Effect of Varying the Energy Density of Protein-adequate Diets on Nutrient Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry, Immune Response and Growth of Muzaffarnagari Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, V. K.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Goswami, T. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of varied dietary energy densities on immune response and performance of Muzzafarnagari lambs were ascertained in a 180-d study. Animals (n = 24), in three groups, were fed diets providing 100% (100E), 80% (80E) or 70% (70E) of their metabolizable energy requirement. Mean nutrient digestibilities varied significantly among treatments. Nitrogen intake was lower (p<0.01) in the 70E. Nitrogen retention, was reduced (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E. The average daily gain (p<0.001) was 47.01±4.23, 13.54±1.72 and -16.67±8.24 g for 100E, 80E and 70E, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, total and differential leukocyte counts were lower (p<0.001) for 80E and 70E than for 100E with a similar trend (p<0.05) for serum glucose and total protein. Serum cortisol was reduced (p<0.001) with decreased energy availability. Antibody titre to Brucella abortus S19 showed an initial reduction in 80E and 70E vs 100E. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response was lower (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E, accompanying a lower (p<0.001) nitric oxide production by the peripheral lymphocytes. It is concluded that the reduced dietary energy density significantly affects the growth performance and immune response of lambs. PMID:25049889

  2. Inelastic x-ray scattering at modest energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, K.D.; Larson, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    We report results from the development of an inelastic scattering spectrometer designed to take advantage of high energy synchrotron radiation available at CHESS. The device allows a large increase of the effective scattering volume in the sample by permitting measurements to be made in an energy range up to 25 KeV. The highest useable energy appears limited by the efficiency of the analyzers under consideration. At 20 KeV a novel 4-bounce, sagittal focusing monochromator passes 10e11 photons/second with Darwin width limited energy resolution. In the scattering plane, the monochromator images the electron beam producing a small scattering source for the analyzing optics. Analyzer systems under study include a cooled mosaic crystal in para-focusing geometry, and an adjustable spherically bent silicon crystal respectively for parallel and point-by-point collection of the energy loss spectrum. This paper discusses the optical configurations presents results from our early measurements and suggests directions for improvements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. X-ray diamond detectors with energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, G.; Girolami, M.; Salvatori, S.; Ralchenko, V.

    2007-10-29

    Polycrystalline diamond detectors with energy resolving capability of the impinging beam were realized and tested by using a miniature pyroelectric x-ray pulse generator. Microstrip structures were defined by photolithography aimed to reduce parasitic capacitances and to perform characterization measurements in a sandwich configuration. Leakage currents as low as 20 pA at 500 V were measured on a 270 {mu}m thick device. Pulse height distributions were carried out around Ta L{alpha} (8.14 keV) and Cu K{alpha} (8.05 keV) characteristic lines of the source. Energy resolution at 200 V was found equal to 9% with an increase to 11% at 500 V. When the bias was increased to the maximum voltage the sample shows an Ohmic behavior.

  4. Energy resolution analysis of a domestic neutron imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Marissa Louise

    The calibration and correction of the Neutron Spectroscope (NSPECT) time-of-flight (ToF) system are presented. This instrument is a double-scatter telescope designed to detect neutrons and gamma rays for the identification and location of radioactive materials. The ToF resolution is 0.72 ns FWHM. Results are reported for the ToF characterization using data obtained in the laboratory. An anomalous feature in the gamma-ray energy spectra measured with NSPECT neutron detectors is examined. A design based on NSPECT is proposed for the assay of spent nuclear fuel, where portability is increased in exchange for source location capabilities. The proposed modular device is modifiable for numerous safety applications at participating facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. Optimization of the instrument to characterize alpha-neutron reactions in irradiated fuel is discussed. A delicate balance between energy resolution and detector efficiency is required. Results from laboratory testing are reported and compared to NSPECT measurements.

  5. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  10. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution. PMID:26329206

  11. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  12. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  13. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  14. Superconducting High Energy Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D T

    2002-02-22

    We have demonstrated that a bulk absorber coupled to a TES can serve as a good gamma-ray spectrometer. Our measured energy resolution of 70 eV at 60 keV is among the best measurements in this field. We have also shown excellent agreement between the noise predictions and measured noise. Despite this good result, we noted that our detector design has shortcomings with a low count rate and vulnerabilities with the linearity of energy response. We addressed these issues by implementation of an active negative feedback bias. We demonstrated the effects of active bias such as additional pulse shortening, reduction of TES change in temperature during a pulse, and linearization of energy response at low energy. Linearization at higher energy is possible with optimized heat capacities and thermal conductivities of the microcalorimeter. However, the current fabrication process has low control and repeatability over the thermal properties. Thus, optimization of the detector performance is difficult until the fabrication process is improved. Currently, several efforts are underway to better control the fabrication of our gamma-ray spectrometers. We are developing a full-wafer process to produce TES films. We are investigating the thermal conductivity and surface roughness of thicker SiN membranes. We are exploring alternative methods to couple the absorber to the TES film for reproducibility. We are also optimizing the thermal conductivities within the detector to minimize two-element phonon noise. We are experimenting with different absorber materials to optimize absorption efficiency and heat capacity. We are also working on minimizing Johnson noise from the E S shunt and SQUID amplifier noise. We have shown that our performance, noise, and active bias models agree very well with measured data from several microcalorimeters. Once the fabrication improvements have been implemented, we have no doubt that our gamma-ray spectrometer will achieve even more spectacular results.

  15. High resolution, low energy avalanche photodiode X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Vanderpuye, K.; Entine, G.; Squillante, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes have been fabricated, and their performance as X-ray detectors has been measured. Photon sensitivity and energy resolution were measured as a function of size and operating parameters. Noise thresholds as low as 212 eV were obtained at room temperature, and backscatter X-ray fluorescence data were obtained for aluminum and other light elements. It is concluded that the results with the X-ray detector are extremely encouraging, and the performance is challenging the best available proportional counters. While not at the performance level of either cryogenic silicon or HgI2, these device operate at room temperature and can be reproduced in large numbers and with much larger areas than typically achieved with HgI2. In addition, they are rugged and appear to be indefinitely stable.

  16. Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jiadong; Lin, Jing; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei

    2015-06-01

    Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method.

  17. Ultralow Energy Electron Attachment at Sub-Millielectron Volt Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Kortyna, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Howe, P. -T.

    1999-01-01

    The technique of rare-gas photoionization has been extended by use of direct laser ionization to electron energies epsilon in the range 0-100 meV, with a resolution Delta(epsilon) of 0.4-0.5 meV (FWHM). Tunable UV light at (Lambda)276 nm is produced using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and nonlinear mixing techniques. The beam is frequency tripled in a pulsed jet of xenon. The VUV radiation, tunable at (Lambda)92 nm, is then used to photoionize Xe at its 2P(sub 1/2) threshold (single-photon ionization). The photoelectrons produced interact with admixed target gas to generate negative ions through the s-wave capture process. Recent results in electron attachment to SF(sub 6) will be reported which show resonance structure at the opening of the ground-state vibrational channels. This structure corresponds to the process of vibrational excitation + attachment, which is superimposed on the underlying s-wave (direct) capture process. It should be a general phenomenon, present in a wide variety of zero-energy electron attaching molecules.

  18. High energy, high resolution X-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Joy, Marshall; Kahn, Steven

    1990-01-01

    The scientific goals of X-ray astronomy are considered to evaluate the relative advantages of using classical Wolter-1 optics or using a different approach. The portion of the X-ray band over 10 keV is unexploited in the present X-ray optics technology, and focussing in this portion of the band is crucial because nonfocussed experiments are background limited. The basic design of 'hard' X-ray optics is described theoretically emphasizing the very small angles of incidence in the grazing-incidence optics. Optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio is found to occur at a finite angular resolution. In real applications, the effective area reduced by the efficiency of the two reflections is 80 percent at energies up to 40 keV, and the quality of the reflecting surface can be monitored to minimize scattering. Focussing optics are found to offer improvements in signal-to-noise as well as more effective scientific return because microelectronic focal-plane technology is employed.

  19. High resolution kinetic energy by long time-delayed core-sampling photofragment translational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guosheng; Hwang, Hyun Jin; Jung, Hyun Chai

    2005-02-01

    A pulsed core-sampling photofragment translational spectroscopy (PTS) method with a long time-delay, which allows an extremely high kinetic energy resolution, is presented in this article. More commonly applying a short time delay between laser and pulsed acceleration electric field leads to a low kinetic energy resolution for the pulsed core-sampling method. This low kinetic energy resolution problem was overcome by applying a longer time delay. An absolute recoil velocity resolution of {delta}v=8 m/s and a relative kinetic energy resolution of {delta}E/E=3.6% were obtained in this experiment, by applying a time-delay of 8 {mu}s between the laser and the acceleration electric field. The vibrational distributions of the CH{sub 3} radical for the I* and I channel of CH{sub 3}I photodissociation at 266 nm were directly resolved for first time to presented an improvement of the kinetic energy resolution.

  20. Determination of the adequate dose of garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide for effecting changes in growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal characteristics, and serum immune parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nathan L; Ruch, Frank; Miller, Guy; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to determine the adequate dose and impact of graded concentrations of garlic diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, serum immune parameters, and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. At 28-d post-hatch, male broiler chickens were allotted on the basis of initial body weight (1.34 ± 0.106 kg) in a randomized complete block desing ( RCBD: ) to one of six treatments that consisted of an oral gavage of 0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.80, 3.6, or 7.2 mg of DADS + DATS per kg bodyweight (BW) with 8 replicate cages per treatment and 4 birds per cage. The DADS + DATS was administered to birds by daily oral gavage for a period of 6 d. Growth performance was recorded and excreta were collected for analysis of DM, nitrogen ( N: ), and energy ( E: ) digestibility and on the last day of the experiment, the median bird in each cage was euthanized and the mid ileum was excised for morphological and gene expression measurements and blood was collected for serum natural antibody and complement assays. Body weight gain and villus height were linearly increased (P < 0.01) with oral gavage of DADS + DATS. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) of the oral gavage on digestibility of DM, N, and E that corresponded to an average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose of 1.16 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage had no impact on gene expression markers although there was a tendency for an increase (P = 0.10) in serum natural antibody activity due to treatment. Results from the current study indicate that supplementation of a gavage containing DADS + DATS improves BW gain, ileal morphology, and digestibility of DM, N, and E and may affect serum immune parameters in broiler chickens. The average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose to optimize BW gain and villus height response was 2.51 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW.

  1. Determination of the adequate dose of garlic diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide for effecting changes in growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal characteristics, and serum immune parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nathan L; Ruch, Frank; Miller, Guy; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to determine the adequate dose and impact of graded concentrations of garlic diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on growth performance, total-tract nutrient and energy digestibility, serum immune parameters, and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. At 28-d post-hatch, male broiler chickens were allotted on the basis of initial body weight (1.34 ± 0.106 kg) in a randomized complete block desing ( RCBD: ) to one of six treatments that consisted of an oral gavage of 0, 0.45, 0.90, 1.80, 3.6, or 7.2 mg of DADS + DATS per kg bodyweight (BW) with 8 replicate cages per treatment and 4 birds per cage. The DADS + DATS was administered to birds by daily oral gavage for a period of 6 d. Growth performance was recorded and excreta were collected for analysis of DM, nitrogen ( N: ), and energy ( E: ) digestibility and on the last day of the experiment, the median bird in each cage was euthanized and the mid ileum was excised for morphological and gene expression measurements and blood was collected for serum natural antibody and complement assays. Body weight gain and villus height were linearly increased (P < 0.01) with oral gavage of DADS + DATS. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) of the oral gavage on digestibility of DM, N, and E that corresponded to an average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose of 1.16 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage had no impact on gene expression markers although there was a tendency for an increase (P = 0.10) in serum natural antibody activity due to treatment. Results from the current study indicate that supplementation of a gavage containing DADS + DATS improves BW gain, ileal morphology, and digestibility of DM, N, and E and may affect serum immune parameters in broiler chickens. The average broken-line regression-derived adequate dose to optimize BW gain and villus height response was 2.51 mg DADS + DATS per kg BW. PMID

  2. High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy with Simultaneous Energy and Momentum Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Kesmodel, Larry; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, Ward; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-03-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) has been demonstrated as a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic surface excitations of solids. The dispersion relation of the surface excitations, i.e. energy as a function of momentum, can be obtained via the angle resolved measurements by rotating the sample or the analyzer in a conventional HREELS measurement. The sampling density in the momentum space and the detecting efficiency are restricted by the mechanical rotation. Here we introduce a new design of the HREELS system, by combining the traditional Ibach-type electron source with the mainstream hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which could simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons without any mechanical rotation. The new system possesses higher efficiency and sampling density of momentum-resolved measurements by at least one order of magnitude than conventional spectrometers without deteriorating the resolution of energy and momentum. Using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ as an example, we show that an energy loss spectrum can be scanned throughout the first Brillouin zone and a momentum-dependent spectral intensity distribution could be obtained in one measurement.

  3. Design and performance of a spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer with high momentum resolution.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, D; Kirschner, J

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new "complete" spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer comprising a spin-polarized primary electron source, an imaging electron analyzer, and a spin analyzer of the "spin-polarizing mirror" type. Unlike previous instruments, we have a high momentum resolution of less than 0.04 Å(-1), at an energy resolution of 90-130 meV. Unlike all previous studies which reported rather broad featureless data in both energy and angle dependence, we find richly structured spectra depending sensitively on small changes of the primary energy, the kinetic energy after scattering, and of the angle of incidence. The key factor is the momentum resolution. PMID:27587131

  4. Design and performance of a spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer with high momentum resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, D.; Kirschner, J.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new "complete" spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer comprising a spin-polarized primary electron source, an imaging electron analyzer, and a spin analyzer of the "spin-polarizing mirror" type. Unlike previous instruments, we have a high momentum resolution of less than 0.04 Å-1, at an energy resolution of 90-130 meV. Unlike all previous studies which reported rather broad featureless data in both energy and angle dependence, we find richly structured spectra depending sensitively on small changes of the primary energy, the kinetic energy after scattering, and of the angle of incidence. The key factor is the momentum resolution.

  5. Design and performance of a spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer with high momentum resolution.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, D; Kirschner, J

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new "complete" spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer comprising a spin-polarized primary electron source, an imaging electron analyzer, and a spin analyzer of the "spin-polarizing mirror" type. Unlike previous instruments, we have a high momentum resolution of less than 0.04 Å(-1), at an energy resolution of 90-130 meV. Unlike all previous studies which reported rather broad featureless data in both energy and angle dependence, we find richly structured spectra depending sensitively on small changes of the primary energy, the kinetic energy after scattering, and of the angle of incidence. The key factor is the momentum resolution.

  6. Ultrahigh energy resolution focusing monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Suvorov, Alexey; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Chubar, Oleg; Cai, Yong Q

    2015-11-30

    A further development of a focusing monochromator concept for X-ray energy resolution of 0.1 meV and below is presented. Theoretical analysis of several optical layouts based on this concept was supported by numerical simulations performed in the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" software package using the physical-optics approach and careful modeling of partially-coherent synchrotron (undulator) radiation. Along with the energy resolution, the spectral shape of the energy resolution function was investigated. It was shown that under certain conditions the decay of the resolution function tails can be faster than that of the Gaussian function.

  7. Measurement of high energy resolution inelastic proton scattering at and close to zero degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamii, A.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Adachi, T.; Carter, J.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.; Itahashi, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Popescu, L.; Rubio, B.; Saito, T.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Sasamoto, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Smit, F. D.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Zenhiro, J.

    2009-07-01

    Measurements of inelastic proton scattering with high energy resolution at forward scattering angles including 0∘ are described. High-resolution halo-free beams were accelerated by the cyclotron complex at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics. Instrumental background events were minimized using the high-quality beam. The remaining instrumental background events were eliminated by applying a background subtraction method. As a result, clean spectra were obtained even for a heavy target nucleus such as Pb208. A high energy resolution of 20 keV (FWHM) and a scattering angle resolution of ±0.6∘ were achieved at an incident proton energy of 295 MeV.

  8. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed.

  9. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  10. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  11. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  12. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  14. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  15. CT energy weighting in the presence of scatter and limited energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved CT has the potential to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) through optimal weighting of photons detected in energy bins. In general, optimal weighting gives higher weight to the lower energy photons that contain the most contrast information. However, low-energy photons are generally most corrupted by scatter and spectrum tailing, an effect caused by the limited energy resolution of the detector. This article first quantifies the effects of spectrum tailing on energy-resolved data, which may also be beneficial for material decomposition applications. Subsequently, the combined effects of energy weighting, spectrum tailing, and scatter are investigated through simulations. Methods: The study first investigated the effects of spectrum tailing on the estimated attenuation coefficients of homogeneous slab objects. Next, the study compared the CNR and artifact performance of images simulated with varying levels of scatter and spectrum tailing effects, and reconstructed with energy integrating, photon-counting, and two optimal linear weighting methods: Projection-based and image-based weighting. Realistic detector energy-response functions were simulated based on a previously proposed model. The energy-response functions represent the probability that a photon incident on the detector at a particular energy will be detected at a different energy. Realistic scatter was simulated with Monte Carlo methods. Results: Spectrum tailing resulted in a negative shift in the estimated attenuation coefficient of slab objects compared to an ideal detector. The magnitude of the shift varied with material composition, increased with material thickness, and decreased with photon energy. Spectrum tailing caused cupping artifacts and CT number inaccuracies in images reconstructed with optimal energy weighting, and did not impact images reconstructed with photon counting weighting. Spectrum tailing did not significantly impact the CNR in reconstructed images

  16. Optimal energy resolution of a hemispherical analyzer with virtual entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouros, T. J. M.; Benis, E. P.

    2005-02-01

    For an ideal hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) utilizing a virtual entry aperture whose size is controlled by an injection lens, the "slit" and angular contributions to the overall base resolution RB are not independent, but constrained by the Helmholtz-Lagrange law. Thus, RB becomes a function of the linear lens magnification ∣ML∣ and has a minimum, RBo¯≡RB(∣ML∣o), at the optimal magnification ∣ML∣=∣ML∣o. RBo¯ and ∣ML∣o are shown to be analytic expressions of basic experimental parameters. RBo¯ is thus the ultimate resolution that can be attained in this case. The generality and simplicity of this result should be very helpful in the efficient design and performance evaluation of any modern HDA.

  17. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  18. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  19. Systematic measurements of the gain and the energy resolution of single and double mask GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Schmidt, D. J.; Abuhoza, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Wiechula, J.

    2016-07-01

    Systematic studies on the gain and the energy resolution have been carried out by varying the voltage across the GEM foils for both single mask and double mask triple GEM detector prototypes. Variation of the gain and the energy resolution has also been measured by varying either the drift voltage, transfer voltage and induction voltage keeping other voltages constant. The results of the systematic measurements have been presented.

  20. Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Edson P; Rossouw, David; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-06-01

    Energy resolution is one of the most important parameters in electron energy-loss spectroscopy. This is especially true for measurement of surface plasmon resonances, where high-energy resolution is crucial for resolving individual resonance peaks, in particular close to the zero-loss peak. In this work, we improve the energy resolution of electron energy-loss spectra of surface plasmon resonances, acquired with a monochromated beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope, by the use of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. We test the performance of the algorithm in a simulated spectrum and then apply it to experimental energy-loss spectra of a lithographically patterned silver nanorod. By reduction of the point spread function of the spectrum, we are able to identify low-energy surface plasmon peaks in spectra, more localized features, and higher contrast in surface plasmon energy-filtered maps. Thanks to the combination of a monochromated beam and the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, we improve the effective resolution down to 30 meV, and evidence of success up to 10 meV resolution for losses below 1 eV. We also propose, implement, and test two methods to limit the number of iterations in the algorithm. The first method is based on noise measurement and analysis, while in the second we monitor the change of slope in the deconvolved spectrum.

  1. Air-sea Energy Transfer at Mesoscale in a Coupled High-resolution Model: Impact of Resolution and Current Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jullien, S.; Colas, F.; Masson, S. G.; Oerder, V.; Echevin, V.; Samson, G.; Crétat, J.; Berthet, S.; Hourdin, C.

    2015-12-01

    Winds are usually considered to force the ocean but recent studies suggested that oceanic mesoscale activity, characterized by eddies, filaments and fronts, could also affect the wind field. These structures feature abrupt changes in sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure and surface currents that could impact the atmosphere by enhancing/reducing air-sea fluxes, accelerating/decelerating winds, modifying the wind-pressure balance… At this time, the detailed processes associated to such coupling, its intensity and significance remain a matter of research. Here, a state-of-the-art WRF-OASIS-NEMO coupled model is set up over a wide tropical channel (45°S-45°N) at various resolutions: 3/4°, 1/4° and 1/12° in both the ocean and the atmosphere. Several experiments are conducted in forced, partially or fully coupled modes, to highlight the effect of resolution and the role of SST vs. current feedback to energy injection into the ocean and the atmosphere. In strong mesoscale activity regions, a negative wind power input from the atmosphere to the ocean is seen at scales ranging from 100km to more than 1000km. Nonexistent at 3/4°, this negative forcing, acting against oceanic mesoscale activity, is almost twice more important at 1/12° than at 1/4°. In addition, partially coupled simulations, i.e. without current feedback, show that the impact of thermal coupling on this process is very limited. Energy injection to the marine atmospheric boundary layer also features imprints from oceanic mesoscale. Energy injection by scales shorter than 300km represents up to 20% of the total. Finally we show that increasing oceanic resolution, and therefore mesoscale activity, is necessary to resolve the full wind stress spectrum and has an upscaling effect by enhancing atmospheric mesoscale, which is larger scale than in the ocean. Using 1/4°oceanic resolution instead of 1/12° leads to a 50% loss of energy in the atmospheric mesoscale.

  2. 78 FR 16849 - Alaska Energy Authority; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alaska Energy Authority; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and..., 2013. The studies in dispute are: (1) Glacier and Runoff Changes Study (Study 7.7); (2) Salmon.... Loussac Public Library, 3600 Denali Street, Anchorage, Alaska 99503. Dated: March 12, 2013. Kimberly...

  3. Energy and time resolution of a LYSO matrix prototype for the Mu2e experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Ott, P.; Pezzullo, G.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Thomas, A.

    2016-07-01

    We have measured the performances of a LYSO crystal matrix prototype tested with electron and photon beams in the energy range 60-450 MeV. This study has been carried out to determine the achievable energy and time resolutions for the calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment.

  4. Energy and time resolution of a LYSO matrix prototype for the Mu2e experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dane, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Ott, P.; Pezzullo, G.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Thomas, A.

    2015-09-28

    We have measured the performances of a LYSO crystal matrix prototype tested with electron and photon beams in the energy range 60–450 MeV. Furthermore, this study has been carried out to determine the achievable energy and time resolutions for the calorimeter of the Mu2e experiment.

  5. 77 FR 70433 - Resolute Marine Energy, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... permit under section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act proposing to study the feasibility of the Yakutat Alaska Wave Energy Project No. 14438. Resolute supplemented its application on September 19, 2012. The...) Between 7 and 15 Surge Wave Energy Converters for a maximum total installed capacity of 750 kilowatts;...

  6. Dependence of the energy resolution of a scintillating crystal on the readout integration time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocci, V.; Chao, D.; Chiodi, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F.; Lunadei, R.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.

    2012-09-01

    The possibilty of performing high-rate calorimetry with a slow scintillating crystal is studied. In this experimental situation, to avoid pulse pile-up, it can be necessary to base the energy measurement on only a fraction of the emitted light, thus spoiling the energy resolution. This effect was experimentally studied with a BGO crystal and a photomultiplier followed by an integrator, by measuring the maximum amplitude of the signals. The experimental data show that the energy resolution is exclusively due to the statistical fluctuations of the number of photoelectrons contributing to the maximum amplitude. When such number is small its fluctuations are even smaller than those predicted by Poisson statistics. These results were confirmed by a Monte Carlo simulation which allows to estimate, in a general case, the energy resolution, given the total number of photoelectrons, the scintillation time and the integration time.

  7. Method to compensate the dispersion of kinetic energy resolution in a velocity map imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lan, Pengfei; Feng, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2014-10-01

    Here we present a novel method to improve the kinetic energy resolution of a velocity map imaging(VMI) spectrometer. The main modifications, compared to the original design of Eppink and Parker (1997 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68 3477), are two additional grid electrodes. One of the electrodes is a grounded grid and the other is an arc-shaped grid with negative voltages (or positive voltages for an ions spectrometer). The arc-shaped electrode is axially symmetrical around the spectrometer axis. The field constructed by the two electrodes is to compensate the dispersion of the ‘v’-shaped energy resolution. Simulations by SIMION and reconstructions by the basis set expansion Abel transform method show that the kinetic energy resolution can be improved drastically by our new method. Furthermore, the accuracy in the determination of the kinetic energy of ion/electrons remains unchanged with respect to the original design.

  8. Potential Next Steps for the New Orleans City Council Energy Efficiency Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from an actual February 2008 deliverable memo and report delivered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the Department of Energy Project Officer in February of 2008. In January 2008, the New Orleans Utility Committee requested review, commentary, and suggestions for Utility Committee next steps related to the Energy Efficiency Resolution (the Resolution) passed by the City Council in December 2007. The suggestions are reprinted here as: (1) An illustration of opportunities for other local governments for the development and implementation of effective energy efficiency ordinances and resolutions; and (2) An example of the type of policy technical assistance that DOE/NREL provides to communities. For more information on the strategy for delivering assistance, please see: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/48689.pdf. Based on experience in other communities and energy efficiency policies and programs, NREL found the Resolution to be a solid framework for increasing the responsible use of energy efficiency and reaping the associated economic and environmental benefits in the city of New Orleans. The remainder of this document provides the requested suggestions for next steps in implementing the word and spirit of the resolution. These suggestions integrate the extensive work of other entities, including the New Orleans Mayor's office, the New Orleans Energy Advisory Committee, the Energy Efficiency Initiative, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency. In general, three actions were suggested for funding mechanisms, two for near-term successes, and two for longer-term success.

  9. Superconducting Detector System for High-Resolution Energy-Dispersive Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Niedermayr, T; Drury, O; Funk, T; Frank, M; Labov, S E; Cramer, S

    2001-02-21

    Synchrotron-based soft x-ray spectroscopy is often limited by detector performance. Grating spectrometers have the resolution, but lack the efficiency for the analysis of dilute samples. Semiconducting Si(Li) or Ge detectors are efficient, but often lack the resolution to separate weak signals from strong nearby lines in multi-element samples. Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) operated at temperatures below 1 K can be used as high-resolution high-efficiency x-ray detectors. They combine high energy resolution around 10 eV FWHM with the broad band efficiency of energy-dispersive detectors. We have designed a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate STJ detectors in x-ray fluorescence measurements at beam line 4 of the ALS. We demonstrate the capabilities of such a detector system for fluorescence analysis of dilute metal sites in proteins and inorganic model compounds.

  10. A high resolution, broad energy acceptance spectrometer for laser wakefield acceleration experiments.

    PubMed

    Sears, Christopher M S; Cuevas, Sofia Benavides; Schramm, Ulrich; Schmid, Karl; Buck, Alexander; Habs, Dieter; Krausz, Ferenc; Veisz, Laszlo

    2010-07-01

    Laser wakefield experiments present a unique challenge in measuring the resulting electron energy properties due to the large energy range of interest, typically several 100 MeV, and the large electron beam divergence and pointing jitter >1 mrad. In many experiments the energy resolution and accuracy are limited by the convolved transverse spot size and pointing jitter of the beam. In this paper we present an electron energy spectrometer consisting of two magnets designed specifically for laser wakefield experiments. In the primary magnet the field is produced by permanent magnets. A second optional electromagnet can be used to obtain better resolution for electron energies above 75 MeV. The spectrometer has an acceptance of 2.5-400 MeV (E(max)/E(min)>100) with a resolution of better than 1% rms for electron energies above 25 MeV. This high resolution is achieved by refocusing electrons in the energy plane and without any postprocessing image deconvolution. Finally, the spectrometer employs two complimentary detection mechanisms: (1) absolutely calibrated scintillation screens imaged by cameras outside the vacuum chamber and (2) an array of scintillating fibers coupled to a low-noise charge-coupled device.

  11. A high resolution, broad energy acceptance spectrometer for laser wakefield acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M. S.; Cuevas, Sofia Benavides; Veisz, Laszlo; Schramm, Ulrich; Schmid, Karl; Buck, Alexander; Habs, Dieter; Krausz, Ferenc

    2010-07-15

    Laser wakefield experiments present a unique challenge in measuring the resulting electron energy properties due to the large energy range of interest, typically several 100 MeV, and the large electron beam divergence and pointing jitter >1 mrad. In many experiments the energy resolution and accuracy are limited by the convolved transverse spot size and pointing jitter of the beam. In this paper we present an electron energy spectrometer consisting of two magnets designed specifically for laser wakefield experiments. In the primary magnet the field is produced by permanent magnets. A second optional electromagnet can be used to obtain better resolution for electron energies above 75 MeV. The spectrometer has an acceptance of 2.5-400 MeV (E{sub max}/E{sub min}>100) with a resolution of better than 1% rms for electron energies above 25 MeV. This high resolution is achieved by refocusing electrons in the energy plane and without any postprocessing image deconvolution. Finally, the spectrometer employs two complimentary detection mechanisms: (1) absolutely calibrated scintillation screens imaged by cameras outside the vacuum chamber and (2) an array of scintillating fibers coupled to a low-noise charge-coupled device.

  12. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, Ercan E.; Mooney, Timothy M.; Toellner, Thomas

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  13. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  14. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  15. Development of scintillator plates with high energy resolution for alpha particles made of GPS scintillator grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio; Nishiyama, Shusuke

    2014-01-01

    A scintillator plate with high energy resolution was developed to produce an alpha particle monitor used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel plants. Grains of a Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator of several 10 to 550 μm were fixed on a glass substrate and were then mechanically polished. By increasing the size of scintillator grains and removing fine powders, the collected light yield and energy resolution for alpha particles were drastically improved. Energy resolution of 9.3% was achieved using average grain size of 91 μm. Furthermore, the ratios between counts in a peak and total counts were improved by more than 60% by the further increase of grain size and adoption of mechanically polished surfaces on both sides. Beta and gamma ray influences were suppressed sufficiently by the thin 100 μm scintillator plates.

  16. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  17. Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging using a high-resolution linear radon transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we propose to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). The shot gather is first transformed along the time direction to the frequency domain and then the Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy can be imaged by high-resolution LRT using a weighted preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Synthetic data with a set of linear events are presented to show the process of generating dispersive energy. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that, compared with the slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50%. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.

