Science.gov

Sample records for adequate energy supply

  1. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  2. US energy consumption and supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy consumption and cost in 1978 and 1979 are discussed with emphasis on the effect of imported oil on the economy of the United States. Some of the international aspects of energy supply are described, and actions to meet the probability of a cutoff of oil imports from the Persian Gulf area are suggested. Short and long range strategies for ensuring energy self sufficiency are discussed. A rationale for major, long range dependence on fission and fusion power is given, and the possible advantages of a nearly all electric energy system are mentioned. Projection of energy consumption and supply to the year 2020 based upon economic and demographic models is discussed.

  3. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  4. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  5. 76 FR 67721 - PNE Energy Supply, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PNE Energy Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of PNE Energy Supply, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-08

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  7. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  8. Energy supply and demand in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  9. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  10. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  11. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  12. Gas energy supply outlook through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kalisch, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    Late in 1984 the American Gas Association published a study by the Gas Supply Committee titled, ''The Outlook for Gas Energy Through 2010.'' This study was a joint effort by many people of the gas industry including GRI, IGT and AGA. The study observed that come 1646 Tcf of natural gas is judged to be ultimately recoverable in the US. Of this total, 665 Tcf were produced up to year-end 1984. At that time an additional 197 Tcf were categorized as proved reserves, i.e., known to exist with reasonable certainty and producible under current economic and operating conditions. An additional 784 Tcf were classified as potential supply. In short, about 60 % of the nation's ultimately recoverable resource still is available; only 40 % has been produced to data. This is a formidable gas resource for the lower-48; in 1984 the production level was about 17 Tcf; proved reserves were approximately 163 Tcf - more than nine times the 1984 production. 2 references, 2 tables.

  13. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  14. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  15. Energy supply interruptions and national security.

    PubMed

    Alm, A L

    1981-03-27

    Vulnerability to oil supply interruptions poses serious threats to the U.S. economy and the life-style of its citizens. The Iranian cutbacks in 1979 resulted in price increases of 120 percent in 1 year and gasoline lines across the country. Creation and use of ample public and private stocks could moderate price increases after another interruption and prevent disruption of supplies. Use of the marketplace to allocate shortages, coupled with rebates to cushion blows to the economy and hardship to individuals, would be eminently more efficient than government allocation programs. International cooperation, through coordination of stock buildup and withdrawal, could mitigate the damage from oil disruptions among all the Western nations. PMID:17731165

  16. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  17. Wind Energy: A Maturing Power Supply Possibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Erik Lundtang; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that wind energy for electrification will prove to be an appropriate technology with very positive socioeconomic benefits, especially in developing countries. Provides examples of projects conducted by a Danish wind research laboratory. (TW)

  18. Energy Supply and Development: A Major Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews (1) problems created by United States dependence on foreign oil, (2) recent progress in oil and natural gas development in the U.S., and (3) alternative sources of energy such as the sun, coal, and uranium. (AV)

  19. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  20. Optimizing energy for a ‘green’ vaccine supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the ‘net zero energy’ (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7–10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. PMID:25444811

  1. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  2. (Energy and electricity supply and demand)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1990-10-09

    At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), representing eleven international agencies which are sponsoring the 1991 Helsinki Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, I traveled to Brussels to participate in the second meeting of one of four advisory groups established to prepare for the Symposium. At the meeting, I was involved in a review of a draft issue paper being prepared for the Symposium and of the Symposium program.

  3. IDES: an integrated demand and energy supply equilibrium model. [IDES

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The IDES (Integrated Demand and Energy Supply) Model is a price-quantity equilibrium model similar to the Long-Term Energy Analysis Package (LEAP) for projecting energy quantities and prices over a 30-year time horizon. The model integrates resource production activities, petroleum refining, electricity generation, fuel processing, and demand modules. The design objectives, mathematical formulation, iterative solution algorithm, and computer implementation are described in this paper.

  4. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wratten, Stephen D.; Porter, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  5. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691

  6. Supply of and demand for selected energy related mineral commodities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, subjects discussed include components of mineral supply, production, and consumption data, and information on selected mineral commodities in which the Energy Critical Elements Study Group has an interest, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recycling studies, with some results of these studies.

  7. Spatial analysis of world energy markets: estimation of the demand for energy and variable supply simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sahlawi, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study develops a theoretical and empirical model to estimate the demand for oil, natural gas, and coal in the developing countries and to then simulate the response of spatially separated world energy markets to supply shocks. It is found that the demands for oil, natural gas, and coal in the developing countries are highly priced inelastic in the short-run. This is in keeping with elasticity estimates for the developed countries. The model simulates two kinds of supply shocks, first; partial blocking of the Strait of Hormuz, and second; return of Iraq and Iran oil supplies to their pre-war levels. Additionally, the impact of economic growth on energy demand is simulated when supplies are variable. The simulation results reveals that the problem of having oil supply disruption or oil supply surplus seems to create problems that can be solved by varying the supplies of energy substitutes. However, the impact of economic growth appears to be minimal.

  8. Demand-driven energy supply from stored biowaste for biomethanisation.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Peter; Kuprian, Martin; Probst, Maraike; Insam, Heribert; Ebner, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Energy supply is a global hot topic. The social and political pressure forces a higher percentage of energy supplied by renewable resources. The production of renewable energy in form of biomethane can be increased by co-substrates such as municipal biowaste. However, a demand-driven energy production or its storage needs optimisation, the option to store the substrate with its inherent energy is investigated in this study. The calorific content of biowaste was found unchanged after 45 d of storage (19.9±0.19 kJ g(-1) total solids), and the methane yield obtained from stored biowaste was comparable to fresh biowaste or even higher (approx. 400 m(3) Mg(-1) volatile solids). Our results show that the storage supports the hydrolysis of the co-substrate via acidification and production of volatile fatty acids. The data indicate that storage of biowaste is an efficient way to produce bioenergy on demand. This could in strengthen the role of biomethane plants for electricity supply the future. PMID:26189781

  9. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  10. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    SciTech Connect

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A. Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.; Răboacă, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  11. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, W. ); O'Sullivan, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  12. GEODE An electrical energy supply with high availability

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, J.L.; Gerard, M.J.; Girard, J.

    1983-10-01

    Project GEODE describes an electrical energy supply characterized by its very high availability. It is to be used in the PTT (French Telephone Company) telephone exchanges and is targeted for an unavailability of better than 10/sup -6/. In order to achieve this performance Merlin Gerin has adopted: a double bus bar architecture, remote controlled electrical equipment, a motor-generator set specifically designed for this project, and computer assisted surveillance. The authors present the overall reliability calculations for this project along with that for energy sources. The E.d.F (French Utility Company) network and the Motor-Generators.

  13. Energy supply and environmental issues: The Los Alamos National Laboratory experience in regional and international programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, operated by the University of California, encompasses more than forty-three square miles of mesas and canyons in northern New Mexico. A Department of Energy national laboratory, Los Alamos is one of the largest multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratories in the world. Our mission, to apply science and engineering capabilities to problems of national security, has expanded to include a broad array of programs. We conduct extensive research in energy, nuclear safeguards and security, biomedical science, computational science, environmental protection and cleanup, materials science, and other basic sciences. The Energy Technology Programs Office is responsible for overseeing and developing programs in three strategic areas: energy systems and the environment, transportation and infrastructure, and integrated chemicals and materials processing. Our programs focus on developing reliable, economic and environmentally sound technologies that can help ensure an adequate supply of energy for the nation. To meet these needs, we are involved in programs that range from new and enhanced oil recovery technologies and tapping renewable energy sources, through efforts in industrial processes, electric power systems, clean coal technologies, civilian radioactive waste, high temperature superconductivity, to studying the environmental effects of energy use.

  14. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process. PMID:19475934

  15. Supply of reactants for Redox bulk energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    World resources, reserves, production, and costs of reactant materials, iron, chromium, titanium and bromine for proposed redox cell bulk energy storage systems are reviewed. Supplying required materials for multimegawatt hour systems appears to be feasible even at current production levels. Iron and chromium ores are the most abundant and lowest cost of four reactants. Chromium is not a domestic reserve, but redox system installations would represent a small fraction of U.S. imports. Vast quantities of bromine are available, but present production is low and therefore cost is high. Titanium is currently available at reasonable cost, with ample reserves available for the next fifty years.

  16. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically. PMID:22788100

  17. Thermal energy supply optimization for Edgewood Area, US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground: Energy supply alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, T.L.; Dilks, C.L.; Savoie, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    Relatively poor performance at the aging central heating plants (OH Ps) and planned changes in steam demand at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) Edgewood Area, Aberdeen, MD warranted an investigation of alternatives for providing thermal energy to the installation. This study: (1) evaluated the condition of the APG CHPs and heat distribution system, (2) identified thermal energy supply problems and cost-effective technologies to maintain APG`s capability to produce and distribute the needed thermal energy, and (3) recommended renovation and modernization projects for the system. Heating loads were analyzed using computer simulations, and life cycle costs were developed for each alternative. Recommended alternatives included upgrading the existing system, installing new boilers, consolidating the central heating plants, and introducing the use of absorption chilling.

  18. Electronics in cars: consequences for the energy-supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beil, Falk

    The amount of electronics in cars is constantly increasing. Thus, the question arises, whether the current wiring designs will continue to be able to meet the required output related to this increase in the future. Which consequences result, then, for the design of the wiring system and its components? An examination of the electrical consumers currently installed in motor vehicles, and of those planned for future use, shows that the wiring system load during driving will increase to as much as 2000 W. Many new devices, such as the telephone, will also enjoy increasing use while the vehicle is at a standstill, which will result in the type of wiring system load changing in the future. In addition to this, loading will increase due to greater traffic density; the vehicle will be operated more often at idling speed, leading to a reduction in the available current. Thus, a balanced current supply can no longer be ensured with present designs. That means new energy supply concepts are required, e.g. the 24 V wiring system and energy management. In addition, the wiring system components must be optimized. This particularly applies to the battery, which must be further developed in order to obtain increased cell strength, a longer service life and improved temperature stability.

  19. 10 CFR 205.375 - Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. 205.375 Section 205.375 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric... Electric Power § 205.375 Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. An inadequate utility...

  20. 10 CFR 205.375 - Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. 205.375 Section 205.375 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric... Electric Power § 205.375 Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. An inadequate utility...

  1. 10 CFR 205.375 - Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. 205.375 Section 205.375 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric... Electric Power § 205.375 Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. An inadequate utility...

  2. 10 CFR 205.375 - Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. 205.375 Section 205.375 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric... Electric Power § 205.375 Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. An inadequate utility...

  3. 10 CFR 205.375 - Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. 205.375 Section 205.375 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric... Electric Power § 205.375 Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. An inadequate utility...

  4. Multifunctional role of astrocytes as gatekeepers of neuronal energy supply

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Jillian L.; Anderson, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic adjustments to neuronal energy supply in response to synaptic activity are critical for neuronal function. Glial cells known as astrocytes have processes that ensheath most central synapses and express G-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors and transporters that respond to neuronal activity. Astrocytes also release substrates for neuronal oxidative phosphorylation and have processes that terminate on the surface of brain arterioles and can influence vascular smooth muscle tone and local blood flow. Membrane receptor or transporter-mediated effects of glutamate represent a convergence point of astrocyte influence on neuronal bioenergetics. Astrocytic glutamate uptake drives glycolysis and subsequent shuttling of lactate from astrocytes to neurons for oxidative metabolism. Astrocytes also convert synaptically reclaimed glutamate to glutamine, which is returned to neurons for glutamate salvage or oxidation. Finally, astrocytes store brain energy currency in the form of glycogen, which can be mobilized to produce lactate for neuronal oxidative phosphorylation in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission. These mechanisms couple synaptically driven astrocytic responses to glutamate with release of energy substrates back to neurons to match demand with supply. In addition, astrocytes directly influence the tone of penetrating brain arterioles in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission, coordinating dynamic regulation of local blood flow. We will describe the role of astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in detail and discuss, in turn, how astrocyte dysfunction may contribute to neuronal bioenergetic deficit and neurodegeneration. Understanding the role of astrocytes as a hub for neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling mechanisms is a critical underpinning for therapeutic development in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by chronic generalized brain ischemia and brain microvascular dysfunction. PMID:23596393

  5. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  6. Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

  7. ESTIMATION OF COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION CONSIDERING ENERGY SERVICE DEMAND AND SUPPLY STRUCTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Yuko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    To clarify energy consumption structure in commerci al sector is one of challenging issues. In commercial sector, energy consumption structure is very complex, because the structure depends on regional development level, industry composition, climate characteristics and energy accessibility. Therefore, we can partly know the structure in detail using survey and statistics. In this study, we used a method to estimate energy consumption and energy service supply using available statistics and references and applied it to commercial sector in world the regions, and estimated energy consumption by energy service and fuel type in 2005.

  8. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (<140kWe) to be economically attractive (suppliers made their money with maintenance contracts). In the Netherlands, most facilities were sized well above the economic size threshold of 100kWe (lower due to reduced operating and grid connection costs). Institutional players were key in improved sizing of DG. Aided by energy market and CO2 reduction regulatory policy, Dutch distributions utilities played a proactive role in DG. This involved joint ventures with engine cogen suppliers and users, offering improved electricity buy-back tariffs and lower connection costs. This has allowed flexible operation of distributed generation, especially in electricity sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made

  9. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  10. Energy development scenarios and water demands and supplies: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of average mean annual flows, ample water exists in the upper Missouri River basin for energy development. The lack of storage and diversion works upstream as well as State compacts preclude the ready use of this surplus water. These surplus flows are impounded in mainstream reservoirs on the Missouri downstream from coal mining areas but could be transported back at some expense for use in Wyoming and North Dakota. There are limited water supplies available for the development of coal and oil shale industries in the upper Colorado River Basin. Fortunately oil shale mining, retorting and reclamation do not require as much water as coal conversion; in-situ oil shale retorting would seem to be particularly desirable in the light of reduced water consumption. Existing patterns of energy production, transport, and conversion suggest that more of the coal to be mined out West is apt to be transmitted to existing load centers rather than converted to electricity or gas in the water-short West. Scenarios of development of the West 's fossil fuels may be overestimating the need for water since they have assumed that major conversion industries would develop in the West. Transport of coal to existing users will require all means of coal movement including unit trains, barges, and coal slurry pipelines. The latter is considered more desirable than the development of conversion industries in the West when overall water consumption is considered. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Interactions between energy supply and transportation-related energy use, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, T. J.; Ison, J. W.; Geinzer, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of ENTRANS and some of its policy analysis applications are described. ENTRANS is a computer simulator model of the interactions between energy supply and transportation related energy use. It includes a complete representation of the characteristics of transportation supply (public transit, carpooling, highways, and autos) and of households' travel related decisions (car type, travel mode, trip length, and frequency choices). The model is capable of analyzing a wide range of policies designed to change automobile fuel use. The results of several detailed policy analyses are described.