  18. An Overview of High-Resolution, Non-Dispersive, Imaging Spectrometers for High-Energy Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites initiated a new era in x-ray astronomy. Despite their successes, there is still need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band and for extended sources. What is needed is a non-dispersive imaging spectrometer - essentially a 14-bit x-ray color camera. And a requirement for a nondispersive spectrometer designed to provide eV-scale spectral resolution is a temperature below 0.1 K. The required spectral resolution and the constraints of thermodynamics and engineering dictate the temperature regime nearly independently of the details of the sensor or the read-out technology. Low-temperature spectrometers can be divided into two classes - - equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the equilibrium devices, or calorimeters, the energy is deposited in an isolated thermal mass and the resulting increase in temperature is measured. In the non-equilibrium devices, the absorbed energy produces quantized excitations that are counted to determine the energy. The two approaches have different strong points, and within each class a variety of optimizations have been pursued. I will present the basic fundamentals of operation and the details of the most successful device designs to date. I will also discuss how the measurement priorities (resolution, energy band, count rate) influence the optimal choice of detector technology.

  19. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  20. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  1. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  2. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  3. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  4. High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Erni, R.; Browning, N.

    2005-01-01

    A 200 keV FEI TF20 XT monochromated (scanning) transmission electron microscope funded by NASA's SRLIDAP program is undergoing installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Instrument specifications in STEM mode are Cs =1.0 mm, Cc =1.2 mm, image resolution =0.18 nm, and in TEM mode Cs =1.3 mm, Cc =1.3 mm, information limit =0.14 nm. Key features of the instrument are a voltage-stabilized high tension (HT) supply, a monochromator, a high-resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer/energy filter, a high-resolution annular darkfield detector, and a solid-state x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. The high-tension tank contains additional sections for 60Hz and high frequency filtering, resulting in an operating voltage of 200 kV plus or minus 0.005V, a greater than 10-fold improvement over earlier systems. The monochromator is a single Wien filter design. The energy filter is a Gatan model 866 Tridiem-ERS high resolution GIF spec d for less than or equal to 0.15 eV energy resolution with 29 pA of current in a 2 nm diameter probe. 0.13 eV has already been achieved during early installation. The x-ray detector (EDAX/Genesis 4000) has a take-off angle of 20 degrees, an active area of 30 square millimeters, and a solid angle of 0.3 steradians. The higher solid angle is possible because the objective pole-piece allows the detector to be positioned as close as 9.47 mm from the specimen. The voltage-stabilized HT supply, monochromator and GIF enable high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) with energy resolution comparable to synchrotron XANES, but with approximately 100X better spatial resolution. The region between 0 and 100 eV is called the low-loss or valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) region where features due to collective plasma oscillations and single electron transitions of valence electrons are observed. Most of the low-loss VEELS features we are detecting are being observed for the first time in IDPs. A major focus of

  5. High energy resolution x-ray spectrometer for high count rate XRF applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rossington, C.S.; Madden, N.W.; Chapman, K.

    1993-08-01

    A new x-ray spectrometer has been constructed which incorporates a novel large area, low capacitance Si(Li) detector and a low noise JFET (junction field effect transistor) pr- eamplifier. The spectrometer operates at high count rates without the conventional compromise in energy resolution. For example, at an amplifier peaking time of 1 {mu}sec and a throughput count rate of 145,000 counts sec{sup {minus}1}, the energy resolution at 5.9 key is 220 eV FWHM. Commercially available spectrometers utilizing conventional geometry Si(Li) detectors with areas equivalent to the new detector have resolutions on the order of 540 eV under the same conditions. Conventional x-ray spectrometers offering high energy resolution must employ detectors with areas one-tenth the size of the new LBL detector (20 mm{sup 2} compared with 200 mm{sup 2}). However, even with the use of the smaller area detectors, the energy resolution of a commercial system is typically limited to approximately 300 eV (again, at 1 {mu}sec and 5.9 keV) due to the noise of the commercially available JFET`S. The new large area detector is useful in high count rate applications, but is also useful in the detection of weak photon signals, in which it is desirable to subtend as large an angle of the available photon flux as possible, while still maintaining excellent energy resolution. X-ray fluorescence data from the new spectrometer is shown in comparison to a commercially available system in the analysis of a dilute multi-element material, and also in conjunction with high count rate synchrotron EXAMS applications.

  6. Fast-ion energy resolution by one-step reaction gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Kiptily, V. G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Contributors, JET

    2016-04-01

    The spectral broadening of γ-rays from fusion plasmas can be measured in high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). We derive weight functions that determine the observable velocity space and quantify the velocity-space sensitivity of one-step reaction high-resolution GRS measurements in magnetized fusion plasmas. The weight functions suggest that GRS resolves the energies of fast ions directly without the need for tomographic inversion for selected one-step reactions at moderate plasma temperatures. The D(p,γ)3He reaction allows the best direct fast-ion energy resolution. We illustrate our general formalism using reactions with and without intrinsic broadening of the γ-rays for the GRS diagnostic at JET.

  7. Energy and coincidence time resolution measurements of CdTe detectors for PET.

    PubMed

    Ariño, G; Chmeissani, M; De Lorenzo, G; Puigdengoles, C; Cabruja, E; Calderón, Y; Kolstein, M; Macias-Montero, J G; Martinez, R; Mikhaylova, E; Uzun, D

    2013-02-01

    We report on the characterization of 2 mm thick CdTe diode detector with Schottky contacts to be employed in a novel conceptual design of PET scanner. Results at -8°C with an applied bias voltage of -1000 V/mm show a 1.2% FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV. Coincidence time resolution has been measured by triggering on the preamplifier output signal to improve the timing resolution of the detector. Results at the same bias and temperature conditions show a FWHM of 6 ns with a minimum acceptance energy of 500 keV. These results show that pixelated CdTe Schottky diode is an excellent candidate for the development of next generation nuclear medical imaging devices such as PET, Compton gamma cameras, and especially PET-MRI hybrid systems when used in a magnetic field immune configuration.

  8. High resolution energy loss research: Si compound ceramics and composites. [1990 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R W; Lin, S H

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses proposed work on silicon compound ceramics and composites. High resolution composition and structure analysis of interfaces in ceramic and metal matrix composites and certain grain boundaries in silicon and its interfaces with oxides and nitrides is proposed. Composition and bonding analysis will be done with high spatial resolution (20 Angstroms or better) parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy using a field emission analytical electron microscope. Structural analysis will be done at the 1.8 Angstrom resolution level at 200kV by HREM. Theoretical electron energy loss cross section computations will be used to interpret electronic structure of these materials. Both self-consistent field MO and multiple scattering computational methods are being done and evaluated.

  9. Energy resolution and high count rate performance of superconducting tunnel junction x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Hiller, L. J.; le Grand, J. B.; Mears, C. A.; Labov, S. E.; Lindeman, M. A.; Netel, H.; Chow, D.; Barfknecht, A. T.

    1998-01-01

    We present experimental results obtained with a cryogenically cooled, high-resolution x-ray spectrometer based on a 141 μm×141 μm Nb-Al-Al2O3-Al-Nb superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector in a demonstration experiment. Using monochromatized synchrotron radiation we studied the energy resolution of this energy-dispersive spectrometer for soft x rays with energies between 70 and 700 eV and investigated its performance at count rates up to nearly 60 000 cps. At count rates of several 100 cps we achieved an energy resolution of 5.9 eV (FWHM) and an electronic noise of 4.5 eV for 277 eV x rays (the energy corresponding to C K). Increasing the count rate, the resolution 277 eV remained below 10 eV for count rates up to ˜10 000 cps and then degraded to 13 eV at 23 000 cps and 20 eV at 50 000 cps. These results were achieved using a commercially available spectroscopy amplifier with a baseline restorer. No pile-up rejection was applied in these measurements. Our results show that STJ detectors can operate at count rates approaching those of semiconductor detectors while still providing a significantly better energy resolution for soft x rays. Thus STJ detectors may prove very useful in microanalysis, synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (XRF) applications, and XRF analysis of light elements (K lines) and transition elements (L lines).

  10. Energy straggling eliminated as a limitation to charge resolution of transmission detectors. [used for particle identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, G.; Ahlen, S. P.; Price, P. B.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that detectors of the energy loss of penetrating charged particles are widely used for particle identification. These measurements are hampered, however, by fluctuations in the amount of energy deposited within the detector. It is shown that this limitation can be overcome with a new nuclear track detector, CR-39(DOP), and that the charge resolution of this detector exceeds that of any other, including semiconductor diodes.

  11. A high time resolution study of the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.; Carbary, J. F.; Meng, C.-I.; Sullivan, J. P.; Lepping, R. P.

    1982-01-01

    A high time resolution study of the relationships between the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function and the total energy dissipation rate of the magnetosphere is made using 5-min average values of solar wind data and of the geomagnetic indices AE and Dst. All the results are essentially the same as those obtained by the earlier studies which were based on the hourly average data set. Therefore, it is confirmed that the magnetosphere is primarily a driven system

  12. A Compact Liquid Xenon Compton Telescope with High Energy Resolution and Time-of-Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberlack, Uwe; Gomez, R.; Olsen, C.; Shagin, P.; Aprile, E.; Giboni, K.; Plante, G.; Santorelli, R.

    2006-09-01

    Two recent developments have led us to propose a new type of Compton telescope in compact geometry with time-of-flight, for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy regime of 0.2 - 10 MeV. First, the technology of vacuum ultraviolet photosensors for efficient and fast readout of liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation light has improved dramatically over the last few years, and new developments are underway. A LXe Advanced Compton Telescope would consist of two detector arrays of LXe time projection chambers in compact geometry, with time-of-flight (ToF) between detector modules at a resolution of order 100 ps. Second, the previously achieved moderate energy resolution in LXe, a significant draw-back for gamma-ray line spectroscopy, has been found to be largely due to a strong anti-correlation of ionization and scintillation in LXe. Efficient measurement of both charge and light enables us to improve energy resolution greatly. A factor of three improvement over a previous prototype, LXeGRIT, has already been achieved, and the measured underlying physics indicate the possibility of achievng energy resolution below 1% FWHM at 1 MeV. We are vigorously working on improving light and charge readout to realize this potential in a practical detector. We report on the status and prospects of our current research and development program. This work is supported by NASA grant NNG05WC24G.

  13. Development of a high-energy-resolution x-ray microcalorimeter using Ti/Au TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Yuichi; Shoji, Shuichi; Oshima, Tohru; Aruga, Youichi; Maegami, Kana; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    1999-10-01

    A prototype of an x-ray microcalorimeter using Titanium/Gold transition edge sensor (TES) for detecting cosmic rays is fabricated and tested. This paper reports first experimental result of the prototype. By using silicon bulk micromachining, freestanding microstructure suspended with fine beams are obtained to achieve thermal isolation from the substrate. A superconductor, Ti in this case, can be used as a very sensitive temperature sensor at the narrow temperature range around its transition temperature. At the low temperatures below 1K, the microstructure with very small heat capacity is expected to be thermally detecting single photons. Design consideration to realize radiation detection with extremely good energy resolution has been taken place. Our tentative goal is to obtain the energy resolution of 20eV for 10keV radiation at 0.5K. We have fabricated a test device of the TES. The sensitivity of it is larger than 1000, which is enough for this purpose. The energy resolution of the prototype of the x-ray microcalorimeter was 550eV for 6keV radiation at approximately 0.5K. This value is smaller than that expected. An optimization of the TES features is still necessary for a good energy resolution.

  14. Improving Alpha Spectrometry Energy Resolution by Ion Implantation with ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Miller, Brian W.; Morley, Shannon M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a novel technique using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) as a method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry. This method produced thin, contaminant free 241Am samples which yielded extraordinary energy resolution which appear to be at the lower limit of the detection technology used in this research.

  15. Energy Resolved High Resolution Dynamic E-Cell Materials Research. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Ray; Sharma, Renu; Mayer, James

    2000-05-16

    The purpose of this project was to develop in situ materials reaction observation capability in an intermediate voltage high resolution transmission electron microscope. To accomplish this we purchased a GATAN imaging energy filter system, a hot stage, and designed and constructed an environmental cell and real time television image recording system, and installed this equipment on our EM 430 intermediate voltage electron microscope.

  16. Low energy nuclear spin excitations in Ho metal investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina

    2013-04-17

    We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.

  17. Improved estimates of boreal Fire Radiative Energy using high temporal resolution data and a modified active fire detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of biomass combusted during wildfires can be obtained from satellite observations of fire radiative power (FRP). Total fire radiative energy (FRE) is typically estimated by integrating instantaneous measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) at the time of orbital satellite overpass or geostationary observation. Remotely-sensed FRP products from orbital satellites are usually global in extent, requiring several thresholding and filtering operations to reduce the number of false fire detections. Some filters required for a global product may not be appropriate to fire detection in the boreal forest resulting in errors of omission and increased data processing times. We evaluate the effect of a boreal-specific active fire detection algorithm and estimates of FRP/FRE. Boreal fires are more likely to escape detection due to lower intensity smouldering combustion and sub canopy fires, therefore improvements in boreal fire detection could substantially reduce the uncertainty of emissions from biomass combustion in the region. High temporal resolution data from geostationary satellites have led to improvements in FRE estimation in tropical and temperate forests, but such a perspective is not possible for high latitude ecosystems given the equatorial orbit of geostationary observation. The increased density of overpasses in high latitudes from polar-orbiting satellites, however, may provide adequate temporal sampling for estimating FRE.

  18. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOEpatents

    Friedrich, Stephan; , Niedermayr, Thomas R.; Labov, Simon E.

    2008-11-04

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  19. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  20. Design of an ultrahigh-energy-resolution and wide-energy-range soft X-ray beamline.

    PubMed

    Xue, L; Reininger, R; Wu, Y-Q; Zou, Y; Xu, Z-M; Shi, Y-B; Dong, J; Ding, H; Sun, J-L; Guo, F-Z; Wang, Y; Tai, R-Z

    2014-01-01

    A new ultrahigh-energy-resolution and wide-energy-range soft X-ray beamline has been designed and is under construction at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The beamline has two branches: one dedicated to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and the other to photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). The two branches share the same plane-grating monochromator, which is equipped with four variable-line-spacing gratings and covers the 20-2000 eV energy range. Two elliptically polarized undulators are employed to provide photons with variable polarization, linear in every inclination and circular. The expected energy resolution is approximately 10 meV at 1000 eV with a flux of more than 3 × 10(10) photons s(-1) at the ARPES sample positions. The refocusing of both branches is based on Kirkpatrick-Baez pairs. The expected spot sizes when using a 10 µm exit slit are 15 µm × 5 µm (horizontal × vertical FWHM) at the ARPES station and 10 µm × 5 µm (horizontal × vertical FWHM) at the PEEM station. The use of plane optical elements upstream of the exit slit, a variable-line-spacing grating and a pre-mirror in the monochromator that allows the influence of the thermal deformation to be eliminated are essential for achieving the ultrahigh-energy resolution.

  1. Temperature-resolution anomalies in the reconstruction of time dynamics from energy-loss experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogar, Anshul; Vig, Sean; Gan, Yu; Abbamonte, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Inelastic scattering techniques provide a powerful approach to studying electron and nuclear dynamics, via reconstruction of a propagator that quantifies the time evolution of a system. There is now growing interest in applying such methods to very low energy excitations, such as lattice vibrations, but in this limit the cross section is no longer proportional to a propagator. Significant deviations occur due to the finite temperature Bose statistics of the excitations. Here we consider this issue in the context of high-resolution electron energy-loss experiments on the copper-oxide superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. We find that simple division of a Bose factor yields an accurate propagator on energy scales greater than the resolution width. However, at low energy scales, the effects of resolution and finite temperature conspire to create anomalies in the dynamics at long times. We compare two practical ways for dealing with such anomalies, and discuss the range of validity of the technique in light of this comparison.

  2. Measurement of ion cascade energies through resolution degradation of alpha particle microcalorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Horansky, Robert D.; Stiehl, Gregory M.; Beall, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Ullom, Joel N.; Plionis, Alexander A.; Rabin, Michael W.

    2010-02-15

    Atomic cascades caused by ions impinging on bulk materials have remained of interest to the scientific community since their discovery by Goldstein in 1902. While considerable effort has been spent describing and, more recently, simulating these cascades, tools that can study individual events are lacking and several aspects of cascade behavior remain poorly known. These aspects include the material energies that determine cascade magnitude and the variation between cascades produced by monoenergetic ions. We have recently developed an alpha particle detector with a thermodynamic resolution near 100 eV full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and an achieved resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM for 5.3 MeV particles. The detector relies on the absorption of particles by a bulk material and a thermal change in a superconducting thermometer. The achieved resolution of this detector provides the highest resolving power of any energy dispersive technique and a factor of 8 improvement over semiconductor detectors. The exquisite resolution can be directly applied to improved measurements of fundamental nuclear decays and nuclear forensics. In addition, we propose that the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and achieved resolution is due to fluctuations in lattice damage caused by ion-induced cascades in the absorber. Hence, this new detector is capable of measuring the kinetic energy converted to lattice damage in individual atomic cascades. This capability allows new measurements of cascade dynamics; for example, we find that the ubiquitous modeling program, SRIM, significantly underestimates the lattice damage caused in bulk tin by 5.3 MeV alpha particles.

  3. Recovering Swift-XRT Energy Resolution through CCD Charge Trap Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagani, C.; Beardmore, A. P.; Abbey, A. F.; Mountford, C.; Osborne, J. P.; Capalbi, M.; Perri, M.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cusaumano, G.; Evans, P. A.; Kennea, A.; Moretti, A.; Page, K. L.; Starling, R. L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The X-ray telescope on board the Swift satellite for gamma-ray burst astronomy has been exposed to the radiation of the space environment since launch in November 2004. Radiation causes damage to the detector, with the generation of dark current and charge trapping sites that result in the degradation of the spectral resolution and an increase of the instrumental background. The Swift team has a dedicated calibration program with the goal of recovering a significant proportion of the lost spectroscopic performance. Calibration observations of supernova remnants with strong emission lines are analysed to map the detector charge traps and to derive position-dependent corrections to the measured photon energies. We have achieved a substantial recovery in the XRT resolution by implementing these corrections in an updated version of the Swift XRT gain file and in corresponding improvements to the Swift XRT HEAsoft software. We provide illustrations of the impact of the enhanced energy resolution, and show that we have recovered most of the spectral resolution lost since launch

  4. Attojoule energy resolution of direct detector based on hot electron bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, S. V.; Rusova, A. A.; Kaurova, N. S.; Voronov, B. M.; Goltsman, G. N.

    2016-08-01

    We characterize superconducting antenna-coupled NbN hot-electron bolometer (HEB) for direct detection of THz radiation operating at a temperature of 9.0 K. At signal frequency of 2.5 THz, the measured value of the optical noise equivalent power is 2.0×10-13 W-Hz-0.5. The estimated value of the energy resolution is about 1.5 aJ. This value was confirmed in the experiment with pulsed 1.55-μm laser employed as a radiation source. The directly measured detector energy resolution is 2 aJ. The obtained risetime of pulses from the detector is 130 ps. This value was determined by the properties of the RF line. These characteristics make our detector a device-of-choice for a number of practical applications associated with detection of short THz pulses.

  5. Development of a High Resolution Liquid Xenon Imaging Telescope for Medium Energy Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1992-01-01

    In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive preamplifiers for a nondestructive readout of the electron image on the induction wires, (5) performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations to obtain results on efficiency, background rejection capability, and source flux sensitivity, and (6) developed a reconstruction algorithm for events with multiple interaction points.

  6. Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update on a physical electronics 690 auger system.

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Wallace, William O.; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-10-01

    We will present our experiences with the new High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) upgrade on a Physical Electronics Auger 690 system. This upgrade allows the single pass cylindrical analyzer in the Auger system to achieve higher energy resolution than in the standard mode. With this upgrade, it should be possible to separate chemical states for certain elements. Also, it should be possible to separate closely spaced peaks from selected elements that have been difficult or impossible to separate without the upgrade. Specifically, we will investigate practical use of this upgrade in the analysis of materials systems where overlapping peaks have historically been an issue, such as Kovar, which consists of the elements Ni, Fe and Co. Strategies for the successful use of the technique as well as its current limitations will be shown.

  7. Divergence identities in curved space-time a resolution of the stress-energy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Hüseyin

    1989-03-01

    It is noted that the joint use of two basic differential identities in curved space-time, namely, 1) the Einstein-Hilbert identity (1915), and 2) the identity of P. Freud (1939), permits a viable alternative to general relativity and a resolution of the "field stress-energy" problem of the gravitational theory. (A tribute to Eugene P. Wigner's 1957 presidential address to the APS)

  8. Low-Temperature and High-Energy-Resolution Laser Photoemission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojima, Takahiro; Okazaki, Kozo; Shin, Shik

    2015-07-01

    We present a review on the developments in the photoemission spectrometer with a vacuum ultraviolet laser at Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo. The advantages of high energy resolution, high cooling ability, and bulk sensitivity enable applications with a wide range of materials. We introduce some examples of fine electronic structures detected by laser photoemission spectroscopy and discuss the prospects of research on low-transition-temperature superconductors exhibiting unconventional superconductivity.

  9. High-resolution submicron retarding field energy analyzer for low-temperature plasma analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, M. G.; Stevens, J. E.; Woodworth, J. R.

    1999-12-20

    A retarding potential energy analyzer having 750 nm diameter, self-aligned grid apertures and micron scale grid separation has been fabricated using polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide. High-resolution in situ measurements of ion velocity distributions have been demonstrated in inductively coupled argon plasmas. Measurement results agree well with those from a macroscopic analyzer. Important differences are observed in the energies of plasma ions when measured with respect to chamber wall versus those measured with respect to the plasma floating potential. Preliminary measurements under rf bias conditions have also been made and results follow the expected trends. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  10. FPGA based digital signal processing for high resolution low energy gamma spectrometery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriojas, A.; Barros, H.; Walter, J.; Sajó-Bohus, L.

    2014-07-01

    A prototype board based on FPGA for data acquisition in Nuclear Spectrometry is given as part of a continuing project. The FPGA based system, perform functions such as dead-time control, detection and management of stacked pulses during acquisition and the storage of spectra. This device allows viewing digital signals and accurate measurement of the pulse high (energy). The graphical interface for the control of the acquisition card is a LabVIEW virtual instrument. Spectral results were compared with spectra produced by a commercially available spectrometer and indicate that further improvement in energy resolution is needed.

  11. Scintillating screens sensitivity and resolution studies for low energy, low intensity beam diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Harasimowicz, Janusz; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Pappalardo, Alfio; Welsch, Carsten P

    2010-10-01

    In order to investigate the limits of scintillating screens for beam profile monitoring in the ultra-low energy, ultra-low intensity regime, CsI:Tl, YAG:Ce, and a Tb glass-based scintillating fiber optic plate (SFOP) were tested. The screens response to 200 and 50 keV proton beams with intensities ranging from a few picoampere down to the subfemtoampere region was examined. In the following paper, the sensitivity and resolution studies are presented in detail for CsI:Tl and the SFOP, the two most sensitive screens. In addition, a possible use of scintillators for ultra-low energy antiproton beam monitoring is discussed.

  12. Superconducting tunneling-junction detectors of X-ray radiation. Issues concerning the energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V. A. Gor'kov, V. P. Koshelets, V. P. Filippenko, L. V.

    2007-02-15

    The effect of the recombination-and edge-related losses of nonequilibrium quasiparticles on the energy resolution of superconducting tunneling detectors is studied. The dependence of the signal on the energy of X-ray photons is measured and the shape of instrument-related lines is studied for the Ti/Nb/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al/Nb/NbN detectors with the Ti/Nb passive electrode. Experimental data are analyzed using the diffusion-based model of tunneling detectors.

  13. Energy calibration of a high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeni, Roberto; D'Astuto, Matteo; Krisch, Michael; Lorenzen, Maren; Mermet, Alain; Monaco, Giulio; Requardt, Herwig; Sette, Francesco

    2008-08-15

    The energy scale of a triple-axis x-ray spectrometer with meV energy resolution based on perfect silicon crystal optics is calibrated, utilizing the most recent determination of the silicon lattice parameter and its thermal expansion coefficient and recording the dispersion of longitudinal acoustic and optical phonons in a diamond single crystal and the molecular vibration mode in liquid nitrogen. Comparison of the x-ray results with previous inelastic neutron and Raman scattering results as well as with ab initio phonon dispersion calculations yields an overall agreement better than 2%.

  14. High-Resolution Prediction of Tidal Energy Distribution along New Jersey Coastlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraatz, S.; Tang, H.; Aboobaker, N.; Chen, G.; Qu, K.

    2012-12-01

    Tidal energy is a clean and renewable energy, and it has tremendous amount in oceans. Plans and pilot projects are now being made worldwide for tidal power generation. For instance, with a plan to produce 20% of its total energy from renewable resources by 2020, the UK is making a great effort to increase power generation from tidal sources. It is estimated that if only 1% of the New Jersey (NJ) shoreline is utilized for tidal energy production, it could contribute 500 MW or more power based on presently available technology during the next 2-3 years, while adding over $1 Billion to the NJ economy in the next decade, and thus investment is now made for tidal energy development at NJ coast. In order to facilitate the tidal power development, we simulate coastal flows under action of astronomic tides. In this effort, FVCOM is set-up for coastlines from Boston to Chesapeake Bay. For the purpose of accurately resolving flows at potential power generation sites, mesh resolution at 20 m along the coastlines and less than 10 m for the tributaries is used along NJ coastlines. Correspondingly, high-resolution data for coastlines and bathymetry are also used for the region. The model is calibrated using data of current and water surface elevation recorded at observation stations of NOAA and USGS. Computations are carried out at HPC facilities of the City University of New York and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing center. On the basis of the modeling, analysis and statistics will be presented for flows along New Jersey coastlines, and available tidal energy there will be discussed. In addition, other effects on tidal energy along NJ coastlines will be discussed, including those from environmental and ecological sensitive zones and sea level rises.

  15. A curved detection-slit to improve ERD (Elastic Recoil Detection) energy/depth resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, D.K.; Doyle, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recoil atoms detected in Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) experiments emerge from an initial collision area along cones of constant energy due to the cylindrical symmetry of the elastic scattering cross section. The constant energy cones therefore intercept planar slit plates placed before the detectors in conic sections. For ease of fabrication slits are typically configured as long narrow rectangles, and as a result energy resolution is adversely affected. It has been shown that the kinematic broadening caused by using rectangular slits is minimized when L = 2 (W z tan/Theta//sub recoil/)/sup 1/2/ where W is the slit width, L is the slit length, z is the slit-target distance and /Theta//sub recoil/ is the lab-frame recoil angle. The improved energy resolution which results when rectangular slits are replaced by appropriate curved slits is examined here. Formulas are given for the conic sections associated with the curved slits as a function of experimental geometry. When slit dimensions are small compared with the full extent of the conic section slit geometry can be accurately approximated as the arc of a circle with radius R/sub c/ = z tan/Theta//sub recoil/. Energy loss effects on the resolution are also accounted for in our treatment. The use of curved slits with L = 4 (W z tan/Theta//sub recoil/)/sup 1/2/ is shown to improve kinematic broadening by /approximately/50% as compared to optimized rectangular slits of the same area. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  17. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K E; Gosnell, T B; Knapp, D A

    2009-03-05

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications.

  18. Which Ab Initio Wave Function Methods Are Adequate for Quantitative Calculations of the Energies of Biradicals? The Performance of Coupled-Cluster and Multi-Reference Methods Along a Single-Bond Dissociation Coordinate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ke; Jalan, Amrit; Green, William H.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-08

    We examine the accuracy of single-reference and multireference correlated wave function methods for predicting accurate energies and potential energy curves of biradicals. The biradicals considered are intermediate species along the bond dissociation coordinates for breaking the F-F bond in F2, the O-O bond in H2O2, and the C-C bond in CH3CH3. We apply a host of single-reference and multireference approximations in a consistent way to the same cases to provide a better assessment of their relative accuracies than was previously possible. The most accurate method studied is coupled cluster theory with all connected excitations through quadruples, CCSDTQ. Without explicit quadruple excitations, the most accurate potential energy curves are obtained by the single-reference RCCSDt method, followed, in order of decreasing accuracy, by UCCSDT, RCCSDT, UCCSDt, seven multireference methods, including perturbation theory, configuration interaction, and coupled-cluster methods (with MRCI+Q being the best and Mk-MR-CCSD the least accurate), four CCSD(T) methods, and then CCSD.

  19. Energy-filtering TEM at high magnification: spatial resolution and detection limits.

    PubMed

    Grogger, Werner; Schaffer, Bernhard; Krishnan, Kannan M; Hofer, Ferdinand

    2003-09-01

    Energy-filtering TEM (EFTEM) has turned out to be a very efficient and rapid tool for the chemical characterization of a specimen on a nanometer and even subnanometer length scale. Especially, the detection and measurement of very thin layers has become a great application of this technique in many materials science fields, e.g. semiconductors and hard disk technology. There, the reliability of compositional profiles is an important issue. However, the experimentally obtainable spatial resolution strongly influences the appearance of a thin layer in an EFTEM image, when dimensions reach subnanometer levels, which mainly leads to a broadening of the layer in the image. This fact has to be taken into account, when measuring the thickness of such a thin layer. Additionally, the convolution decreases contrast which makes the layer less visible in the image and finally determines the detection limit. In this work we present a systematic study on specifically designed Mn/PdMn multilayer test specimens to explore the practical aspects of spatial resolution and detection limits in EFTEM. Although specific to the ionization edges used, we will present general conclusions about the practical limitations in terms of EFTEM spatial resolution. Additionally, work will be shown about low energy-loss imaging of thin oxide layers, where delocalization is the main factor responsible for broadening. PMID:12871810

  20. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σE = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  1. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy: A new probe of subgap absorption in amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopinski, G.P.; Lannin, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The use of high resolution electron energy spectroscopy (HREELS) as a new method for studies of subgap absorption in thin films of amorphous semiconductors is demonstrated. For a-Si films, the {alpha}({omega}) values extracted from the measured loss spectra are in quantitative agreement with previous optical measurements. The method is also applied to both threefold and diamond-like amorphous carbon films, yielding {alpha}({omega}) down to considerably lower energies ({approximately}50 meV) than previously reported. The HREELS method is shown to be complementary to existing techniques in that it can access the regime of low energies and ultrathin films which is difficult to investigate with the conventional methods. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Energy optimization of a regular macromolecular crystallography beamline for ultra-high-resolution crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Ginell, Stephan L.; Chen, Julian C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a practical method for operating existing undulator synchrotron beamlines at photon energies considerably higher than their standard operating range is described and applied at beamline 19-ID of the Structural Biology Center at the Advanced Photon Source enabling operation at 30 keV. Adjustments to the undulator spectrum were critical to enhance the 30 keV flux while reducing the lower- and higher-energy harmonic contamination. A Pd-coated mirror and Al attenuators acted as effective low- and high-bandpass filters. The resulting flux at 30 keV, although significantly lower than with X-ray optics designed and optimized for this energy, allowed for accurate data collection on crystals of the small protein crambin to 0.38 Å resolution.

  3. Energy optimization of a regular macromolecular crystallography beamline for ultra-high-resolution crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Ginell, Stephan L.; Chen, Julian C.-H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a practical method for operating existing undulator synchrotron beamlines at photon energies considerably higher than their standard operating range is described and applied at beamline 19-ID of the Structural Biology Center at the Advanced Photon Source enabling operation at 30 keV. Adjustments to the undulator spectrum were critical to enhance the 30 keV flux while reducing the lower- and higher-energy harmonic contamination. A Pd-coated mirror and Al attenuators acted as effective low- and high-bandpass filters. The resulting flux at 30 keV, although significantly lower than with X-ray optics designed and optimized for this energy, allowed for accuratemore » data collection on crystals of the small protein crambin to 0.38 Å resolution.« less

  4. High-energy-resolution X-ray monochromator calibration using the detailed-balance principle

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J. Y.; Sturhahn, W.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented to calibrate an X-ray energy scale with sub-meV relative accuracy by using the detailed-balance principle of the phonon creation and annihilation. This method is conveniently used to define or verify the energy scale of high-energy-resolution monochromators that are used in inelastic X-ray scattering and nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering instruments at synchrotron radiation facilities. This method does not rely on sample properties and its precision only depends on the statistical data quality. Well calibrated instruments are essential for reliable comparison of data sets obtained at different synchrotron radiation beamlines, of data with theoretical predictions, and of data from other techniques such as neutron or light scattering. The principle of the detailed-balance method is described in this paper and demonstrated experimentally. PMID:22713897

  5. Construction of a new type of low-energy scanning electron microscope with atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastham, D. A.; Edmondson, P.; Donnelly, S.; Olsson, E.; Svensson, K.; Bleloch, A.

    2009-05-01

    We describe a new type of scanning electron microscope which works by directly imaging the electron field-emission sites on a nanotip. Electrons are extracted from the nanotip through a nanoscale aperture, accelerated in a high electric field and focussed to a spot using a microscale einzel lens. If the whole microscope (accelerating section and lens) and the focal length are both restricted in size to below 10 microns, then computer simulations show that the effects of aberration are extremely small and it is possible to have a system with approximately unit magnification, at electron energies as low as 300 eV. Thus a typical emission site of 1 nm diameter will produce an image of the same size and an atomic emission site with give a resolution of 0.1-0.2 nm (1-2 Å), and because the beam is not allowed to expand beyond 100nm in diameter the depth of field is large and the contribution to the beam spot size from chromatic aberrations is less than 0.02 nm (0.2 Å) for 500 eV electrons. Since it is now entirely possible to make stable atomic sized emitters (nanopyramids) it is expected that this instrument will have atomic resolution. Furthermore the brightness of the beam is determined only by the field-emission and can be up to a million times larger than in a typical (high-energy) electron microscope. The construction of this microscope, based on using a nanotip electron source which is mounted on a nanopositioner so that it can be positioned at the correct point adjacent to the microscope, entrance aperture, is described. In this geometry the scanning is achieved by moving the sample using piezos. Two methods for the construction of the microscope column are reviewed and the results of preliminary tests are described. The advantages of this low energy, bright-beam, electron microscope with atomic resolution are described. It can be used in either scanning mode or diffraction mode. The major advantage over existing microscopes is that because it works at very low

  6. High time resolution electron measurement by Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer (FESA)

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Fujimoto, Masaki; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Shinohara, Iku; Tsuda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Shintaro; Kojima, Hirotsugu

    2009-06-16

    We have newly developed an electron energy analyzer FESA (Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer) for a future magnetospheric satellite mission SCOPE. The SCOPE mission is designed in order that observational studies from the cross-scale coupling viewpoint are enabled. One of the key observations necessary for the SCOPE mission is high-time resolution electron measurement. Eight FESAs on a spinning spacecraft are capable of measuring three dimensional electron distribution function with time resolution of 8 msec. FESA consists of two electrostatic analyzers that are composed of three nested hemispherical deflectors. Single FESA functions as four top-hat type electrostatic analyzers that can measure electrons with four different energies simultaneously. By measuring the characteristics of the test model FESA, we proved the validity of the design concept of FESA. Based on the measured characteristics, we designed FESA optimized for the SCOPE mission. This optimized analyzer has good enough performance to measure three dimensional electron distribution functions around the magnetic reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail.

  7. NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource High Resolution Meteorology Data For Sustainable Building Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project is to adapt and infuse NASA's solar and meteorological data into the energy, agricultural, and architectural industries. Improvements are continuously incorporated when higher resolution and longer-term data inputs become available. Climatological data previously provided via POWER web applications were three-hourly and 1x1 degree latitude/longitude. The NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data set provides higher resolution data products (hourly and 1/2x1/2 degree) covering the entire globe. Currently POWER solar and meteorological data are available for more than 30 years on hourly (meteorological only), daily, monthly and annual time scales. These data may be useful to several renewable energy sectors: solar and wind power generation, agricultural crop modeling, and sustainable buildings. A recent focus has been working with ASHRAE to assess complementing weather station data with MERRA data. ASHRAE building design parameters being investigated include heating/cooling degree days and climate zones.

  8. Application of high-resolution linear Radon transform for Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging and mode separating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate multimodes from a multichannel record by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). We first introduce Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging by high-resolution LRT. We then show the process of Rayleigh-wave mode separation. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that (1) compared with slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50% (2) high-resolution LRT can successfully separate multimode dispersive energy of Rayleigh waves with high resolution; and (3) multimode separation and reconstruction expand frequency ranges of higher mode dispersive energy, which not only increases the investigation depth but also provides a means to accurately determine cut-off frequencies.

  9. Establishment and analysis of High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Liao, Xiaohan; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-04-01

    For better prediction and understanding of water-energy exchange process and land-atmospheric interaction, the in-situ observed meteorological data which were acquired from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system were also integrated in the WRF model over China. Further, the High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China (HRADC) was produced by WRF model. This dataset include 25 km horizontal resolution near surface meteorological data such as air temperature, humidity, ground temperature, and pressure at 19 levels, soil temperature and soil moisture at 4 levels, green vegetation coverage, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and ground heat flux for 3 hours. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method; 2) Compare results of meteorological elements such as 2 m temperature, precipitation and ground temperature generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is found that the results of 2 m temperature were improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns, and the simulated results of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature and specific humidity were as much closer to GLDAS outputs. Root mean square errors are reduced in assimilation run than control run, and the assimilation run of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature, radiation and surface fluxes were agreed well with the GLDAS outputs over China. The HRADC could be used in further research

  10. Neutron emission spectroscopy of DT plasmas at enhanced energy resolution with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, L.; Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Milocco, A.; Tardocchi, M.; Chen, Z. J.; Du, T. F.; Fan, T. S.; Hu, Z. M.; Peng, X. Y.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Gorini, G.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents measurements done at the Peking University Van de Graaff neutron source of the response of single crystal synthetic diamond (SD) detectors to quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of 14-20 MeV. The results show an energy resolution of 1% for incoming 20 MeV neutrons, which, together with 1% detection efficiency, opens up to new prospects for fast ion physics studies in high performance nuclear fusion devices such as SD neutron spectrometry of deuterium-tritium plasmas heated by neutral beam injection.

  11. A Fabry-Perot interferometer for sub-meV x-ray energy resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Caticha, A.; Aliberti, K.; Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1996-09-01

    The optical theory of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) for x rays using dynamically diffracting thin perfect crystals as reflectors is developed. Application to a device using high diffraction orders in silicon crystals of thickness of the order of 100 {mu}m or more shows that energy resolutions of the order of a tenth of a meV are achievable. The effect that various features, such as gap and mirror thickness, lattice mismatches, etc., have on the FPI resonances is studied. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Investigating protein conformational energy landscapes and atomic resolution dynamics from NMR dipolar couplings: a review.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Loïc; Blackledge, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is exquisitely sensitive to protein dynamics. In particular inter-nuclear dipolar couplings, that become measurable in solution when the protein is dissolved in a dilute liquid crystalline solution, report on all conformations sampled up to millisecond timescales. As such they provide the opportunity to describe the Boltzmann distribution present in solution at atomic resolution, and thereby to map the conformational energy landscape in unprecedented detail. The development of analytical methods and approaches based on numerical simulation and their application to numerous biologically important systems is presented. PMID:26517337

  13. A high energy-resolution zero degree facility for (p,p') and (p,t) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveling, R.; Fujita, H.; Smit, F. D.; Adachi, T.; Berg, G. P. A.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Carter, J.; Conradie, J. L.; Couder, M.; Fearick, R. W.; Förtsch, S. V.; Fourie, D.; Fujita, Y.; Görres, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Heilmann, A. M.; Mira, J. P.; Murray, S. H. T.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; O'Brien, S.; Papka, P.; Poltoratska, I.; Richter, A.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Swartz, J. A.; Tamii, A.; Usman, I. T.; van Zyl, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    Medium-energy hadronic scattering and reactions at zero degrees are very selective to excitations with low angular momentum transfer. Only a few facilities exist worldwide where high energy-resolution measurements of this nature can be performed. The K600 Zero-Degree Facility at iThemba LABS, South Africa, was recently successfully developed. Measurements were performed for inelastic proton scattering at an incident energy of 200 MeV for targets ranging from 27Al to 208Pb. Excitation energy-resolution of 50 keV (FWHM) was achieved. A reasonable background subtraction procedure allows for the extraction of excitation energy spectra with low background. Measurements of the (p,t) reaction at 100 MeV benefit from a large difference in magnetic rigidity between the reaction products and primary particles, resulting in almost background-free spectra with excitation energy-resolution of 32 keV (FWHM).

  14. Attosecond photoelectron streaking with enhanced energy resolution for small-bandgap materials.

    PubMed

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Akil, Ayman; Ossiander, Marcus; Schäffer, Martin; Azzeer, Abdallah Mohammed; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Markus-Christian; Kienberger, Reinhard; Schultze, Martin; Kleineberg, Ulf

    2016-08-15

    Attosecond photoelectron streaking spectroscopy allows time-resolved electron dynamics with a temporal resolution approaching the atomic unit of time. Studies have been performed in numerous systems, including atoms, molecules, and surfaces, and the quest for ever higher temporal resolution called for ever wider spectral extent of the attosecond pulses. For typical experiments relying on attosecond pulses with a duration of 200 as, the time-bandwidth limitation for a Gaussian pulse implies a minimal spectral bandwidth larger than 9 eV translating to a corresponding spread of the detected photoelectron kinetic energies. Here, by utilizing a specially tailored narrowband reflective XUV multilayer mirror, we explore experimentally the minimal spectral width compatible with attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy while obtaining the highest possible spectral resolution. The validity of the concept is proven by recording attosecond electron streaking traces from the direct semiconductor gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a nominal bandgap of 1.42 eV at room temperature, proving the potential of the approach for tracking charge dynamics also in these technologically highly relevant materials that previously have been inaccessible to attosecond science. PMID:27519070

  15. Carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 complexes studied with 10-fs time resolution.

    PubMed

    Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Cogdell, Richard J

    2006-04-01

    In this report, we present a study of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer processes in two peripheral light-harvesting complexes (known as LH2) from purple bacteria. We use transient absorption spectroscopy with approximately 10 fs temporal resolution, which is necessary to observe the very fast energy relaxation processes. By comparing excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids in organic solvents and inside the LH2 complexes, it has been possible to directly evaluate their energy transfer efficiency to the bacteriochlorophylls. In the case of okenone in the LH2 complex from Chromatium purpuratum, we obtained an energy transfer efficiency of etaET2=63+/-2.5% from the optically active excited state (S2) and etaET1=61+/-2% from the optically dark state (S1); for rhodopin glucoside contained in the LH2 complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila these values become etaET2=49.5+/-3.5% and etaET1=5.1+/-1%. The measurements also enabled us to observe vibrational energy relaxation in the carotenoids' S1 state and real-time collective vibrational coherence initiated by the ultrashort pump pulses. Our results are important for understanding the dynamics of early events of photosynthesis and relating it to the structural arrangement of the chromophores.

  16. A high resolution gas scintillation proportional counter for studying low energy cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, T. T.; Hailey, C. J.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Novick, R.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the development of large area gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) suitable for use in X-ray astronomy. The paper deals with a low-energy GSPC for use in detecting sub-keV X-rays from cosmic sources. This instrument has a measured energy resolution of 85 eV (FWHM) at 149 eV over a sensitive area of 5 sq cm. The development of imaging capability for this instrument is discussed. Tests are performed on the feasibility of using an arrangement of several phototubes placed adjacent to one another to determine event locations in a large flat counter. A simple prototype has been constructed and successfully operated.

  17. Impact of high energy resolution detectors on the performance of a PET system dedicated to breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Levin, Craig S; Foudray, Angela M K; Habte, Frezghi

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a high resolution, high sensitivity PET camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging. We are studying two novel detector technologies for this imaging system: a scintillation detector comprising layers of small lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystals coupled to new position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs), and a pure semiconductor detector comprising cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal slabs with thin anode and cathode strips deposited in orthogonal directions on either side of each slab. Both detectors achieve 1 mm spatial resolution with 3-5 mm directly measured photon interaction depth resolution, which promotes uniform reconstructed spatial resolution throughout a compact, breast-size field of view. Both detector types also achieve outstanding energy resolution (<3% and <12%, respectively for LSO-PSAPD and CZT at 511 keV). This paper studies the effects that this excellent energy resolution has on the expected system performance. Results indicate the importance that high energy resolution and narrow energy window settings have in reducing background random as well as scatter coincidences without compromising statistical quality of the dedicated breast PET data. Simulations predict that using either detector type the excellent performance and novel arrangement of these detectors proposed for the system facilitate approximately 20% instrument sensitivity at the system center and a peak noise-equivalent count rate of >4 kcps for 200 microCi in a simulated breast phantom. PMID:17645990

  18. High resolution simulations of energy absorption in dynamically loaded cellular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Eakins, D. E.; McShane, G.

    2016-04-01

    Cellular materials have potential application as absorbers of energy generated by high velocity impact. CTH, a Sandia National Laboratories Code which allows very severe strains to be simulated, has been used to perform very high resolution simulations showing the dynamic crushing of a series of two-dimensional, stainless steel metal structures with varying architectures. The structures are positioned to provide a cushion between a solid stainless steel flyer plate with velocities ranging from 300 to 900 m/s, and an initially stationary stainless steel target. Each of the alternative architectures under consideration was formed by an array of identical cells each of which had a constant volume and a constant density. The resolution of the simulations was maximised by choosing a configuration in which one-dimensional conditions persisted for the full period over which the specimen densified, a condition which is most readily met by impacting high density specimens at high velocity. It was found that the total plastic flow and, therefore, the irreversible energy dissipated in the fully densified energy absorbing cell, increase (a) as the structure becomes more rodlike and less platelike and (b) as the impact velocity increases. Sequential CTH images of the deformation processes show that the flow of the cell material may be broadly divided into macroscopic flow perpendicular to the compression direction and jetting-type processes (microkinetic flow) which tend to predominate in rod and rodlike configurations and also tend to play an increasing role at increased strain rates. A very simple analysis of a configuration in which a solid flyer impacts a solid target provides a baseline against which to compare and explain features seen in the simulations. The work provides a basis for the development of energy absorbing structures for application in the 200-1000 m/s impact regime.

  19. Electrodynamics and energy characteristics of aurora at high resolution by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlgren, H.; Lanchester, B. S.; Ivchenko, N.; Whiter, D. K.

    2016-06-01

    Technological advances leading to improved sensitivity of optical detectors have revealed that aurora contains a richness of dynamic and thin filamentary structures, but the source of the structured emissions is not fully understood. In addition, high-resolution radar data have indicated that thin auroral arcs can be correlated with highly varying and large electric fields, but the detailed picture of the electrodynamics of auroral filaments is yet incomplete. The Auroral Structure and Kinetics (ASK) instrument is a state-of-the-art ground-based instrument designed to investigate these smallest auroral features at very high spatial and temporal resolution, by using three electron multiplying CCDs in parallel for three different narrow spectral regions. ASK is specifically designed to utilize a new optical technique to determine the ionospheric electric fields. By imaging the long-lived O+ line at 732 nm, the plasma flow in the region can be traced, and since the plasma motion is controlled by the electric field, the field strength and direction can be estimated at unprecedented resolution. The method is a powerful tool to investigate the detailed electrodynamics and current systems around the thin auroral filaments. The two other ASK cameras provide information on the precipitation by imaging prompt emissions, and the emission brightness ratio of the two emissions, together with ion chemistry modeling, is used to give information on the energy and energy flux of the precipitating electrons. In this paper, we discuss these measuring techniques and give a few examples of how they are used to reveal the nature and source of fine-scale structuring in the aurora.

  20. Visualizing potential energy curves and conformations on ultra high-resolution display walls.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Karl N; Reith, Dirk; Jato, Oliver; Hinkenjann, André

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution, we examine how visualization on an ultra high-resolution display wall can augment force-field research in the field of molecular modeling. Accurate force fields are essential for producing reliable simulations, and subsequently important for several fields of applications (e.g. rational drug design and biomolecular modeling). We discuss how using HORNET, a recently constructed specific ultra high-resolution tiled display wall, enhances the visual analytics that are necessary for conformational-based interpretation of the raw data from molecular calculations. Simultaneously viewing multiple potential energy graphs and conformation overlays leads to an enhanced way of evaluating force fields and in their optimization. Consequently, we have integrated visual analytics into our existing Wolf2Pack workflow. We applied this workflow component to analyze how major AMBER force fields (Parm14SB, Gaff, Lipid14, Glycam06j) perform at reproducing the quantum mechanics relative energies and geometries of saturated hydrocarbons. Included in this comparison are the 1996 OPLS force field and our newly developed ExTrM force field. While we focus on atomistic force fields the ideas presented herein are generalizable to other research areas, particularly those that involve numerous representations of large data amounts and whose simultaneous visualization enhances the analysis. PMID:26454265

  1. Visualizing potential energy curves and conformations on ultra high-resolution display walls.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Karl N; Reith, Dirk; Jato, Oliver; Hinkenjann, André

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution, we examine how visualization on an ultra high-resolution display wall can augment force-field research in the field of molecular modeling. Accurate force fields are essential for producing reliable simulations, and subsequently important for several fields of applications (e.g. rational drug design and biomolecular modeling). We discuss how using HORNET, a recently constructed specific ultra high-resolution tiled display wall, enhances the visual analytics that are necessary for conformational-based interpretation of the raw data from molecular calculations. Simultaneously viewing multiple potential energy graphs and conformation overlays leads to an enhanced way of evaluating force fields and in their optimization. Consequently, we have integrated visual analytics into our existing Wolf2Pack workflow. We applied this workflow component to analyze how major AMBER force fields (Parm14SB, Gaff, Lipid14, Glycam06j) perform at reproducing the quantum mechanics relative energies and geometries of saturated hydrocarbons. Included in this comparison are the 1996 OPLS force field and our newly developed ExTrM force field. While we focus on atomistic force fields the ideas presented herein are generalizable to other research areas, particularly those that involve numerous representations of large data amounts and whose simultaneous visualization enhances the analysis.

  2. Comparison of spatio-temporal resolution of different flow measurement techniques for marine renewable energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Vincent; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion devices are subject to a wide range of turbulent scales, either due to upstream bathymetry, obstacles and waves, or from wakes of upstream devices in array configurations. The commonly used, robust Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are well suited for long term flow measurements in the marine environment, but are limited to low sampling rates due to their operational principle. The resulting temporal and spatial resolution is insufficient to measure all turbulence scales of interest to the device, e.g., ``blade-scale turbulence.'' The present study systematically characterizes the spatial and temporal resolution of ADCP, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Measurements were conducted in a large cross section tow tank (3.7m × 2.4m) for several benchmark cases, including low and high turbulence intensity uniform flow as well as in the wake of a cylinder, to quantitatively investigate the flow scales which each of the instruments can resolve. The purpose of the study is to supply data for mathematical modeling to improve predictions from ADCP measurements, which can help lead to higher-fidelity energy resource assessment and more accurate device evaluation, including wake measurements. Supported by NSF-CBET grant 1150797.

  3. Practical spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shah, A B; Ramasse, Q M; Wen, J G; Bhattacharya, A; Zuo, J M

    2011-08-01

    The resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is limited by delocalization of inelastic electron scattering rather than probe size in an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). In this study, we present an experimental quantification of EELS spatial resolution using chemically modulated 2×(LaMnO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) and 2×(SrVO(3))/2×(SrTiO(3)) superlattices by measuring the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of integrated Ti M(2,3), Ti L(2,3), V L(2,3), Mn L(2,3), La N(4,5), La N(2,3) La M(4,5) and Sr L(3) edges over the superlattices. The EELS signals recorded using large collection angles are peaked at atomic columns. The FWHM of the EELS profile, obtained by curve-fitting, reveals a systematic trend with the energy loss for the Ti, V, and Mn edges. However, the experimental FWHM of the Sr and La edges deviates significantly from the observed experimental tendency.

  4. A New Focus Lens for Improved Energy Resolution in the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenn, D.; Herrero, F.; Syrstad, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) is a novel neutral particle sensor capable of simultaneously measuring neutral winds, temperature, composition, and density in the upper atmosphere. This compact, low-power instrument is ideally suited for in situ thermospheric measurements on small-satellite platforms. Building on work previously performed, we detail here endeavors to more fully characterize the effects of proposed instrument modifications, leading to a greater understanding of their impact on overall sensor performance. Additionally, laboratory testing of the WATS seeks to confirm theoretical data previously gathered. WATS utilizes electron impact ionization, a crossed Small Deflection Energy Analyzer (SDEA) pair, and a microchannel plate (MCP) detector with linear spatial readout to measure the full 3-D velocity distribution of an incoming neutral stream. A minor weakness in the original WATS design was that a large ion beam divergence at the SDEA entrance led to degraded energy resolution. To address this problem, a simple focusing lens system with a large acceptance angle range, dubbed the Tapered Quad Deflector (TQD), was designed and previously presented. Here, the results of ion trajectory calculations (Simion 3D) and Monte Carlo simulations (Matlab) are used to explore various aspects of the TQD’s functionality. With no modifications to the instrument aside from the addition of the TQD, simulations show an increase in the energy resolution by a factor of two. Further simulations reveal that reducing the width of the instrument’s collimator slit decreases the beam divergence (with a corresponding increase in instrument energy resolution) for both the original and modified WATS. However, this effect is markedly more pronounced in the latter, meaning that the TQD could enable a significant reduction in beam divergence while minimizing the loss of signal that would result from narrowing the collimator slit. Also presented are the results of

  5. Adventures in Gaseous Positronics - An Ultra-High-Energy-Resolution Cryogenic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natisin, Mike

    2016-05-01

    While positron interactions with matter are important in a variety of contexts, many important experiments have been inhibited due to the difficulties encountered in creating beams with narrow energy spreads. This talk focuses on the development of a pulsed positron beam with a total energy spread of 7 meV FWHM; this represents a factor of five improvement over the previous state-of-the-art. Current positron atomic physics experiments rely on high quality beams from buffer gas traps. Although widely used, the physical phenomena operative in beam formation had not previously been fully investigated, and understanding these processes proved crucial to improving beam quality. Experimental measurements and simulation results of positron cooling and beam formation are discussed, with an emphasis on beam energy resolution. Using these results, a new cryogenic, trap-based beam system was built. Positrons are cooled to 50 K using a CO buffer gas, resulting in beams with total energy spreads as low as 6.9 meV FWHM, sub-microsecond temporal spreads and beam diameters as small as 1 mm. Details of this beam system, as well as new experiments that will be enabled by it, will be discussed. Work supported by NSF Grant PHY-1401794.

  6. Ions in the Enceladus plume: Cassini/CAPS ion measurements at high energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, F.; Coates, A. J.; Hill, T. W.; Jones, G. H.; Tokar, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    During several Cassini encounters with Saturn's satellite, Enceladus, the spacecraft crossed through the plume of water vapor and dust south of the satellite with a spacecraft orientation which allowed the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) to observe ions and nanograin dust particles associated with the plume. During three of these encounters, E7 (November 2, 2009), E17 (March XX, 2012) and E18 (April YY, 2012), the trajectories were very similar and parallel to the equatorial plane (i.e. little north-south velocity, so that the spacecraft moved perpendicular to the rotation axis of Enceladus.) Previous analysis, using data from the CAPS ion mass spectrometer (IMS) and electron spectrometer (ELS), identified cold ions at rest with respect to Enceladus [1], negative water group and water cluster ions [2], and both positively and negatively charged dust particles in the 0.5 to 2 nm (1000 to 20,000 AMU) size range [3,4]. We present observations from the third CAPS sensor, the ion beam spectrometer (IBS). Although this sensor lacks the angular resolution of the other CAPS sensors, it has an energy resolution of 1.4%, roughly an order of magnitude greater than the ELS and IMS sensors. The IBS data allows us to estimate the temperature and flow speed of the low energy ions in the plume, and characterize the structure of the plume ionosphere. We find that the plume is highly structured, down to the 2-s (17 km along track) limit of the instrument's sampling. Distinct regions of cold, dense ions, resembling a collisional ionosphere, are intermixed with a broad background of warmer, non-thermal ions, possibly resulting from charge exchange between magnetospheric ions and plume neutrals. Despite the sensor's lack of intrinsic angular resolution, the ion flux and energy spectra are consistent with a drift velocity away from Saturn and in the direction of the upstream flow. References: [1] Tokar et al., 2009, Cassini detection of Enceladus' cold water-group plume ionosphere

  7. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Di Domizio, S.; Castellano, M. G.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-31

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm{sup 2} are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ{sub E} = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  8. Oxidation of diamond films by atomic oxygen: High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilman, Z.; Gouzman, I.; Grossman, E.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2007-12-01

    Diamond surface oxidation by atomic oxygen, annealing up to ˜700°C, and in situ exposure to thermally activated hydrogen were studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). After atomic oxygen (AO) exposure, HREELS revealed peaks associated with CHx groups, carbonyl, ether, and peroxide-type species and strong quenching of the diamond optical phonon and its overtones. Upon annealing of the oxidized surfaces, the diamond optical phonon overtones at 300 and 450meV emerge and carbonyl and peroxide species gradually desorb. The diamond surface was not completely regenerated after annealing to ˜700°C and in situ exposure to thermally activated hydrogen, probably due to the irreversible deterioration of the surface by AO.

  9. High resolution energy-angle correlation measurement of hard x rays from laser-Thomson backscattering.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, A; Irman, A; Bussmann, M; Couperus, J P; Cowan, T E; Debus, A D; Kuntzsch, M; Ledingham, K W D; Lehnert, U; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Seipt, D; Stöhlker, Th; Thorn, D B; Trotsenko, S; Wagner, A; Schramm, U

    2013-09-13

    Thomson backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright x-ray pulses but also for the investigation of the complex particle dynamics at the interaction point. For this purpose a complete spectral characterization of a Thomson source powered by a compact linear electron accelerator is performed with unprecedented angular and energy resolution. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to 3D simulations enables, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard x-ray source PHOENIX (photon electron collider for narrow bandwidth intense x rays) and potential gamma-ray sources.

  10. A broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Heeter, R F; Booth, R; Emig, J; Fulkerson, S; McCarville, T; Norman, D; Young, B F

    2006-03-31

    Spectroscopic investigation of high temperature laser produced plasmas in general, and x-ray opacity experiments in particular, often requires instruments with both a broad coverage of x-ray energies and high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution. We analyze the design, model the response, and report the commissioning of a spectrometer using elliptical crystals in conjunction with a large format, gated microchannel plate detector. Measurements taken with this instrument at the JANUS laser facilities demonstrate the designed spectral range of 0.24 to 5.8 keV, and spectral resolution E/{Delta}E > 500, resulting in 2 to 3 times more spectral data than achieved by previous spectrometer designs. The observed 100 picosecond temporal resolution and 35 {micro}m spatial resolution are consistent with the requirements of high energy density opacity experiments.

  11. Electron energy-loss near-edge structures of 3d transition metal oxides recorded at high-energy resolution.

    PubMed

    Mitterbauer, C; Kothleitner, G; Grogger, W; Zandbergen, H; Freitag, B; Tiemeijer, P; Hofer, F

    2003-09-01

    Near-edge fine structures of the metal L(2,3) and O K-edges in transition metal-oxides have been studied with a transmission electron microscope equipped with a monochromator and a high-resolution imaging filter. This system enables the recording of EELS spectra with an energy resolution of 0.1eV thus providing new near-edge fine structure details which could not be observed previously by EELS in conventional TEM instruments. EELS-spectra from well-defined oxides like titanium oxide (TiO(2)), vanadium oxide (V(2)O(5)), chromium oxide (Cr(2)O(3)), iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)), cobalt oxide (CoO) and nickel oxide (NiO) have been measured with the new system. These spectra are compared with EELS data obtained from a conventional microscope and the main spectral features are interpreted. Additionally, the use of monochromised TEMs is discussed in view of the natural line widths of K and L(2,3) edges. PMID:12871809

  12. A new variable-resolution associative memory for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Annovi, A.; Amerio, S.; Beretta, M.; Bossini, E.; Crescioli, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Hoff, J.; Liu, T.; Magalotti, D.; Piendibene, M.; Sacco, I.; Schoening, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Stabile, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Liberali, V.; Vitillo, R.; Volpi, G.