  12. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  13. A bottom-up assessment method of limitations to and vulnerability of energy supply in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissner, Tabea; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Sufficient energy access is essential for development and adequate livelihood conditions, as the majority of societal activities depend on reliable and sufficient energy. Especially in developing and threshold countries, energy access remains limited and intermittent. Moreover, compared to developed countries, often the expenditures for energy constitute a huge part of the available money. The vulnerability of energy systems to the impacts of climate change differs depending on the utilized source of energy. A special characteristic of developing and threshold countries is the fact that the spatial heterogeneity of the energy supply structure, especially between urban and rural regions, is generally larger than in developed countries, while the adaptive capacity of people is often much lower. A sound consideration of these complex conditions is a necessary basis for determining in how far climate change impacts can further diminish energy access in regions, where energy access is already limited. The topic of energy vulnerability has often been addressed for developed countries, but assessments for less developed countries remain scarce. On the one hand, data needed for energy vulnerability assessments, as they exist for the developed world, is usually not available. On the other hand, existing assessment methods for the developed world are often not transferable because they focus on specific supply infrastructure or energy carriers. Transferability is also hindered by the large differences in energy access and energy use patterns. We propose a novel approach to assess domestic energy supply vulnerability, by reversing the usual chain of assessment. On the basis of a basket of household energy needs for different purposes, we first assess which sources are used in order to fulfil specific energy needs. By focussing on the regionally specific energy carriers, we are able to significantly reduce data needs and assess directly, how energy vulnerability may play out

  14. A cost-effective target supply for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, D. T.; Alexander, N. B.; Brown, L. C.; Frey, D. T.; Gallix, R.; Gibson, C. R.; Maxwell, J. L.; Nobile, A.; Olson, C.; Petzoldt, R. W.; Raffray, R.; Rochau, G.; Schroen, D. G.; Tillack, M.; Rickman, W. S.; Vermillion, B.

    2004-12-01

    A central feature of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. This is true whether the driver is a laser system, heavy ion beams or Z-pinch system. The IFE target fabrication, injection and tracking programmes are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production. We are working closely with target designers, and power plant systems specialists, to make specifications and material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable target characteristics. One-of-a-kind capsules produced for today's inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about US2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have suggested a cost goal of about 0.25-0.30 for each injected target (corresponding to ~10% of the 'electricity value' in a target). While a four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the design, specifications, requirements and proposed manufacturing processes for the future for laser fusion, heavy ion fusion and Z-pinch driven targets. These target manufacturing processes have been developed—and are proposed—based on the unique materials science and technology programmes that are ongoing for each of the target concepts. We describe the paradigm shifts in target manufacturing methodologies that will be needed to achieve orders of magnitude reductions in target costs, and summarize the results of 'nth-of-a-kind' plant layouts and cost estimates for future IFE power plant fuelling. These engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for electricity production.

  15. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  16. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation

    PubMed Central

    DU, JIANPING

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation. PMID:26835010

  17. 77 FR 20019 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 and 206(h), FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. (FirstEnergy Solutions)...

  18. 77 FR 790 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM...) Rules of Practice and Procedures, 18 CFR 385.206, FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy...

  19. Solar Energy Economics Revisited: The Promise and Challenge of Orbiting Reflectors for World Energy Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, Kenneth W.; Gilbreath, William P.; Bowen, Stuart W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting, large-area, low mass density reflector satellites which provide nearly continuous solar energy to a world-distributed set of conversion sites is examined under the criteria for any potential new energy system: technical feasibility, significant and renewable energy impact, economic feasibility and social/political acceptability. Although many technical issues need further study, reasonable advances in space technology appear sufficient to implement the system. The enhanced insolation is shown to greatly improve the economic competitiveness of solar-electric generation to circa 1995 fossil/nuclear alternatives. The system is shown to have the potential for supplying a significant fraction of future domestic and world energy needs. Finally, the environmental and social issues, including a means for financing such a large shift to a world solar energy dependence, is addressed.

  20. Fundamental performance of novel power supply for HTS magnet using solar energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yoon Do; Kim, Dae Wook; Jo, Hyun Chul; Yoon, Yong Soo; Kim, Hyun Ki; Ko, Tae Kuk

    2011-06-01

    A technical fusion is an important option to establish renewal development in the mutual fields. We have proposed a novel superconducting power supply that is combined with superconducting power supply and solar energy system. An eternal electric energy can be converted by solar energy system, which contains solar panel, photovoltaic (PV) controller and energy-storing battery, can be utilized in the utility power of superconducting power applications. The novel power supply could operate without external utility power to charge the HTS load magnet due to the solar energy. We can improve the operating efficiency and install it in remote locations where utility power is not available. In this paper, as a first step of this work, we showed the possibility of technical fusion between a superconducting power supply and a solar energy system.

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  3. Health Workforce: Ensuring Adequate Supply and Distribution Remains Challenging. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Janet

    The General Accounting Office's (GAO's) director of health care-public health issues testified before Congress regarding growing concerns about the adequacy of the health care work force and lessons learned from the experience of the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) in addressing the maldistribution of health care professionals. The following…

  4. A high voltage power supply for the AE-C and D low energy electron experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the electrical and mechanical design and operation of high voltage power supplies for space flight use. The supply was used to generate the spiraltron high voltage for low energy electron experiment on AE-C and D. Two versions of the supply were designed and built; one design is referred to as the low power version (AE-C) and the other as the high power version (AE-D). Performance is discussed under all operating conditions.

  5. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    SciTech Connect

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  6. 78 FR 12750 - FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstEnergy Solutions Corp., Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC v. PJM... sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), FirstEnergy Solutions Corp....

  7. Evaluating energy and non-energy impacts of energy conservation programs: A supply curve framework of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Harris, J.

    1989-06-01

    Historically, the evaluation of energy conservation programs has focused primarily on energy savings and costs. The recent, increased interest in global environmental problems (e.g., acid rain, ozone depletion, and the greenhouse effect), has made decision makers, as well as program evaluators, sensitive to the environmental impacts of all programs, including energy conservation programs. Economic impacts of programs remain important policy concerns. Many state and local jurisdictions are concerned with the net effects of energy policies on economic growth, jobs, and tax revenues, as well as the impacts of growth and development on local energy issues (e.g., construction of new power plants). Consequently, policy makers need a methodology to compare easily the energy and non-energy impacts of a specific program in a consistent way, for both retrospective analysis and for prospective planning. We present the general concepts of a proposed new approach to multi-attribute analysis, as an extension of the concept of ''supply curves of conserved energy.'' In their simplest form, energy conservation supply curves rank and display the savings from conservation measures in order of their cost-effectiveness. This simple concept is extended to reflect multiple decision criteria and some important linkages between energy and non-energy policy decisions (e.g., a ''supply curve of reduced carbon emissions, ''or a ''supply curve of net local job-creation''). The framework is flexible enough, so that policy makers can weigh and compare each of the impacts to reflect their concerns, and see the results in terms of program rankings. The advantages of this analysis framework are that it is simple to use, flexible, and replicable. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  8. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  9. Potential contribution of the wastewater sector to energy supply.

    PubMed

    Heubeck, S; de Vos, R M; Craggs, R

    2011-01-01

    The biological treatment of wastewater could yield high energy fuels such as methane and alcohols, however most conventional treatment systems do not recover this energy potential. with a simple model of the energy yields of various wastewater treatment technologies it is possible to demonstrate how minor shifts in technology selection can lead the industry from being identified as predominantly energy intensive, to being recognised as a source of energy resources. The future potential energy yield is estimated by applying energy yield factors to alternative use scenarios of the same wastewater loads. The method for identifying the energy potential of wastewater was demonstrated for the New Zealand wastewater sector, but can equally be applied to other countries or regions. The model suggests that by using technologies that maximise the recovery of energy from wastewater, the potential energy yield from this sector would be substantially increased (six fold for New Zealand). PMID:21866779

  10. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  11. Impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act on energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, S. A.; Copenhaver, E. D.; Weeter, D. W.; Calzonetti, F. J.; Tevepaugh, C. W.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1980-10-01

    The signficant characteristics of the waste streams of representative technologies of different energy supply alternatives are reported, including coal combustion and conversion, solar, geothermal, oil sands, oil shales, and petroleum refining. The overall relationship of RCRA and energy issues was examined, with special emphasis on how RCRA's hazardous waste provisions impact with these technologies. The issues addressed were: the magnitude of energy related waste; public and private sector responses to RCRA and energy waste problems; the relationship of RCRA to other environmental and public health protection policies; the effect of RCRA on the deployment of energy supply; the role of reuse, recovery, and utilization of energy waste; and possible health and environmental effects associated with solid or hazardous wastes of various energy supply systems.

  12. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of thisapproach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  13. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this approach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  14. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  15. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M; Chow, Judith C; England, Glen C; Legge, Alan H; Lloyd, Alan C; Watson, John G

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 Critical Review Discussion complements Wilson, (2012), provides pointers to more detailed treatments of different topics and adds additional dimensions to the area of "energy". These include broader aspects of technologies driven by fuel resources and environmental issues, the concept of energy technology innovation, evolution in transportation resources, and complexities of energy policies addressing carbon taxes or carbon trading. National and global energy data bases are identified and evaluated and conversion factors are given to allow their comparability. PMID:23210215

  16. Energy Allowances for Solid Fats and Added Sugars in Nutritionally Adequate U.S. Diets Estimated at 17–33% by a Linear Programming Model1

    PubMed Central

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5–15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001–2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs. PMID:21178090

  17. Energy storage in remote area power supply (RAPS) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    Preliminary cost analyses indicate that hybrid RAPS systems are more economically attractive as a means to provide electricity to remote villages than are alternatives such as 24 h diesel generation. A hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system is being deployed to provide 24 h electricity to villages in the Amazon region of Peru. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kWh per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA gelled electrolyte batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an inverter. Despite early difficulties, the system in the first village has now commenced operation and the promise of RAPS schemes as a means for providing sustainable remote electrification appears to be bright.

  18. Local Energy Supply and Resiliency Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2013-06-20

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world`s largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China`s energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China`s energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  20. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world's largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China's energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China's energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  1. The Automatic Formulating Method of the Optimal Operating Planning Problem for Energy Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Naohiko; Ueda, Takaharu; Sasakawa, Koichi

    The problem of the optimal operating planning for energy supply system is formulated as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP), but, it is too complicated for most untrained operators with little experience to apply the method. This paper proposes an automatic evaluating method of the optimal operating planning for energy supply system in using simple data. The problem can be formulated only from characteristics of equipment, tariff of input energy, and energy demands. The connection of equipment is defined as a matrix, and generated from property data of equipment. The constraints and objective function of the problem are generated from relation-ship data in the matrix and characteristics of equipment. An optimization calculation for the problem is automatically carried out. It is confirmed that any operator can evaluate many alternative configurations of the energy supply systems.

  2. Atmospheric Emissions from Forest Biomass Residues to Energy Supply Chain: A Case Study in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Sandra; Tarelho, Luis; Monteiro, Alexandra; Monteiro, Tânia; Gonçalves, Catarina; Freitas, Sylvio; Lopes, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the past decades, pressures on global environment and energy security have led to an increasing demand on renewable energy sources and diversification of the world's energy supply. The Portuguese energy strategy considers the use of Forest Biomass Residues (FBR) to energy as being essential to accomplish the goals established in the National Energy Strategy for 2020. However, despite the advantages pointing to FBR to the energy supply chain, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts on air quality. In this context, a case study was selected to estimate the atmospheric emissions of the FBR to the energy supply chain in Portugal. Results revealed that production, harvesting, and energy conversion processes are the main culprits for the biomass energy supply chain emissions (with a contribution higher than 90%), while the transport processes have a minor importance for all the pollutants. Compared with the coal-fired plants, the FBR combustion produces lower greenhouses emissions, on a mass basis of fuel consumed; the same is true for NOX and SO2 emissions. PMID:26064039

  3. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  4. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  5. Effect of Varying the Energy Density of Protein-adequate Diets on Nutrient Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry, Immune Response and Growth of Muzaffarnagari Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, V. K.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Goswami, T. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of varied dietary energy densities on immune response and performance of Muzzafarnagari lambs were ascertained in a 180-d study. Animals (n = 24), in three groups, were fed diets providing 100% (100E), 80% (80E) or 70% (70E) of their metabolizable energy requirement. Mean nutrient digestibilities varied significantly among treatments. Nitrogen intake was lower (p<0.01) in the 70E. Nitrogen retention, was reduced (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E. The average daily gain (p<0.001) was 47.01±4.23, 13.54±1.72 and -16.67±8.24 g for 100E, 80E and 70E, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, total and differential leukocyte counts were lower (p<0.001) for 80E and 70E than for 100E with a similar trend (p<0.05) for serum glucose and total protein. Serum cortisol was reduced (p<0.001) with decreased energy availability. Antibody titre to Brucella abortus S19 showed an initial reduction in 80E and 70E vs 100E. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response was lower (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E, accompanying a lower (p<0.001) nitric oxide production by the peripheral lymphocytes. It is concluded that the reduced dietary energy density significantly affects the growth performance and immune response of lambs. PMID:25049889

  6. Effect of Varying the Energy Density of Protein-adequate Diets on Nutrient Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry, Immune Response and Growth of Muzaffarnagari Lambs.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Pattanaik, A K; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2013-08-01

    Effects of varied dietary energy densities on immune response and performance of Muzzafarnagari lambs were ascertained in a 180-d study. Animals (n = 24), in three groups, were fed diets providing 100% (100E), 80% (80E) or 70% (70E) of their metabolizable energy requirement. Mean nutrient digestibilities varied significantly among treatments. Nitrogen intake was lower (p<0.01) in the 70E. Nitrogen retention, was reduced (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E. The average daily gain (p<0.001) was 47.01±4.23, 13.54±1.72 and -16.67±8.24 g for 100E, 80E and 70E, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, total and differential leukocyte counts were lower (p<0.001) for 80E and 70E than for 100E with a similar trend (p<0.05) for serum glucose and total protein. Serum cortisol was reduced (p<0.001) with decreased energy availability. Antibody titre to Brucella abortus S19 showed an initial reduction in 80E and 70E vs 100E. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response was lower (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E, accompanying a lower (p<0.001) nitric oxide production by the peripheral lymphocytes. It is concluded that the reduced dietary energy density significantly affects the growth performance and immune response of lambs. PMID:25049889

  7. Potential supply and cost of biomass from energy crops in the TVA region

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-04-01

    The economic and supply structures of energy crop markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of energy crop biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas, and coal. In this study, the cost and supply of short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) and switchgrass biomass for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region-a 276-county area that includes portions of 11 states in the southeastern United States - are projected. Projected prices and quantities of biomass are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected energy crop yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curves of SRWC and switchgrass biomass that are projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of energy crop production. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of energy crop biomass are shown. In particular, the separate impacts of varying energy crop production costs and yields, and interest rates are examined.

  8. Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D; Umali, Elaine; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective We investigated associations between changes in national food energy supply and in average population body weight. Methods We collected data from 24 high-, 27 middle- and 18 low-income countries on the average measured body weight from global databases, national health and nutrition survey reports and peer-reviewed papers. Changes in average body weight were derived from study pairs that were at least four years apart (various years, 1971–2010). Selected study pairs were considered to be representative of an adolescent or adult population, at national or subnational scale. Food energy supply data were retrieved from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations food balance sheets. We estimated the population energy requirements at survey time points using Institute of Medicine equations. Finally, we estimated the change in energy intake that could theoretically account for the observed change in average body weight using an experimentally-validated model. Findings In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight. In 45 countries, the increase in food energy supply was higher than the model-predicted increase in energy intake. The association between change in food energy supply and change in body weight was statistically significant overall and for high-income countries (P < 0.001). Conclusion The findings suggest that increases in food energy supply are sufficient to explain increases in average population body weight, especially in high-income countries. Policy efforts are needed to improve the healthiness of food systems and environments to reduce global obesity. PMID:26170502

  9. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622

  10. Energy Crisis: Environmental Issue Exacerbates Power Supply Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, Philip M.