    2011-07-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out by finding track candidates in coarse resolution 'roads'. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called 'patterns', for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its 'coverage' and the level of fake roads. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least one pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to the number of patterns in the bank. Moreover, as the luminosity increases, the fake rate increases rapidly because of the increased silicon occupancy. To counter that, we must reduce the width of our roads. If we decrease the road width using the current technology, the system will become very large and extremely expensive. We propose an elegant solution to this problem: the 'variable resolution patterns'. Each pattern and each detector layer within a pattern will be able to use the optimal width, but we will use a 'don't care' feature (inspired from ternary CAMs) to increase the width when that is more appropriate. In other words we can use patterns of variable shape. As a result we reduce the number of fake roads, while keeping the efficiency high and avoiding excessive bank size due to the reduced width. We describe the idea, the implementation in the new AM design and the implementation of the algorithm in the simulation. Finally we show the effectiveness of the 'variable resolution patterns' idea using simulated

  13. Investigating Possible Departures from Maxwellian Energy Distributions in Nebulae using High-Resolution Emission Line Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbyfill, Amanda; Dinerstein, H. L.; Sterling, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of ionic abundance ratios from collisionally excited emission lines in gaseous nebulae requires knowledge of the physical state of the gas, particularly the electron kinetic temperature, Te, to which the resulting abundances are highly sensitive. A long-standing problem in nebular analyses has been pervasive discrepancies among values of Te obtained from different diagnostic ratios for a single nebula. Recently, Nicholls et al. (2012, ApJ, 752, 148) have suggested that the nebular electrons may not obey an equilibrium Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) energy distribution, but instead follow a “κ distribution” seen in many solar system plasmas, a family of distributions for which the M-B distribution is the limiting case where κ → ∞. The high-energy tail of supra-thermal electrons in κ distributions have a disproportionate effect on strongly energy dependent quantities, such as Te diagnostics, for even modest departures from M-B distributions. We apply prescriptions given by Nicholls et al. (2013, ApJS, 207, 21) to high-resolution (R=36,700) optical spectra of 10 planetary nebulae obtained with the 2d-coudé echelle spectrograph on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The advantages of these data include their broad spectral coverage and sufficiently high spectral resolution to separate blended lines and assess possible atmospheric absorption issues. The line fluxes were obtained using ROBOSPECT, an automated spectral line measurement package developed by Waters & Hollek (2013, PASP, 125, 1164). We solve both for Te under the assumption of M-B distributions, and the parameters of κ distributions consistent with the data. Our goal is to test whether the κ distribution hypothesis provides a better fit to the observed line ratios. Finally, we discuss effects on the derived ionic abundances under this alternate description of the particle energy distributions. This research was supported by NSF grant AST 0708245 and the John W

  14. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  15. Simple super-resolution live-cell imaging based on diffusion-assisted Förster resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sangyeon; Jang, Jaeduck; Song, Chaeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Ganesan, Prabhakar; Yoon, Tae-Young; Kim, Mahn Won; Choi, Myung Chul; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Heo, Won Do; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development of several super-resolution fluorescence microscopic techniques, there are still few techniques that can be readily employed in conventional imaging systems. We present a very simple, rapid, general and cost-efficient super-resolution imaging method, which can be directly employed in a simple fluorescent imaging system with general fluorophores. Based on diffusion-assisted Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescent donor molecules that label specific target structures can be stochastically quenched by diffusing acceptor molecules, thereby temporally separating otherwise spatially overlapped fluorescence signals and allowing super-resolution imaging. The proposed method provides two- to three-fold-enhancement in spatial resolution, a significant optical sectioning property, and favorable temporal resolution in live-cell imaging. We demonstrate super-resolution live-cell dynamic imaging using general fluorophores in a standard epi-fluorescence microscope with light-emitting diode (LED) illumination. Due to the simplicity of this approach, we expect that the proposed method will prove an attractive option for super-resolution imaging. PMID:23383376

  16. Time resolution of a 1-inch cylindrical CeBr{sub 3} crystal at {sup 60}Co energies

    SciTech Connect

    Vedia, V.; Fraile, L. M.; Olaizola, B.; Paziy, V.; Picado, E.; Udias, J. M.; Mach, H.

    2013-06-10

    We have measured time resolutions of a cylindrical CeBr{sub 3} scintillator of 1-inch in height and 1-inch in diameter coupled to two different fast photomultiplier tubes, Hamamatsu R9779 and Photonis XP20D0, as a function of applied high voltages and different settings of a Constant Fraction Discriminator ORTEC 935. The time resolution was measured using a time-delayed coincidence set-up involving a fast reference detector. The best result of 119(2) ps at {sup 60}Co energies was obtained for the CeBr{sub 3} crystal coupled to the Hamamatsu PMT. This result is comparable to the resolution of 107 ps reported for a LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal of the same size. For the coupling of the CeBr{sub 3} scintillator to the Photonis PMT we got the time resolution of 146(2) ps.

  17. Energy-Gap-Induced Super-Resolution (EG-SR) Optical Disc Using ZnO Interference Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tajima, Hideharu; Takamori, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Akira

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a super-resolution read-only memory (ROM) disc with a high readout stability using a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film. Applying the reversible and repeatable change in the optical constants of ZnO induced by heat, we can successfully confirm super-resolution effects that can read out a small mark beyond the optical diffraction limit. By realizing this characteristic in a ROM disc, we obtained a linear bit density twofold higher than that of a conventional disc in the blue-laser optical system. To clarify the origin of ZnO super resolution, we performed two types of test: a test to compare ZnO super-resolution characteristics using blue- and red-laser optical systems, and a test to determine the relationship between the absorption edges of semiconductor films with various energy band gaps and readout laser wavelength.

  18. A high-resolution time-of-flight energy analyzer for femtosecond electron pulses at 30 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliserin, Alexander; Walbran, Matthew; Baum, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We report a time-of-flight spectrometer for electron pulses at up to 30 keV, which is a suitable energy for atomic-resolution femtosecond investigations via time-resolved electron diffraction, microscopy, and energy loss spectroscopy. For realistic femtosecond beams without apertures, the instrument's energy resolution is ˜0.5 eV (full width at half maximum) or 2 × 10-5 at a throughput of 50%-90%. We demonstrate the analyzer's versatility by three first applications, namely, femtosecond electron pulse metrology via optical streaking, in situ drift correction in laser-microwave synchronization for electron pulse compression, and time-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy of aluminum, showing the instrument's capability of tracking plasmonic loss peak positions with few-meV accuracy.

  19. Beamline P02.1 at PETRA III for high-resolution and high-energy powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Dippel, Ann-Christin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Delitz, Jan Torben; Walter, Peter; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Seeck, Oliver H; Franz, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction techniques largely benefit from the superior beam quality provided by high-brilliance synchrotron light sources in terms of photon flux and angular resolution. The High Resolution Powder Diffraction Beamline P02.1 at the storage ring PETRA III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) combines these strengths with the power of high-energy X-rays for materials research. The beamline is operated at a fixed photon energy of 60 keV (0.207 Å wavelength). A high-resolution monochromator generates the highly collimated X-ray beam of narrow energy bandwidth. Classic crystal structure determination in reciprocal space at standard and non-ambient conditions are an essential part of the scientific scope as well as total scattering analysis using the real space information of the pair distribution function. Both methods are complemented by in situ capabilities with time-resolution in the sub-second regime owing to the high beam intensity and the advanced detector technology for high-energy X-rays. P02.1's efficiency in solving chemical and crystallographic problems is illustrated by presenting key experiments that were carried out within these fields during the early stage of beamline operation.

  20. Beamline P02.1 at PETRA III for high-resolution and high-energy powder diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Dippel, Ann-Christin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Delitz, Jan Torben; Walter, Peter; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst; Seeck, Oliver H.; Franz, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction techniques largely benefit from the superior beam quality provided by high-brilliance synchrotron light sources in terms of photon flux and angular resolution. The High Resolution Powder Diffraction Beamline P02.1 at the storage ring PETRA III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) combines these strengths with the power of high-energy X-rays for materials research. The beamline is operated at a fixed photon energy of 60 keV (0.207 Å wavelength). A high-resolution monochromator generates the highly collimated X-ray beam of narrow energy bandwidth. Classic crystal structure determination in reciprocal space at standard and non-ambient conditions are an essential part of the scientific scope as well as total scattering analysis using the real space information of the pair distribution function. Both methods are complemented by in situ capabilities with time-resolution in the sub-second regime owing to the high beam intensity and the advanced detector technology for high-energy X-rays. P02.1’s efficiency in solving chemical and crystallographic problems is illustrated by presenting key experiments that were carried out within these fields during the early stage of beamline operation. PMID:25931084

  1. High-resolution photographic material of Institute of Atomic Energy for holography in intersecting beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabova, R. V.; Barinova, E. S.; Myatezh, O. V.; Zaborov, A. N.; Romash, E. V.; Chernyi, D. I.

    1991-02-01

    The properties o a new silver halide photographic material for holography in intersecting beams are presented. The energy sensitivi-. ty is io-4 J/crn2 the diffraction efficiency is 20 the resolv-. ing power is 4500 5000 line/mm. The high sensitivity of the photo-. graphic material allows it to be used for holography of living objects. At the Institute of Atomic Energy much attention is paid. to devel-'' opment of a wide choice of photographic materials for pulsed holo-'' graphy1 " 7 Table 1 presents the properties of the basic photographic materials of the IAE for holography in the visible and infrared ranges. Table 1 Name of photographic material Max. sens spectra of itivity nm Sensitivity J/c. m2 Resolution line/mm Diffract. efficiency IAE-''530 IAE-. 630 IAE-. 630(2) L4. E69o 530 630 630 690 -io5 5. 1O6 -io6 io6 3000 30OO 2000 -2O0O 2O 30 IAE-''840 1AE-1060 840 860 910 1060 2OO0 1o Recently a number of problems have been raised which could be solved by means of pulsed holography with recording according to the scheme in intersecting beams given photographic materials displaying a greater (by at least two orders of magnitude) sensitivity than those produced by the Soviet industry for these purposes. Among such prob lems are those in the field of in-''vivo studies. At present in a nwn-'' ber of medical institutions researches are being carried out into the possibility of

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  4. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  5. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  6. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  7. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  8. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  9. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  10. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  16. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  17. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  1. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  2. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  3. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  4. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  5. Simulating SiD Calorimetry: Software Calibration Procedures and Jet Energy Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cassell, Ron; /SLAC

    2009-02-23

    Simulated calorimeter performance in the SiD detector is examined. The software calibration procedures are described, as well as the perfect pattern recognition PFA reconstruction. Performance of the SiD calorimeters is summarized with jet energy resolutions from calorimetry only, perfect pattern recognition and the SiD PFA algorithm. Presented at LCWS08[1]. Our objective is to simulate the calorimeter performance of the SiD detector, with and without a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA). Full Geant4 simulations using SLIC[2] and the SiD simplified detector geometry (SiD02) are used. In this geometry, the calorimeters are represented as layered cylinders. The EM calorimeter is Si/W, with 20 layers of 2.5mm W and 10 layers of 5mm W, segmented in 3.5 x 3.5mm{sup 2} cells. The HAD calorimeter is RPC/Fe, with 40 layers of 20mm Fe and a digital readout, segmented in 10 x 10mm{sup 2} cells. The barrel detectors are layered in radius, while the endcap detectors are layered in z(along the beam axis).

  6. Energy-selective neutron imaging with high spatial resolution and its impact on the study of crystalline-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Peetermans, S.; Josic, L.; Leber, H.; van Swygenhoven, H.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline-structured materials with preferentially large grains were investigated by means of energy-selective neutron imaging methods (transmission radiography and tomography) under the conditions of the best possible spatial resolution at the ICON facility, SINQ, and PSI. Because of the cold spectrum at that beam line, access to the Bragg diffraction features was possible even when the energy resolution of the used selector device was only 15%. Grains with a size below the detector resolution (approximately 25 μm) are not visible, and a quasi-homogeneous contrast variation is found when the neutron energy is varied.In the cases of welded stainless steel samples and rolled Al plates, we obtained structural information from a very short exposure of approximately 60 s. Tomographic examinations of these samples at suitable neutron energies qualitatively verified the radiographic findings by showing the same features in the bulk. Comparison to common electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigations in selected regions of the samples provided a complete verification of the neutron-image data with respect to the grain size and the different grain orientations. The method of energy-selective neutron imaging provides an easy and straightforward approach for non-invasive material research that can be performed without any sample preparation if the most suitable neutron energy is chosen. Further studies will be necessary to extend the experimental data base to other materials with different crystal structures and grain sizes. A comparison to diffraction data will enhance the quantitative value of the investigations.

  7. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  8. Low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy using a high-resolution grating spectrometer in the near ultraviolet range.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    An inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) apparatus using a Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer is demonstrated. Previous IPES instruments based on grating spectrometers used a concave grating and operated in the vacuum ultraviolet range. The reflectance of such gratings is lower than 20% and the aberration cannot be finely corrected leading to an energy resolution of up to 0.1 eV. In the present study, employing the low energy IPES regime [H. Yoshida, Chem. Phys. Lett. 539-540, 180 (2012)], incident electrons with a kinetic energy below 5 eV are used, while photon emission in the range of between 250 and 370 nm is analyzed with a 10-cm Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer. The signal intensity is at least 30 times higher than the previous apparatus. The resolution of photon detection is set at 0.07 eV though the ultimate resolution is one order of magnitude higher. The experiment is performed both by sweeping the electron energy (isochromat mode) and by simultaneously analyzing the photon of whole wavelength range (tunable photon energy mode).

  9. Low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy using a high-resolution grating spectrometer in the near ultraviolet range

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-15

    An inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) apparatus using a Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer is demonstrated. Previous IPES instruments based on grating spectrometers used a concave grating and operated in the vacuum ultraviolet range. The reflectance of such gratings is lower than 20% and the aberration cannot be finely corrected leading to an energy resolution of up to 0.1 eV. In the present study, employing the low energy IPES regime [H. Yoshida, Chem. Phys. Lett. 539–540, 180 (2012)], incident electrons with a kinetic energy below 5 eV are used, while photon emission in the range of between 250 and 370 nm is analyzed with a 10-cm Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer. The signal intensity is at least 30 times higher than the previous apparatus. The resolution of photon detection is set at 0.07 eV though the ultimate resolution is one order of magnitude higher. The experiment is performed both by sweeping the electron energy (isochromat mode) and by simultaneously analyzing the photon of whole wavelength range (tunable photon energy mode)

  10. Importance of energy and angular resolutions in top-hat electrostatic analysers for solar wind proton measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Lavraud, B.; Louarn, P.; Salatti, M.

    2016-08-01

    We use a numerical code which reproduces the angular/energy response of a typical top-hat electrostatic analyser starting from solar wind proton velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical simulations. The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. A virtual satellite launched through the simulation box measures the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real sensor in the solar wind. Different energy-angular resolutions of the analyser are investigated in order to understand the influence of the phase-space resolution in existing and upcoming space missions, with regards to determining the key parameters of plasma dynamics.

  11. A measurement of the energy and timing resolution of GlueX Forward Calorimeter using an electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Kei; Leckey, John P.; Shepherd, Matthew R.; Bauer, Kevin; Bennett, Daniel William; Frye, John Michael; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Henderson, Scott J.; Lawrence, David W.; Mitchell, Ryan E.; Smith, Elton S.; Smith, Paul T.; Somov, Alexander Sergeyevich; Egiyan, Hovanes

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the GlueX Forward Calorimeter was studied using a small version of the detector and a variable energy electron beam derived from the Hall B tagger at Jefferson Lab. For electron energies from 110 MeV to 260 MeV, which are near the lower-limits of the design sensitivity, the fractional energy resolution was measured to range from 20% to 14%, which meets the design goals. The use of custom 250 MHz flash ADCs for readout allowed precise measurements of signal arrival times. The detector achieved timing resolutions of 0.38 ns for a single 100 mV pulse, which will allow timing discrimination of photon beam bunches and out-of-time background during the operation of the GlueX detector.

  12. High-resolution simulations of the thermophysiological effects of human exposure to 100 MHz RF energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David A.; Curran, Allen R.; Nyberg, Hans A.; Marttila, Eric A.; Mason, Patrick A.; Ziriax, John M.

    2013-03-01

    Human exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy is known to result in tissue heating and can raise temperatures substantially in some situations. Standards for safe exposure to RF do not reflect bio-heat transfer considerations however. Thermoregulatory function (vasodilation, sweating) may mitigate RF heating effects in some environments and exposure scenarios. Conversely, a combination of an extreme environment (high temperature, high humidity), high activity levels and thermally insulating garments may exacerbate RF exposure and pose a risk of unsafe temperature elevation, even for power densities which might be acceptable in a normothermic environment. A high-resolution thermophysiological model, incorporating a heterogeneous tissue model of a seated adult has been developed and used to replicate a series of whole-body exposures at a frequency (100 MHz) which approximates that of human whole-body resonance. Exposures were simulated at three power densities (4, 6 and 8 mW cm-2) plus a sham exposure and at three different ambient temperatures (24, 28 and 31 °C). The maximum hypothalamic temperature increase over the course of a 45 min exposure was 0.28 °C and occurred in the most extreme conditions (Tamb = 31 °C, PD = 8 mW cm-2). Skin temperature increases attributable to RF exposure were modest, with the exception of a ‘hot spot’ in the vicinity of the ankle where skin temperatures exceeded 39 °C. Temperature increases in internal organs and tissues were small, except for connective tissue and bone in the lower leg and foot. Temperature elevation also was noted in the spinal cord, consistent with a hot spot previously identified in the literature.

  13. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  14. Dual-Layer Energy-Gap-Induced Super-Resolution Read-Only-Memory Disc Using ZnO Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamori, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Mori, Go; Tajima, Hideharu; Takahashi, Akira

    2006-02-01

    Energy-gap-induced super-resolution (EG-SR) technology has been developed for high-density optical discs with a high readout stability using a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film. ZnO film indicated a thermal change in optical properties. By applying these effects to a read-only-memory (ROM) disc, we obtained a linear bit density twofold that of conventional ROM discs in our experimental optical pickup system with a 404-nm-wavelength laser and a 0.85-numerical-aperture (NA) objective lens. In this study, we report an optical disc technology that enables super-resolution readout of data pits in a dual-layer structure by employing a transparent ZnO super-resolution functional film.

  15. High energy-resolution zero-degree facility for light-ion scattering and reactions at iThemba LABS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveling, R.; Fujita, H.; Smit, F. D.; Adachi, T.; Berg, G. P. A.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Carter, J.; Conradie, J. L.; Couder, M.; Fearick, R. W.; Förtsch, S. V.; Fourie, D. T.; Fujita, Y.; Görres, J.; Hatanaka, K.; Jingo, M.; Krumbholz, A. M.; Kureba, C. O.; Mira, J. P.; Murray, S. H. T.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; O'Brien, S.; Papka, P.; Poltoratska, I.; Richter, A.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Swartz, J. A.; Tamii, A.; Usman, I. T.; van Zyl, J. J.

    2011-10-01

    The setup and experimental techniques for measurements of zero-degree inelastic scattering and reactions involving light ions with the K=600 magnetic spectrometer at iThemba LABS are described. Measurements were performed for inelastic proton scattering at an incident energy of 200 MeV for targets ranging from 27Al to 208Pb. An energy-resolution of 45 keV (FWHM) was achieved by utilizing the faint-beam dispersion-matching technique. A background subtraction procedure was applied and allowed for the extraction of excitation energy spectra with low background. Measurements of the (p,t) reaction at zero degrees for Ep=100 and 200 MeV benefited from the difference in magnetic rigidity between the reaction products and the beam particles, resulting in background-free spectra with an excitation energy-resolution of 32 and 48 keV (FWHM), respectively, and a scattering angle resolution of 0.55° (FWHM). The addition of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) at backward scattering angles allowed for coincident measurements of particle-decay of states excited in the (p,t) reaction at Ep=200 MeV.

  16. THE APPLICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRON ENERGY LOSS SPECTROSCOPY TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ADSORBED MOLECULES ON RHODIUM SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of low energy electrons by metal surfaces has been studied for many years now. The electron's ease of generation and detection and high surface sensitivity (low penetration depth) make it an ideal probe for surface scientists. The impinging electron can interact with the surface in basically two ways: it can either elastically reflect (or diffract) from the surface without losing energy or lose a portion of it's incident energy and inelastically scatter. In this paper we will be concerned with only one of many possible inelastic scattering processes: the loss of the electron's energy to the vibrational modes of atoms and molecules chemisorbed on the surface. This technique is known as high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (or ELS, EELS, HRELS, HREELS, etc.).

  17. High Resolution Higher Energy X-ray Microscope for Mesoscopic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.

    2013-10-01

    We developed a novel X-ray microscopy technique to study mesoscopically structured materials, employing compound refractive lenses. The easily seen advantage of lens-based methodology is the possibility to retrieve high resolution diffraction pattern and real-space images in the same experimental setup. Methodologically the proposed approach is similar to the studies of crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The proposed microscope was applied for studying of mesoscopic materials such as natural and synthetic opals, inverted photonic crystals.

  18. Sub-nanometre resolution imaging of polymer–fullerene photovoltaic blends using energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Robert C.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Glen, Tom S.; Sasam, Fabian-Cyril; Li, Letian; Dapor, Maurizio; Donald, Athene M.; Lidzey, David G.; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The resolution capability of the scanning electron microscope has increased immensely in recent years, and is now within the sub-nanometre range, at least for inorganic materials. An equivalent advance has not yet been achieved for imaging the morphologies of nanostructured organic materials, such as organic photovoltaic blends. Here we show that energy-selective secondary electron detection can be used to obtain high-contrast, material-specific images of an organic photovoltaic blend. We also find that we can differentiate mixed phases from pure material phases in our data. The lateral resolution demonstrated is twice that previously reported from secondary electron imaging. Our results suggest that our energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy approach will be able to make major inroads into the understanding of complex, nano-structured organic materials. PMID:25906738

  19. Estimation of Land Surface Energy Balance Using Satellite Data of Spatial Reduced Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintila, Ruxandra; Radnea, Cristina; Savin, Elena; Poenaru, Violeta

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents preliminary results concerning the monitoring at national level of several geo-biophysical variables retrieved by remote sensing, in particular those related to drought or aridisation. The study, which is in progress, represents also an exercise for to the implementation of a Land Monitoring Core Service for Romania, according to the Kopernikus Program and in compliance with the INSPIRE Directive. The SEBS model has been used to retrieve land surface energy balance variables, such as turbulent heat fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation, based on three information types: (1) surface albedo, emissivity, temperature, fraction of vegetation cover (fCover), leaf area index (LAI) and vegetation height; (2) air pressure, temperature, humidity and wind speed at the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height; (3) downward solar radiation and downward longwave radiation. AATSR and MERIS archived reprocessed images have provided several types of information. Thus, surface albedo, emissivity, and land surface temperature have been retrieved from AATSR, while LAI and fCover have been estimated from MERIS. The vegetation height has been derived from CORINE Land Cover and PELCOM Land Use databases, while the meteorological information at the height of PBL have been estimated from the measurements provided by the national weather station network. Other sources of data used during this study have been the GETASSE30 digital elevation model with 30" spatial resolution, used for satellite image orthorectification, and the SIGSTAR-200 geographical information system of soil resources of Romania, used for water deficit characterisation. The study will continue by processing other AATSR and MERIS archived images, complemented by the validation of SEBS results with ground data collected on the most important biomes for Romania at various phenological stages, and the transformation of evaporation / evapotranspiration into a drought index using the soil texture

  20. Improvement in the optical quality and energy resolution of CsSrBr3: Eu scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Sasmit S.; Stand, Luis; Lindsey, Adam; Koschan, Merry; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Melcher, Charles L.

    2016-07-01

    The crystal growth of CsSrBr3: Eu with improved energy resolution for use in gamma-ray detection applications is reported. CsSrBr3 boules doped with 5% Eu were grown by the vertical Bridgman method in quartz ampoules of 17 mm and 22 mm diameter. It was observed that the addition of an excess of CsBr in the melt improved the optical transparency and energy resolution of the scintillator crystals. The energy resolution of the gamma-ray spectra recorded with crystals measuring ø 22 mm×15 mm was 7.4% at 662 keV (for a crystal with non-optimized stoichiometry) and 6.2% at 662 keV (for a crystal with optimized stoichiometry i.e. excess CsBr in the melt), which is a significant improvement over previous reports. Temperature dependent powder XRD measurements were also carried out to study the solid-solid phase transition which occurs as the crystals are cooled after growth.

  1. Zoomed high-resolution simulations of Multi-coupled Dark Energy: cored galaxy density profiles at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaldi, Enrico; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    We perform for the first time high-resolution zoom-in re-simulations of individual halos in the context of the Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario, which is characterised by the existence of two distinct Dark Matter particle species with opposite couplings to a Dark Energy scalar field. We compare the structural properties of the simulated halos to the standard ΛCDM results. The zoomed-in initial conditions are set up using a specifically designed code called ZInCo that we publicly release along with the present paper. Our numerical results allow to investigate in detail and with unprecedented resolution the halo segregation process that characterises McDE cosmologies from its very early stages. In particular, we find that in contrast to what could be inferred from previous numerical analysis at lower resolution, the segregation process is already in place at redshifts as high as z ~ 7. Most remarkably, we find that the subsequent evolution of the segregation leads to the formation of cored total matter density profiles with a core size that progressively increases in time. The shape of the cored profiles can be accurately predicted as the superposition of two NFW profiles with an increasing offset, thereby confirming the interpretation of the simulations results in terms of the segregation of the two dark matter components of the halo as a consequence of their different coupling to the Dark Energy field.

  2. High resolution 17 keV to 75 keV backlighters for High Energy Density experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Maddox, B R; Giraldez, E; Hatchett, S P; Hudson, L; Izumi, N; Key, M H; Pape, S L; MacKinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Patel, P K; Phillips, T W; Remington, B A; Seely, J F; Tommasini, R; Town, R; Workman, J

    2008-02-25

    We have developed 17 keV to 75 keV 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional high-resolution (< 10 {micro}m) radiography using high-intensity short pulse lasers. High energy K-{alpha} sources are created by fluorescence from hot electrons interacting in the target material after irradiation by lasers with intensity I{sub L} > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have achieved high resolution point projection 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional radiography using micro-foil and micro-wire targets attached to low-Z substrate materials. The micro-wire size was 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m on a 300 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m CH substrate. The radiography performance was demonstrated using the Titan laser at LLNL. We observed that the resolution is dominated by the micro-wire target size and there is very little degradation from the plasma plume, implying that the high energy x-ray photons are generated mostly within the micro-wire volume. We also observe that there are enough K{alpha} photons created with a 300 J, 1-{omega}, 40 ps pulse laser from these small volume targets, and that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high, for single shot radiography experiments. This unique technique will be used on future high energy density (HED) experiments at the new Omega-EP, ZR and NIF facilities.

  3. High harmonic generation based time resolved ARPES at 30 eV with 50 meV energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Timm; Sie, Edbert J.; Mahmood, Fahad; Gedik, Nuh

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has emerged as a leading technique in identifying equilibrium properties of complex electronic systems as well as their correlated dynamics. By using femtosecond high harmonic generation (HHG) pulses, this technique can be extended to monitor ultrafast changes in the electronic structure in response to an optical excitation. However, the broad bandwidth of the HHG pulses has been a major experimental limitation. In this contribution, we combine the HHG source with an off-axis Czerny-Turner XUV monochromator and a three-dimensional ``ARTOF'' photoelectron detector to achieve an unrivaled overall energy resolution of 50 meV in multiple harmonic energies. Moreover, the use of a stack of different gratings enables us to fine control both the photon energy and time vs. energy resolution to its particular needs. The performance of our setup is demonstrated by studies on the transition metal dichalcogenide IrTe2 which undergoes a first-order structural transition and accompanied reconstruction of the band structure upon cooling without the characteristic opening of an energy gap.

  4. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with a theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.

  5. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with amore » theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.« less

  6. Impurity signatures in two-dimensional materials in atomic-resolution valence-electron-energy-loss spectroscopic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Oxley, Mark; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates

    The local atomic configurations and electronic states of impurities in 2D materials can be probed directly by several microscopy techniques. Probes of electronic excitations, however, lack spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate that valence-electron energy-loss spectroscopy in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope yields atomic-resolution maps of electronic excitations that provide unique signatures of distinct bonding configuration impurities in 2D materials. We report simulations of the maps based on density functional theory and dynamical scattering theory, which agree with and provide direct interpretation of the observed features. The maps differentiate between different bonding configurations of impurities in graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. The theoretical analysis yields information on local electronic excitations, corresponding to impurity-induced bound, resonant and antiresonant states. The method stands to benefit from new monochromators and detectors that enhance spatial and energy resolution and constitutes a powerful alternative to optical spectroscopies for probing electronic and magnetic signatures related with impurities and defects. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-0946554 and by DOE BES MSED.

  7. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  10. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  12. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  13. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  14. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  15. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  16. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  17. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  18. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  19. Advances in the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model using very high resolution remote sensing data in vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto Solana, H.; Kustas, W. P.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; ELarab, M.; Song, L.; Alfieri, J. G.; Prueger, J. H.; McKee, L.; Anderson, M. C.; Alsina, M. M.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal-based Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model partitions the water and energy fluxes from vegetation and soil components providing thus the ability for estimating soil evaporation (E) and canopy transpiration (T) separately. However, it is crucial for ET partitioning to retrieve reliable estimates of canopy and soil temperatures as well as the net radiation partitioning (ΔRn), as the latter determines the available energy for water and heat exchange from soil and canopy sources. These two factors become especially relevant in agricultural areas, with vegetation clumped along rows and hence only partially covering the soil surface for much of the growing season. The effects on radiation and temperature partitioning is extreme for vineyards and orchards, where there is often significant separation between plants, resulting in strongly clumped vegetation with significant fraction of bare soil/substrate. To better understand the effects of strongly clumped vegetation on radiation and Land Surface Temperature (LST) partitioning very high spatial resolution remote sensing data acquired from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) were collected over vineyards in Califronia, as part of the Grape Remote sensing and Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX).The multi-temporal observations from the UAS and very high pixel resolution permitted the estimation of reliable soil and leaf temperatures using a contextual algorithm based on the inverse relationship between LST and a vegetation index. An improvement in the algorithm estimating the effective leaf area index explicitly developed for vine rows and ΔRn using the 4SAIL Radiative Transfer Model is as well developed. The revisions to the TSEB model are evaluated with in situ measurements of energy fluxes and transmitted solar radiation. Results show that the modifications to the TSEB resulted in closer agreement with the flux tower measurements compared to the original TSEB model formulations. The

  20. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian Rong

    2011-11-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

  1. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  2. Read Power Sensitivity in Energy-Gap-Induced Super-Resolution Read-Only-Memory Disc with Germanium Reflective Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Harada, Yasuhiro; Mori, Go; Tajima, Hideharu; Takamori, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Yoshiteru; Kojima, Kunio; Takahashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Energy-gap-induced super-resolution (EG-SR) read-only-memory (ROM) discs have already been reported as high-density media. However, the read power of EG-SR ROM discs is higher than that of conventional (non-super-resolution) ROM discs. In this paper, we suggest that a germanium (Ge) reflective film can improve the read power sensitivity of the EG-SR effect. Two materials, silicon (Si) and Ge, were compared as reflective films. Si was previously reported to be suitable for high read power sensitivity. For an EG-SR ROM disc with a Ge reflective film, the reflectance change with temperature was larger and the read power sensitivity was higher than those for an EG-SR ROM disc with a Si film.

  3. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-01

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  4. Depth resolution at organic interfaces sputtered by argon gas cluster ions: the effect of energy, angle and cluster size.

    PubMed

    Seah, M P; Spencer, S J; Havelund, R; Gilmore, I S; Shard, A G

    2015-10-01

    An analysis is presented of the effect of experimental parameters such as energy, angle and cluster size on the depth resolution in depth profiling organic materials using Ar gas cluster ions. The first results are presented of the incident ion angle dependence of the depth resolution, obtained at the Irganox 1010 to silicon interface, from profiles by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). By analysis of all relevant published depth profile data, it is shown that such data, from delta layers in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), correlate with the XPS data from interfaces if it is assumed that the monolayers of the Irganox 1010 adjacent to the wafer substrate surface have an enhanced sputtering rate. SIMS data confirm this enhancement. These results show that the traditional relation for the depth resolution, FWHM = 2.1Y(1/3) or slightly better, FWHM = P(X)Y(1/3)/n(0.2), where n is the argon gas cluster size, and P(X) is a parameter for each material are valid both at the 45° incidence angle of the argon gas cluster sputtering ions used in most studies and at all angles from 0° to 80°. This implies that, for optimal depth profile resolution, 0° or >75° incidence may be significantly better than the 45° traditionally used, especially for the low energy per atom settings required for the best resolved profiles in organic materials. A detailed analysis, however, shows that the FWHM requires a constant contribution added in quadrature to the above such that there are minimal improvements at 0° or greater than 75°. A critical test at 75° confirms the presence of this constant contribution.

  5. An (e, 2e + ion) study of low-energy electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran with high mass and energy resolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xueguang Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yoon; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2014-10-07

    We study the low-energy (E{sub 0} = 26 eV) electron-impact induced ionization and fragmentation of tetrahydrofuran using a reaction microscope. All three final-state charged particles, i.e., two outgoing electrons and one fragment ion, are detected in triple coincidence such that the momentum vectors and, consequently, the kinetic energies for charged reaction products are determined. The ionic fragments are clearly identified in the experiment with a mass resolution of 1 amu. The fragmentation pathways of tetrahydrofuran are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy spectra and the binding energy spectra where an energy resolution of 1.5 eV has been achieved using the recently developed photoemission electron source. Here, we will discuss the fragmentation reactions for the cations C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O{sup +}, C{sub 4}H{sub 7}O{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 6}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}, CH{sub 3}O{sup +}, CHO{sup +}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}.

  6. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  7. Investigation of high-resolution superconducting tunnel junction detectors for low-energy X-ray fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhoff, B.; Fliegauf, R.; Ulm, G.

    2003-04-01

    The energy resolution of conventional semiconductor detectors is insufficient for simultaneously separating the leading fluorescence lines of low Z and medium Z materials in the soft X-ray regime. It is therefore important to investigate alternative detection instruments offering higher energy resolution and evaluate their applicability to soft X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. In this paper, various results of the characterization and evaluation of a cryogenic superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector, which was provided to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, are given with respect to both detector response functions and XRF. For this investigation, monochromatized undulator radiation of high spectral purity, available to the PTB X-ray radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II, was employed, by which it was possible to record the STJ response functions at various photon energies of interest ranging from 180 to 1600 eV. By scanning the effective detector area and the adjacent substrate and leads, relevant artefacts of the detector response were identified.

  8. The Marriage of Residential Energy Codes and Rating Systems: Conflict Resolution or Just Conflict?

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-08-21

    After three decades of coexistence at a distance, model residential energy codes and residential energy rating systems have come together in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code. At the October, 2013, International Code Council’s Public Comment Hearing, a new compliance path based on an Energy Rating Index was added to the IECC. Although not specifically named in the code, RESNET’s HERS rating system is the likely candidate Index for most jurisdictions. While HERS has been a mainstay in various beyond-code programs for many years, its direct incorporation into the most popular model energy code raises questions about the equivalence of a HERS-based compliance path and the traditional IECC performance compliance path, especially because the two approaches use different efficiency metrics, are governed by different simulation rules, and have different scopes with regard to energy impacting house features. A detailed simulation analysis of more than 15,000 house configurations reveals a very large range of HERS Index values that achieve equivalence with the IECC’s performance path. This paper summarizes the results of that analysis and evaluates those results against the specific Energy Rating Index values required by the 2015 IECC. Based on the home characteristics most likely to result in disparities between HERS-based compliance and performance path compliance, potential impacts on the compliance process, state and local adoption of the new code, energy efficiency in the next generation of homes subject to this new code, and future evolution of model code formats are discussed.

  9. Energy resolution and power consumption of Timepix detector for different detector settings and saturation of front-end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Hoang, S.; Stoffle, N.; Soukup, P.; Jakubek, J.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2014-05-01

    An ongoing research project in the area of radiation monitoring employing the Timepix technology from the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration profits greatly from optimizing the precision of the position and energy information obtained for the detected quanta. Wider applications of the Timepix technology as a radiation monitor also puts new demands on the precision and speed of the energy calibration. We compare the analog signal in pixel front-end electronics for different sources used during detector evaluation and energy calibration. We use the direct measurement of the analog signal from the pixel preamplifier and comparator to characterize pulse shape differences for different sources, e.g. internal test pulses, external test pulses, ionizing radiation, etc. and study their interchangeability. Accurate per-pixel energy calibration of the Timepix detector enables the direct measurement of the energy deposited by different types of ionizing radiation. The energy calibration process requires the application of a known charge to front-end electronics of each pixel. The small pixel size limits use of the radioactive sources. The 59.54 keV line from 241Am is commonly used as the highest point in calibration curve. The heavy ion dosimetry as encountered in the space radiation environment requires a considerable extrapolation to the energies in the MeV range. We have observed that for energies around and beyond 1 MeV the response of the Timepix's front-end electronics no longer follows the extrapolated calibration function. We have investigated this non-linearity and identified its source. We also propose both hardware and software solutions to suppress this effect. In this paper we show the impact on pixel calibration and the subsequent energy resolution for different detector settings as well as the resulting power consumptions. We discuss the parameter optimization for several different real-world applications.

  10. Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.

  11. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system. PMID:27355946

  12. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-06-27

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system.

  13. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system. PMID:27355946

  14. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  15. The Highest Energy Cosmic Rays, Gamma-Rays and Neutrinos:. Facts, Fancy and Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis

    2002-09-01

    Although cosmic rays were discovered 90 years ago, we do not know how and where they are accelerated. There is compelling evidence that the highest energy cosmic rays are extra-galactic -- they cannot be contained by our galaxy's magnetic field anyway because their gyroradius exceeds its dimensions. Elementary elementary-particle physics dictates a universal upper limit on their energy of 5 ×1019 eV, the so-called Greisen-Kuzmin-Zatsepin cutoff; however, particles in excess of this energy have been observed, adding one more puzzle to the cosmic ray mystery. Mystery is nonetheless fertile ground for progress: we will review the facts and mention some very speculative interpretations. There is indeed a realistic hope that the oldest problem in astronomy will be resolved soon by ambitious experimentation: air shower arrays of 104 km2 area, arrays of air Cerenkov detectors and kilometer-scale neutrino observatories.

  16. The Highest Energy Cosmic Rays, Gamma-Rays and Neutrinos:. Facts, Fancy and Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis

    2002-08-01

    Although cosmic rays were discovered 90 years ago, we do not know how and where they are accelerated. There is compelling evidence that the highest energy cosmic rays are extra-galactic -- they cannot be contained by our galaxy's magnetic field anyway because their gyroradius exceeds its dimensions. Elementary elementary-particle physics dictates a universal upper limit on their energy of 5 × 1019 eV, the so-called Greisen-Kuzmin-Zatsepin cutoff; however, particles in excess of this energy have been observed, adding one more puzzle to the cosmic ray mystery. Mystery is nonetheless fertile ground for progress: we will review the facts and mention some very speculative interpretations. There is indeed a realistic hope that the oldest problem in astronomy will be resolved soon by ambitious experimentation: air shower arrays of 104 km2 area, arrays of air Cerenkov detectors and kilometer-scale neutrino observatories.

  17. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  18. Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, J. A.; Reading, M. A.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. Q. C.; Adelmann, C.; Popovici, M.; Tielens, H.; Conard, T.; de Gendt, S.; van Elshocht, S.

    2013-09-01

    Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using, typically, 100-200 keV H+ or He+ ions derives it ability to characterise nanolayers from the fact that the energy after backscattering depends (i) on the elastic energy loss suffered in a single collision with a target atom and (ii) on the inelastic energy losses on its incoming and outgoing trajectories. From the former the mass of the atom can be determined and from the latter its depth. Thus MEIS yields depth dependent compositional and structural information, with high depth resolution (sub-nm near the surface) and good sensitivity for all but the lighter masses. It is particularly well suited for the depth analysis of high-k multilayers of nanometer thickness. Accurate quantification of the depth distributions of atomic species can be obtained using suitable spectrum simulation. In the present paper, important aspects of MEIS including quantification, depth resolution and spectrum simulation are briefly discussed. The capabilities of the technique in terms of the high depth resolution layer compositional and structural information it yields, is illustrated with reference to the detailed characterisation of a range of high-k nanolayer and multilayer structures for current microelectronic devices or those still under development: (i) HfO2 and HfSiOx for gate dielectric applications, including a TiN/Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2/Si structure, (ii) TiN/SrTiO3/TiN and (iii) TiO2/Ru/TiN multilayer structures for metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMcaps) in DRAM applications. The unique information provided by the technique is highlighted by its clear capability to accurately quantify the composition profiles and thickness of nanolayers and complex multilayers as grown, and to identify the nature and extent of atom redistribution (e.g. intermixing, segregation) during layer deposition, annealing and plasma processing. The ability makes it a valuable tool in the development of the nanostructures that will become increasingly important as

  19. Ground-state binding energy of H4Λ from high-resolution decay-pion spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, F.; Achenbach, P.; Aulenbacher, S.; Beričič, J.; Bleser, S.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Gogami, T.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kusaka, W.; Margaryan, A.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Steinen, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tang, L.; Thiel, M.; Tsukada, K.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2016-10-01

    A systematic study on the Λ ground state binding energy of hyperhydrogen H4Λ measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI is presented. The energy was deduced from the spectroscopy of mono-energetic pions from the two-body decays of hyperfragments, which were produced and stopped in a 9Be target. First data, taken in the year 2012 with a high resolution magnetic spectrometer, demonstrated an almost one order of magnitude higher precision than emulsion data, while being limited by systematic uncertainties. In 2014 an extended measurement campaign was performed with improved control over systematic effects, increasing the yield of hypernuclei and confirming the observation with two independent spectrometers and two targets of different thicknesses. The analysis of these data is in agreement with the previously published value for the H4Λ binding energy as well as with a consistent re-analysis of the 2012 data. When compared to the He4Λ binding energy from emulsion data, a large charge symmetry breaking effect in the A = 4 hypernuclear system is confirmed.

  20. Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, N. G.; Paul, D.; Gura, A.; Laurent, G.; De, S.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.; Ahn, B.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, T. K.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Cocke, C. L.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Kim, D.; Kling, M. F.

    2014-05-01

    A novel design for a velocity-map imaging (VMI) spectrometer with high resolution over a wide energy range surpassing a standard VMI design is reported. The main difference to a standard three-electrode VMI is the spatial extension of the applied field using 11 electrodes forming a thick-lens. This permits measurements of charged particles with higher energies while achieving excellent resolving power over a wide range of energies. Using SIMION simulations, the thick-lens VMI is compared to a standard design for up to 360 eV electrons. The simulations also show that the new spectrometer design is suited for charged-particle detection with up to 1 keV using a repeller-electrode voltage of -30 kV. The experimental performance is tested by laser-induced ionization of rare gases producing electrons up to about 70 eV. The thick-lens VMI is useful for a wide variety of studies on atoms, molecules and nanoparticles in intense laser fields and high-photon-energy fields from high-harmonic-generation or free-electron lasers.

  1. Momentum and energy dependent resolution function of the ARCS neutron chopper spectrometer at high momentum transfer: Comparing simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Abernathy, D. L.; Azuah, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers (i.e. Q ≥ 20 A ˚), commonly known as deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS), provides direct observation of the momentum distribution of light atoms, making it a powerful probe for studying single-particle motions in liquids and solids. The quantitative analysis of DINS data requires an accurate knowledge of the instrument resolution function Ri(Q , E) at each momentum Q and energy transfer E, where the label i indicates whether the resolution was experimentally observed i = obs or simulated i=sim. Here, we describe two independent methods for determining the total resolution function Ri(Q , E) of the ARCS neutron instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first method uses experimental data from an archetypical system (liquid 4He) studied with DINS, which are then numerically deconvoluted using its previously determined intrinsic scattering function to yield Robs(Q , E). The second approach uses accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the ARCS spectrometer, which account for all instrument contributions, coupled to a representative scattering kernel to reproduce the experimentally observed response S(Q , E). Using a delta function as scattering kernel, the simulation yields a resolution function Rsim(Q , E) with comparable lineshape and features as Robs(Q , E), but somewhat narrower due to the ideal nature of the model. Using each of these two Ri(Q , E) separately, we extract characteristic parameters of liquid 4He such as the intrinsic linewidth α2 (which sets the atomic kinetic energy < K > ∼α2) in the normal liquid and the Bose-Einstein condensate parameter n0 in the superfluid phase. The extracted α2 values agree well with previous measurements at saturated vapor pressure (SVP) as well as at elevated pressure (24 bars) within experimental precision, independent of which Ri(Q , y) is used to analyze the data. The actual observed n0 values at each Q vary little

  2. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Goodman, Claude A.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  3. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  4. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  5. High-energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of interband transitions characteristic to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yohei; Terauchi, Masami

    2014-06-01

    An electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) study using a monochromator transmission electron microscope was conducted for investigating the dielectric response of isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) owing to interband transitions characteristic to chiral structures. Individual chiral structures of the SWCNTs were determined by electron diffraction patterns. EELS spectra obtained from isolated SWCNTs showed sharp peaks below π plasmon energy of 5 eV, which were attributed to the characteristic interband transitions of SWCNTs. In addition, unexpected shoulder structures were observed at the higher energy side of each sharp peak. Simulations of EELS spectra by using the continuum dielectric theory showed that an origin of the shoulder structures was because of the surface dipole mode along the circumference direction of the SWCNT. It was noticed that the electron excitation energies obtained by EELS were slightly higher than those of optical studies, which might be because of the inelastic scattering process with the momentum transfers. To interpret the discrepancy between the EELS and optical experiments, it is necessary to conduct more accurate simulation including the first principle calculation for the band structure of SWCNTs.

  6. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  7. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  8. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of K-shell Praseodymium with a High-Energy Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, D B; Brown, G V; Clementson, J T; Chen, H; Chen, M H; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Kelley, R L

    2007-06-05

    We present a measurement of the K-shell spectrum of He-like through Be-like praseodymium ions trapped in the Livermore SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap using a bismuth absorber pixel on the XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter. This measurement is the first of its kind where the n=2 to n=1 transitions of the various charge states are spectroscopically resolved. The measured transition energies are compared with theoretical calculations from several atomic codes.

  9. Climate Impacts on US Energy Infrastructure: A New High Resolution Model, Policy Implications and Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, D. J.; Fernandez, S. J.; Omitaomu, O.; Branstetter, M. L.; Butler, G.; Ganguly, A. R.; Oglesby, R.; Steinhaeuser, K.; Kodra, E.; Gray, S.

    2010-12-01

    We describe the development of a fully coupled climate model configuration where the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been coupled with the VERDE (Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on the Earth) analysis modules that compute the response of the electric grid to temperature drivers. The VERDE model includes datasets characterizing the 26,500 sub-stations and 6,000 power generation stations fuel mix, efficiency, service areas, and future performance and these have been geo-located on a 1.4 degree latitude by 1.4 degree longitude CCSM grid (T85). The total electric customers have been computed using conversions derived from economic structure and population data. The carbon emissions per customer and the power generation in megawatts electric (MWe) have also been placed on reconciled 1 km, 4 km and the T85 climate model grid. The CCSM temperature for the present and future have been extracted from the climate model output and placed on the same grid as the VERDE substation T85 grids. The result is that the US electrical grid is now coupled to the overlying climate model on the CCSM grid. The climate model passes temperatures to the power model and the power model assesses the power demand based on temperature and passes the resultant carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes back to the climate model. This anthropogenic CO2 emission is fed into the CCSM. This alters the atmospheric CO2 concentration, impacting the atmospheric radiation and temperature fields going forward. The feedbacks between energy demand, climate and CO2 emissions are in play. This computational tool will allow a quantitative assessment of various policy options and the climate and energy demand implications of different decision pathways.

  10. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  11. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  12. Optimizing the operation of a high resolution vertical Johann spectrometer using a high energy fluorescer x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, Michael; Stewart, Richard

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes the operation and testing for a vertical Johann spectrometer (VJS) operating in the 13 keV range. The spectrometer is designed to use thin curved mica crystals or thick germanium crystals. The VJS must have a resolution of E/{Delta}E=3000 or better to measure the Doppler broadening of highly ionized krypton and operate at a small x-ray angle in order to be used as a diagnostic in a laser plasma target chamber. The VJS was aligned, tested, and optimized using a fluorescer type high energy x-ray (HEX) source located at National Security Technologies (NSTec), LLC, in Livermore, CA. The HEX uses a 160 kV x-ray tube to excite fluorescence from various targets. Both rubidium and bismuth fluorescers were used for this effort. This presentation describes the NSTec HEX system and the methods used to optimize and characterize the VJS performance.

  13. Single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer of nucleosomes in free diffusion: optimizing stability and resolution of subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Gansen, Alexander; Hauger, Florian; Tóth, Katalin; Langowski, Jörg

    2007-09-15

    We applied fluorescence detection methods on the single-molecule level to study structural variations and dynamic processes occurring within nucleosomes. Four fluorescent nucleosome constructs were made by attaching donor and acceptor fluorophores to different positions of two nucleosome positioning sequences and reconstituting nucleosomes by salt dialysis. The photochemical and biochemical stability of nucleosomes under single-molecule conditions was optimized by adding inert protein and free radical capturing additives, allowing us to define the best experimental conditions for single-molecule spectroscopy on highly diluted solutions of nucleosome complexes. We could demonstrate for the first time the resolution of conformational subpopulations of nucleosomes by single-pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer in a freely diffusing system and could show the effect of thermally induced nucleosome repositioning.

  14. 14-pixel, multiplexed array of gamma-ray microcalorimeters with 47 eV energy resolution at 103 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Doriese, W. B.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. A.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Horansky, R. D.; Irwin, K. D.; Mates, J. A. B.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.; Xu, Y.; Zink, B. L.; Rabin, M. W.; Hoover, A. S.; Rudy, C. R.; Vo, D. T.

    2007-05-07

    The authors present a prototype for a high-energy-resolution, high-count-rate, gamma-ray spectrometer intended for nuclear forensics and international nuclear safeguards. The prototype spectrometer is an array of 14 transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters with an average energy resolution of 47 eV (full width at half maximum) at 103 keV. The resolution of the best pixel is 25 eV. A cryogenic, time-division multiplexer reads out the array. Several important topics related to microcalorimeter arrays are discussed, including cross-talk, the uniformity of detector bias conditions, fabrication of the arrays, and the multiplexed readout. The measurements and calculations demonstrate that a kilopixel array of high-resolution microcalorimeters is feasible.

  15. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET

  16. High-Resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Peña, I.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na35Cl and Na37Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted. PMID:27733778

  17. Free energy landscape of activation in a signaling protein at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pontiggia, F.; Pachov, D.V.; Clarkson, M.W.; Villali, J.; Hagan, M.F.; Pande, V.S.; Kern, D.

    2015-01-01

    The interconversion between inactive and active protein states, traditionally described by two static structures, is at the heart of signaling. However, how folded states interconvert is largely unknown due to the inability to experimentally observe transition pathways. Here we explore the free energy landscape of the bacterial response regulator NtrC by combining computation and NMR, and discover unexpected features underlying efficient signaling. We find that functional states are defined purely in kinetic and not structural terms. The need of a well-defined conformer, crucial to the active state, is absent in the inactive state, which comprises a heterogeneous collection of conformers. The transition between active and inactive states occurs through multiple pathways, facilitated by a number of nonnative transient hydrogen bonds, thus lowering the transition barrier through both entropic and enthalpic contributions. These findings may represent general features for functional conformational transitions within the folded state. PMID:26073309

  18. High-resolution Rotational Spectrum, Dunham Coefficients, and Potential Energy Function of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Peña, I.; Agundez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-07-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 lines of Na35Cl and Na37Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δv = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  19. Free energy landscape of activation in a signalling protein at atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiggia, F.; Pachov, D. V.; Clarkson, M. W.; Villali, J.; Hagan, M. F.; Pande, V. S.; Kern, D.

    2015-06-01

    The interconversion between inactive and active protein states, traditionally described by two static structures, is at the heart of signalling. However, how folded states interconvert is largely unknown due to the inability to experimentally observe transition pathways. Here we explore the free energy landscape of the bacterial response regulator NtrC by combining computation and nuclear magnetic resonance, and discover unexpected features underlying efficient signalling. We find that functional states are defined purely in kinetic and not structural terms. The need of a well-defined conformer, crucial to the active state, is absent in the inactive state, which comprises a heterogeneous collection of conformers. The transition between active and inactive states occurs through multiple pathways, facilitated by a number of nonnative transient hydrogen bonds, thus lowering the transition barrier through both entropic and enthalpic contributions. These findings may represent general features for functional conformational transitions within the folded state.

  20. Estimation of Evapotraspiration of Tamarisk using Energy Balance Models with High Resolution Airborne Imagery and LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Taghvaeian, S.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    The wide uncontrolled spread of the invasive species of Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) in the riparian areas of the southwest of the United States has become a source of concern to the water resource management community. This tree which was imported for ornamental purposes and to control bank erosion during the 1800’s later became problematic and unwanted due to its biophysical properties: Its vigorous growth out-competes native species for moisture, lowering water tables, increasing the soil salinity and hence becomes the dominant riparian vegetation especially over arid to semi-arid floodplain environments. Most importantly they consume large amounts of water leading to reduction of river flows and lowering the groundwater table. We implemented this study in an effort to provide reliable estimates of the amount of water consumed or “lost” by such species through evapotranspiration (ET) as well as to a better understand of the related land surface and near atmosphere interactions. The recent advances in remote sensing techniques and the related data quality made it possible to provide spatio-temporal estimates of ET at a considerably higher resolution and reliable accuracy over a wide range of surface heterogeneity. We tested two different soil-vegetation atmosphere transfer models (SVAT) that are based on thermal remote sensing namely: the two source model (TSM) of Norman et al. (1995) with its recent modifications and the Surface Energy balance algorithm (SEBAL) of Bastiaanssen et al. (1998) to estimate the different surface energy balance components and the evapotranspiration (ET) spatially. We used high resolution (1.0 meter pixel size) shortwave reflectance and longwave thermal airborne imagery acquired by the research aircraft at the Remote Sensing Services Lab at Utah State University (USU) and land use map classified from these images as well as a detailed vegetation height image acquired by the LASSI Lidar also developed at USU. We also compared estimates

  1. Establishment and analysis of a High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of the water-energy cycle in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping; Zheng, Zhiyuan

    For better prediction and understanding of land-atmospheric interaction, in-situ observed meteorological data acquired from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system. Furthermore, the WRF model produced a High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of the water-energy cycle in China (HRADC). This dataset has a horizontal resolution of 25 km for near surface meteorological data, such as air temperature, humidity, wind vectors and pressure (19 levels); soil temperature and moisture (four levels); surface temperature; downward/upward short/long radiation; 3-h latent heat flux; sensible heat flux; and ground heat flux. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method and 2) compare results of meteorological elements, such as 2 m temperature and precipitation generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and surface temperature and specific humidity with Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). We find that the simulated results of monthly 2 m temperature from HRADC is improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns. The simulated special distribution of ground surface temperature and specific humidity from HRADC are much closer to GLDAS outputs. The spatial distribution of root mean square errors (RMSE) and bias of 2 m temperature between observations and HRADC is reduced compared with the bias between observations and the control run. The monthly spatial distribution of surface temperature and specific humidity from

  2. Reprint of The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator.

    PubMed

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-12-01

    Bonner sphere is useful to evaluate the neutron spectrum in detail. We are improving the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere, using boric acid water solution as a moderator. Its response function peak is narrower than that for polyethylene moderator and the improvement of the resolution is expected. The resolutions between polyethylene moderator and boric acid water solution moderator were compared by simulation calculation. Also the influence in the uncertainty of Bonner sphere configuration to spectrum estimation was simulated. PMID:26508275

  3. The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator.

    PubMed

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-10-01

    Bonner sphere is useful to evaluate the neutron spectrum in detail. We are improving the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere, using boric acid water solution as a moderator. Its response function peak is narrower than that for polyethylene moderator and the improvement of the resolution is expected. The resolutions between polyethylene moderator and boric acid water solution moderator were compared by simulation calculation. Also the influence in the uncertainty of Bonner sphere configuration to spectrum estimation was simulated.

  4. Reprint of The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator.

    PubMed

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-12-01

    Bonner sphere is useful to evaluate the neutron spectrum in detail. We are improving the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere, using boric acid water solution as a moderator. Its response function peak is narrower than that for polyethylene moderator and the improvement of the resolution is expected. The resolutions between polyethylene moderator and boric acid water solution moderator were compared by simulation calculation. Also the influence in the uncertainty of Bonner sphere configuration to spectrum estimation was simulated.

  5. A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of {sigma}=18 ps and energy resolution {delta}E/E=3.5%

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenborg, Arno; Roeterdink, Wim G.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2008-06-15

    We report on the construction and performance of a novel photoelectron-photoion coincidence machine in our laboratory in Amsterdam to measure the full three-dimensional momentum distribution of correlated electrons and ions in femtosecond time-resolved molecular beam experiments. We implemented sets of open electron and ion lenses to time stretch and velocity map the charged particles. Time switched voltages are operated on the particle lenses to enable optimal electric field strengths for velocity map focusing conditions of electrons and ions separately. The position and time sensitive detectors employ microchannel plates (MCPs) in front of delay line detectors. A special effort was made to obtain the time-of-flight (TOF) of the electrons at high temporal resolution using small pore (5 {mu}m) MCPs and implementing fast timing electronics. We measured the TOF distribution of the electrons under our typical coincidence field strengths with a temporal resolution down to {sigma}=18 ps. We observed that our electron coincidence detector has a timing resolution better than {sigma}=16 ps, which is mainly determined by the residual transit time spread of the MCPs. The typical electron energy resolution appears to be nearly laser bandwidth limited with a relative resolution of {delta}E{sub FWHM}/E=3.5% for electrons with kinetic energy near 2 eV. The mass resolution of the ion detector for ions measured in coincidence with electrons is about {delta}m{sub FWHM}/m=1/4150. The velocity map focusing of our extended source volume of particles, due to the overlap of the molecular beam with the laser beams, results in a parent ion spot on our detector focused down to {sigma}=115 {mu}m.

  6. Fast computation of molecular random phase approximation correlation energies using resolution of the identity and imaginary frequency integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshuis, Henk; Yarkony, Julian; Furche, Filipp

    2010-06-01

    The random phase approximation (RPA) is an increasingly popular post-Kohn-Sham correlation method, but its high computational cost has limited molecular applications to systems with few atoms. Here we present an efficient implementation of RPA correlation energies based on a combination of resolution of the identity (RI) and imaginary frequency integration techniques. We show that the RI approximation to four-index electron repulsion integrals leads to a variational upper bound to the exact RPA correlation energy if the Coulomb metric is used. Auxiliary basis sets optimized for second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) calculations are well suitable for RPA, as is demonstrated for the HEAT [A. Tajti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 11599 (2004)] and MOLEKEL [F. Weigend et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 294, 143 (1998)] benchmark sets. Using imaginary frequency integration rather than diagonalization to compute the matrix square root necessary for RPA, evaluation of the RPA correlation energy requires O(N4 log N) operations and O(N3) storage only; the price for this dramatic improvement over existing algorithms is a numerical quadrature. We propose a numerical integration scheme that is exact in the two-orbital case and converges exponentially with the number of grid points. For most systems, 30-40 grid points yield μH accuracy in triple zeta basis sets, but much larger grids are necessary for small gap systems. The lowest-order approximation to the present method is a post-Kohn-Sham frequency-domain version of opposite-spin Laplace-transform RI-MP2 [J. Jung et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 205107 (2004)]. Timings for polyacenes with up to 30 atoms show speed-ups of two orders of magnitude over previous implementations. The present approach makes it possible to routinely compute RPA correlation energies of systems well beyond 100 atoms, as is demonstrated for the octapeptide angiotensin II.

  7. Toward Resolution of Imbalance between Microbiological Energy Demand and Supply to Cariaco's Redoxcline: Horizontal Productivity Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. T.; Luerssen, R.; Muller-Karger, F.; Varela, R.; Scranton, M. I.

    2004-12-01

    The Cariaco Basin's redoxcline or transition zone between oxic and anoxic waters typically resides between 250 and 450 m and hosts anomalously high microbiological production. At Station CARIACO, chemoautotrophic bacterial production in the redoxcline on average represents 70% (median) of local primary production in surface waters (upper 100 m). Presumably chemoautotrophs are fueled by inorganic end products (reduced S species, NH4{ +}, CH4, H2) supplied by remineralization of residual surface production in the Basin's interior. However, less than 10% of local surface production (in C units) sinks to the redoxcline. Simple 1-D mass balance calculations based on measurements from our time-series station demonstrate that <10% of chemoautotrophs' demands for reductant (energy) can be met by local vertical flux of biogenic debris. Both temporal and spatial variability in chemical and biological processes are likely to be important in creating this perceived imbalance. We hypothesize that enriched, non-local sources of reductant are advected in bottom waters to support higher-than-expected chemoautotrophic production at Station CARIACO. Four years of SeaWiFS ocean color satellite imagery clearly demonstrate that mean annual primary production is significantly higher east of Station Cariaco and that seasonal blooms propagate westward. Using SeaWiFS images and published algorithms, we will estimate local and basin-wide production and organic sedimentation based on bathymetry and flux models. From accepted diagenetic models and biological stoichiometries, we will estimate potential reductant production and requisite transit velocities required to balance observed biological demand.