    1970-01-01

    Analyzes problems of providing sufficient electrical power in terms of inefficiency of industry and of the conflict between need for power and need for environmental quality. Suggests ways of slowing the growth in demand, and indicates needed research into energy production. (EB)

  11. The place of hard coal in energy supply pattern of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, A.O.; Aydiner, K.

    2009-07-01

    Lignite and hard coal are the major sources of domestic energy sources of Turkey. Hard coal is produced at only one district in the country. Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin is the major power for development of the Turkish steel-making industry. It is the only hard coal basin in the country and it has, to date, supplied approximately 400 million tons of run-of-mine hard coal. This article investigates the potential of hard coal as an energy source and discusses the measures to activate the region for the future energy supply objectives of the country.

  12. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS THAT USE FUEL CELLS (TECHNICAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of residential energy supply systems using fuel cells. Twelve energy systems, able to provide residential heating and cooling using technologies projected to be available toward the end of this century, were designed conceptually. Only a f...

  13. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS THAT USE FUEL CELLS (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of residential energy supply systems using fuel cells. Twelve energy systems, able to provide residential heating and cooling using technologies projected to be available toward the end of this century, were designed conceptually. Only a f...

  14. The Effect of Natural Gas Supply on US Renewable Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Bistline, J.; Inman, M.; Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that more abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall energy use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013-2055 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable energy, more abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  15. Research on Load Energy Efficiency of DC Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qing; Sun, Yiwei; Li, Ke; Li, Mengyu

    Traditional distribution network based on AC current has severely suffered from low efficiency in actual application, especially when an increasing numbers of home appliances are technically rely on DC current. In this paper, the energy efficiency of DC distribution system was analysed by means of comparison with traditional AC system. Firstly four types of typical appliances were discussed in terms of energy efficiency, which are the server, air conditioner, laptop computer and lighting. And then Models were further built up to perform the case study of three familiar situations in modern life, namely a typical living apartment, an office building and a data center. Finally, the power efficiencies of the three buildings were sorted up for comparison and analysis.

  16. Fuel cells, hydrogen and energy supply in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, A. L.; Diniz da Costa, J. C.; Simpson, A.; McLellan, B.

    Australia is unique in terms of its geography, population distribution, and energy sources. It has an abundance of fossil fuel in the form of coal, natural gas, coal seam methane (CSM), oil, and a variety renewable energy sources that are under development. Unfortunately, most of the natural gas is located so far away from the main centres of population that it is more economic to ship the energy as LNG to neighboring countries. Electricity generation is the largest consumer of energy in Australia and accounts for around 50% of greenhouse gas emissions as 84% of electricity is produced from coal. Unless these emissions are curbed, there is a risk of increasing temperatures throughout the country and associated climatic instability. To address this, research is underway to develop coal gasification and processes for the capture and sequestration of CO 2. Alternative transport fuels such as biodiesel are being introduced to help reduce emissions from vehicles. The future role of hydrogen is being addressed in a national study commissioned this year by the federal government. Work at the University of Queensland is also addressing full-cycle analysis of hydrogen production, transport, storage, and utilization for both stationary and transport applications. There is a modest but growing amount of university research in fuel cells in Australia, and an increasing interest from industry. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. (CFCL) has a leading position in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) technology, which is being developed for a variety of applications, and next year Perth in Western Australia is hosting a trial of buses powered by proton-exchange fuel cells.

  17. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  18. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  19. Energy Experts Call for Conservation Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes energy conservation measures suggested by a leading energy supplier, a leading energy consumer, and a top government official, involving more coal use as an energy resource and an adequate balance between energy supply and environmental restrictions. (CC)

  20. Mimicking bipolar sextupole power supplies for low-energy operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Bruno, D.; Jain, A.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2011-03-28

    RHIC operated at energies below the nominal ion injection energy of E=9.8 GeV/u in 2010. Earlier test runs and magnet measurements indicated that all defocusing sextupole unipolar power supplies should be reversed to provide the proper sign of chromaticity. However, vertical chromaticity at E=3.85 GeV/u with this power supply configuration was still not optimal. This uncertainty inspired a new machine configuration where only half of the defocusing sextupole power supplies were reversed, taking advantage of the flexibility of the RHIC nonlinear chromaticity correction system to mimic bipolar sextupoles. This configuration resulted in a 30 percent luminosity gain and eliminated the need for further polarity changes for later 2010 low energy physics operations. Here we describe the background to this problem, operational experience, and RHIC online model changes to implement this solution.

  1. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. PMID:25983228

  2. [Structure problem analysis and trend prediction of energy supply and demand in Guangzhou City].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao-qing; Ji, Xiu-jiang; Zhu, Hai-yan; Yi, Xia-jun; Ren, Fang

    2006-04-01

    This paper aims at the tense situation of energy demand and supply and analysis the current situation and problems of energy supply and demand in Guangzhou. We predict total demand of energy which will be 4534.7 x 10(4) of standard coal in 2010 by using the department analysis method and sequence method, and the balance between supply and demand of energy will be 45,000 thousand tons of standard coal. From the primary conclusions of our empirical analysis and together with the overall environment of energy in Guangdong and China, we think the development strategies of energy in Guangzhou in the future should involve several main points as following: (1) Energy of Guangzhou should base on the overall energy development programming of China and that is, it should depend on the "transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region", power incorporation of Sanxia, power generated of water energy, nuclear power and new resource. (2) Stop setting up or expending the natural monopoly and resource oriented Huangpu thermal power plant located in the windward direction of summer of Guangzhou which has serious pollution and consumes large quantities of energy. (3) It should not absolutely depend on the coal of the poor mountainous region of Guangdong and small power station and can make full use of the resource potential. PMID:16767975

  3. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  4. Public utilities supply solar energy to eager customers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This articles examines how photovoltaic power is an alternative source of energy that can help utilities earn goodwill from their customers for being innovative, saving money, and reducing harmful emissions. Planners at municipal utilities are discovering the advantages that photovoltaic (PV) power offers. In addition to the thousands of private, federal, state, and commercial PV systems installed during the last 20 years, more than 65 cities in 24 states also have installed such systems. PV power is cost effective in selected utility applications today, and those applications are expanding every year. PV can be useful in applications ranging from low-power uses to decentralized applications to large, central stations. Public utilities in Austin and Sacramento are among those successfully using PV power for all three types of applications.

  5. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. An optimal operational advisory system for a brewery's energy supply plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, K.; Shiba, T.; Yokoyama, R. . Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering); Sakashita, S. . Mayekawa Energy Management Research Center)

    1994-03-01

    An optimal operational advisory system is proposed to operate rationally a brewery's energy supply plant from the economical viewpoint. A mixed-integer linear programming problem is formulated so as to minimize the daily operational cost subject to constraints such as equipment performance characteristics, energy supply-demand relations, and some practical operational restrictions. This problem includes lots of unknown variables and a hierarchical approach is adopted to derive numerical solutions. The optimal solution obtained by this methods is indicated to the plant operators so as to support their decision making. Through the numerical study for a real brewery plant, the possibility of saving operational cost is ascertained.

  9. Energy from biomass: Land analysis and evaluation of supply models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S. Y.; Stavrou, J.; Nelson, C. H.; Vyas, A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of determining the potential overall impact of land-based biomass production on the agricultural and forestry sectors of the US economy were evaluated. The availability of the factor that possibly limits biomass production the most, land is examined. A summary by US Department of Agriculture regions of the amount of available land with potential for biomass production and not presently in food crop production is presented. Then several currently used agricultural and forestry models that could be used to determine the impact of increased land-based biomass production on the agricultural and forestry sectors are evaluated. It was found that the forestry sector would not be significantly effected even by a level of biomass production with an energy yield as high as 11 quads. It was recommended that a suitable linear programming model from Iowa State University's Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) modeling system be used for future analysis. The CARD model would have to be appropriately modified so that biomass grasses and short-rotation trees could be added to the agricultural crops.

  10. Understanding the influence of climate change on the embodied energy of water supply.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Haiying; Jacobs, Jennifer M

    2016-05-15

    The current study aims to advance understandings on how and to what degree climate change will affect the life cycle chemical and energy uses of drinking water supply. A dynamic life cycle assessment was performed to quantify historical monthly operational embodied energy of a selected water supply system located in northeast US. Comprehensive multivariate and regression analyses were then performed to understand the statistical correlation among monthly life cycle energy consumptions, three water quality indicators (UV254, pH, and water temperature), and five climate indicators (monthly mean temperature, monthly mean maximum/minimum temperatures, total precipitation, and total snow fall). Thirdly, a calculation was performed to understand how volumetric and total life cycle energy consumptions will change under two selected IPCC emission scenarios (A2 and B1). It was found that volumetric life cycle energy consumptions are highest in winter months mainly due to the higher uses of natural gas in the case study system, but total monthly life cycle energy consumptions peak in both July and January because of the increasing water demand in summer months. Most of the variations in chemical and energy uses can be interpreted by water quality and climate variations except for the use of soda ash. It was also found that climate change might lead to an average decrease of 3-6% in the volumetric energy use of the case study system by the end of the century. This result combined with conclusions reached by previous climate versus water supply studies indicates that effects of climate change on drinking water supply might be highly dependent on the geographical location and treatment process of individual water supply systems. PMID:27010784

  11. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  12. Energy supply and demand modeling. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of mathematical models in trend analysis and forecasting of energy supply and demand factors. Models are presented for the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors. Aspects of long term energy strategies and markets are discussed at the global, national, state, and regional levels. Energy demand and pricing, and econometrics of energy, are explored for electric utilities and natural resources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy resources are modeled both for fuel usage and for reserves. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Energy supply and demand modeling. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of mathematical models in trend analysis and forecasting of energy supply and demand factors. Models are presented for the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors. Aspects of long term energy strategies and markets are discussed at the global, national, state, and regional levels. Energy demand and pricing, and econometrics of energy, are explored for electric utilities and natural resources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy resources are modeled both for fuel usage and for reserves. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Energy supply and demand modeling. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of mathematical models in trend analysis and forecasting of energy supply and demand factors. Models are presented for the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors. Aspects of long term energy strategies and markets are discussed at the global, national, state, and regional levels. Energy demand and pricing, and econometrics of energy, are explored for electric utilities and natural resources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy resources are modeled both for fuel usage and for reserves. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  16. A novel current and voltage regulated energy discharge power supply 200 A, 600 V

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.

    1991-05-01

    The fast spill beam extracted from the 1000 GeV particle accelerator Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory requires two pulsed magnet and power supply systems to steer the beam to the designated experimental area. This beam steering requires a magnetic field integral of 4kGm per magnet for a duration of 4 msec at a rate of one shot per 5 seconds, and limited to 6 shots per 63 seconds. Each shot cannot last any longer than about 100 msec from start to finish. The magnetic field must be constant to within 1% during each 4 msec spill period. This paper describes an energy discharge type power supply and magnet that meet these requirements. This unique power supply has two regulators. One regulator preregulates the storage voltage and the other regulates the required peak current. The magnet and power supply design are interwoven to allow the use of easily available commercial parts for the power supply. Power supply and magnet design should always go hand in hand.

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  18. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed. PMID:25725838

  19. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    SciTech Connect

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  20. Modeling the influence of various water stressors on regional water supply infrastructures and their embodied energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-06-01

    Water supply consumes a substantial amount of energy directly and indirectly. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of water stressors on the embodied energy of water supply (EEWS). To achieve this goal, the EEWS in 75 North Carolina counties was estimated through an economic input-output based hybrid life cycle assessment. Ten water stressor indicators related to population, economic development, climate, water source, and land use were obtained for the 75 counties. A multivariate analysis was performed to understand the correlations between water stressor indicators and the EEWS. A regression analysis was then conducted to identify the statistically significant indicators in describing the EEWS. It was found that the total amount of water supply energy varies significantly among selected counties. Water delivery presents the highest energy use and water storage presents the least. The total embodied energy was found to be highly correlated with total population. The regression analysis shows that the total embodied energy can be best described by total population and temperature indicators with a relatively high R square value of 0.69.

  1. Forecasting jobs in the supply chain for investments in residential energy efficiency retrofits in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobair, Richard C., II

    This research presents a model for forecasting the numbers of jobs created in the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) supply chain resulting from an investment in upgrading residential buildings in Florida. This investigation examined material supply chains stretching from mining to project installation for three product types: insulation, windows/doors, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Outputs from the model are provided for the project, sales, manufacturing, and mining level. The model utilizes reverse-estimation to forecast the numbers of jobs that result from an investment. Reverse-estimation is a process that deconstructs a total investment into its constituent parts. In this research, an investment is deconstructed into profit, overhead, and hard costs for each level of the supply chain and over multiple iterations of inter-industry exchanges. The model processes an investment amount, the type of work and method of contracting into a prediction of the number of jobs created. The deconstruction process utilizes data from the U.S. Economic Census. At each supply chain level, the cost of labor is reconfigured into full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs (i.e. equivalent to 40 hours per week for 52 weeks) utilizing loaded labor rates and a typical employee mix. The model is sensitive to adjustable variables, such as percentage of work performed per type of product, allocation of worker time per skill level, annual hours for FTE calculations, wage rate, and benefits. This research provides several new insights into job creation. First, it provides definitions that can be used for future research on jobs in supply chains related to energy efficiency. Second, it provides a methodology for future investigators to calculate jobs in a supply chain resulting from an investment in energy efficiency upgrades to a building. The methodology used in this research is unique because it examines gross employment at the sub-industry level for specific

  2. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  3. Water supply for the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard Arden

    1972-01-01

    The Nuclear Rocket Development Station, in Jackass Flats, occupies about 123 square miles in the southwestern part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site. Jackass Flats, an intermontane valley bordered by highlands on all sides except for a drainage outlet in the southwestern corner, has an average annual rainfall of 4 inches. Jackass Flats is underlain by alluvium, colluvium, and volcanic rocks of Cenozoic age and, at greater depth, by sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The alluvium and the colluvium lie above the saturated zone throughout nearly all of Jackass Flats. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks contain limestone and dolomite units that are excellent water producers elsewhere ; however, these units are too deep in Jackass Flats to be economic sources of water. The only important water-producing unit known in the vicinity of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is a welded-tuff aquifer, the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, which receives no significant recharge. This member contains about 500 feet of highly fractured rock underlying an area 11 miles long and 3 miles wide in western Jackass Flats. Permeability of the aquifer is derived mostly from joints and fractures; however, some permeability may be derived from gas bubbles in the upper part of the unit. Transmissivity, obtained from pumping tests, ranges from 68,000 to 488,000 gallons per day per foot. Volume of the saturated part of the aquifer is about 3.5 cubic miles, and the average specific yield probably ranges from 1 to 5 percent. The volume of ground water in storage is probably within the range of 37-187 billion gallons. This large amount of water should be sufficient to supply the needs of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station for many years. Water at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is used for public supply, construction, test-cell coolant, exhaust cooling, and thermal shielding during nuclear reactor and engine testing, and washdown. Present (1967) average

  4. Requirements and potential development pathways for fission energy supply infrastructures of the 21st century - a systems viewpoint.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D. C.

    1999-06-14

    Using an energy supply systems approach, we envision attributes and characteristic needs of a future global fission-based energy supply infrastructure, enumerate potential pathways for meeting those needs, and identify the underlying enabling science and technology developments for R and D efforts to meet the needs.