  8. The Impact of Multiple-Site Interactions on the Energy Resolution of a High-Pressure Xenon Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kiff, Scott D.; He, Zhong

    2007-11-30

    High-pressure xenon (HPXe) ionization chambers have generated interest as a radiation detection medium for purposes requiring good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, and uniform response over a broad temperature range, such as homeland security and well logging applications. These chambers generally exhibit a substantial degradation of the measured energy resolution relative to theoretical limits. This investigation studies the impact of the number of interaction sites in an event sequence on the measured energy resolution using a benchmarked simulation package. The prominence of single and multiple-site interactions is investigated in addition to the photopeak broadening due to each event class. A radial position-sensing technique developed for coplanar-anode HPXe chambers is shown to have benefit for only single-site events.

  9. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model and medium resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, A.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Kustas, William P.; Polo, M. J.; Anderson, M. C.

    2013-10-01

    The dehesa, the most widespread agroforest ecosystem in Europe (≍ 3 million ha), is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for its importance in rural economy. It is characterized by widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus Ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and shrubs in the sub-canopy region. The estimation of the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing may assist the monitoring of its state from local to regional scales, improving the management and the conservation of the ecosystem. Thermal-based energy balance techniques which distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in the estimation of the energy surface fluxes, and therefore in the estimation of ET. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. and Kustas and Norman has shown to be robust for semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. With the objective of evaluating the model over this environment, an energy flux measurement system has been used. It was installed in a dehesa located in Southern Spain (38°12' N; 4°17' W, 736m a.s.l) with 1 km homogeneous fetch in wind direction. The quality of the measured data fluxes has been tested with the energy-balance closure criterion yielding an average closure of 86% which is within the error range found in similar studies. The TSEB model was evaluated in the area for 2012 summer season, using images from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor and ground measured meteorological data. The half-hourly estimates were compared with the flux tower measurements, obtaining a RMSD between modeled and measured energy fluxes within the closure balance error.

  10. Growth and characterization of potassium strontium iodide: A new high light yield scintillator with 2.4% energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Lindsey, A.; Melcher, C. L.

    2015-04-01

    A new ternary metal halide scintillator, potassium strontium iodide, activated with divalent europium (KSr2I5:Eu) has been discovered. This material has a monoclinic crystal structure with a density of 4.39 g/cm3. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates a congruent melting point of 470 °C and suggests that this compound has no solid-solid phase transitions. As is the case with most metal halides, the material is hygroscopic, and it has some internal radioactivity due to the presence of 40K. Single crystals of KSr2I5 doped with 4% Eu2+ were grown in evacuated quartz ampoules via the Bridgman technique. The X-ray excited emission spectrum consisted of a single peak at ~445 nm due to the 5d-4f transition in Eu2+. The measured light yield is ~94,000 photons/MeV with an energy resolution of 2.4% at 662 keV. The crystal has an excellent proportionality response over a wide range of energies from 14 keV to 1275 keV.

  11. Characterization of the submesoscale energy cascade in the Alboran Sea thermocline from spectral analysis of high-resolution MCS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, Valenti; Mojica, Jhon F.; Biescas, Berta; Klaeschen, Dirk; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2016-06-01

    Part of the kinetic energy that maintains ocean circulation cascades down to small scales until it is dissipated through mixing. While most steps of this downward energy cascade are well understood, an observational gap exists at horizontal scales of 103-101 m that prevents characterizing a key step in the chain: the transition from anisotropic internal wave motions to isotropic turbulence. Here we show that this observational gap can be covered using high-resolution multichannel seismic (HR-MCS) data. Spectral analysis of acoustic reflectors imaged in the Alboran Sea thermocline shows that this transition is likely caused by shear instabilities. In particular, we show that the averaged horizontal wave number spectra of the reflectors vertical displacements display three subranges that reproduce theoretical spectral slopes of internal waves (λx > 100 m), Kelvin-Helmholtz-type shear instabilities (100 m > λx > 33 m), and turbulence (λx < 33 m), indicating that the whole chain of events is occurring continuously and simultaneously in the surveyed area.

  12. Solid-state photon-counting hybrid detector array for high-resolution multi-energy X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, R.; Kleinfelder, S.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    We present in this article the development of a photon-counting, energy-discriminating modular detector based on a pixelated CdZnTe sensor coupled pixel-by-pixel to a novel Digital Pixel Sensor (DPS) readout. The detector is designed for munitions inspection, breast X-ray CT and SPECT/MRI. The current DPS design can also be used to read out other solid-state sensors. The prototype detector is 5.5 mm×5.5 mm in size, and consists of 19×19 pixels on a 250 μm pitch. The DPS is designed in a 0.35 μm process, and every pixel includes a preamplifier, a leakage-current subtraction circuit, an auto-zeroed programmable-gain stage, five comparators, a variable-delay reset circuit and five 16 bit counters. The module is expected to operate at high X-ray fluence exceeding 80 MHz/mm 2, and to improve resolution and contrast in images, while significantly enhancing their signal-to-noise ratio, and assist in identifying material composition via dual-energy imaging. The detector design, fabrication and anticipated performance are discussed.

  13. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  14. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  15. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  16. Evaluation of Dynamical Downscaling Resolution Effect on Wind Energy Forecast Value for a Wind Farm in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosgaard, Martin; Hahmann, Andrea; Skov Nielsen, Torben; Giebel, Gregor; Ejnar Sørensen, Poul; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    For any energy system relying on wind power, accurate forecasts of wind fluctuations are essential for efficient integration into the power grid. Increased forecast precision allows end-users to plan day-ahead operation with reduced risk of penalties which in turn supports the feasibility of wind energy. This study aims to quantify value added to wind energy forecasts in the 12-48 hour leadtime by downscaling global numerical weather prediction (NWP) data using a limited-area NWP model. The accuracy of statistical wind power forecasting tools depends strongly on this NWP input. Typical performance metrics are mean absolute error or root mean square error for predicted- against observed wind power production, and these metrics are closely related to wind speed forecast bias and correlation with observations. Wind speed bias can be handled in the statistical wind power forecasting model, though it is entirely up to it's NWP input to describe the wind speed correlation correctly. The basis of comparison for forecasts is data from the Stor-Rotliden wind farm in central Sweden. The surrounding forest adds to the forecasting challenge, thus motivating the downscaling experiment as the potential for wind power forecast improvement is higher in complex terrain. The 40 Vestas V90 turbines were erected in 2009 and correspond to 78MWe installed electrical capacity. Forecasts from global and limited-area NWP models, together covering five different horizontal computational grid spacings of ~50km down to ~1km, are studied for a yearlong, continuous time period. The preliminary results shown quantify forecast strengths and weaknesses for each NWP model resolution.

  17. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  18. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  19. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  20. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  1. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  2. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10(13) photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV. PMID:27131669

  3. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10(13) photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  4. Array-compatible transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with 42 eV energy resolution at 103 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, B. L.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. A.; Irwin, K. D.; Doriese, W. B.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Horansky, R. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.

    2006-09-18

    The authors describe a microcalorimeter {gamma}-ray detector with measured energy resolution of 42 eV full width at half maximum for 103 keV photons. This detector consists of a thermally isolated superconducting transition-edge thermometer and a superconducting bulk tin photon absorber. The absorber is attached with a technique compatible with producing arrays of high-resolution {gamma}-ray detectors. The results of a detailed characterization of the detector, which includes measurements of the complex impedance, detector noise, and time-domain pulse response, suggest that a deeper understanding and optimization of the thermal transport between the absorber and thermometer could significantly improve the energy resolution of future detectors.

  5. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: Energy resolution and the linearity of the CMS forward quartz fibre calorimeter pre-production-prototype (PPP-I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayan, A. S.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Anderson, E. W.; Bagoly, Z.; Y Bencze, G.; Bruecken, P.; Debreczeni, G.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Fenyvesi, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gribushin, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hauptman, J.; Kayis, A.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Merlo, J. P.; Miller, M.; McCliment, E.; Molnar, J.; Nikitin, A.; Onel, Y.; Onengut, G.; Osborne, D.; Ozdes-Koca, N.; Pikalov, V.; Polatoz, A.; Schmidt, I.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Stolin, V.; Ulyanov, A.; Umashev, A.; Uzunian, S.; Vesztergombi, G.; Winn, D.; Yershov, A.; Zalan, P.; Zeyrek, M.

    2004-12-01

    The first pre-production-prototype (PPP-I) of the quartz fibre calorimeter of the CMS detector has been tested at CERN. The calorimeter consists of quartz fibres embedded in an iron matrix. Results are presented on the energy resolution and on the signal uniformity of the prototype for electrons and pions and the signal uniformity and linearity.

  6. Influence of dust loading on the alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitors for thin deposits of radioactive aerosols.

    PubMed

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D; Alcantara, Raul E; Rodgers, John C; Wasiolek, Piotr T

    2002-12-01

    Alpha-particle continuous air monitors must sometimes be operated in dusty environments where significant dust loading of the filter can be anticipated. It is important to understand how this dust loading affects the response of the continuous air monitors. Not only must a filter be changed if there is a reduction in airflow, but a change may be necessary if the energy resolution deteriorates and the continuous air monitor loses sensitivity and specificity for the radioactive aerosols of interest. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitor filters, particularly under dust loading conditions. Aerosol particles of various sizes were tagged with radon decay products to serve as surrogates for radioactive aerosols of interest such as plutonium or uranium. While the size of radioactive aerosols, filter type, and dust type affected the energy resolution, the thickness of an underlying (nonradioactive) dust layer did not show significant effect for the materials studied and a loading range of 0.01-10 mg x cm(-2). Our results indicate that it is possible for continuous air monitors to detect the release of radioactive aerosols with little deterioration in energy resolution under conditions of significant dust loading provided that the deposited layer of radioactive aerosols remains thin (< or = 0.1 mg x cm(-2)).

  7. Design of a wireless sensor network with nanosecond time resolution for mapping of high-energy cosmic ray shower events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Michael P.; Junnarkar, Sachin S.; Fagan, Triesha; O'Neal, Ray H.; Takai, Helio

    2010-04-01

    We describe a low-cost, low-power wireless sensor network we are developing for high time-resolution (ns-scale) characterization of particle showers produced by ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays, to infer shower direction at sites where hard-wired data connections may be inconvenient to install. The front-end particle detector is a scintillator block monitored by a photomultiplier tube (PMT). We keep the sensor nodes synchronized to within 1 ns using periodic highintensity optical pulses from a light-emitting-diode (LED) overdriven at very high current (~30 A) in short (4 ns) bursts. With minimal optics, this signal is resolvable under free-space transmission in ambient light conditions at multi-meter distances using a high-speed avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver at each node. PMT pulse waveforms are digitized relative to this precise time reference on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using a Time-over-Threshold (ToT)/Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) digitizer developed at BNL. A central server receives timestamped, digitized PMT pulse waveforms from the sensor nodes via Wi-Fi and performs real-time data visualization & analysis. Total cost per sensor node is a few thousand dollars, with total power consumption per sensor node under 1 Watt, suitable for, e.g., solar-powered installations at remote field locations.

  8. Seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: A high-resolution ocean model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieck, Jan Klaus; Böning, Claus W.; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Scheinert, Markus

    2016-04-01

    A global ocean model with 1/12° horizontal resolution is used to assess the seasonal cycle of surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the North Atlantic. The model reproduces the salient features of the observed mean surface EKE, including amplitude and phase of its seasonal cycle in most parts of the basin. In the interior North Atlantic subtropical gyre, EKE peaks in summer down to a depth of ˜200 m, below which the seasonal cycle is weak. Investigation of the possible driving mechanisms reveals the seasonal changes in the thermal interactions with the atmosphere to be the most likely cause of the summer maximum of EKE. The development of the seasonal thermocline in spring and summer is accompanied by stronger mesoscale variations in the horizontal temperature gradients near the surface which corresponds, by thermal wind balance, to an intensification of mesoscale velocity anomalies toward the surface. An extension of the analysis leads to similar results in the South Atlantic, North Pacific and South Pacific subtropical gyres.

  9. Response to ``Comment on `Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)''' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 107101 (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magazó, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Recently [S. Magazù et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011), 10.1063/1.3641870] we have proposed a new method for characterizing, by neutron scattering, the dynamical properties of complex material systems, such as, the ones of interest in the biophysical field. This approach called Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering, in short RENS, is based on the detection of the elastically scattered neutron intensity as a function of the instrumental energy resolution. By experimental, theoretical, and numerical findings, we have pointed out that an inflection point occurs in the elastic intensity when the system relaxation time approaches the instrumental energy resolution time. This approach, differently from quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), gives the chance to evaluate the system relaxation times without using pre-defined models that can be wrong and/or misleading. Here, we reply to a Comment on the above-mentioned main paper in which Wuttke proposes a different approach to evaluate the above-mentioned inflection point; on this regard, it should be noticed that the existence of the inflection point, which is the main topic of our work, is not questioned and that the approach proposed by Wuttke in the Comment, although valid for a class of dynamical processes, is not applicable when different and distinct processes occur simultaneously at different time scale.

  10. Choosing an adequate FEM grid for global mantle convection modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    Global numerical models of mantle convection are typically run on a grid which represents a hollow sphere. In the context of using the Finite Element method, there are many ways to discretise a hollow sphere by means of cuboids in a regular fashion (adaptive mesh refinement is here not considered). I will here focus on the following two: the cubed sphere [1], which is a quasi-uniform mapping of a cube to a sphere (considering both equidistant and equiangular projections), and the 12-block grid used for instance in CITCOM [2]. By means of simple experiments, I will show that at comparable resolutions (and all other things being equal), the 12-block grid is surprisingly vastly superior to the cubed-sphere grid, when used in combination with trilinear velocity - constant pressure elements, while being more difficult to build/implement. [1] C. Ronchi, R. Iacono, and P. S. Paolucci, The "Cubed Sphere": A New Method for the Solution of Partial Differential Equations in Spherical Geometry, Journal of Computational Physics, 124, p93-114 (1996). [2] S. Zhong and M.T. Zuber and L.N. Moresi and M. Gurnis, Role of temperature-dependent viscosity and surface plates in spherical shell models of mantle convection, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105 (B5), p 11,063-11,082 (2000).

  11. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  12. Orbital Measurement of Bulk Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur of Carbonaceous Asteroids via High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Starr, Richard D.; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Boynton, William V.; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2014-11-01

    Various populations of low-albedo asteroids (C-complex, D, and P spectral types) dominate the outer Main Asteroid Belt, Hildas, and Trojan clouds and are thought to be related to carbonaceous meteorites. However, carbonaceous meteorites are themselves a diverse group and it remains unclear which types represent which asteroids or asteroid populations. A high-energy-resolution (HPGe) gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiment on an asteroid orbiter would be sensitive to many of the elements that differentiate carbonaceous chondrite subclasses from each other and from the ureilites, including H, C, O, and S, in the outer ~20-50 cm of the asteroid surface. We have therefore conducted new simulations of the performance of a GRS experiment in orbit around asteroids with carbonaceous chondriticcompositions at levels of hydration ranging from CI-like 17 wt% structural water) to CO-like (<2 wt% structural water). Cosmic-ray interactions with the asteroid surfaces were modeled using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code. A spacecraft background (based on a Dawn-like spacecraft model) was also modeled using MCNPX: this included background due to direct GCR/spacecraft interactions as well as background due to asteroidal neutron flux on the spacecraft. A Dawn-like mission scenario was modeled withthe altitude equal to the asteroid radius for a 4.5-month low-orbit phase. The detector model was based on Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MOGRS), the largest and most sensitive HPGe GRS flown to date. The spectra from the MCNPX output were broadened to a resolution based on the in-flight performance of MOGRS, FWHM = 4.1 keV at 1332 keV. Doppler broadening was also modeled where applicable. Line fluxes were then extracted from the combined background + asteroid spectrum and statistical uncertainties evaluated.We find that within 4.5 months the GRS can measure H/Si, O/Si, C/Si, and S/Si with sufficient precision to distinguish OH-rich CI and CM chondrites from drier CO

  13. Improvement of γ-ray energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce3+ scintillation detectors by Sr2+ and Ca2+ co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhin, M. S.; de Haas, J. T. M.; Khodyuk, I. V.; Krämer, K. W.; Menge, P. R.; Ouspenski, V.; Dorenbos, P.

    2013-04-01

    Commercially available LaBr3:5% Ce3+ scintillators show with photomultiplier tube readout about 2.7% energy resolution for the detection of 662 keV γ-rays. Here we will show that by co-doping LaBr3:Ce3+ with Sr2+ or Ca2+ the resolution is improved to 2.0%. Such an improvement is attributed to a strong reduction of the scintillation light losses that are due to radiationless recombination of free electrons and holes during the earliest stages (1-10 ps) inside the high free charge carrier density parts of the ionization track.

  14. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzari, Rémi Li, Jingfeng Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO{sub 2} are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO{sub 2}(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  15. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  16. Analytic model for the spatial and spectral resolution of pixellated semiconducting detectors of high-energy photons

    SciTech Connect

    Kozorezov, A.G.; Wigmore, J.K.; Owens, A.; Hartog, R. den; Peacock, A.

    2005-04-01

    We report the development of a general analytic method for describing the responsivity and resolution for a pixellated semiconductor detector structure in terms of device and material properties. The method allows both drift and diffusive transport to be modelled, for which previously only Monte Carlo techniques have been available. We obtain a general solution, and show specific results for an array of square pixels, illustrating the device constraints required to optimize spatial and spectral resolution.

  17. A quantitative study of Langmuir-Blodgett model systems by high resolution electron energy loss vibrational spectroscopy. Spectral analysis and information depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzsacker, Cara L.; Gardella, Joseph A., Jr.; Gregoire, Chantal; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques

    1995-03-01

    Langmuir Blodgett monolayers of a series of anthroyl substituted alkanoic (fatty) acid derivatives are used as model systems to study the interaction of low energy electrons with organic polymers in high resolution electron energy loss spectrometry. The variation of structure in the series effectively places the anthroyl functionality at various depths from the monolayer vacuum surface. The HREELS analysis of these systems provides a means to probe the depth dependence of vibrational energy losses. Maximum likelihood spectral restoration was used to establish more precise and energies resulting from energy loss, with comparison to infrared and Raman spectroscopic results from the compounds. These band energies were then used as initial values for curve fitting of the original data. The results of curve resolution aided in the estimation of the relative intensity of vibrational bands specific to the functional groups in the anthroyl sidechain and the aliphatic hydrocarbon backbone of the molecules in the films. By comparing vibrational intensities normalized to the elastic peak, it is shown that bands due to CH vibrations from saturated aliphatic structures are more surface sensitive than those due to aromatic structures. The comparison of the series of samples shows how the signals from aromatic structures decrease relative to aliphatic over a range of 15 A from the vacuum surface.

  18. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  1. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  2. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  3. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  4. Compact pnCCD-based X-ray camera with high spatial and energy resolution: a color X-ray camera.

    PubMed

    Scharf, O; Ihle, S; Ordavo, I; Arkadiev, V; Bjeoumikhov, A; Bjeoumikhova, S; Buzanich, G; Gubzhokov, R; Günther, A; Hartmann, R; Kühbacher, M; Lang, M; Langhoff, N; Liebel, A; Radtke, M; Reinholz, U; Riesemeier, H; Soltau, H; Strüder, L; Thünemann, A F; Wedell, R

    2011-04-01

    For many applications there is a requirement for nondestructive analytical investigation of the elemental distribution in a sample. With the improvement of X-ray optics and spectroscopic X-ray imagers, full field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF) methods are feasible. A new device for high-resolution X-ray imaging, an energy and spatial resolving X-ray camera, is presented. The basic idea behind this so-called "color X-ray camera" (CXC) is to combine an energy dispersive array detector for X-rays, in this case a pnCCD, with polycapillary optics. Imaging is achieved using multiframe recording of the energy and the point of impact of single photons. The camera was tested using a laboratory 30 μm microfocus X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation from BESSY II at the BAMline facility. These experiments demonstrate the suitability of the camera for X-ray fluorescence analytics. The camera simultaneously records 69,696 spectra with an energy resolution of 152 eV for manganese K(α) with a spatial resolution of 50 μm over an imaging area of 12.7 × 12.7 mm(2). It is sensitive to photons in the energy region between 3 and 40 keV, limited by a 50 μm beryllium window, and the sensitive thickness of 450 μm of the chip. Online preview of the sample is possible as the software updates the sums of the counts for certain energy channel ranges during the measurement and displays 2-D false-color maps as well as spectra of selected regions. The complete data cube of 264 × 264 spectra is saved for further qualitative and quantitative processing.

  5. Absolute Photoionization Cross Section with an Ultra-high Energy Resolution for Ne in the Region of 1s Rydberg States

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Morishita, Y.; Suzuki, I. H.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Okada, K.; Matsudo, T.; Gejo, T.

    2007-01-19

    The high-resolution absolute photoabsorption cross section with an absolute photon energy scale for Ne in the energy region of 864-872 eV (1s-1np Rydberg states) has been measured using a multi-electrode ionization chamber and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The natural lifetime width of Ne 1s-13p resonance state has been obtained to be 252 {+-} 5 meV. The Ne+ (1s-1) ionization potential is determined to be 870.16 {+-} 0.04 eV by using the Rydberg formula. These absolute values are supposed to be more reliable than those previously reported.

  6. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  7. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Brunger, M J; Neves, R F C; Lopes, M C A; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Blanco, F; García, G; Lima, M A P; Jones, D B

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  8. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  9. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  10. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Brunger, M J; Neves, R F C; Lopes, M C A; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Blanco, F; García, G; Lima, M A P; Jones, D B

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range. PMID:26472380

  11. High-Energy Nanoscale-Resolution X-ray Microscopy Based on Refractive Optics on a Long Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Snigireva, I.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Snigirev, A.

    2011-09-09

    The long length and good coherence properties of ID11 at the ESRF have led to the development of x-ray microscopy based on compound refractive lenses (CRLs). For the highest resolution full-field microscopy, the sample is placed {approx}40 m from the source, which can be micro-focused by a transfocator as a condenser. Due to the long length of the beamline and consequent long sample-detector distance, a CRL objective can be placed up to a meter behind the sample and still allow for magnification of 60x on a detector located at 99 m--enough to achieve easily 100-nm resolution with a typical high-resolution detector.

  12. Macro and micro full field x-ray fluorescence with an X-ray pinhole camera presenting high energy and high spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Romano, Francesco Paolo; Caliri, Claudia; Cosentino, Luigi; Gammino, Santo; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Pappalardo, Lighea; Rizzo, Francesca; Taccetti, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    This work describes a tabletop (50 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm) full field X-ray pinhole camera (FF-XPC) presenting high energy- and high spatial-resolution. The FF-XPC consists of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) detector coupled, in a coaxial geometry, to a pinhole collimator of small diameter. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is induced on the samples with an external low-power X-ray tube. The use of the CCD as an energy dispersive X-ray detector was obtained by adopting a multi-image acquisition in single photon counting and by developing a processing algorithm to be applied in real-time to each of the acquired image-frames. This approach allowed the measurement of X-ray spectra with an energy resolution down to 133 eV at the reference value of 5.9 keV. The detection of the X-ray fluorescence through the pinhole-collimator allowed the two-dimensional elemental mapping of the irradiated samples. Two magnifications (M), determined by the relative sample-pinhole-CCD distances, are used in the present setup. A low value of M (equal to 0.35×) allows the macro-FF-XRF of large area samples (up to 4 × 4 cm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 140 μm; a large magnification (M equal to 6×) is used for the micro-FF-XRF of small area samples (2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 30 μm.

  13. Modeling high resolution space-time variations in energy demand/CO2 emissions of human inhabited landscapes in the United States under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, A. V.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    With urban and exurban areas now accounting for more than 50% of the world's population, projected to increase 20% by 2050 (UN World Urbanization Prospects, 2009), urban-climate interactions are of renewed interest to the climate change scientific community (Karl et. al, 1988; Kalnay and Cai, 2003; Seto and Shepherd, 2009). Until recently, climate modeling efforts treated urban-human systems as independent of the earth system. With studies pointing to the disproportionately large influence of urban areas on their surrounding environment (Small et. al, 2010), modeling efforts have begun to explicitly account for urban processes in land models, like the CLM 4.0 urban layer, for example (Oleson.et. al, 2008, 2010). A significant portion of the urban energy demand comes from the space heating and cooling requirement of the residential and commercial sectors - as much as 51% (DOE, RECS 2005) and 11% (Belzer, D. 2006) respectively, in the United States. Thus, these sectors are both responsible for a significant fraction of fossil fuel CO2 emissions and will be influenced by a changing climate through changes in energy use and energy supply planning. This points to the possibility of interactive processes and feedbacks with the climate system. Space conditioning energy demand is strongly driven by external air temperature (Ruth, M. et.al, 2006) in addition to other socio-economic variables such as building characteristics (age of structure, activity cycle, weekend/weekday usage profile), occupant characteristics (age of householder, household income) and energy prices (Huang, 2006; Santin et. al, 2009; Isaac and van Vuuren, 2009). All of these variables vary both in space and time. Projections of climate change have begun to simulate changes in temperature at much higher resolution than in the past (Diffenbaugh et. al, 2005). Hence, in order to understand how climate change and variability will potentially impact energy use/emissions and energy planning, these two

  14. High resolution structural and compositional mapping of the SrTiO3/LaFeO3 interface using chromatic aberration corrected energy filtered imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabius, Bernd; Houben, Lothar; Dwyer, Christian; Colby, Robert; Chambers, Scott A.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between insulating polar perovskites have demonstrated a wealth of electronic and magnetic properties. Understanding and predicting the properties of a specific interface requires atomic level knowledge of interface structure and chemistry. Electron microscopy is capable of this task, and has been frequently applied to oxide interfaces using a combination of high-angle angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) captures a full image for a given energy losses, allowing a larger field of view than typical for STEM-EELS in far less time. However, EFTEM has not, to date, demonstrated the spatial resolution of STEM-EELS due to the limits set by chromatic aberration Cc. This study of LaFeO3/SrTiO3 demonstrates that Cc correction enhances the resolution of EFTEM for elemental mapping, allowing a unit cell-by-unit cell analysis of the concentration gradients across the SrTiO3/LaFeO3 interface. The charge distribution at the interface will be discussed. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  15. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  16. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  17. Energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce in a phoswich configuration with CsI:Na and NaI:Tl scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, G.; Genolini, B.; Josselin, M.; Matea, I.; Peyré, J.; Pouthas, J.; Zerguerras, T.

    2012-12-01

    We studied the performances of the LaBr3:Ce scintillator when optically coupled to NaI:Tl and CsI:Na in a Phoswich detector for the R&D phase of the gamma ray calorimeter PARIS (Photon Array for the studies with Radioactive Ion and Stable beams). This detector has the purpose to measure γ-energies in a wide range (100 keV-40 MeV), and it will be used principally as a part of the SPIRAL2 instrumentation at GANIL. In this communication we report on the study of the light yield and energy resolution for gamma detection realized by coupling the phoswiches with various photomultiplier tubes, providing different characteristics. We were interested in investigating the possible degradation of the scintillation light produced by the LaBr3:Ce due to the presence of NaI:Tl/CsI:Na crystals, before being detected on the photocathode. For this purpose we realized all the measurements employing a standard ADC and QDC read-out system leading the possibility to perform a gate-based event selection. In this study we measured an energy resolution of 4.6% with an uncollimated 137Cs source for a 50.8×50.8×50.8 mm3 LaBr3:Ce coupled to a 50.8×50.8×152.4 mm3 NaI:Tl. This value is 30% bigger than the energy resolution measured for a 50.8×50.8×101.6 mm3 stand-alone LaBr3:Ce but still in the specifications for the PARIS collaboration physics list.

  18. Real-time monitoring of changes in plasma membrane potential via imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer at individual cell resolution in suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabati, Tzachi; Galmidi, Bat-Sheva; Korngreen, Alon; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2013-12-01

    A method for monitoring heterogeneity in changes of plasma membrane potential (PMP) at an individual cell resolution while in suspension, utilizing a simple and low-cost wide-field illumination arrangement, is presented. The method is modeled via HEK-293 cell line in suspension, double stained with coumarin and oxonol (donor and acceptor), which were loaded into an array of nanoliter wells, each designed to preserve the individuality of the nontethered cell it holds during vigorous biomanipulation. Depolarization of PMP was induced by high K+ solution, reducing the proximity between the membrane fluorophores and subsequently reducing the efficiency (E%) of resonance energy transfer between them. Spatial plots of E% were produced from both images of fluorescence intensity and polarization. The spatial resolution of E% plots seem to be higher, and their contrast greater, when calculated from the polarization, rather than from the intensity of the fluorescence.

  19. [Dispute Resolutions].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Claudia L.; Cooks, Leda M.

    1994-01-01

    Focusing on the teaching of alternative dispute resolutions at universities, Claudia L. Hale and Leda M. Cooks argue that mediation should be taught primarily as a communication process that involves the joint efforts of mediator and disputants. Teachers of mediation should begin by distinguishing mediation from other forms of dispute resolution,…

  20. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America: Diagnosis of feedbacks between groundwater and land energy fluxes at continental scales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed; Condon, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Model results suggest that partitioning of plant transpiration to bare soil evaporation is a function of water table depth and later groundwater flow. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  1. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  2. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Braillard, Aurélien; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Prat, Alain; Testemale, Denis; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; Arnaud, Stéphan; Berar, Jean-François; Boudet, Nathalie; Caillot, Bernard; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jérôme; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Martin, Philippe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  3. High-Energy-Resolution Inelastic Electron and Proton Scattering and the Multiphonon Nature of Mixed-Symmetry 2{sup +} States in {sup 94}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Holt, J. D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholten, O.

    2007-08-31

    High-energy-resolution inelastic electron scattering (at the S-DALINAC) and proton scattering (at iThemba LABS) experiments permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states of the nucleus {sup 94}Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic nuclear model calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2{sup +} states is extracted.

  4. High resolution multiple electron impact ionisation of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe atoms close to threshold: Appearance energies and Wannier exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gstir, B.; Denifl, S.; Hanel, G.; Rümmele, M.; Fiegele, T.; Stano, M.; Feketeova, L.; Matejcik, S.; Becker, K.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2003-05-01

    We have determined appearance energies AE(X n+ /X) for the formation of multiply charged He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe ions up to charge state n=2 (He), n=4 (Ne), n=6 (Ar), n=6 (Kr) and n=8 (Xe) using a recently commissioned high-resolution electron impact ionization mass spectrometer. The data analysis is based on the Marquart-Levenberg algorithm, involving an iterative, non-linear least-squares fitting of the threshold data assuming a 2-function or a 3-function fit based on a Wannier-type power law. This allows us to extract the relevant AEs and corresponding Wannier exponents.

  5. Advances in the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model using very high resolution remote sensing data in vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermal-based Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model partitions the water and energy fluxes from vegetation and soil components providing thus the ability for estimating soil evaporation (E) and canopy transpiration (T) separately. However, it is crucial for ET partitioning to retrieve reliable ...