  5. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  6. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. PMID:20231084

  7. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  8. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  9. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  10. The G-HAT Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason Thomas; Povich, Matthew; Griffith, Roger; Maldonado, Jessica; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Star Cartier, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    The WISE and Spitzer large-area surveys of the mid-infrared sky bring a new opportunity to search for evidence of the energy supplies of very large extraterrestrial civilizations. If these energy supplies rival the output of a civilization's parent star (Kardashev Type II), or if a galaxy-spanning supercivilization's use rivals that of the total galactic luminosity (Type III), they would be detectable as anomolously mid-infrared-bright stars and galaxies, respectively. We have already performed the first search for this emission from Type III civilizations using the WISE all-sky survey, and put the first upper limits on them in the local universe, and discuss ways to improve on these limits. We also discuss some detectable forms of and limits on Type II civilizations in the Mliky Way.

  11. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. I. Background and Justification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review "Dysonian SETI," the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the "monocultural fallacy." We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<109 yr), and that many "sustainability" counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  12. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered. PMID:17272236

  13. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  14. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  15. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  16. End User Functional and Performance Requirements for HTGR Energy Supply to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    This document specifies end user functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to industrial processes. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers and from detailed evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology in industrial processes. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a plant design that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  17. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  18. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  19. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  20. Investigations of DC power supplies with optoelectronic transducers and RF energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzowski, B.; Gozdur, R.; Bernacki, L.; Lakomski, M.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Distribution Cabinets (FDC) monitoring systems are increasingly popular. However it is difficult to realize such system in passive FDC, due to lack of source of power supply. In this paper investigation of four different DC power supplies with optoelectronic transducers is described. Two converters: photovoltaic power converter and PIN photodiode can convert the light transmitted through the optical fiber to electric energy. Solar cell and antenna RF-PCB are also tested. Results presented in this paper clearly demonstrate that it is possible to build monitoring system in passive FDC. During the tests maximum obtained output power was 11 mW. However all converters provided enough power to excite 32-bit microcontroller with ARM-cores and digital thermometer.

  1. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in human history more people around the globe now live in urban centres rather than in rural settings. Although India's urban population proportion at 31% is still below the global average, it has been urbanizing rapidly. The population growth rate in urban India is more than two-and-half times that of rural India. The current Indian urban population, of over 370 million people, exceeds that of the total population of every other country on the planet with the exception of China. Supplying water to India's burgeoning urban agglomerations poses a challenge in terms of social equity, biophysical sustainability, and economic efficiency. A typical Indian city relies on both surface and ground water sources. Several Indian cities import surface water from distances that now exceed a hundred kilometres and across gradients of up to three thousand metres. While the depleting groundwater levels as a result of rapidly growing demand from urban India is at least anecdotally understood even when reliable estimates are not available, the energy costs of supplying water to urban India has thus far not received academic or policy attention it deserves. We develop a simple framework to integrate distributed groundwater models with water consumption data to estimate the energy and emissions associated with supplying water to urban centres. We assemble a unique data set from seventy five of the largest urban agglomerations in India and derive estimated values of energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water provision in urban India. Our analysis shows that in every major city, the energy cost associated with long distance import of surface water significantly exceeds groundwater extraction. However, with rapidly depleting groundwater levels, we estimate inflection points for select cities when energy costs of groundwater extraction will exceed energy required to import surface water into the city. In addition to the national snapshot, we also

  2. A simple metabolic model of glacial-interglacial energy supply to the upper ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelegrí, J. L.; Olivella, R.; García-Olivares, A.

    2011-03-01

    We use a simple two-state two-box ocean to simulate the CO2 signal during the last four glacial-interglacial transitions in the earth system. The model is inspired by the similarity in spatial organization and temporal transition patterns between the earth and other complex systems, such as mammals. The comparison identifies the earth's metabolic rate with net autotrophic primary production in the upper ocean, sustained through new inorganic carbon and nutrients advected from the deep ocean and organic matter remineralized within the upper ocean. We view the glacial-interglacial transition as a switch of the upper ocean from a basal to an enhanced metabolic state, with energy supply initially relying on the remineralization of the local organic sources and the eventual steady state resulting from the increased advective supply of inorganic deep sources. During the interglacial-glacial transition the opposite occurs, with an initial excess of advective supply and primary production that allows the replenishment of the upper-ocean organic storages. We set the relative change in energy supply from the CO2 signal and use genetic algorithms to explore the sensitivity of the model output to both the basal recirculation rate and the intensity-timing of the maximum recirculation rate. The model is capable of reproducing quite well the long-term oscillations, as shown by correlations with observations typically about 0.8. The dominant time scale for each cycle ranges between about 40 and 45 kyr, close to the 41 kyr average obliquity astronomical period, and the deep-ocean recirculation rate increases between one and two orders of magnitude from glacial to interglacial periods.

  3. Modulation of energy and protein supplies in sequential feeding in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Traineau, M; Bouvarel, I; Mulsant, C; Roffidal, L; Launay, C; Lescoat, P

    2015-01-01

    Sequential feeding (SF) consists of splitting energy (E) and protein/calcium (P) fractions temporally, improving the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of hens compared with a continuous distribution during the day. In a previous study, the E fraction (with a low level of protein) was provided in the morning, whereas the P fraction (with low level of energy) was given in the afternoon. However, there is no clear evidence that a requirement in energy or proteins is connected to these distribution sequences, whereas the requirement for calcium is known to be required in the afternoon. To evaluate the effects on performances of the modulation of energy and protein supplies in SF, five different sequential treatments were offered: E0P0/E0P0; E+P+/E-P-; E+P-/E-P+; E0P+/E0P- and E+P0/E-P0 where E+ represents a high energy level, E0 a moderate one and E- a low one (with the same meaning for P regarding protein supply). Afternoon fractions were provided with particulate calcium. A total of 168 Hendrix hens were housed in individual cages from 20 to 39 weeks of age in two environmentally contrasted rooms. Feed intake in the morning and afternoon fractions, egg production, egg weight, BW and weight of digestive organs were recorded. No diet effect was observed concerning feed intake, egg production and BW. These results suggested that hens are not able to fit their feed intake on energy or protein level of fractions within half-day duration, whereas at the day scale same protein and energy intakes were observed. Moreover, the time of nutrient distribution in feeding did not seem to have an impact on birds' performances. These studies have also demonstrated that, despite strong environmental pressure, the hens with SF had attenuated performance but continue to produce eggs. PMID:25192221

  4. Explosive magnetic reconnection - Puzzle to be solved as the energy supply process for magnetospheric substorms?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that magnetospheric substorms are perhaps the most basic type of disturbances which occur throughout the magnetosphere. There is little doubt that the energy for magnetospheric substorms is delivered from the sun to the magnetosphere by the solar wind, and theoretical and observational studies have been conducted to uncover the processes associated with the energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere, and the subsequent processes leading to various magnetospheric substorm phenomena. It has been widely accepted that explosive magnetic reconnection supplies the energy for magnetospheric substorm processes. It is indicated that the auroral phenomena must be various manifestations of a large-scale electrical discharge process which is powered by the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo. Certain problems regarding explosive magnetic reconnection are discussed.

  5. The Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. I. Background and justification

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J. T.; Mullan, B.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    We motivate the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. We discuss some philosophical difficulties of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), and how communication SETI circumvents them. We review 'Dysonian SETI', the search for artifacts of alien civilizations, and find that it is highly complementary to traditional communication SETI; the two together might succeed where either one alone has not. We discuss the argument of Hart that spacefaring life in the Milky Way should be either galaxy-spanning or non-existent, and examine a portion of his argument that we call the 'monocultural fallacy'. We discuss some rebuttals to Hart that invoke sustainability and predict long Galaxy colonization timescales. We find that the maximum Galaxy colonization timescale is actually much shorter than previous work has found (<10{sup 9} yr), and that many 'sustainability' counter-arguments to Hart's thesis suffer from the monocultural fallacy. We extend Hart's argument to alien energy supplies and argue that detectably large energy supplies can plausibly be expected to exist because life has the potential for exponential growth until checked by resources or other limitations, and intelligence implies the ability to overcome such limitations. As such, if Hart's thesis is correct, then searches for large alien civilizations in other galaxies may be fruitful; if it is incorrect, then searches for civilizations within the Milky Way are more likely to succeed than Hart argued. We review some past Dysonian SETI efforts and discuss the promise of new mid-infrared surveys, such as that of WISE.

  6. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.E.

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  7. On Maximizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks by Optimally Assigning Energy Supplies

    PubMed Central

    Asorey-Cacheda, Rafael; García-Sánchez, Antonio Javier; García-Sánchez, Felipe; García-Haro, Joan; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    The extension of the network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an important issue that has not been appropriately solved yet. This paper addresses this concern and proposes some techniques to plan an arbitrary WSN. To this end, we suggest a hierarchical network architecture, similar to realistic scenarios, where nodes with renewable energy sources (denoted as primary nodes) carry out most message delivery tasks, and nodes equipped with conventional chemical batteries (denoted as secondary nodes) are those with less communication demands. The key design issue of this network architecture is the development of a new optimization framework to calculate the optimal assignment of renewable energy supplies (primary node assignment) to maximize network lifetime, obtaining the minimum number of energy supplies and their node assignment. We also conduct a second optimization step to additionally minimize the number of packet hops between the source and the sink. In this work, we present an algorithm that approaches the results of the optimization framework, but with much faster execution speed, which is a good alternative for large-scale WSN networks. Finally, the network model, the optimization process and the designed algorithm are further evaluated and validated by means of computer simulation under realistic conditions. The results obtained are discussed comparatively. PMID:23939582

  8. The General Evolving Model for Energy Supply-Demand Network with Local-World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Han, Dun; Li, Dandan; Fang, Cuicui

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, two general bipartite network evolving models for energy supply-demand network with local-world are proposed. The node weight distribution, the "shifting coefficient" and the scaling exponent of two different kinds of nodes are presented by the mean-field theory. The numerical results of the node weight distribution and the edge weight distribution are also investigated. The production's shifted power law (SPL) distribution of coal enterprises and the installed capacity's distribution of power plants in the US are obtained from the empirical analysis. Numerical simulations and empirical results are given to verify the theoretical results.

  9. Research on the evolution model of an energy supply-demand network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Zhang, Pei-Pei; Shan, Tian-Hua; Fang, Cui-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Tian, Li-Xin

    2012-10-01

    A universal bipartite model is proposed based on an energy supply-demand network. The analytical expression of SPL distribution of the node weight, the “shifting coefficient” α and the scaling exponent γ are presented without edge weight growth by using the mean-field theory approach. The numerical results of SPL distribution of the node weight, the “shifting coefficient” α and the scaling exponent γ with edge weight growth are also presented. The production's SPL distribution of the US coal enterprizes from 1991 to 2009 is obtained from the empirical analysis. The numerical results obtained from the model are in good agreement with the empirical results.

  10. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of U. S. energy supply and demand to 2010, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand is summarized. Three broad implications concerning the future of the natural gas industry are highlighted: the residual impact of the August 1990 Gulf War on crude oil prices and the factors influencing the long-term price path, the impact of the growing number of environmental constraints on future energy use, and the effect of recent developments in gas production on future gas supply and price.

  11. Weathering the cold of `94. A review of the January 1994 energy supply disruptions in the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report examines the causes of and responses to the very low temperatures over a wide region of the Eastern US causing unprecedented sustained demand for energy during the week of January 16--22, 1994. The topics of the report include the vagaries of the weather, the North American power supply structure, a chronology of major events of January, natural gas industry operations during peak demand periods, and recommendations for fuel supply, load forecasting, and energy emergency response exercises.

  12. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  13. 76 FR 67722 - PPL Energy Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PPL Energy Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of PPL...

  14. Effect of local energy supply to a hypersonic flow on the drag of bodies with different nose bluntness

    SciTech Connect

    Borzov, V.Yu.; Rybka, I.V.; Yur`ev, A.S.

    1995-06-01

    Parameters of the axisymmetric flow around bodies with different bluntness are compared in the case of constant energy supply to the main hypersonic flow. Flow structures, drag coefficients, and expenditure of energy on overcoming drag are analyzed with the effect of thermal energy on the flow taken into account for different bodies with equal volume.

  15. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  16. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  17. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  18. Production and supply of radioisotopes with high-energy particle accelerators current status and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.

    1994-03-01

    Although the production of radioisotopes in reactors or in low to medium energy cyclotrons appears to be relatively well established, especially for those isotopes that are routinely used and have a commercial market, certain isotopes can either be made only in high-energy particle accelerators or their production is more cost effective when made this way. These facilities are extremely expensive to build and operate, and isotope production is, in general, either not cost-effective or is in conflict with their primary mandate or missions which involve physics research. Isotope production using high-energy accelerators in the US, therefore, has been only an intermittent and parasitic activity. However, since a number of isotopes produced at higher energies are emerging as being potentially useful for medical and other applications, there is a renewed concern about their availability in a continuous and reliable fashion. In the US, in particular, the various aspects of the prediction and availability of radioisotopes from high-energy accelerators are presently undergoing a detailed scrutiny and review by various scientific and professional organizations as well as the Government. A number of new factors has complicated the supply/demand equation. These include considerations of cost versus needs, reliability factors, mission orientation, research and educational components, and commercial viability. This paper will focus on the present status and projected needs of radioisotope production with high-energy accelerators in the US, and will compare and examine the existing infrastructure in other countries for this purpose.

  19. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as liquid pumping and internal compression. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  20. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as 'liquid pumping and internal compression'. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  1. Energy supply processes for magnetospheric substorms and solar flares - Tippy bucket model or pitcher model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, both magnetospheric substorms and solar flares have almost exclusively been discussed in terms of explosive magnetic reconnection. Such a model may conceptually be illustrated by the so-called 'tippy-bucket model', which causes sudden unloading processes, namely a sudden (catastrophic, stochastic, and unpredictable) conversion of stored magnetic energy. However, recent observations indicate that magnetospheric substorms can be understood as a result of a directly driven process which can conceptually be illustrated by the 'pitcher model' in which the output rate varies in harmony with the input rate. It is also possible that solar flare phenomena are directly driven by a photospheric dynamo. Thus, explosive magnetic reconnection may simply be an unworkable hypothesis and may not be a puzzle to be solved as the primary energy supply process for magnetospheric substorms and solar flares.

  2. 77 FR 22472 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... final rule was published on March 23, 2009. See 74 FR 12058. Subsequently, Congress revisited elements... a technical amendment to codify verbatim in regulation these statutory changes. See 76 FR 57897... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain...

  3. Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihułowicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

  4. Energy development and security and supply-side ideology: oligopoly, monopoly, and imperfect competition make fossil fuel regulation a necessity

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, P.G.

    1985-04-01

    Should energy development, of any form, be encouraged by the federal government. Inasmuch as conventional economic theories all are inapplicable, incomplete, or unrealistic as descriptions and explanations of real world energy markets, they cannot illuminate this value question. To date, American energy policies generally have manipulated supplies and prices of energy. If the objectives of energy policy are to conserve fuel, to reduce vulnerability to energy-related inflation, to control expenditures on energy, and to free Western Europe, Japan, and the US from dependence upon hostile or potentially hostile suppliers, then an effective policy would have to alter both demand and supply for energy. Advocates of simplistic deregulation, unwilling or unable to anticipate the undesirable consequences of that policy, invite the very governmental interference from which they recoil.

  5. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  6. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  7. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. The sustainable water-energy nexus: Life-cycle impacts and feasibility of regional energy and water supply scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Alexander T.

    Water and energy are critical, interdependent, and regional resources, and effective planning and policies around which sources to use requires combining information on environmental impacts, cost, and availability. Questions around shifting energy and water sources towards more renewable options, as well as the potential role of natural gas from shale formations are under intense discussion. Decisions on these issues will be made in the shadow of climate change, which will both impact and be impacted by energy and water supplies. This work developed a model for calculating the life-cycle environmental impacts of regional energy and water supply scenarios (REWSS). The model was used to discuss future energy pathways in Pennsylvania, future electricity impacts in Brazil, and future water pathways in Arizona. To examine energy in Pennsylvania, this work also developed the first process-based life-cycle assessment (LCA) of shale gas, focusing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, and water consumption. This LCA confirmed results that shale gas is similar to conventional gas in GHG emissions, though potentially has a lower net energy due to a wide range of production rates for wells. Brazil's electricity-related impacts will rise as development continues. GHG emissions are shown to double by 2020 due to expanded natural gas (NG) and coal usage, with a rise of 390% by 2040 posssible with tropical hydropower reservoirs. While uncertainty around reservoir impacts is large, Brazil's low GHG emissions intensity and future carbon emissions targets are threatened by likely electricity scenarios. Pennsylvania's energy-related impacts are likely to hinge on whether NG is used as a replacement for coal, allowing GHG emissions to drop and then plateau at 93% of 2010 values; or as a transition fuel to expanded renewable energy sources, showing a steady decrease to 86% in 2035. Increased use of biofuels will dominate land occupation and may dominate water

  9. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    plants can be economically substituted by low carbon based technologies. Furthermore, the integrated annual load management notably contributes to innovative process integration becoming economic in an energy system affected by low efficiency and flexibility. Further limiting flexibility, the geographic location of this innovative low carbon energy production technology strictly depends on geological boundary conditions, namely the presence of exploitable coal resources, and availability of energy transport networks to supply potential end users with the product. Hereby, feeding upgraded synthesis gas directly into the Bulgarian gas pipeline network avoiding its conversion into electricity is an alternative approach with relevant economic potentials. For that purpose, the proximity and availability of these transport networks as well as the demand of end users are validated by the integrated energy system model. Coupling our techno-economic process model to an energy system-modelling framework allows the determination of the future economical potentials and the limitations for the implementation of a low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system. The obtained results show that the Bulgarian energy system can significantly benefit from the integration of underground coal gasification considering carbon dioxide mitigation technologies potentially initiating a continuous substitution of imported fuels by domestic coal resources.

  10. [Control of supply and use of energy substrates in the encephalon].

    PubMed

    Schelp, A O; Burini, R C

    1995-09-01

    Although accounting for 2% of body weight, brain has one of the greatest metabolic rates compared with other organs and systems. The energy metabolic consum is expended mainly in the maintenance of ionic gradient, essential to neuronal activity. Brain receives energy substrates from circulation, with interference of blood brain barrier (BBB). Glucose is the main substrate and has a metabolic rate so high as 150 g/day (0.7 mM/G/min). At cellular level, metabolism of glucose seems to be controlled by phosphofructokynase. If the cellular level were high enough, manose and other products like fructose 1,6 biphosphate, pyruvate, lactate and acetate can be used in the place of glucose. Lactate, when oxyded, consums at least 21% of the cerebral needs of O2. In ischemia and inflammatory infections, brain tissue produces lactate instead of use it. Ketone bodies reduce cerebral needs of glucose; in view of the disturbances that occur in cerebral production of succinyl CoA and guanosine 3 phosphate (GTP), they must be considered as complementary substrate but not as an alternative one. Although they can be metabolized, there are no evidences that brain could produce energy from systemic free fatty acids, even when hypoglicemia is present. Ethanol and glycerol are considered only at experimental level. Brain uptake of aminoacids occur better for long chain aminoacids, specially valine. The aminoacids that are synthetised in the brain (aspartate, gluconate and alanine) show the lower absortion rates. All aminoacids should be oxided to CO2 and H2O. Even when glucose consum is reduced to 30%, aminoacid accounts for only 10% of the energetic expenditure of the brain. To maintain cerebral glucose and oxygen supply to the brain, blood flow must be at least 800 ml/min. The regulation of supply and consumption of energy substrate by the brain is changed in few situations. Among them, are included the oxidation of lactate immediately before milk diet early in development and

  11. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  12. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    PubMed

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results. PMID:24388138

  13. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals. PMID:21105699

  14. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  15. Evidence of Energy Supply by Active-Region Spicules to the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeighami, S.; Ahangarzadeh Maralani, A. R.; Tavabi, E.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the role of active-region spicules in the mass balance of the solar wind and energy supply in heating the solar atmosphere. We use high-cadence observations from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite in the Ca ii H-line filter obtained on 26 January 2007. The observational technique provides the high spatio-temporal resolution required to detect fine structures such as spicules. We apply a Fourier power spectrum and wavelet analysis to Hinode/SOT time series of an active-region data set to explore the existence of coherent intensity oscillations. Coherent waves could be evidence of energy transport that serves to heat the solar atmosphere. Using time series, we measure the phase difference between two intensity profiles obtained at two different heights, which gives information about the phase difference between oscillations at those heights as a function of frequency. The results of a fast Fourier transform (FFT) show peaks in the power spectrum at frequencies in the range from 2 to 8 mHz at four different heights (above the limb), while the wavelet analysis indicates dominant frequencies similar to those of the Fourier power spectrum results. A coherency study indicates coherent oscillations at about 5.5 mHz (3 min). We measure mean phase speeds in the range 250-425 km s^{-1} increasing with height. The energy flux of these waves is estimated to be F = 1.8 × 106-11.2 × 106 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} or 1.8-11.2 kW m^{-2}, which indicates that they are sufficiently energetic to accelerate the solar wind and heat the corona to temperatures of several million degrees. We compute the the mass flux carried by spicules of 3 × 10^{-10}-2 × 10^{-9} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which is 10-60 times higher than the mass that is carried away from the corona because of the solar wind (about 3 × 10^{-11} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}). Therefore, our results indicate that about 0.02-0.1 of the spicule mass is ejected from the corona, while the remainder reverts

  16. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  17. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  18. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  19. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  20. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  1. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

    2015-05-01

    In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition

  2. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a temporary exemption due to the unavailability of an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate... petitioner must certify that: (1) A good faith effort has been to obtain an adequate and reliable supply...

  3. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a temporary exemption due to the unavailability of an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate... petitioner must certify that: (1) A good faith effort has been to obtain an adequate and reliable supply...

  4. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a temporary exemption due to the unavailability of an adequate and reliable supply of an alternate... petitioner must certify that: (1) A good faith effort has been to obtain an adequate and reliable supply...

  5. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  6. Limiting factors in photosynthesis. V. Photochemical energy supply colimits photosynthesis at low values of intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Terry, N.

    1984-05-01

    Although there is now some agreement with the view that the supply of photochemical energy may influence photosynthetic rate (P) at high CO/sub 2/ pressures, it is less clear whether this limitation extends to P at low CO/sub 2/. This was investigated by measuring P per area as a function of the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (C/sub i/) at different levels of photochemical energy supply. Changes in the latter were obtained experimentally by varying the level of irradiance to normal (Fe-sufficient) leaves of Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1, and by varying photosynthetic electron transport capacity using leaves from Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient plants. P and C/sub i/ were determined for attached sugar beet leaves using open flow gas exchange. The results suggest the P/area was colimited by the supply of photochemical energy at very low as well as high values of C/sub i/. Using the procedure developed by Perchorowicz et al., we investigated the effect or irradiance on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activation. The ratio of initial extractable activity to total inducible RuBPCase activity increased from 0.25 to 0.90 as leaf irradiance increased from 100 to 1500 microeinsteins photosynthetically active radiation per square meter per second. These data suggest that colimitation by photochemical energy supply at low C/sub i/ may be mediated via effects on RuBPCase activation.

  7. 78 FR 2392 - Allegheny Energy Supply, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ..., Filing of Pre-Application Document (PAD), Commencement of Pre-Filing Process, and Scoping; Request for Comments on the PAD and Scoping Document, and Identification of Issues and Associated Study Requests a.... Allegheny Energy Supply, LLC, filed with the Commission a Pre- Application Document (PAD; including...

  8. BWRS for long-term energy supply and for fissioning almost all transuranium

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Renzo; Miwa, Junichi; Moriya, Kumiaki

    2007-07-01

    An adaptation of the BWR has been conceived that demonstrates yet another aspect of the superiority of the BWR, this time as an LWR which has the potential to breed and consume transuranium (TRUs) using a multi-recycling process. It is referred to as the Resource- Renewable BWR (RBWR) and can be used as a long-term energy supply, while greatly reducing the negative environmental impact that TRUs are becoming long-lived radioactive wastes. The RBWR is composed of three cores with a compatible fuel bundle of an RBWR-T3, RBWR-AC and RBWR-TB. The RBWR-T3 increases the amount of enriched uranium per unit volume in the core without reducing the neutron moderating power. A long-cycle core can be operated continuously for 4 years while maintaining a 48 GWd/t fuel bundle exposure and a 4.87% bundle-averaged enrichment. The RBWR-AC may be characterized as a BWR that operates with mixed (depleted uranium and TRUs) oxide fuel, and that has a breeding ratio of 1.01 and a negative void coefficient. The RBWR-TB should fission almost all the TRUs, by repeating the recycling and collection process, leaving a minimum critical mass of TRUs, and removing the growing concern that TRUs are becoming long-lived radioactive wastes. (authors)

  9. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  10. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  11. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  12. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  13. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

    2009-09-01

    In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

  14. Structuring energy supply and demand networks in a general equilibrium model to simulate global warming control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  16. Regionalized LCA-based optimization of building energy supply: method and case study for a Swiss municipality.

    PubMed

    Saner, Dominik; Vadenbo, Carl; Steubing, Bernhard; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a regionalized LCA-based multiobjective optimization model of building energy demand and supply for the case of a Swiss municipality for the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter formation. The results show that the environmental improvement potential is very large: in the optimal case, greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply could be reduced by more than 75% and particulate emissions by over 50% in the municipality. This scenario supposes a drastic shift of heat supply systems from a fossil fuel dominated portfolio to a portfolio consisting of mainly heat pump and woodchip incineration systems. In addition to a change in heat supply technologies, roofs, windows and walls would need to be refurbished in more than 65% of the municipality's buildings. The full potential of the environmental impact reductions will hardly be achieved in reality, particularly in the short term, for example, because of financial constraints and social acceptance, which were not taken into account in this study. Nevertheless, the results of the optimization model can help policy makers to identify the most effective measures for improvement at the decision making level, for example, at the building level for refurbishment and selection of heating systems or at the municipal level for designing district heating networks. Therefore, this work represents a starting point for designing effective incentives to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. While the results of the optimization model are specific to the municipality studied, the model could readily be adapted to other regions. PMID:24865977

  17. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  18. Feasibility of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in an integrated municipal energy supply and waste management system.

    PubMed

    Luoranen, Mika; Horttanainen, Mika

    2007-10-01

    A decision-support model for determining the feasibility of a planned energy-from-waste (EfW) investment for an integrated waste management and energy supply system is presented. The aim is to present an easy-to-understand, inexpensive and fast-to-use tool to decision-makers for modelling and evaluating different kinds of processes. Special emphasis is put on forming the model and interpretation of the results of the example case. The simple integrated system management (SISMan) model is presented through a practical example of the use of the model. In the example the viability of the described system is studied by comparing five different cases including different waste-derived fuels (WDF), non-segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) being one of the fuel options. The nominal power output of the EfW plant varied in each case according to the WDF classification. The numeric values for two main variables for each WDF type were determined, the WDF price at the gate of the EfW plant and the waste management fee (WMF) according to the 'polluter pays' -principle. Comparison between the five cases was carried out according to two determinants, the WMF related to each case and the recovery rate related to each case. The numeric values for the constants and variables used in the calculations were chosen as realistically as possible using available data related to the issue. In the example of this paper, the mass-incineration solution ('pure' MSW as a fuel) was found to be the most viable solution for the described system according to the calculations. However, the final decision of the decision-makers might differ from this in the real world due to extra 'fuzzy' information that cannot be reliably included in the calculations. This paper shows that certain key values of modelled systems can be calculated using an easy-to-use tool at the very early stages of a larger design process involving municipal and business partners. The use of this kind of tools could significantly

  19. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... FR 69681 (Dec. 30, 1993), if DOE determines that a test procedure amendment is warranted, it must.... 6295(u)(1)(A)) DOE complied with this requirement by publishing a test procedure final rule, 71 FR... Framework Document for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies on June 4, 2009. 74 FR 26816. DOE...

  20. Synthesis of Sustainable Energy Supply Chain by the P-Graph Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by utilizing the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S...

  1. Palmitate-induced changes in energy demand cause reallocation of ATP supply in rat and human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity-related muscle insulin resistance, but the causality of this association is controversial. The notion that mitochondrial oxidative capacity may be insufficient to deal appropriately with excessive nutrient loads is for example disputed. Effective mitochondrial capacity is indirectly, but largely determined by ATP-consuming processes because skeletal muscle energy metabolism is mostly controlled by ATP demand. Probing the bioenergetics of rat and human myoblasts in real time we show here that the saturated fatty acid palmitate lowers the rate and coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under conditions it causes insulin resistance. Stearate affects the bioenergetic parameters similarly, whereas oleate and linoleate tend to decrease the rate but not the efficiency of ATP synthesis. Importantly, we reveal that palmitate influences how oxidative ATP supply is used to fuel ATP-consuming processes. Direct measurement of newly made protein demonstrates that palmitate lowers the rate of de novo protein synthesis by more than 30%. The anticipated decrease of energy demand linked to protein synthesis is confirmed by attenuated cycloheximide-sensitivity of mitochondrial respiratory activity used to make ATP. This indirect measure of ATP turnover indicates that palmitate lowers ATP supply reserved for protein synthesis by at least 40%. This decrease is also provoked by stearate, oleate and linoleate, albeit to a lesser extent. Moreover, palmitate lowers ATP supply for sodium pump activity by 60-70% and, in human cells, decreases ATP supply for DNA/RNA synthesis by almost three-quarters. These novel fatty acid effects on energy expenditure inform the 'mitochondrial insufficiency' debate. PMID:27154056

  2. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  3. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  4. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  5. Energy II: Use, Conservation and Supply. No. 6 in a Series of Special "Science" Compendia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H., Ed.; Hammond, Allen L., Ed.

    Presented are 26 articles originally published in "Science" during 1975-78. The document is divided into three parts. The first part contains articles on changes in energy use. Included are articles on industrial energy use, energy options and strategies for Western Europe, energy use in Brazil, and solar energy for village development, as well as…

  6. Which Ab Initio Wave Function Methods Are Adequate for Quantitative Calculations of the Energies of Biradicals? The Performance of Coupled-Cluster and Multi-Reference Methods Along a Single-Bond Dissociation Coordinate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ke; Jalan, Amrit; Green, William H.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-08

    We examine the accuracy of single-reference and multireference correlated wave function methods for predicting accurate energies and potential energy curves of biradicals. The biradicals considered are intermediate species along the bond dissociation coordinates for breaking the F-F bond in F2, the O-O bond in H2O2, and the C-C bond in CH3CH3. We apply a host of single-reference and multireference approximations in a consistent way to the same cases to provide a better assessment of their relative accuracies than was previously possible. The most accurate method studied is coupled cluster theory with all connected excitations through quadruples, CCSDTQ. Without explicit quadruple excitations, the most accurate potential energy curves are obtained by the single-reference RCCSDt method, followed, in order of decreasing accuracy, by UCCSDT, RCCSDT, UCCSDt, seven multireference methods, including perturbation theory, configuration interaction, and coupled-cluster methods (with MRCI+Q being the best and Mk-MR-CCSD the least accurate), four CCSD(T) methods, and then CCSD.