  6. Electrographic correlates of adequate and erroneous responses evoked by conditioned signals of different functional signs during operant learning in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dumenko, V N; Kozlov, M K

    2006-01-01

    Power spectra over the frequency range 1-225 Hz in short-term (less than 1 sec) EEG reactions arising in different areas of the cerebral cortex in response to presentation of differential signals were investigated in dogs during operant feeding behavior in conditions of both adequate and erroneous responses. The energy levels of these reactions decreased several-fold as compared with responses to positive signals, mainly because of frequencies in the high-frequency range (90-225 Hz), where power was greater than not only the traditional range of 1-30 Hz, but also the gamma range of 30-80 Hz. The frequency composition of EEG reactions in adequate responses was determined by a series of discrete frequency subgroups belonging predominantly to the high-frequency band. In erroneous reactions, the discrete structure of the corresponding EEG reactions was lost.

  7. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  8. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  9. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  13. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  18. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  19. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  20. 36 CFR 218.11 - Resolution of objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution of objections. 218... Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 § 218.11 Resolution of... potential resolution. The reviewing officer has the discretion to determine whether or not adequate...

  1. New Science Case for the Micro-X High Energy Resolution Microcalorimeter X-ray Imaging Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Adams, J. S.; Baker, R.; Bandler, S. R.; DeLaney, T. A.; Dewey, D.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Galeazzi, M.; Goeke, R.; Hamersma, R.; Hilton, G. C.; Hwang, U.; Irwin, K. D.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leman, S. W.; McCammon, D.; Okajima, T.; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rutherford, J. M.; Saab, T.; Serlemitsos, P.; Soong, Y.; Trowbridge, S. N.; Wikus, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket payload will be launched on January 18, 2011 to make the first observation of an astronomical target with Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters. The 128 pixel TES array lies at the focus of a 2.165 m focal length conical imaging mirror with a 0.2-3.0 keV bandpass. The spectral resolution of the TES array will be between 2 and 4 eV at 1 keV. Our scientific program is focused on high-spectral resolution observations of extended sources. For supernova remnants (SNRs) our scientific objectives are to map the velocity structure of the ejecta, and study both elemental abundances and the thermodynamic and ionization state of the plasma through plasma line diagnostics. For clusters of galaxies, Micro-X can uniquely study turbulence, velocities, and the temperature phases of the plasma. For our initial flight, we have changed our target from the bright eastern knot to a recently discovered ejecta region in the Puppis A SNR. The target of the second flight in mid-2012 is M87, the center of the Virgo Cluster. The third flight, in early 2014, will make an observation of the Cas A SNR. In this contribution we discuss the science objectives of our first flight.

  2. Position Resolution in DROIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2008-04-01

    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  3. High-resolution, far-ultraviolet study of Beta Draconis (G2 Ib-II) - Transition region structure and energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.; Jordan, C.; Stencel, R. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution far ultraviolet spectra of the star Beta Draconis have been obtained with the IUE satellite. The observations and emission line data from the spectra are presented, the interpretation of the emission line widths and shifts is discussed, and the implications are given in terms of atmospheric properties. The emission measure distribution is derived, and density diagnostics involving both line ratios and line opacity arguments is investigated. The methods for calculating spherically symmetric models of the atmospheric structure are outlined, and several such models are presented. The extension of these models to log T(e) greater than 5.3 using the observed X-ray flux is addressed, the energy balance of an 'optimum' model is investigated, and possible models of energy transport and deposition are discussed.

  4. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  5. Detection of high energy muons with sub-20 ps timing resolution using L(Y)SO crystals and SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaglia, A.; Gundacker, S.; Lecoq, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Para, A.; Pauwels, K.; Auffray, E.

    2016-09-01

    Precise timing capability will be a key aspect of particle detectors at future high energy colliders, as the time information can help in the reconstruction of physics events at the high collision rate expected there. Other than being used in detectors for PET, fast scintillating crystals coupled to compact Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) constitute a versatile system that can be exploited to realize an ad-hoc timing device to be hosted in a larger high energy physics detector. In this paper, we present the timing performance of LYSO:Ce and LSO:Ce codoped 0.4% Ca crystals coupled to SiPMs, as measured with 150 GeV muons at the CERN SPS H2 extraction line. Small crystals, with lengths ranging from 5 mm up to 30 mm and transverse size of 2 × 2mm2 or 3 × 3mm2 , were exposed to a 150 GeV muon beam. SiPMs from two different companies (Hamamatsu and FBK) were used to detect the light produced in the crystals. The best coincidence time resolution value of (14.5 ± 0.5) ps , corresponding to a single-detector time resolution of about 10 ps, is demonstrated for 5 mm long LSO:Ce,Ca crystals coupled to FBK SiPMs, when time walk corrections are applied.

  6. A balloon-borne instrument for high-resolution astrophysical spectroscopy in the 20-8000 keV energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, W. S.; Baker, R.; Boclet, D.; Brown, S.; Cline, T.; Costlow, H.; Durouchoux, P.; Ehrmann, C.; Gehrels, N.; Hameury, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Low Energy Gamma ray Spectrometer (LEGS) is designed to perform fine energy resolution measurements of astrophysical sources. The instrument is configured for a particular balloon flight with either of two sets of high purity germanium detectors. In one configuration, the instrument uses an array of three coaxial detectors (effective volume equal to or approximately 230 cubic cm) inside an NaI (T1) shield and collimator (field of view equal to or approximately 16 deg FWHM) and operates in the 80 to 8000 keV energy range. In the other configuration, three planar detectors (effective area equal to or approximately square cm) surrounded by a combination of passive Fe and active NaI for shielding and collimation (field of view equal to or approximately 5 deg x 10 deg FWHM) are optimized for the 20 to 200 keV energy range. In a typical one day balloon flight, LEGS sensitivity limit (3 sigma) for narrow line features is less than or approximately .0008 ph/cm/s square (coaxial array: 80 to 2000 keV) and less than or approximately .0003 ph/square cm/s (planar array: 50 to 150 keV).

  7. Direct observation of low energy nuclear spin excitations in HoCrO3 by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, T; Jalarvo, N; Kumar, C M N; Xiao, Y; Brückel, Th

    2013-07-17

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in the strongly correlated electron compound HoCrO3. We observe clear inelastic peaks at E = 22.18 ± 0.04 μeV in both energy loss and gain sides. The energy of the inelastic peaks remains constant in the temperature range 1.5-40 K at which they are observed. The intensity of the inelastic peak increases at first with increasing temperature and then decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the energy and intensity of the inelastic peaks is very unusual compared to that observed in other Nd, Co, V and also simple Ho compounds. Huge quasielastic scattering appears at higher temperatures presumably due to the fluctuating electronic moments of the Ho ions that get increasingly disordered at higher temperatures. The strong quasielastic scattering may also originate in the first Ho crystal-field excitations at about 1.5 meV.

  8. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  9. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  10. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  11. Conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2006-03-01

    The sooner conflict is identified and confronted, the more quickly it can be resolved (and the sooner, the better). When this is accomplished calmly and objectively, many areas of conflict will be eliminated. Addressing conflict as it arises also sends a clear message to the team that the practice seeks resolution, not punishment or negative consequences. In addition, the dentist and the office manager need to lead by example by avoiding gossip and encouraging open communication. The goal is to go from a parent-child relationship with the dental team to an adult-adult relationship using this series of managerial conflict resolution steps.

  12. The Need for Domestic Violence Laws with Adequate Legal and Social Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmons, Willa M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for comprehensive domestic violence programs that include medical, legal, economic, psychological, and child care services. Although most states have family violence legislation, more work is needed to adequately implement these programs. (Author/JAC)

  13. Spatial resolution and nature of defects produced by low-energy proton irradiation of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells with about 0.5-micron-thick Al(0.85)Ga(0.15)As window layers were irradiated using isotropic and normal incidence protons having energies between 50 and 500 keV with fluences up to 1 x 10 to the 12th protons/sq cm. Although the projected range for these protons varies from 0 to more than 4.5 microns, the recombination losses due to the irradiation-induced defects were observed to be maximum in the vicinity of the AlGaAs/GaAs interface and the space-charge region irrespective of the proton energy. This was found by analyzing spectral response measurements. The results are explained by using a model in which the interaction of as-grown dislocations with irradiation-induced point defects is considered.

  14. Resolution of the vibrational energy distribution function using a direct simulation Monte Carlo-master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2016-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the primary numerical technique for analysis of rarefied gas flows. While recent progress in computational chemistry is beginning to provide vibrationally resolved transition and reaction cross sections that can be employed in DSMC calculations, the particle nature of the standard DSMC method makes it difficult to use this information in a statistically significant way. The current study introduces a new technique that makes it possible to resolve all of the vibrational energy levels by using a master equation approach along with temperature-dependent transition rates. The new method is compared to the standard DSMC technique for several heat bath and shock wave conditions and demonstrates the ability to resolve the full vibrational manifold at the expected overall rates of relaxation. The ability of the new master equation approach to the DSMC method for resolving, in particular, the high-energy states addresses a well-known, longstanding deficiency of the standard DSMC method.

  15. A New High Resolution Wave Modeling System for Renewable Energy Applications in California and the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanis, G. N.; Kafatos, M.; Chu, P. C.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Emmanouil, G.; Kallos, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The use of integrated high accuracy wave systems is of critical importance today for applications on renewable energy assessment and monitoring, especially over offshore areas where the availability of credible, quality controlled corresponding observations is limited. In this work a new wave modeling system developed by the Hellenic Naval Academy and the University of Athens, Greece, the Center of Excellence in Earth Systems Modeling & Observations of Schmid College of Science in Chapman University, USA and the Naval Ocean and Analysis Laboratory of the US-Naval Postgraduate School, is presented. The new wave system has been based on WAM (ECMWF parallel version) model and focuses on parameters that directly or not affect the estimation of wave power potential in offshore and near shore areas. The results obtained are utilized for monitoring the wave energy potential over the California and Eastern Mediterranean coastline. A detailed statistical analysis based on classical and non-conventional measures provides a solid framework for the quantification of the results. Extreme values-cases posing potential threats for renewable energy parks and platforms are particularly analyzed.

  16. The weakly bound He-HCCCN complex: High-resolution microwave spectra and intermolecular potential-energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topic, Wendy C.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound He-HCCCN and He-DCCCN van der Waals complexes were observed using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the 7-26-GHz frequency region. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structures due to the N14 and D nuclei (both with nuclear-spin quantum number I =1) were resolved and assigned. Both strong a and weaker b-type transitions were observed and the assigned transitions were used to fit the parameters of a distortable asymmetric rotor model. The dimers are floppy, near T-shaped complexes. Three intermolecular potential-energy surfaces were calculated using the coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative inclusion of triple excitations. Bound-state rotational energy levels supported by these surfaces were determined. The quality of the potential-energy surfaces was assessed by comparing the experimental and calculated transition frequencies and also the corresponding spectroscopic parameters. Simple scaling of the surfaces improved both the transition frequencies and spectroscopic constants. Five other recently reported surfaces [O. Akin-Ojo, R. Bukowski, and K. Szalewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8379 (2003)], calculated using a variety of methods, and their agreement with spectroscopic properties of He-HCCCN are discussed.

  17. Timing and Energy Resolution of new near-UV SiPMs coupled to LaBr3:Ce for TOF-PET

    PubMed Central

    Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Wiener, Rony I.; Surti, Suleman; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Tarolli, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Karp, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    The high light output and fast decay time of LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors leads to excellent timing performance. To realize the potential of timing resolution with LaBr3:Ce we have investigated the performance with SiPMs, which enable 1-to-1 coupling to individual crystals, and which have been optimized for the near-ultraviolet (NUV) scintillation light emission of LaBr3:Ce. Coincidence timing resolution (CTR) of 100 ps was measured for a 4×4×5 mm3 LaBr3:30%Ce crystal directly coupled to a large-area 4×4 mm2 NUV-SiPM. Results show very little dependence on temperature, in the range of −20° to 20°C, and bias voltage, from 2 V to 5 V over breakdown. Optimal performance was achieved at an over-voltage (OV) range of 3 V – 5 V, at which high gain and high photon detection efficiency are achieved. Though saturation was evident at 511 keV, an energy resolution of 6.8% was measured after correcting for non-linearity. We also measured a CTR of 110 ps for a 4×4×5mm3 LaBr3:5%Ce crystal and 245 ps for a 4×4×30 mm3 LaBr3:5%Ce crystal using the NUV-SIPM. The poorer timing measurement for the 30-mm long crystal is due mainly to a systematic shift in the time pick-off as a function of the depth-of-interaction. The excellent temperature stability, fast rise time, high gain, and low noise of the NUV-SiPM make it a practical and highly appealing photodetector for the readout of a LaBr3:Ce TOF-PET detector. PMID:25530626

  18. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational simplified surface energy balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Russell L, Scott; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. We have developed a first-ever basin-wide actual evapotranspiration (ETa) map of the CRB at the Landsat scale for water use assessment at the field level. We used the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for estimating ETa using 328 cloud-free Landsat images acquired during 2010. Our results show that cropland had the highest ETa among all land cover classes except for water. Validation using eddy covariance measured ETa showed that the SSEBop model nicely captured the variability in annual ETa with an overall R2 of 0.78 and a mean bias error of about 10%. Comparison with water balance-based ETa showed good agreement (R2 = 0.85) at the sub-basin level. Though there was good correlation (R2 = 0.79) between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based ETa (1 km spatial resolution) and Landsat-based ETa (30 m spatial resolution), the spatial distribution of MODIS-based ETa was not suitable for water use assessment at the field level. In contrast, Landsat-based ETa has good potential to be used at the field level for water management. With further validation using multiple years and sites, our methodology can be applied for regular production of ETa maps of larger areas such as the conterminous United States.

  19. NCAI Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Five Major Policy Resolutions were adopted, without objection, at the 33rd Annual Convention of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) held in Salt Lake City, Utah, in October 1976. The issues involved were: Treaties and Trust Responsibilities, Tribal Government, Jurisdiction, Federal Administration and Structure of Indian Affairs, and…

  20. High resolution IR diode laser study of collisional energy transfer between highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene and CO2: the effect of donor fluorination on strong collision energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M; Powell, Amber L; Mitchell, Deborah G; Sevy, Eric T

    2014-12-21

    Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO2 and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm(-1)) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E' = ∼41,000 cm(-1) was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S1→S0*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO2 via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO2 using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO2 were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E'), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E') was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E') and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E') and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E'). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.

  1. High resolution respirometry analysis of polyethylenimine-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis and cellular stress: Mitochondrial proton leak and inhibition of the electron transport system.

    PubMed

    Hall, Arnaldur; Larsen, Anna K; Parhamifar, Ladan; Meyle, Kathrine D; Wu, Lin-Ping; Moghimi, S Moein

    2013-10-01

    Polyethylenimines (PEIs) are highly efficient non-viral transfectants, but can induce cell death through poorly understood necrotic and apoptotic processes as well as autophagy. Through high resolution respirometry studies in H1299 cells we demonstrate that the 25kDa branched polyethylenimine (25k-PEI-B), in a concentration and time-dependent manner, facilitates mitochondrial proton leak and inhibits the electron transport system. These events were associated with gradual reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The intracellular ATP levels further declined as a consequence of PEI-mediated plasma membrane damage and subsequent ATP leakage to the extracellular medium. Studies with freshly isolated mouse liver mitochondria corroborated with bioenergetic findings and demonstrated parallel polycation concentration- and time-dependent changes in state 2 and state 4o oxygen flux as well as lowered ADP phosphorylation (state 3) and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Polycation-mediated reduction of electron transport system activity was further demonstrated in 'broken mitochondria' (freeze-thawed mitochondrial preparations). Moreover, by using both high-resolution respirometry and spectrophotometry analysis of cytochrome c oxidase activity we were able to identify complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) as a likely specific site of PEI mediated inhibition within the electron transport system. Unraveling the mechanisms of PEI-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis is central for combinatorial design of safer polymeric non-viral gene delivery systems. PMID:23850549

  2. A single shot TDC with 4.8 ps resolution in 40 nm CMOS for high energy physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzie, J.; Steyaert, M.; Leroux, P.

    2015-01-01

    A robust TDC with 4.8 ps bin width has been designed for harsh environments and high energy physics applications. The circuit uses resistive interpolation DLL with a novel dual phase detector architecture. This architecture improves startup- and recovery speed from single event strikes without control voltage ripple trade-off and requires no off-line calibrations. A 0.43 LSB DNL has been measured at a power consumption of 4.2 mW with an extended frequency range from 0.8 GHz to 2.4 GHz. The TDC has been processed in 40 nm CMOS technology.

  3. Estimation of surface energy balance from radiant surface temperature and NOAA AVHRR sensor reflectances over agricultural and native vegetation. [AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer)

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xinmei; Lyons, T.J. ); Smith, R.C.G. ); Hacker, J.M.; Schwerdtfeger, P. )

    1993-08-01

    A model is developed to evaluate surface heat flux densities using the radiant surface temperature and red and near-infrared reflectances from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor. Net radiation is calculated from an empirical formulation and albedo estimated from satellite observations. Infrared surface temperature is corrected to aerodynamic surface temperature in estimating the sensible heat flux and the latent flux is evaluated as the residual of the surface energy balance. When applied to relatively homogeneous agricultural and native vegetation, the model yields realistic estimates of sensible and latent heat flux density in the surface layer for cases where either the sensible or latent flux dominates. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0+ electronic state of 85Rb133Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Kim, Jin-Tae; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-12-01

    We present the formation of ultracold 85Rb133Cs molecules in the (5)0+ electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0+ state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0+ electronic state of 85Rb133Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0+ state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  5. Bit-Error-Rate-Based Evaluation of Energy-Gap-Induced Super-Resolution Read-Only-Memory Disc in Blu-ray Disc Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Hideharu; Yamada, Hirohisa; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Harada, Yasuhiro; Mori, Go; Akiyama, Jun; Maeda, Shigemi; Murakami, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Akira

    2008-07-01

    Bit error rate (bER) of an energy-gap-induced super-resolution (EG-SR) read-only-memory (ROM) disc with a zinc oxide (ZnO) film was measured in Blu-ray Disc (BD) optics by the partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) detection method. The experimental capacity was 40 GB in a single-layered 120 mm disc, which was about 1.6 times as high as the commercially available BD with 25 GB capacity. BER near 1 ×10-5 was obtained in an EG-SR ROM disc with a tantalum (Ta) reflective film. Practically available characteristics, including readout power margin, readout cyclability, environmental resistance, tilt margins, and focus offset margin, were also confirmed in the EG-SR ROM disc with 40 GB capacity.

  6. Bit-Error-Rate Evaluation of Energy-Gap-Induced Super-Resolution Read-Only-Memory Disc with Dual-Layer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hirohisa; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Harada, Yasuhiro; Tajima, Hideharu; Maeda, Shigemi; Murakami, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Practically available readout characteristics were obtained in a dual-layer energy-gap-induced super-resolution (EG-SR) read-only-memory (ROM) disc with an 80 gigabytes (GB) capacity. One of the dual layers consisted of zinc oxide and titanium films and the other layer consisted of zinc oxide and tantalum films. Bit error rates better than 3.0×10-4 were obtained with a minimum readout power of approximately 1.6 mW in both layers using a Blu-ray Disc tester by a partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) detection method. The dual-layer disc showed good tolerances in disc tilts and focus offset and also showed good readout cyclability in both layers.

  7. High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and photoelectron-diffraction studies of the geometric structure of adsorbates on single-crystal metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1982-11-01

    Two techniques which have made important contributions to the understanding of surface phenomena are high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and photoelectron diffraction (PD). EELS is capable of directly measuring the vibrational modes of clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces. In this work, the design, construction, and performance of a new EELS spectrometer are described. These results are discussed in terms of possible structures of the O-Cu(001) system. Recommendations for improvements in this EELS spectrometer and guidelines for future spectrometers are given. PD experiments provide accurate quantitative information about the geometry of atoms and molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. The technique has advantages when used to study disordered overlayers, molecular overlayers, multiple site systems, and adsorbates which are weak electron scatterers. Four experiments were carried out which exploit these advantages.

  8. The mesoscale forcing of a midlatitude upper-tropospheric jet streak by a simulated convective system. 2: Kinetic energy and resolution analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Bart J.; Johnson, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    A kinetic energy (KE) analysis of the forcing of a mesoscale upper-tropospheric jet streak by organized diabatic processes within the simulated convective system (SCS) that was discussed in Part 1 is presented in this study. The relative contributions of the ageostrophic components of motion to the generation of KE of the convectively generated jet streak are compared, along with the KE generation by the rotational (nondivergent) and irrotational (divergent) mass transport. The sensitivity of the numerical simulations of SCS development to resolution is also briefly examined. Analysis within isentropic coordinates provides for an explicit determination of the influence of the diabatic processes on the generation of KE. The upper-level production of specific KE is due predominatly to the inertial advective ageostrophic component (IAD), and as such represents the primary process through which the KE of the convectively generated jet streak is realized. A secondary contribution by the inertial diabatic (IDI) term is observed. Partitioning the KE generation into its rotational and irrotational components reveals that the latter, which is directly linked to the diabatic heating within the SCS through isentropic continuity requirements, is the ultimate source of KE generation as the global area integral of generation by the rotational component vanishes. Comparison with an identical dry simulation reveals that the net generation of KE must be attributed to latent heating. Both the IAD and IDI ageostrophic components play important roles in this regard. Examination of results from simulations conducted at several resolutions supports the previous findings in that the effects of diabatic processes and ageostrophic motion on KE generation remain consistent. Resolution does impact the location and timing of SCS development, a result that has important implications in forecasting the onset of convection that develops from evolution of the large-scale flow and moisture

  9. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  10. Patient acceptance of adequately filled breast implants using the tilt test.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, J B

    2000-07-01

    Adequate fill of any breast implant, regardless of shell characteristics, shape, or filler material, is important to prevent implant shell wrinkling, folding, or collapse that could potentially decrease the life of the implant. Implant shell life is a major factor that affects reoperation rates. The greater the necessity of reoperations, regardless of implant type, the greater the rate of local complications, necessitating additional surgery with additional risks and costs to patients. Palpable shell folding, visible wrinkling or rippling, palpable shifts of filler material, sloshing, and compromised aesthetic results can result from an under-filled implant. Any of these complications can necessitate reoperations with increased risks and costs to patients. This is a study of 609 consecutive patients from January of 1993 to December of 1998 who were given detailed preoperative informed consent and a choice of implant shape and type and who chose the increased firmness associated with an implant that is adequately filled to pass the tilt test. This study addresses two questions: (1) Will patients accept the increased firmness of an implant that is filled to pass the tilt test? and (2) Is adequate fill by the tilt test useful clinically to help reduce the incidence of postoperative rippling, wrinkling, and spontaneous deflation in saline implants? Patients were followed by postoperative examinations and questionnaires. No patient requested implant replacement to a softer implant postoperatively, and no reoperations were performed for visible rippling or wrinkling. The spontaneous deflation rate over this 6-year period was 9 of 1218 implants, or 0.739 percent. If patients will accept more firmness with an adequately filled implant, regardless of the filler material, surgeons might worry less about recommending an adequately filled implant to patients, and manufacturers might feel more comfortable producing adequately filled implants and redefining fill volumes for

  11. Position dependent spatial and spectral resolution measurement of distributed readout superconducting imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Martin, D. D. E.; Wigmore, J. K.; Jerjen, I.; Venn, R.; Groot, P. J.

    2008-04-01

    We present direct measurements of spatial and spectral resolution of cryogenic distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs). The spatial and spectral resolutions have been experimentally determined by scanning a 10μm spot of monochromatic visible light across the detector. The influences of the photon energy, bias voltage, and absorber length and width on the spatial and spectral resolutions have been examined. The confinement of quasiparticles in the readout sensors (superconducting tunnel junctions) as well as the detector's signal amplitude can be optimized by tuning the bias voltage, thereby improving both the spatial and spectral resolutions. Changing the length of the absorber affects the spatial and spectral resolutions in opposite manner, making it an important parameter to optimize the DROID for the application at hand. The results have been used to test expressions for photon energy, position, and spatial and spectral resolutions which have been derived by using an existing one-dimensional model. The model is found to accurately describe the experimental data, but some limitations have been identified. In particular, the model's assumption that the two sensors have identical response characteristics and noise, the approximation of the detailed quasiparticle dynamics in the sensors by border conditions, and the use of a one-dimensional diffusion process is not always adequate.

  12. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  13. Estimation of water and energy fluxes over complex landscapes. Two Source Energy Balance modelling using very high resolution thermal and optical imagery in vineyards and wooded rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modelling the water and energy balance at the land surface is a crucial task for many applications related to crop production, water resources management, climate change studies, weather forecasting, and natural hazards assessment. To improve the modelling of evapotranspiration (ET) over structurall...

  14. High spatial resolution, high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction characterization of residual strains and stresses in laser shock peened Inconel 718SPF alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Amrinder S.; Zhou, Zhong; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan; Lahrman, David F.; Mannava, S. R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced surface enhancement technique used to enhance the fatigue strength of metal parts by imparting deep compressive residual stresses. In the present study, LSP was performed on IN718 SPF alloy, a fine grained nickel-based superalloy, with three different power densities and depth resolved residual strain and stress characterization was conducted using high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction in beam line 1-ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National laboratory. A fine probe size and conical slits were used to non-destructively obtain data from specific gauge volumes in the samples, allowing for high-resolution strain measurements. The results show that LSP introduces deep compressive residual stresses and the magnitude and depth of these stresses depend on the energy density of the laser. The LSP induced residual stresses were also simulated using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis, with employment of the Johnson-Cook model for describing the nonlinear materials constitutive behavior. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated data was obtained. These various results are presented and discussed.

  15. A portable high-resolution soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer designed for the Shanghai EBIT and the Shanghai low energy EBITs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhan; Zhao, Ruifeng; Li, Wenxian; Tu, Bingsheng; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; Huldt, Sven; Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming

    2014-06-01

    A portable high resolution soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopic research at the Shanghai Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) laboratory. A unique way of aligning the grazing incidence spectrometer using the zero order of the grating is introduced. This method is realized by extending the range of the movement of the CCD detector to cover the zero order. The alignment can be done in a few minutes, thus leading to a portable spectrometer. The high vacuum needed to be compatible with the EBITs is reached by mounting most of the translation and rotation stages outside the chamber. Only one high vacuum compatible linear guide is mounted inside the chamber. This is to ensure the convenient interchange of the gratings needed to enable wavelength coverage of the whole range of 10 to 500 Å. Spectra recorded with one of our low energy EBITs shows that a resolving power of above 800 can be achieved. In the slitless configuration used in this work, we found the resolving power to be limited by the width of the EBIT plasma. When mounted on the Shanghai EBIT which is a high energy EBIT and has a narrower EBIT plasma width, the estimated resolving power will be around 1400 at 221.15 Å. PMID:24985802

  16. A portable high-resolution soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer designed for the Shanghai EBIT and the Shanghai low energy EBITs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhan; Zhao, Ruifeng; Li, Wenxian; Tu, Bingsheng; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; Huldt, Sven; Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming

    2014-06-01

    A portable high resolution soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopic research at the Shanghai Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) laboratory. A unique way of aligning the grazing incidence spectrometer using the zero order of the grating is introduced. This method is realized by extending the range of the movement of the CCD detector to cover the zero order. The alignment can be done in a few minutes, thus leading to a portable spectrometer. The high vacuum needed to be compatible with the EBITs is reached by mounting most of the translation and rotation stages outside the chamber. Only one high vacuum compatible linear guide is mounted inside the chamber. This is to ensure the convenient interchange of the gratings needed to enable wavelength coverage of the whole range of 10 to 500 Å. Spectra recorded with one of our low energy EBITs shows that a resolving power of above 800 can be achieved. In the slitless configuration used in this work, we found the resolving power to be limited by the width of the EBIT plasma. When mounted on the Shanghai EBIT which is a high energy EBIT and has a narrower EBIT plasma width, the estimated resolving power will be around 1400 at 221.15 Å.

  17. A portable high-resolution soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer designed for the Shanghai EBIT and the Shanghai low energy EBITs

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhan; Zhao, Ruifeng; Li, Wenxian; Tu, Bingsheng; Yang, Yang Xiao, Jun; Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming; Huldt, Sven

    2014-06-15

    A portable high resolution soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopic research at the Shanghai Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) laboratory. A unique way of aligning the grazing incidence spectrometer using the zero order of the grating is introduced. This method is realized by extending the range of the movement of the CCD detector to cover the zero order. The alignment can be done in a few minutes, thus leading to a portable spectrometer. The high vacuum needed to be compatible with the EBITs is reached by mounting most of the translation and rotation stages outside the chamber. Only one high vacuum compatible linear guide is mounted inside the chamber. This is to ensure the convenient interchange of the gratings needed to enable wavelength coverage of the whole range of 10 to 500 Å. Spectra recorded with one of our low energy EBITs shows that a resolving power of above 800 can be achieved. In the slitless configuration used in this work, we found the resolving power to be limited by the width of the EBIT plasma. When mounted on the Shanghai EBIT which is a high energy EBIT and has a narrower EBIT plasma width, the estimated resolving power will be around 1400 at 221.15 Å.

  18. Modeling of the performance of a liquid-gallium-cooled silicon monochromator for a high-energy-resolution scattering beamline: comparison with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.; Quast, K.W.; Nian, H.L.T.

    1996-09-01

    A finite element analysis method (FEA) was used to predict the performance of a silicon monochromator for a high-energy-resolution scattering beamline at sector 3 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The monochromator is internally cooled through 17 rectangular channels with liquid gallium and is designed to operate at photon energies near 14 keV, under beam from a 2.7 cm period undulator. The atomic planes of the monochromator have a (1 1 1) orientation with an asymmetric cut angle of 4.5{degrees}. The displacement profile calculated from the structural FEA was used to compute the double- crystal rocking curves at 14.41 keV. Both the simulations and the experiment show that this monochromator will operate at about 40 mA with rocking-curve broadening of only about 0.5 arcsec. This corresponds to a surface heat flux of 1.2 W/mm{sup 2} (i.e., 20 W/mm{sup 2} at normal incidence) and a total absorbed power of about 86 watts. The monochromator was used for the commissioning of the beamline and to perform the first series of experiments up to 100 mA. In this paper, we give the results of the FEA calculations and diffraction simulations and compare these to the experimental data.