  7. Competing Uses of Underground Systems Related to Energy Supply: Applying Single- and Multiphase Simulations for Site Characterization and Risk-Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, A.; Walter, L.; Darcis, M.; Flemisch, B.; Class, H.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change, shortage of resources and the resulting turn towards renewable sources of energy lead to a growing demand for the utilization of subsurface systems. Among these competing uses are Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), geothermal energy, nuclear waste disposal, "renewable" methane or hydrogen storage as well as the ongoing production of fossil resources like oil, gas, and coal. Besides competing among themselves, these technologies may also create conflicts with essential public interests like water supply. For example, the injection of CO2 into the underground causes an increase in pressure reaching far beyond the actual radius of influence of the CO2 plume, potentially leading to large amounts of displaced salt water. Finding suitable sites is a demanding task for several reasons. Natural systems as opposed to technical systems are always characterized by heterogeneity. Therefore, parameter uncertainty impedes reliable predictions towards capacity and safety of a site. State of the art numerical simulations combined with stochastic approaches need to be used to obtain a more reliable assessment of the involved risks and the radii of influence of the different processes. These simulations may include the modeling of single- and multiphase non-isothermal flow, geo-chemical and geo-mechanical processes in order to describe all relevant physical processes adequately. Stochastic approaches have the aim to estimate a bandwidth of the key output parameters based on uncertain input parameters. Risks for these different underground uses can then be made comparable with each other. Along with the importance and the urgency of the competing processes this may lead to a more profound basis for a decision. Communicating risks to stake holders and a concerned public is crucial for the success of finding a suitable site for CCS (or other subsurface utilization). We present and discuss first steps towards an approach for addressing the issue of competitive

  8. Biodiesel Supply and Consumption in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The historical biodiesel consumption data published in the Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review March 2009 edition were revised to account for imports and exports. Table 10.4 of the Monthly Energy Review was expanded to display biodiesel imports, exports, stocks, stock change, and consumption. Similar revisions were made in the April 2009 edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  9. Influence of energy and nutrient supply pre and post partum on performance of multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gruber, L; Urdl, M; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A; Häusler, J; Steiner, B

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre partum (PRE) and post partum (POST) dietary energy and nutrient supply (E) and their interactions on feed intake, performance and energy status in dairy cows of three breeds. In this experiment, the effects of three energy and nutrient supply levels (low (L), medium (M), high (H)), both pre-calving and post-calving, were investigated, using a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. In both phases (84 days pre- and 105 days post-calving) E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n=27 for each breed), were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE). Dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted, if energy intake exceeded target values. Pre partum DMI and energy intake were different as designed, liveweight and body condition score (BCS) of SI cows were higher, but EB was lower, compared to BS and HF cows. Milk yield and composition were influenced by all three main experimental factors (EPRE, EPOST, breed). Energy-corrected milk yield was 25.6, 28.6 and 30.1 kg/day for LPRE, MPRE and HPRE as well as 21.5, 30.1 and 32.6 kg/day for LPOST, MPOST and HPOST, respectively. Numerically, only for milk protein content the interactions EPRE×EPOST and EPRE×breed reached significance. Impact of energy supply pre-calving was more pronounced when cows had lower energy supply post-calving and vice versa. On the other hand, milk yield response of cows to energy supply above requirements was greater for cows that were fed on a low energy level pre partum. Impact of energy level pre partum was higher for HF cows, showing that their milk production relies to a greater extent on mobilization of body reserves. Increasing energy supply pre partum led to a more negative energy balance post partum, mainly by increasing milk yield and content, whereas feed intake was slightly reduced. Increasing energy supply post

  10. P.L. 95-619, "National Energy Supply Policy Act" (NECPA) (1978)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    The purposes of this Act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy, and to conserve non-renewable energy resources without inhibiting beneficial economic growth.

  11. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  12. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  13. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. II. Framework, Strategy, and First Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited "free" energy generation.

  14. An overview of US energy options: Supply- and demand-side history and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    An overview was provided of nonsolar energy policy options available to the United States until solar energy conversion and utilization devices can produce power at a cost competitive with that obtained from fossil fuels. The economics of the development of new fossil fuel sources and of mandatory conservation measures in energy usage were clarified in the context of the historic annual rate of increase in U.S. energy demand. An attempt was made to compare the costs and relative efficiencies of energy obtainable from various sources by correlating the many confusing measurement units in current use.

  15. Neutralization of space charge on high-current low-energy ion beam by low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Gotoh, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Shuhei; Ikeda, Keita; Kitagawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki

    2012-11-06

    Neutralization of space charge on a high-current and low-energy ion beam was attempted to reduce the divergence with an aid of low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays (Si-FEAs). An argon ion beam with the energy of 500 eV and the current of 0.25 mA was produced by a microwave ion source. The initial beam divergence and the emittance were measured at the entrance of the analysis chamber in order to estimate the intrinsic factors for beam divergence. The current density distribution of the beam after transport of 730 mm was measured by a movable Faraday cup, with and without electron supply from Si-FEAs. A similar experiment was performed with tungsten filaments as an electron source. The results indicated that the electron supply from FEA had almost the same effect as the thermionic filament, and it was confirmed that both electron sources can neutralize the ion beam.

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom; King, Thomas F

    2006-04-01

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic

  17. 78 FR 58533 - FirstEnergy Generation, LLC, Allegheny Energy Supply Company, LLC, and Green Valley Hydro, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. 2280-017, 2343-084, 2459-245, 2516-057, 2517-036, 3494- 091, 3671-086, 2391-046, 2425-052, and 2509-046] FirstEnergy Generation, LLC, Allegheny Energy...

  18. Supply Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on supply management is designed to provide the supply chief with an understanding of the fundamental functions of supply management as it applies to a supply office. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course…

  19. The Role of the Latvian District Heating System in the Development of Sustainable Energy Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazbauers, Gatis; Cimdina, Ginta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether and to what extent it is possible to use excess electricity produced by wind power plants during low demand periods for district heat production by heat pumps. Energy system analysis on an hourly basis is conducted at various capacities of wind power plants. The results show that it is possible to increase the share of renewable energy sources, decrease the use of primary energy sources and CO2 emissions per unit of the produced energy, i.e. heat and electricity, by using the surplus electricity produced by wind power in the heat pumps combined with the heat storage.

  20. Energy Supply Characteristics of a Combined Solar Cell and Diesel Engine System with a Prediction Algorithm for Solar Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Abeer Galal; Obara, Shin'ya

    The production of electricity from the solar cells continues to attract interest as a power source for distributed energy generation. It is important to be able to estimate solar cell power to optimize system energy management. This paper proposes a prediction algorithm based on a neural network (NN) to predict the electricity production from a solar cell. The operation plan for a combined solar cell and diesel engine generator system is examined using the NN prediction algorithm. Two systems are examined in this paper: one with and one without a power storage facility. Comparisons are presented of the results from the two systems with respect to the actual calculations of output power and the predicted electricity production from the solar cell. The exhaust heat from the engine is used to supply the heat demand. A back-up boiler is operated when the engine exhaust heat is insufficient to meet the heat demand. Electricity and heat are supplied to the demand side from the proposed systems, and no external sources are used. When the NN production-of-electricity prediction was introduced, the engine generator operating time was reduced by 12.5% in December and 16.7% for March and September. Moreover, an operation plan for the combined system exhaust heat is proposed, and the heat output characteristics of the back-up boiler are characterized.

  1. Optimal planning and design of a renewable energy based supply system for microgrids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hafez, Omar; Bhattacharya, Kankar

    2012-03-03

    This paper presents a technique for optimal planning and design of hybrid renewable energy systems for microgrid applications. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is used to determine the optimal size and type of distributed energy resources (DERs) and their operating schedules for a sample utility distribution system. Using the DER-CAM results, an evaluation is performed to evaluate the electrical performance of the distribution circuit if the DERs selected by the DER-CAM optimization analyses are incorporated. Results of analyses regarding the economic benefits of utilizing the optimal locations identified for the selected DER within the system are alsomore » presented. The actual Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) campus electrical network is used as an example to show the effectiveness of this approach. The results show that these technical and economic analyses of hybrid renewable energy systems are essential for the efficient utilization of renewable energy resources for microgird applications.« less

  2. Optimal planning and design of a renewable energy based supply system for microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Hafez, Omar; Bhattacharya, Kankar

    2012-03-03

    This paper presents a technique for optimal planning and design of hybrid renewable energy systems for microgrid applications. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is used to determine the optimal size and type of distributed energy resources (DERs) and their operating schedules for a sample utility distribution system. Using the DER-CAM results, an evaluation is performed to evaluate the electrical performance of the distribution circuit if the DERs selected by the DER-CAM optimization analyses are incorporated. Results of analyses regarding the economic benefits of utilizing the optimal locations identified for the selected DER within the system are also presented. The actual Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) campus electrical network is used as an example to show the effectiveness of this approach. The results show that these technical and economic analyses of hybrid renewable energy systems are essential for the efficient utilization of renewable energy resources for microgird applications.

  3. Impact of energy prices and cellulosic biomass supply on agriculture, energy, and the environment: An integrated modeling approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in agricultural and biofuel markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  4. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  5. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  6. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  7. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  8. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  9. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  10. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  11. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  12. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  13. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  15. Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

  16. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  17. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  18. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  19. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  20. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  1. Analysis of Time-of-Day Energy Demand and Supply in University and Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to estimate the time-of-day energy demand in University of Yamanashi. Our University consisted of Kofu campus (Faculty of Education & Human Sciences and Faculty of Engineering) and Faculty of Medicine campus (Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital). The energy data of 4 facilities were classified into hot water, heating, cooling and electric power demands based on electric power consumptions, city gas and heavy oil from 1996 to 2005. For 10 years, primary energy increased 1.2 times in the whole of the university. The amount of electric power consumption was 63% in the fuel classification. The amount of electric power consumption of faculty reacted to the change in temperature greatly. In 2005, it was found that thermoelectric-ratios for 4 facilities, i.e. Education, Engineering, Medicine and Hospital were 2.3, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.7 respectively. These data are very useful for the energy saving and energy management of university.

  2. Supply and demand in energy and agriculture: Emitters of CO{sub 2} and possibilities for global biomass energy strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahamer, G.; Hubergasse, J.

    1996-12-31

    As seen from the perspective of global E3-modelling (= environment-economy-energy), the sectors of energy and of agriculture are double players situated in a field of tension: both exhibit growing emissions--but both also exhibit reduction potentials for CO{sub 2}, if areas are used for growth of biomass energy carriers. On the one hand, meeting food demand requires increasing agricultural land use in some regions, on the other hand in other regions, an important input of fossil fuels buys higher efficiency levels. In the First World, newly set-aside land can be used for biomass energy production. Before envisaging global strategies for CO{sub 2} emission reductions and more specifically for an enhanced use of biomass for energy, the present boundary conditions of the global energy and agricultural systems have to be analyzed. In a second step, a likely future development has to be contrasted with the desirable increase of bioenergy.

  3. Energy storage and thermal control system design status. [for space station power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Stephen N.; Willhoite, Bryan C.; Van Ommering, Gert

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) will initially rely on photovoltaics for power generation and Ni/H2 batteries for electrical energy storage. The current design for the development status of two major subsystems in the PV Power Module is discussed. The energy storage subsystem comprised of high capacity Ni/H2 batteries and the single-phase thermal control system that rejects the excess heat generated by the batteries and other components associated with power generation andstorage is described.

  4. The significance of photovoltaics for a climatically benign energy supply in Baden-Wuerttemberg, a state in southern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Moesslein, J.

    1994-12-31

    The contribution to the realization of a climatically benign energy supply in Middle Europe by the inland use of photovoltaics (PV) has been identified to serve as an assessment for political decisions. The roof area of Baden-Wuerttemberg is large enough to install a total PV power that generates at least 20% of the consumed electricity. For this share, the fluctuations of PV power do not cause more than 2% of the total electricity to be unused if no storage systems are used. The small size of the current world market for PV systems, as well as the comparably high prices for PV electricity will impede a fast extension of grid-connected PV systems mid-term. Therefore, public subsidies will still be needed to accelerate both demand and supply of PV systems. Given these boundary conditions a scenario where no more than maybe 100 MWp will be installed until the year 2005 is most probable. Then, the share of the electricity generation by PV will only be in the 0.1% range. Logistic functions for the PV market after the year 2005 show that only if they start to support the integration of PV systems in the electricity system already today, shares of the PV electricity in the 10--20% range will be obtainable around the year 2020.

  5. Petroleum resources of the Middle East. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program Series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report contains an analysis of known and ultimately recoverable crude oil and natural gas resources in the following Persian Gulf states: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The State of Kuwait, The Islamic Republic of Iran, The Republic of Iraq, The United Arab Emirates: Sheidkom of Abu Dhabi, Sheikdom of Dubai, and Sheikdom of Sharjah, The Divided Neutral Zone (administered jointly by Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), The State of Qatar, The Sultanate of Oman, and the State of Bahrain. The rates that oil resources will likely be available to world markets are also covered in this report. A comprehensive analysis was made of the ultimately recoverable oil in 150 fields. This included all of the giant fields (63) and, with a few minor exceptions, all of the producing non-giant fields (46). It also included 41 non-producing fields. Analysis indicated that 547 billion barrels of ultimately recoverable oil was found in these fields. This would include 87 billion barrels of oil which will require advanced recovery techniques if the oil is to be extracted from the reservoirs. Excluding the 128 billion barrels of the known recoverable oil produced through 1981, the known recoverable oil remaining at year-end 1981 was about 419 billion barrels. If the average production during the 1990's remained the same as in the 1980's, the known resource base at the end of the 20th century would be reduced to 249 billion barrels or about a 29 year supply. Therefore, by the year 2000, over one-half of the total known oil resource base would be depleted, and production levels would of necessity decline as it would be difficult for the known fields to maintain an aggregate production level of 8.46 billion barrels per year. (DMC)

  6. P.L. 100-357, "National Appliance Energy Supply Amendments" (1988)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    Amends the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to include fluorescent lamp ballasts within the list of products covered by the Act. Amends the definition of "consumer product" to include fluorescent lamp ballasts distributed in commerce for personal or commercial use or consumption.

  7. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick

    2014-06-15

    The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs.

  8. Plasma ghrelin concentrations of beef cattle consuming a similar amount of dietary energy supplied by different ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wertz-Lutz, A E; Jennings, J S; Clapper, J A

    2010-07-01

    Previous research demonstrated increased plasma ghrelin concentrations in beef cattle when intake of a high-grain diet was restricted. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether differences in DMI influenced plasma ghrelin concentrations when energy intake was similar but cattle were in either an anabolic or a catabolic state. In Exp. 1, five steers (BW = 592.6 +/- 9.3 kg) were offered dietary treatments of 1) 50:50 hay:concentrate (HY) to meet the NE(m) requirement and were supplied an additional 3.4 Mcal of NE(g) daily, 2) or a diet composed of 10:90 hay:concentrate but were limit-fed to achieve an energy intake similar to that of the HY steers (LFC). The LFC treatment met the NE(m) requirement of each steer and supplied 3.6 Mcal of NE(g) daily. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design composed of 2 21-d periods. In the first period, 2 steers were assigned to the HY treatment and 3 steers were assigned to the LFC treatment. On d 21 after initiation of the dietary treatment, serial blood samples were collected via indwelling jugular catheter, using periods of frequent sampling in which samples were collected at 15-min intervals. The periods of frequent sampling were spread throughout the beginning, middle, and end of the 12-h feeding interval. After the first period, steers were weighed, dietary treatments were switched between steer groups, and intake amounts were recalculated on the basis of the first-period ending BW. The second-period adaptation and sampling were repeated as described for the first period. Plasma samples were assayed for ghrelin, insulin, GH, and NEFA concentrations. Experiment 2 was conducted using the same methodology as Exp. 1, except that steers were in a catabolic state. Five steers (BW = 718.3 +/- 12.8 kg) were offered the HY or LFC diet at an amount that would supply 80% of the NE(m) required to maintain BW. For Exp. 1, energy intake was sufficient to result in similar (P = 0.14) BW gains between treatment groups

  9. P.L. 100-12, "National Appliance Energy Supply Act" (1987)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    Amends the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to add to the list of products covered under the Act: (1) freezers which can be operated by alternating current electricity (with specified exceptions); (2) central air conditioning heat pumps; (3) direct heating equipment; and (4) pool heaters. Deletes from specific coverage: (1) humidifiers; and (2) dehumidifiers. Excludes from such coverage consumer products designed solely for use in recreational vehicles and other mobile equipment.

  10. Wind for Schools: Fostering the Human Talent Supply Chain for a 20% Wind Energy Future (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2011-03-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by: 1) Developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses. 2) Installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools. 3) Implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school.

  11. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    PubMed

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented. PMID:23778699

  12. Acute toxicity of doxorubicin on isolated perfused heart: response of kinases regulating energy supply.

    PubMed

    Tokarska-Schlattner, Malgorzata; Zaugg, Michael; da Silva, Rafaela; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Schaub, Marcus C; Wallimann, Theo; Schlattner, Uwe

    2005-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is a widely used and efficient anticancer drug. However, its application is limited by the risk of severe cardiotoxicity. Impairment of cardiac high-energy phosphate homeostasis is an important manifestation of both acute and chronic DXR cardiotoxic action. Using the Langendorff model of the perfused rat heart, we characterized the acute effects of 1-h perfusion with 2 or 20 microM DXR on two key kinases in cardiac energy metabolism, creatine kinase (CK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and related them to functional responses of the perfused heart and structural integrity of the contractile apparatus as well as drug accumulation in cardiomyocytes. DXR-induced changes in CK were dependent on the isoenzyme, with a shift in protein levels of cytosolic isoenzymes from muscle-type CK to brain-type CK, and a destabilization of octamers of the mitochondrial isoenzyme (sarcometric mitochondrial CK) accompanied by drug accumulation in mitochondria. Interestingly, DXR rapidly reduced the protein level and phosphorylation of AMPK as well as phosphorylation of its target, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase. AMPK was strongly affected already at 2 microM DXR, even before substantial cardiac dysfunction occurred. Impairment of CK isoenzymes was mostly moderate but became significant at 20 microM DXR. Only at 2 microM DXR did upregulation of brain-type CK compensate for inactivation of other isoenzymes. These results suggest that an impairment of kinase systems regulating cellular energy homeostasis is involved in the development of DXR cardiotoxicity. PMID:15764680

  13. On the Integration of Wind and Solar Energy to Provide a Total Energy Supply in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, E. C.; Rhoades, A.; Sloggy, M.; Mills, D.; Archer, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using renewable energy - mostly wind and solar radiation - as the primary sources of energy in the U.S., under the assumption that a nationwide electric transmission grid is in place. Previous studies have shown that solar output from California and Texas using energy storage is well correlated with the state energy load on an hour by hour basis throughout the year and with the US national load on a monthly basis. Other studies have shown that solar or wind alone can power the present US grid on average. This study explores scenarios for use of wind and solar energy together at the national scale on an hour by hour basis to determine if such a combination is a better match to national seasonal load scenarios than either of the two alone on an hour-by-hour basis. Actual hour by hour national load data from a particular year will be used as a basis, with some scenarios incorporating vehicle sector electrification and building heating and cooling using electric heat pumps. Hydro and geothermal generation can provide additional controllable output, when needed, to fulfill the hourly electricity and/or energy needs. Hourly wind speed data were calculated at the hub height of 80 m above the ground for the year 2006 at over 150 windy locations in the continental US using an extrapolation technique based on 10-m wind speed measurements and vertical sounding profiles. Using a 1.5 MW wind turbine as benchmark, the hourly wind power production nationwide was determined at all locations. Similarly, the hourly output from solar plants, with and without thermal storage, was calculated based on Ausra’s model assuming that the solar production would occur in the Southwest, the area with the greatest solar radiation density in the U.S. Hourly electricity demand for the year 2006 was obtained nationwide from a variety of sources, including the Federal Energy Regulation Commission. Hourly residential heating and cooking, industrial heat

  14. Vermont Biofuels Initiative: Local Production for Local Use to Supply a Portion of Vermont's Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Scott; Kahler, Ellen

    2009-05-31

    The Vermont Biofuels initiative (VBI) is the Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund's (VSJF) biomass-to-biofuels market development program. Vermont is a small state with a large petroleum dependency for transportation (18th in per capita petroleum consumption) and home heating (55% of all households use petroleum for heating). The VBI marks the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont's dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives. As such, it supports the four key priorities of the U.S. Department of Energy's Multi-year Biomass Plan: 1.) Dramatically reduce dependence on foreign oil; 2.) Promote the use of diverse, domestic and sustainable energy resources; 3.) Reduce carbon emissions from energy production and consumption; 4.) Establish a domestic bioindustry. In 2005 VSJF was awarded with a $496,000 Congressionally directed award from U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy. This award was administered through the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG36- 05GO85017, hereafter referred to as DOE FY05) with $396,000 to be used by VSJF for biodiesel development and $100,000 to be used by the Vermont Department of Public Service for methane biodigester projects. The intent and strategic focus of the VBI is similar to another DOE funded organization-the Biofuels Center of North Carolina-in that it is a nonprofit driven, statewide biofuels market development effort. DOE FY05 funds were expensed from 2006 through 2008 for seven projects: 1) a feedstock production, logistics, and biomass conversion research project conducted by the University of Vermont Extension; 2) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of State Line Biofuels existing biodiesel production facility; 3) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of Borderview Farm's proposed biodiesel production facility; 4) technology and infrastructure purchases for capacity expansion at Green Technologies, LLC, a waste vegetable biodiesel producer; 5

  15. Technological development of high energy density capacitors. [for spacecraft power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop cylindrical wound metallized film capacitors rated 2 micron F 500 VDC that had energy densities greater than 0.1J/g. Polysulfone (PS) and polyvinylidene (PVF2) were selected as dielectrics. Single film PS capacitors of 0.2J/g (uncased) were made of 3.75 micron material. Single film PVF2 capacitors of 0.19J/g (uncased) were made of 6.0 micron material. Corona measurements were made at room temperature, and capacitance and dissipation factor measurements were made over the ranges 25 C to 125 C and 120 Hz to 100 kHz. Nineteen of twenty PVF2 components survived a 2500 hour dc plus ac life test. Failure analyses revealed most failures occurred at wrinkles, but some edge failures were also seen. A 0.989g case was designed. When the case was combined with the PVF2 component, a finished energy density of 0.11J/g was achieved.

  16. Use of a turboexpander in steam power units for heat energy recovery in heat supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Daminov, A. Z.; Solomin, I. N.; Futin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    A method for raising the efficiency of a boiler plant by installing a unit operating by the organic Rankine cycle is presented. Such units allow one to generate electricity to cover the auxiliaries of a heat source at a heat-transfer fluid temperature of no more than 130°C. The results of commissioning tests of boilers revealed that their efficiency is maximized under a load that is close or corresponds to the nominal one. If this load is maintained constantly, excess heat energy is produced. This excess may be used to generate electric energy in a steam power unit with a turboexpander. A way to insert this unit into the flow diagram of a boiler plant is proposed. The results of analysis of turbine types (turboexpanders included) with various capacities are presented, and the optimum type for the proposed flow diagram is chosen. The methodology for the design of turboexpanders and compressors used in the oil and gas industry and their operational data were applied in the analysis of a turboexpander. The results of the thermogasdynamic analysis of a turboexpander and the engineered shape of an axial-radial impeller are presented. Halocarbon R245fa is chosen as the working medium based on its calorimetric properties.

  17. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. The economic value of transportation energy contingency planning: An objective model for analyzing the economics of domestic renewable energy for supply augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaten, Richard Jay

    1998-12-01

    Petroleum provides 90% of transportation energy needs. Domestic production is decreasing and global demand is increasing. Risk of escalating prices and supply interruptions are compounded by environmental and military externalities and lost opportunities from the failure to develop alternative domestic resources. Within the context of "energy contingency planning" municipalities should evaluate crisis mitigation strategies. Supply augmentation using domestic renewable fuels is proposed to avert future financial liabilities. A method for calculating the economic value of this strategy is demonstrated. An objective function and associated constraints represent the cost of preparing for each of three possible scenarios: status quo, inflationary and crisis. Constraints ensure that municipal fuel needs are met. Environmental costs may be included. Optimal solutions determine the fuel supply mix for each scenario. A 3 x 3 matrix presents the range of actual costs resulting from preparing for each scenario and subsequent three possible outcomes. The distribution of probabilities of the outcomes is applied to the cost matrix and an "expected value" of preparing for each scenario is calculated. An unanticipated crisis outcome results in. The expected value of the cost of preparing for a crisis is cast as an insurance premium against potential economic liability. Policy makers accept the crisis preparation fuel mix if: (a) they agree with the calculated penalty cost, or (b) they accept the burden of the insurance premium. Green Bay Wisconsin was chosen as a sample municipality. Results show that a perceived 10% chance of crisis requires an annual tax of 4.00 per household to avert economic impacts of 50 million. At a perceived 50% chance of crisis preparing for the crisis would begin to save the municipality money.

  19. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  20. On the integration of wind and solar energy to provide a total energy supply in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Cristina; Mills, David; Cheng, Weili; Sloggy, Matthew; Liebig, Edwin; Rhoades, Alan

    2010-05-01

    This study examines the feasibility of using renewable energy - mostly wind and solar radiation - as the primary source of energy in the USA, under the assumption that a nationwide electric transmission grid is in place. Previous studies have shown that solar or wind alone can power the present U.S. grid on average. Other studies have shown that solar output from California and Texas using energy storage is well correlated with the state energy load on an hour by hour basis throughout the year and with the U.S. national load on a monthly basis. This study explores scenarios for use of wind and solar energy together at the national scale on an hour by hour basis to determine if such a combination is a better match to national seasonal load scenarios than either of the two alone on an hour-by-hour basis. Actual hour by hour national load data from the year 2006 are used as a basis, with some scenarios incorporating vehicle sector electrification and building heating and cooling using electric heat pumps. Hourly wind speed data were calculated at the hub height of 80 m above the ground for the year 2006 at over 150 windy locations in the continental U.S. using an extrapolation technique based on 10-m wind speed measurements and vertical sounding profiles. Using a 1.5 MW wind turbine as benchmark, the hourly wind power production nationwide was determined at all suitable locations. Similarly, the hourly output from solar plants, with and without thermal storage, was calculated based on Ausra's model assuming that the solar production would occur in the Southwest, the area with the greatest solar radiation density in the U.S. Hourly electricity demand for the year 2006 was obtained nationwide from a variety of sources, including the Federal Energy Regulation Commission. Hourly residential heating and cooking, industrial heat processing, and future electrified transportation loads were calculated from monthly and yearly energy consumption data from the Energy Information

  1. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  2. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  3. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply; Executive Summary (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This document is a 21-page summary of the 200+ page analysis that explores one clearly defined scenario for providing 20% of our nation's electricity demand with wind energy by 2030 and contrasts it to a scenario of no new U.S. wind power capacity.

  4. Biofuels in the long-run global energy supply mix for transportation.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Govinda R

    2014-01-13

    Various policy instruments along with increasing oil prices have contributed to a sixfold increase in global biofuels production over the last decade (2000-2010). This rapid growth has proved controversial, however, and has raised concerns over potential conflicts with global food security and climate change mitigation. To address these concerns, policy support is now focused on advanced or second-generation biofuels instead of crop-based first-generation biofuels. This policy shift, together with the global financial crisis, has slowed the growth of biofuels production, which has remained stagnant since 2010. Based upon a review of the literature, this paper examines the potential long-run contribution of biofuels to the global energy mix, particularly for transportation. We find that the contribution of biofuels to global transportation fuel demand is likely to be limited to around 5% over the next 10-15 years. However, a number of studies suggest that biofuels could contribute up to a quarter of global transportation fuel demand by 2050, provided technological breakthroughs reduce the costs of sustainably produced advanced biofuels to a level where they can compete with petroleum fuels. PMID:24298077

  5. SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN CEREBRAL ENERGY METABOLISM: THE ROLE OF NUTRIENT TRANSPORTERS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Ian A.; Carruthers, Anthony; Vannucci, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Glucose is the obligate energetic fuel for the mammalian brain and most studies of cerebral energy metabolism assume that the vast majority of cerebral glucose utilization fuels neuronal activity via oxidative metabolism, both in the basal and activated state. Glucose transporter proteins (GLUTs) deliver glucose from the circulation to the brain: GLUT1 in the microvascular endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and glia; GLUT3 in neurons. Lactate, the glycolytic product of glucose metabolism, is transported into and out of neural cells by the monocarboxylate transporters: MCT1 in the BBB and astrocytes and MCT2 in neurons. The proposal of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (Pellerin and Magistretti, 1994) suggested that astrocytes play the primary role in cerebral glucose utilization and generate lactate for neuronal energetics, especially during activation. Since the identification of the GLUTs and MCTs in brain, much has been learned about their transport properties, i.e. capacity and affinity for substrate, which must be considered in any model of cerebral glucose uptake and utilization. Using concentrations and kinetic parameters of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in BBB endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons, along with the corresponding kinetic properties of the monocarboxylate transporters, we have successfully modeled brain glucose and lactate levels as well as lactate transients in response to neuronal stimulation. Simulations based on these parameters suggest that glucose readily diffuses through the basal lamina and interstitium to neurons, which are primarily responsible for glucose uptake, metabolism, and the generation of the lactate transients observed upon neuronal activation. PMID:17579656

  6. Enhancing Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake in Myocytes From Failing Hearts Restores Energy Supply and Demand Matching

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; O’Rourke, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP production is continually adjusted to energy demand through coordinated increases in oxidative phosphorylation and NADH production mediated by mitochondrial Ca2+([Ca2+]m). Elevated cytosolic Na+ impairs [Ca2+]m accumulation during rapid pacing of myocytes, resulting in a decrease in NADH/NAD+ redox potential. Here, we determined 1) if accentuating [Ca2+]m accumulation prevents the impaired NADH response at high [Na+]i; 2) if [Ca2+]m handling and NADH/NAD+ balance during stimulation is impaired with heart failure (induced by aortic constriction); and 3) if inhibiting [Ca2+]m efflux improves NADH/NAD+ balance in heart failure. [Ca2+]m and NADH were recorded in cells at rest and during voltage clamp stimulation (4Hz) with either 5 or 15 mmol/L [Na+]i. Fast [Ca2+]m transients and a rise in diastolic [Ca2+]m were observed during electric stimulation. [Ca2+]m accumulation was [Na+]i-dependent; less [Ca2+]m accumulated in cells with 15 Na+ versus 5 mmol/L Na+ and NADH oxidation was evident at 15 mmol/L Na+, but not at 5 mmol/L Na+. Treatment with either the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor CGP-37157 (1 µmol/L) or raising cytosolic Pi (2 mmol/L) enhanced [Ca2+]m accumulation and prevented the NADH oxidation at 15 mmol/L [Na+]i. In heart failure myocytes, resting [Na+]i increased from 5.2±1.4 to 16.8±3.1mmol/L and net NADH oxidation was observed during pacing, whereas NADH was well matched in controls. Treatment with CGP-37157 or lowering [Na+]i prevented the impaired NADH response in heart failure. We conclude that high [Na+]i (at levels observed in heart failure) has detrimental effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics, and this impairment can be prevented by inhibiting the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. PMID:18599868