  19. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  20. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  1. Validating the WRF-Chem model for wind energy applications using High Resolution Doppler Lidar data from a Utah 2012 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, M. J.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Models are important tools for assessing potential of wind energy sites, but the accuracy of these projections has not been properly validated. In this study, High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) data obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution at heights of modern turbine rotors were compared to output from the WRF-chem model in order to help improve the performance of the model in producing accurate wind forecasts for the industry. HRDL data were collected from January 23-March 1, 2012 during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) field campaign. A model validation method was based on the qualitative comparison of the wind field images, time-series analysis and statistical analysis of the observed and modeled wind speed and direction, both for case studies and for the whole experiment. To compare the WRF-chem model output to the HRDL observations, the model heights and forecast times were interpolated to match the observed times and heights. Then, time-height cross-sections of the HRDL and WRF-Chem wind speed and directions were plotted to select case studies. Cross-sections of the differences between the observed and forecasted wind speed and directions were also plotted to visually analyze the model performance in different wind flow conditions. A statistical analysis includes the calculation of vertical profiles and time series of bias, correlation coefficient, root mean squared error, and coefficient of determination between two datasets. The results from this analysis reveals where and when the model typically struggles in forecasting winds at heights of modern turbine rotors so that in the future the model can be improved for the industry.

  2. Monomeric C-phycocyanin at room temperature and 77 K. Resolution of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the individual chromophores and the energy-transfer rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Debreczeny, M.P.; Sauer, K. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA ); Zhou, J.; Bryant, D.A. )

    1993-09-23

    At both room temperature (RT) and 77 K, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the three individual chromophore types ([alpha][sub 84], [beta][sub 84], and [beta][sub 155]) found in monomeric C-phycocyanin ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]), isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, were resolved along with the rates of energy transfer between the chromophores. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the [beta][sub 155] chromophore, was useful in effecting this resolution. At RT, the single broad peak in the visible region of the absorption spectrum of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) was resolved into its three-component spectra by comparing the steady-state absorption spectra of the isolated wild-type [alpha] subunit of PC ([alpha][sup PC]) (containing only the [alpha][sub 84] chromophore) with those of the monomeric PCs isolated from the mutant strain ([alpha][sup PC][beta]*) and the wild-type strain ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]). At 77 K, the visible region of the absorption spectrum of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) splits into two peaks. This partial resolution at 77 K of the chromophore spectra of ([alpha][sup PC][beta][sup PC]) when compared with the 77 K absorption spectra of [alpha][sup PC], [beta][sup PC], and ([alpha][sup PC][beta]*) provided a confirmation of our RT assignments of the chromophore absorption spectra. 38 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Resolution in Photovoltaic Potential Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the effect of the various types of resolution involved in photovoltaic potential computation is presented. To calculate solar energy incident on a surface, shadow from surrounding buildings has been considered. The incident energy on a surface has been calculated taking the orientation, tilt and position into consideration. Different sky visibility map has been created for direct and diffuse radiation and only the effect of resolution of the factors has been explored here. The following four resolutions are considered: 1. temporal resolution (1, 10, 60 minutes time interval for calculating visibility of sun), 2. object surface resolution (0.01, 0.1, 0.375, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 m2 as maximum triangle size of a surface to be considered), 3. blocking obstacle resolution (number of triangles from LoD1, LoD2, or LoD3 CityGML building models), and 4. sky resolution (ranging from 150 to 600 sky-patches used to divide the sky-dome). Higher resolutions result in general in more precise estimation of the photovoltaic potential, but also the computation time is increasing, especially as realizes that this computation has to be done for every building with its object surface (both roofs and façades). This paper is the first in depth analysis ever of the effect of resolution and will help to configure the proper settings for effective photovoltaic potential computations.

  4. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  5. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph...

  6. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  7. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  8. Evaluating the Reliability of Selected School-Based Indices of Adequate Reading Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the stability (i.e., 4-month and 12-month test-retest reliability) of six selected school-based indices of adequate reading progress. The total sampling frame included between 3970 and 5655 schools depending on the index and research question. Each school had at least 40 second-grade students that had complete Oral…

  9. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  10. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  11. Performance Effects of Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    As the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law moves through the reauthorization process, it is important to understand the basic performance impacts of its central structure of accountability. In this paper, I examine the effects of failure to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under NCLB on subsequent student math and reading performance at the school…

  12. Determining Adequate Yearly Progress in a State Performance or Proficiency Index Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview regarding how several states use a performance or proficiency index in their determination of adequate yearly progress (AYP) under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Typically, indexes are based on one of two weighting schemes: (1) either they weight academic performance levels--also…

  13. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  14. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  15. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  16. [Factors associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

  17. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  18. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  20. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  1. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  2. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  3. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  4. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  5. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  6. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  7. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  8. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  9. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  11. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  12. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  13. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  14. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  16. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  18. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  19. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  20. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  1. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  2. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  3. Research on the affect of differential-images technique to the resolution of infrared spatial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guang; An, Yuan; Qi, Yingchun; Hu, Fusheng

    2007-12-01

    The optical system of infrared spatial camera adopts bigger relative aperture and bigger pixel size on focal plane element. These make the system have bulky volume and low resolution. The potential of the optical systems can not be exerted adequately. So, one method for improving resolution of infrared spatial camera based on multi-frame difference-images is introduced in the dissertation. The method uses more than one detectors to acquire several difference images, and then reconstructs a new high-resolution image from these images through the relationship of pixel grey value. The technique of difference-images that uses more than two detectors is researched, and it can improve the resolution 2.5 times in theory. The relationship of pixel grey value between low-resolution difference-images and high-resolution image is found by analyzing the energy of CCD sampling, a general relationship between the enhanced times of the resolution of the detected figure with differential method and the least count of CCD that will be used to detect figure is given. Based on the research of theory, the implementation process of utilizing difference-images technique to improve the resolution of the figure was simulated used Matlab software by taking a personality image as the object, and the software can output the result as an image. The result gotten from the works we have finished proves that the technique is available in high-resolution image reconstruction. The resolution of infrared spatial camera can be improved evidently when holding the size of optical structure or using big size detector by applying for difference image technique. So the technique has a high value in optical remote fields.

  4. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  5. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  6. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  7. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may...

  8. High energy-resolution measurement of the 82Se(3He,t )82Br reaction for double-β decay and for solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frekers, D.; Alanssari, M.; Adachi, T.; Cleveland, B. T.; Dozono, M.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Holl, M.; Ishikawa, D.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Puppe, P.; Suda, K.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J.; Yoshida, H. P.

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution (3He,t ) charge-exchange experiment at an incident energy of 420 MeV has been performed on the double beta (β β ) decay nucleus 82Se. A detailed Gamow-Teller (GT-) strength distribution in 82Br has been extracted, which provides information to the β β -decay nuclear matrix elements. Three strong and isolated transitions, which are to the 75, 1484 and the 2087 keV states in 82Br, are found to dominate the low-excitation region below ≈2.1 MeV. Above 2.1 MeV a sudden onset of a strong GT fragmentation is observed. The degree of fragmentation resembles a situation found in the neighboring A =76 system 76Ge, whereas the observed concentration of strength in the three low-lying states is reminiscent of the heavier neighbors 96Zr and 100Mo. The strong GT transition to the 75 keV ( 1+) state makes 82Se interesting for solar neutrino detection. The 82Se(νe,e-)82Br solar neutrino capture rate in a nonoscillation scenario is therefore evaluated to 668 ±12 (stat)±60 (sys) SNU, and some of the advantages of using selenium for solar neutrino studies are discussed.

  9. Probing optical band gaps at the nanoscale in NiFe₂O₄ and CoFe₂O₄ epitaxial films by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.; Pachauri, N.; Gupta, A.

    2014-09-14

    Nanoscale optical band gap variations in epitaxial thin films of two different spinel ferrites, i.e., NiFe₂O₄ (NFO) and CoFe₂O₄ (CFO), have been investigated by spatially resolved high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Experimentally, both NFO and CFO show indirect/direct band gaps around 1.52 eV/2.74 and 2.3 eV, and 1.3 eV/2.31 eV, respectively, for the ideal inverse spinel configuration with considerable standard deviation in the band gap values for CFO due to various levels of deviation from the ideal inverse spinel structure. Direct probing of the regions in both the systems with tetrahedral A site cation vacancy, which is distinct from the ideal inverse spinel configuration, shows significantly smaller band gap values. The experimental results are supported by the density functional theory based modified Becke-Johnson exchange correlation potential calculated band gap values for the different cation configurations.

  10. High spectral and spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery for quantifying Russian wheat aphid infestation in wheat using the constrained energy minimization classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirik, Mustafa; Ansley, R. James; Steddom, Karl; Rush, Charles M.; Michels, Gerald J.; Workneh, Fekede; Cui, Song; Elliott, Norman C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of insect infestation in agricultural crops are of major ecological and economic interest because of reduced yield, increased cost of pest control and increased risk of environmental contamination from insecticide application. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia) is an insect pest that causes damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We proposed that concentrated RWA feeding areas, referred to as "hot spots," could be identified and isolated from uninfested areas within a field for site specific aphid management using remotely sensed data. Our objectives were to (1) investigate the reflectance characteristics of infested and uninfested wheat by RWA and (2) evaluate utility of airborne hyperspectral imagery with 1-m spatial resolution for detecting, quantifying, and mapping RWA infested areas in commercial winter wheat fields using the constrained energy minimization classifier. Percent surface reflectance from uninfested wheat was lower in the visible and higher in the near infrared portions of the spectrum when compared with RWA-infested wheat. The overall classification accuracies of >89% for damage detection were achieved. These results indicate that hyperspectral imagery can be effectively used for accurate detection and quantification of RWA infestation in wheat for site-specific aphid management.

  11. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  12. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  13. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  14. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-08-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme-under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness-as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  15. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  16. Bioelement effects on thyroid gland in children living in iodine-adequate territory.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Anatoly L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Koubassov, Roman V

    2007-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a primary pathology of thyroid gland and critical medico social problem in many countries. A dominant cause of endemic goitre is iodine deficiency. However, besides primary iodine deficiency, the goitre may probably develop due to effects of other bioelement imbalances, essential to thyroid function maintenance. Here we studied 44 cases of endemic goitre in prepubertal children (7-10 y.o.) living in iodine-adequate territory. Thyroid volume was estimated by ultrasonometry. Main bioelements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, Si, Zn) were determined in hair samples by ICP-OES/ICP-MS method. Relationships between hair content of bioelements and thyroid gland size were estimated by multiple regressions. The regression model revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Cr, Si, Mn contents. However, the actual factor of thyroid gland increase was only Si excess in organism. Significant negative relations of thyroid volume were revealed with I, Mg, Zn, Se, Co and Cd. In spite of this, the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increasing were I, Co, Mg and Se deficiency. Total bioelement contribution in thyroid impairment was estimated as 24%. Thus, it was suggested that endemic goitre in iodine-adequate territory can be formed by bioelement imbalances, namely Si excess and Co, Mg, Se shortage as well as endogenous I deficiency in spite of iodine-adequate environment.

  17. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  18. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  19. An adequate Fe nutritional status of maize suppresses infection and biotrophic growth of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanghua; Albarouki, Emad; Lingam, Brahmasivasenkar; Deising, Holger B; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant pathogens as well as for their host plants. As Fe plays a central role in pathogen virulence, most plants have evolved Fe-withholding strategies to reduce Fe availability to pathogens. On the other hand, plants need Fe for an oxidative burst in their basal defense response against pathogens. To investigate how the plant Fe nutritional status affects plant tolerance to a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, we employed the maize-Colletotrichum graminicola pathosystem. Fungal infection progressed rapidly via biotrophic to necrotrophic growth in Fe-deficient leaves, while an adequate Fe nutritional status suppressed the formation of infection structures of C. graminicola already during the early biotrophic growth phase. As indicated by Prussian blue and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining, the retarding effect of an adequate Fe nutritional status on fungal development coincided temporally and spatially with the recruitment of Fe to infection sites and a local production of H2 O2 . A similar coincidence between local Fe and H2 O2 accumulation was found in a parallel approach employing C. graminicola mutants affected in Fe acquisition and differing in virulence. These results indicate that an adequate Fe nutritional status delays and partially suppresses the fungal infection process and the biotrophic growth phase of C. graminicola, most likely via the recruitment of free Fe to the fungal infection site for a timely oxidative burst.

  20. The telescope array middle drum monocular energy spectrum and a search for coincident showers using high resolution fly's eye hires-1 monocular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Douglas Chase

    The transition from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment to the Telescope Array (TA) experiment has been completed. The TA Middle Drum fluorescence detector was built using refurbished telescopes from the HiRes-1 site so that a direct comparison could be made between the energy scales of the two experiments. I have made a comparison between the published HiRes spectrum [3] and a preliminary energy spectrum using data collected with the Middle Drum telescopes. Both sets of data represent measurements made via the monocular observation technique and were analyzed using the HiRes-1 profile-constrained geometry reconstruction technique. The HiRes-1 data represents almost nine years of exposure and was collected between May 29, 1997 and May 26, 2006. The Middle Drum data were collected over a three-year period between December 16, 2007 and December 16, 2010. The Middle Drum exposure is about one third of the HiRes-1 total exposure. I have demonstrated that the Middle Drum detector has the same energy scale as HiRes-1. The published HiRes-1 and Middle Drum spectra presented in this dissertation were measured using average calibrations. A study was preformed on the HiRes-1 data to determine the systematic effects of using the nightly atmospheric and electronic-calibration databases instead of average values. The difference between using the average values and using the detailed nightly databases was less than 1%, indicating the spectral results are robust to these differences. Finally, a search was made for the interaction between cosmic rays and ions in the heliosphere. This interaction could result in a unique signature of parallel, simultaneous photon showers. The HiRes-1 data were chosen for this search due to its large exposure and resulting data set. Unfortunately, detector limitations restricted the potential observations. No double-shower events were detected; however, if observed, this would be suggestive of new physics. Monte Carlo simulated events

  1. Comment on "Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011)].

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Joachim

    2012-10-01

    In a recent contribution to this journal, Magazù, Migliardo, and Benedetto suggest to determine relaxation times from inflection points in the elastic neutron scattering intensity as function of (1) resolution time or (2) temperature. Method (1) can be generalized into a scaling law. Method (2) is only approximately valid; its application to protein data does not back a wavenumber-independent dynamic transition.

  2. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  3. Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Zumbülte, A.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2015-01-15

    We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.

  4. Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission.

    PubMed

    Zumbülte, A; Schmidt, A B; Donath, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.

  5. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  6. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  7. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  8. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  9. An instrument for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay curves at picosecond resolution designed for ``double kinetics'' experiments: Application to fluorescence resonance excitation energy transfer study of protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishay, Eldad Ben; Hazan, Gershon; Rahamim, Gil; Amir, Dan; Haas, Elisha

    2012-08-01

    The information obtained by studying fluorescence decay of labeled biopolymers is a major resource for understanding the dynamics of their conformations and interactions. The lifetime of the excited states of probes attached to macromolecules is in the nanosecond time regime, and hence, a series of snapshot decay curves of such probes might - in principle - yield details of fast changes of ensembles of labeled molecules down to sub-microsecond time resolution. Hence, a major current challenge is the development of instruments for the low noise detection of fluorescence decay curves within the shortest possible time intervals. Here, we report the development of an instrument, picosecond double kinetics apparatus, that enables recording of multiple fluorescence decay curves with picosecond excitation pulses over wide spectral range during microsecond data collection for each curve. The design is based on recording and averaging multiphoton pulses of fluorescence decay using a fast 13 GHz oscilloscope during microsecond time intervals at selected time points over the course of a chemical reaction or conformational transition. We tested this instrument in a double kinetics experiment using reference probes (N-acetyl-tryptophanamide). Very low stochastic noise level was attained, and reliable multi-parameter analysis such as derivation of distance distributions from time resolved FRET (fluorescence resonance excitation energy transfer) measurements was achieved. The advantage of the pulse recording and averaging approach used here relative to double kinetics methods based on the established time correlated single photon counting method, is that in the pulse recording approach, averaging of substantially fewer kinetic experiments is sufficient for obtaining the data. This results in a major reduction in the consumption of labeled samples, which in many cases, enables the performance of important experiments that were not previously feasible.

  10. High-energy resolution X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy reveals insight into unique selectivity of La-based nanoparticles for CO2

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Ofer; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Luo, Li; Süess, Martin J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Koziej, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The lanthanum-based materials, due to their layered structure and f-electron configuration, are relevant for electrochemical application. Particularly, La2O2CO3 shows a prominent chemoresistive response to CO2. However, surprisingly less is known about its atomic and electronic structure and electrochemically significant sites and therefore, its structure–functions relationships have yet to be established. Here we determine the position of the different constituents within the unit cell of monoclinic La2O2CO3 and use this information to interpret in situ high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (vtc XES). Compared with La(OH)3 or previously known hexagonal La2O2CO3 structures, La in the monoclinic unit cell has a much lower number of neighboring oxygen atoms, which is manifested in the whiteline broadening in XANES spectra. Such a superior sensitivity to subtle changes is given by HERFD method, which is essential for in situ studying of the interaction with CO2. Here, we study La2O2CO3-based sensors in real operando conditions at 250 °C in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. We identify that the distribution of unoccupied La d-states and occupied O p- and La d-states changes during CO2 chemoresistive sensing of La2O2CO3. The correlation between these spectroscopic findings with electrical resistance measurements leads to a more comprehensive understanding of the selective adsorption at La site and may enable the design of new materials for CO2 electrochemical applications. PMID:26668362

  11. Structural characterization of multiple pyoverdines secreted by two Pseudomonas strains using liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry with varying dissociation energies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2015-06-01

    High-affinity iron (Fe)-scavenging molecules, or siderophores, are secreted by microorganisms to acquire and compete for Fe. Pyoverdine (PVD), the primary siderophore produced by Pseudomonas, consists of a dihydroxyquinoline-type chromophore, a peptide chain of variable length and conformation, and a side chain composed of a dicarboxylic acid or its monoamide derivative. Elucidation of the PVD structures secreted by different Pseudomonas strains is an important step toward understanding their Fe-transport strategies. In this study, we characterized multiple PVDs secreted by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and Pseudomonas fluorescens RA12 using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole-orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. To avoid purification steps prior to characterizing the bacterial supernatants, PVD candidates were identified by extracting fragments of the dihydroxyquinoline component from the chromatographic peaks. Varying collisional dissociation energies were subsequently applied to achieve, with high mass accuracy, a broad coverage of fragments of the entire PVD. Our approach allowed us to discriminate between three different PVD structures in the secretion of each strain. The three PVDs of P. putida possess the same peptide chain of seven amino acids, Asp-Orn-OHAsp-Dab-Gly-Ser-cOHOrn, with a cyclicized portion present in two of the PVDs. For P. fluorescens, two of the PVDs had the same peptide chain of 13 amino acids, Ala-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-OHAsp-Gly-Ser-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-cOHOrn, whereas a third PVD had a Ser substituting for the first Ala. The side chain of the PVDs was either succinic acid or succinamide. The present approach can be employed for simultaneous structural characterization of several peptidic siderophores and related molecules in bacterial secretions. Graphical abstract Characterizing mutiple pyoverdine (PVD) structures in bacterial secretions without prepurification step. PMID:25895945

  12. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  13. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  14. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  15. Thrombography reveals thrombin generation potential continues to deteriorate following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery despite adequate hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond K; Sleep, Joseph R; Visner, Allison J; Raasch, David J; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Torloni, Antonio S; Arabia, Francisco A

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways of the hemostatic system converge when prothrombin is converted to thrombin. The ability to generate an adequate thrombin burst is the most central aspect of the coagulation cascade. The thrombin-generating potential in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be indicative of their hemostatic status. In this report, thrombography, a unique technique for directly measuring the potential of patients' blood samples to generate adequate thrombin bursts, is used to characterize the coagulopathic profile in post-CPB patients. Post-CPB hemostasis is typically achieved with protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation and occasionally supplemented with blood product component transfusions. In this pilot study, platelet poor plasma samples were derived from 11 primary cardiac surgery patients at five time points: prior to CPB, immediately post-protamine, upon arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU), 3 hours post-ICU admission, and 24 hours after ICU arrival. Thrombography revealed that the Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) was not different between [Baseline] and [PostProtamine] but proceeded to deteriorate in the immediate postoperative period. At the [3HourPostICU] time point, the ETP was significantly lower than the [Baseline] values, 1233 +/- 591 versus 595 +/- 379 nM.min (mean +/- SD; n=9, p < .005), despite continued adequacy of hemostasis. ETPs returned to baseline values the day after surgery. Transfusions received, conventional blood coagulation testing results, and blood loss volumes are also presented. Despite adequate hemostasis, thrombography reveals an underlying coagulopathic process that could put some cardiac surgical patients at risk for postoperative bleeding. Thrombography is a novel technique that could be developed into a useful tool for perfusionists and physicians to identify coagulopathies and optimize blood management following CPB. PMID:21449230

  16. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  17. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  18. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  19. Developing an adequate "pneumatraumatology": understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Duane R

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions and systematic theology are primary resources for chaplains and congregational pastors who care for victims of physical trauma. Yet these resources may not be adequate to address the spiritual impacts of trauma. This article proposes a preliminary "pneumatraumatology," drawing on early Christian asceticism and Buddhist mysticism to describe one way of understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury. It also suggests possible responses to these impacts informed by narrative/constructionist perspectives and Breggemann's understanding of the dimensions of spiritual transformation in the Hebrew Bible.

  20. Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes.

    PubMed

    Glazowski, Christopher; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-08-01

    Coherent speckle influences the resulting image when narrow spectral line-width and single spatial mode illumination are used, though these are the same light-source properties that provide the best radiance-to-cost ratio. However, a suitable size of the detection pinhole can be chosen to maintain adequate optical sectioning while making the probability density of the speckle noise more normal and reducing its effect. The result is a qualitatively better image with improved contrast, which is easier to read. With theoretical statistics and experimental results, we show that the detection pinhole size is a fundamental parameter for designing imaging systems for use in turbid media.

  1. 10 CFR 950.31 - Covered event dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered event dispute resolution. 950.31 Section 950.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Dispute Resolution Process § 950.31 Covered event dispute resolution. (a) If a sponsor disagrees with the Covered...

  2. 10 CFR 950.33 - Covered costs dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered costs dispute resolution. 950.33 Section 950.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Dispute Resolution Process § 950.33 Covered costs dispute resolution. (a) If a sponsor disagrees with the Claim...

  3. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  4. A High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P B

    2001-01-23

    A major factor limiting the quality and usefulness of global climate models is the coarse spatial resolution of these models. Global climate models today are typically run at resolutions of {approx}300 km (or even coarser) meaning that the smallest features represented are 300 km across. As Figure 1 shows, this resolution does not allow adequate representation of small or even large topographic features (e.g. the Sierra Nevada mountains). As a result of this and other problems, coarse-resolution global models do not come close to accurately simulating climate on regional spatial scales (e.g. within California). Results on continental and larger sales are much more realistic. An important consequence of this inability to simulate regional climate is that global climate model results cannot be used as the basis of assessments of potential societal impacts of climate change (e.g. effects on agriculture in the Central Valley, on management of water resources, etc.).

  5. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Sottile, F.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO{sub 2}) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO{sub 2}, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO{sub 2} may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  6. 75 FR 7469 - Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice Extending Filing Date...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice... Resolution February 4, 2010. On October 20, 2009, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission... in the Commission's hydropower integrated licensing process (ILP) study dispute resolution...

  7. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  8. Local structure and lattice dynamics study of low dimensional materials using atomic pair distribution function and high energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenyang

    Structure and dynamics lie at the heart of the materials science. A detailed knowledge of both subjects would be foundational in understanding the materials' properties and predicting their potential applications. However, the task becomes increasingly dicult as the particle size is reduced to the nanometer scale. For nanostructured materials their laboratory x-ray scattering patterns are overlapped and broadened, making structure determination impossible. Atomic pair distribution function technique based on either synchrotron x-ray or neutron scattering data is known as the tool of choice for probing local structures. However, to solve the "structure problem" in low-dimensional materials with PDF is still challenging. For example for 2D materials of interest in this thesis the crystallographic modeling approach often yields unphysical thermal factors along stacking direction where new chemical intuitions about their actual structures and new modeling methodology/program are needed. Beyond this, lattice dynamical investigations on nanosized particles are extremely dicult. Laboratory tools such as Raman and infra-red only probe phonons at Brillouin zone center. Although in literature there are a great number of theoretical studies of their vibrational properties based on either empirical force elds or density functional theory, various approximations made in theories make the theoretical predictions less reliable. Also, there lacks the direct experiment result to validate the theory against. In this thesis, we studied the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of technologically relevant low-dimensional materials through synchrotron based x-ray PDF and high energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX) techniques. By collecting PDF data and employing advanced modeling program such as DiPy-CMI, we successfully determined the atomic structures of (i) emerging Ti3C2, Nb4C3 MXenes (transition metal carbides and/or nitrides) that are promising for energy storage

  9. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  10. Intersection of race/ethnicity and gender in depression care: screening, access, and minimally adequate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Cook, Benjamin; Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Alegria, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to understand the interaction of race/ethnicity and gender in depression screening, any mental health care, and adequate care. Methods 2010–2012 electronic health records data of adult primary care patients from a New England urban health care system was used (n = 65,079). Multivariate logit regression models were used to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, gender, and other covariates with depression screening, any depression care among those screened positive, and adequate depression care among users. Secondly, disparities were evaluated by race/ethnicity and gender and incorporated differences due to insurance, marital status, and area-level SES measures. Findings Black and Asian males and females were less likely to be screened for depression compared to their white counterparts, while Latino males and females were more likely to be screened. Among those that screened PHQ-9>10, black males and females, Latino males, and Asian males and females were less likely to receive any mental health care than their white counterparts. The black-white disparity in screening was greater for females compared to males. The Latino-white disparity for any mental health care and adequacy of care was greater for males compared to females. Conclusions Our approach underscores the importance of identifying disparities at each step of depression care by both race/ethnicity and gender. Targeting certain groups in specific stages of care would be more effective (i.e., screening of black females, any mental health care and adequacy of care for Latino males) than a blanket approach to disparities reduction. PMID:25727113

  11. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  12. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  13. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  14. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  15. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  16. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  19. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  20. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  1. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  2. A resolution commending the achievements and recognizing the importance of the Alliance to Save Energy on the 35th anniversary of the incorporation of the Alliance.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Warner, Mark R. [D-VA

    2012-03-26

    04/18/2012 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S2517) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Application of an Integrated Assessment Model with state-level resolution for examining strategies for addressing air, climate and energy goals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Global Climate Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used for exploring future scenarios and examining strategies that address air pollution, climate change, and energy goals. GCAM includes technology-rich representations of the energy, transportati...

  4. Mesoscale and Large-Eddy Simulations for Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Marjanovic, N

    2011-02-22

    Operational wind power forecasting, turbine micrositing, and turbine design require high-resolution simulations of atmospheric flow over complex terrain. The use of both Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy (LES) simulations is explored for wind energy applications using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To adequately resolve terrain and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, grid nesting is used to refine the grid from mesoscale to finer scales. This paper examines the performance of the grid nesting configuration, turbulence closures, and resolution (up to as fine as 100 m horizontal spacing) for simulations of synoptically and locally driven wind ramping events at a West Coast North American wind farm. Interestingly, little improvement is found when using higher resolution simulations or better resolved turbulence closures in comparison to observation data available for this particular site. This is true for week-long simulations as well, where finer resolution runs show only small changes in the distribution of wind speeds or turbulence intensities. It appears that the relatively simple topography of this site is adequately resolved by all model grids (even as coarse as 2.7 km) so that all resolutions are able to model the physics at similar accuracy. The accuracy of the results is shown in this paper to be more dependent on the parameterization of the land-surface characteristics such as soil moisture rather than on grid resolution.

  5. Diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Mancha-Doblas, Isabel; Ortega-Jiménez, María Victoria; Ruiz-Escalante, José Francisco; Castells-Fusté, Ignasi; Tofé-Povedano, Santiago; Argüelles-Jiménez, Iñaki; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Appearance of a thyroid nodule has become a daily occurrence in clinical practice. Adequate thyroid nodule assessment requires several diagnostic tests and multiple medical appointments, which results in a substantial delay in diagnosis. Implementation of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic largely avoids these drawbacks by condensing in a single appointment all tests required for adequate evaluation of thyroid nodule. This paper reviews the diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic.

  6. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy Monotherapy is not Adequate for Management of Staghorn Renal Calculi.

    PubMed

    Koko, Abdelmoniem K; Onuora, Vincent C; Al Turki, Mohammed A; Mesbed, Ahmed H; Al Jawini, Nasser A

    2003-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1999 a total of 186 patients with staghorn renal stones were treated in our unit. Of them, 76 patients were managed by extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) alone using a third generation Siemen's Lithostar Plus lithotriptor. Sixty-one of these patients who completed a follow-up of 41 months formed the subjects of this study. ESWL was done after routine stenting of the affected side in all cases except one. The mean number of ESWL sessions was 5.2, delivering an average 15,940 shocks per patient. The average hospital stay was 21.68 days and the duration of the treatment was 1-41 months (mean 6.75 months). Significant complications occurred in 35 patients (57.4%) eight of whom sustained multiple significant complications. A total of 162 auxiliary procedures were used in conjunction with ESWL and in the management of complications. The stone free rate at three months was 18%, but rose by the end of the treatment period (41 months) to 63.9%. Our study indicates that ESWL monotherapy is associated with high morbidity rates, high rates of unplanned invasive procedures as well as prolonged treatment periods and hospitalization. Thus, ESWL monotherapy is not adequate for the management of staghorn calculi.

  7. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  8. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  9. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  10. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  11. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

  12. Household-level technologies to improve the availability and preparation of adequate and safe complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Patience; Tomkins, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Plant-based complementary foods are the main source of nutrients for many young children in developing countries. They may, however, present problems in providing nutritionally adequate and safe diets for older infants and young children. The high starch content leads to low-nutrient diets that are bulky and dense, with high levels of antinutritive factors such as phytates, tannins, lectins, and enzyme inhibitors. Phytates impair mineral bioavailability, lectins interfere with intestinal structure, and enzyme inhibitors inhibit digestive enzymes. In addition, there is often microbial contamination, which leads to diarrhea, growth-faltering, and impaired development, and the presence of chemical contaminants may lead to neurological disease and goiter. The fact that some fruits containing carotenoids are only available seasonally contributes to the vulnerability of children receiving predominantly plant-based diets. Traditional household food technologies have been used for centuries to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods. These include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. While modern communities tend to reject these technologies in favor of more convenient fast-food preparations, there is now a resurgence of interest in older technologies as a possible means of improving the quality and safety of complementary foods when the basic diet cannot be changed for economic reasons. This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of these traditional processes at the household or community level, as well as the gaps in research, so that more effective policies and programs can be implemented to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods.

  13. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  14. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management.

  15. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management. PMID:27332076

  16. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  17. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  18. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  19. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  20. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.