  7. Energy-effective method for low-temperature deaeration of make-up water on the heating supply system of heat power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Pazushkina, O. V.; Kudryavtseva, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    The technology for low-temperature deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems is developed that makes it possible to substantially enhance the energy efficiency of heat power plants (HPPs). As a desorbing agent for deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems, it is proposed to use not steam or superheated water but a gas supplied to boiler burners. Natural gas supplied to steam boilers of HPPs has very low or often negative temperature after reducing devices. At the same time, it is virtually corrosive gas-free (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and, therefore, can be successfully used as the desorbing agent for water deaeration. These factors make it possible to perform deaeration of make-up water of heating supply systems at relatively low temperatures (10-30°C). Mixing of the cold deaerated make-up water with the return delivery water results in a significant decrease in the temperature the return delivery water before a lower delivery heater of a dual-purpose turbine plant, increase in the power output with the heat consumption, and, consequently, enhancement in the operation efficiency of the HPP. The article presents the calculation of the consumption of gas theoretically required for deaeration and reveals the evaluation of the energy efficiency of the technology for a typical energy unit of thermal power station. The mass transfer efficiency of the deaeration of the make-up water of heating supply systems is estimated for the case of using natural gas as the desorbing agent for which the specific gas consumption required theoretically for deaeration is calculated. It is shown that the consumption of natural gas used as fuel in boilers of HPPs is sufficient for the deaeration of any volumes of the make-up water of heating supply systems. The energy efficiency of the developed technology is evaluated for a typical heat power-generating unit of the HPP with a T-100-12.8 turbine. The calculation showed that the application of the new technology

  8. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  9. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  10. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  11. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  12. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  20. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  1. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  2. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  3. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  4. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  5. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  6. Analyzing opportunities for energy conservation in municipal fleet management: service delivery patterns, equipment, supply, operations, and maintenance. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Vehicle fleet management as a five-step process is portrayed and the multiple energy conservation opportunities within each step are examined. The five steps described are, configuration of service area and service delivery patterns, equipping the fleet, operating the fleet, maintaining the fleet, and supplying the fleet with fuel. A systems approach to decision making about municipal fleets is outlined. Management options, control techniques, and devices are suggested for each of the five steps. Reference is made to analytic tools which will assist in deliberating options at each of these steps. These tools are presented in a list. Four concise case studies of jurisdictions which are taking deliberate steps to reduce fuel use are presented. Key opportunities for fuel conservation are then summarized, followed by a selected bibliography, and listing of reference materials and additional resources.

  7. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-Graph Framework under Cost Constraints andSustainability Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  8. Impaired mitochondrial energy supply coupled to increased H2O2 emission under energy/redox stress leads to myocardial dysfunction during Type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tocchetti, Carlo G; Stanley, Brian A; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Bedja, Djahida; O'Rourke, Brian; Paolocci, Nazareno; Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    In Type I diabetic (T1DM) patients, both peaks of hyperglycaemia and increased sympathetic tone probably contribute to impair systolic and diastolic function. However, how these stressors eventually alter cardiac function during T1DM is not fully understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that impaired mitochondrial energy supply and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission is centrally involved in T1DM cardiac dysfunction due to metabolic/redox stress and aimed to determine the mitochondrial sites implicated in these alterations. To this end, we used isolated myocytes and mitochondria from Sham and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1DM guinea pigs (GPs), untreated or treated with insulin. Relative to controls, T1DM myocytes exhibited higher oxidative stress when challenged with high glucose (HG) combined with β-adrenergic stimulation [via isoprenaline (isoproterenol) (ISO)], leading to contraction/relaxation deficits. T1DM mitochondria had decreased respiration with complex II and IV substrates and markedly lower ADP phosphorylation rates and higher H2O2 emission when challenged with oxidants to mimic the more oxidized redox milieu present in HG + ISO-treated cardiomyocytes. Since in T1DM hearts insulin-sensitivity is preserved and a glucose-to-fatty acid (FA) shift occurs, we next tested whether insulin therapy or acute palmitate (Palm) infusion prevents HG + ISO-induced cardiac dysfunction. We found that insulin rescued proper cardiac redox balance, but not mitochondrial respiration or contractile performance. Conversely, Palm restored redox balance and preserved myocyte function. Thus, stressors such as peaks of HG and adrenergic hyperactivity impair mitochondrial respiration, hampering energy supply while exacerbating ROS emission. Our study suggests that an ideal therapeutic measure to treat metabolically/redox-challenged T1DM hearts should concomitantly correct energetic and redox abnormalities to fully maintain cardiac function. PMID:26186741

  9. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  10. A simple model for the energy supply of a stand-alone house using a hybrid wind-solar power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beke, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    A research project for secondary school students involving both physical measurements and modelling is presented. The problem to be solved is whether and how a typical house can be supplied with energy off-grid, based entirely on renewable energy sources, more specifically, on solar and wind energy, while using relatively simple devices, namely, photovoltaic modules, wind turbines and accumulators. To this end our students carried out a long term measurement series in order to assess the typical energy consumption of houses. Further, the number of solar modules and wind turbines, and the necessary accumulator capacity, was estimated.

  11. Can loss of balance from mesoscale eddies adequately power deep ocean mixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Haine, T. W.; Read, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The global ocean thermohaline circulation is partly composed of the sinking of dense surface waters at high latitudes. But in order to close the circulation and maintain the abyssal stratification, the dense waters must rise up again through vertical mixing. This process requires a source of energy roughly estimated to be 2 TW. Previous work has concluded that tides and winds may adequately supply the required power, but the conceivable role of loss of balance from mesoscale eddies, resulting in the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves and associated vertical mixing, has hitherto been considered to be 'of unknown importance' (Wunsch and Ferrari, 2004). We investigate the potential role of loss of balance, by studying the generation of internal inertia-gravity waves by balanced flow in a rotating two-layer annulus laboratory experiment (Williams et al., 2008). A photograph from the experiment is shown in the figure. As the Rossby number of the balanced flow decreases, the amplitude of the emitted inertia-gravity waves also decreases, but much less rapidly than is predicted by several dynamical theories. This finding suggests that inertia-gravity waves might be far more energised than previously thought. The balanced flow leaks roughly one per cent of its energy each rotation period into internal inertia-gravity waves at the peak of their generation. Crude extrapolation of this result to the global ocean suggests that the flux of energy from mesoscale eddies into internal waves may be as large as 1.5 TW. We claim no accuracy for this figure which is only indicative. Nevertheless, we are persuaded that generation of inertia-gravity waves from the balanced mesoscale flow may be an important source of energy for deep interior mixing, and deserves further study. Reference Williams, PD, Haine, TWN and Read, PL (2008) Inertia-Gravity Waves Emitted from Balanced Flow: Observations, Properties, and Consequences. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), pp 3543

  12. Effects of prepartal body condition score and peripartal energy supply of dairy cows on postpartal lipolysis, energy balance and ketogenesis: an animal model to investigate subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Reiche, Dania; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Subclinical ketosis is a metabolic disorder which often goes undiagnosed and leads to constricted performance and an impairment of general condition. In the current study subclinical ketosis was characterised by a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration of >1·2 mmol/l in blood serum. To generate this metabolic situation, an animal model was created. The model, based on group-specific interaction of dietary energy supply and body condition, is appropriate for testing the medical effectiveness of treating this kind of ketosis and its concomitants. During the trial, 18 dairy cows (primiparous and pluriparous) were assigned, according to their body condition score (BCS) 6 weeks before expected parturition, to a normal [6.78 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter; 20% concentrate] or to a high-energy feeding group (7·71 MJ NEL/kg dry matter; 60% concentrate). Therefore cows with the highest BCS were allocated to the high-energy group to enhance the contrast with the control group. Statistical analysis was done using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Effects were declared significant when P-values were ⩽0.05. Owing to the higher energy concentration and dry matter intake, the energy intake and balance was significantly higher in the high-energy feeding group, with strong effects on lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver post partum. Within the first 2 weeks after calving, 8 out of 9 cows (89%) of the high-energy group had BHB values indicative of subclinical ketosis. These cows also had significantly higher values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) post partum, as well as a raised total lipid content of the liver. RQUICKI, a calculated parameter which is based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin and NEFA to assess the insulin sensitivity, was not affected by treatment. Therefore, RQUICKI does not seem to be the right parameter for diagnosing decreased insulin sensitivity in cows

  13. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  14. Coal's role in California's energy needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, N. H.

    1978-01-01

    California's post-industrial society demands confidence in the energy supply system as an essential ingredient for social harmony and adequate job creating capital investment. Confidence requires policies which balance supply and demand using believable methods with adequate allowance for the unexpected, reliance on diverse sources and locations, respect for our environment, sustain our individual freedoms and provide opportunities for economic mobility. Coal will play only a part, but an important part, in a multifaceted energy policy using numerous energy sources and systems, conservation techniques, and cooperating societal institutions. Today's extensive and challenging research and development provides the foundation for future technologies which will further resolve the environmental effects associated with coal.

  15. School Nurse Inspections Improve Handwashing Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Schrader, Ronald; Trujillo, Rebecca; Blea, Mary; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Handwashing in the school setting is important for infectious disease control, yet maintaining adequate handwashing supplies is often made difficult by lack of funds, limited staff time, and student vandalism. This study measured the availability of handwashing supplies for students in New Mexico public schools and determined the…

  16. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  17. Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  18. Energy-water nexus analysis of enhanced water supply scenarios: a regional comparison of Tampa Bay, Florida, and San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2014-05-20

    Increased water demand and scarce freshwater resources have forced communities to seek nontraditional water sources. These challenges are exacerbated in coastal communities, where population growth rates and densities in the United States are the highest. To understand the current management dilemma between constrained surface and groundwater sources and potential new water sources, Tampa Bay, Florida (TB), and San Diego, California (SD), were studied through 2030 accounting for changes in population, water demand, and electricity grid mix. These locations were chosen on the basis of their similar populations, land areas, economies, and water consumption characters as well as their coastal locations and rising contradictions between water demand and supply. Three scenarios were evaluated for each study area: (1) maximization of traditional supplies; (2) maximization of seawater desalination; and (3) maximization of nonpotable water reclamation. Three types of impacts were assessed: embodied energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and energy cost. SD was found to have higher embodied energy and energy cost but lower GHG emission than TB in most of its water infrastructure systems because of the differences between the electricity grid mixes and water resources of the two regions. Maximizing water reclamation was found to be better than increasing either traditional supplies or seawater desalination in both regions in terms of the three impact categories. The results further imply the importance of assessing the energy-water nexus when pursuing demand-side control targets or goals as well to ensure that the potentially most economical options are considered. PMID:24730467

  19. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  20. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  1. Analysis of Diurnal Variations in Energy Footprint and Its Associated Carbon Emission for Water Supply and Reuse in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, Reza

    Arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world face water scarcity. Conventional water supply portfolio of these regions encompassed limited surface water, groundwater, and imported water. Current technological innovations technically and economically supplemented new water sources i.e., reclaimed water, desalted water and the groundwater sources that were not potable. The need for more efficient and alternative sources of drinking water supply necessitates studying the impediments e.g., intensive energy required, and emerging concern of the carbon emission. This dissertation discusses the challenges of energy footprint and its carbon emission among the processes involved in water supplies in the aforementioned regions. The conducted studies present time-dependent energy footprint analyses of different water reclamation and reuse processes. This study discusses the energy consumption in four main energy intensive processes inclusive of: activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with UV/ H2O2. The results indicate how the diurnal variations of different environmental parameters (e.g. flow and pollutant concentration) amplify the energy footprint variation among these processes. Meanwhile, the results show, due to the different power sources diurnally employed to provide electrical energy, the energy-associated carbon emission has more drastic variation in diurnal period compared to the energy footprint variation. In addition, this study presents the energy footprint of a modular process for treating local brackish groundwater by employing a combination of pellet reactor for radium and hardness minimization, reverse osmosis with intermediate precipitation, and concentrated brine crystallization to achieve high recovery with zero liquid discharge. Also it compares the energy footprint of the aforementioned process with the alternative option (i.e. desalted seawater conveyance with substantial lift). Finally, in coastal regions

  2. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  3. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  4. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  5. An energy supply network of nutrient absorption coordinated by calcium and T1R taste receptors in rat small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Oliver J; Lister, Norma; Morgan, Emma; Shepherd, Emma; Affleck, Julie; Helliwell, Philip; Bronk, John R; Kellett, George L; Meredith, David; Boyd, Richard; Pieri, Myrtani; Bailey, Pat D; Pettcrew, Rachel; Foley, David

    2009-01-01

    T1R taste receptors are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose absorption comprises active absorption via SGLT1 and facilitated absorption via GLUT2 in the apical membrane. Trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/α-gustducin to activate PLC β2 and PKC βII. We therefore investigated whether non-sugar nutrients are regulated by taste receptors using perfused rat jejunum in vivo. Under different conditions, we observed a Ca2+-dependent reciprocal relationship between the H+/oligopeptide transporter PepT1 and apical GLUT2, reflecting the fact that trafficking of PepT1 and GLUT2 to the apical membrane is inhibited and activated by PKC βII, respectively. Addition of l-glutamate or sucralose to a perfusate containing low glucose (20 mm) each activated PKC βII and decreased apical PepT1 levels and absorption of the hydrolysis-resistant dipeptide l-Phe(ΨS)-l-Ala (1 mm), while increasing apical GLUT2 and glucose absorption within minutes. Switching perfusion from mannitol to glucose (75 mm) exerted similar effects. l-Glutamate induced rapid GPCR internalization of T1R1, T1R3 and transducin, whereas sucralose internalized T1R2, T1R3 and α-gustducin. We conclude that l-glutamate acts via amino acid and glucose via sweet taste receptors to coordinate regulation of PepT1 and apical GLUT2 reciprocally through a common enterocytic pool of PKC βII. These data suggest the existence of a wider Ca2+ and taste receptor-coordinated transport network incorporating other nutrients and/or other stimuli capable of activating PKC βII and additional transporters, such as the aspartate/glutamate transporter, EAAC1, whose level was doubled by l-glutamate. The network may control energy supply. PMID:19001049

  6. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  7. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  8. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  9. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  10. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  11. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  12. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  13. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  14. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  15. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  16. Hepatic transcriptome of beef steers is differentially modulated by composition of energy-substrate supply in growing beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify important rate-controlling sequences in response to differing macronutrient supplies, 19 beef steers (272.5 ± 17.6 kg initial BW) were fed a forage-based diet and infused per abomasum with either water (Control, n = 4), Casein (n = 5) or Starch (n = 5), or fed Na-propionate (n = 5) for 4...

  17. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  18. A novel flattop current regulated energy discharge type pulsed power supply and magnet yielding 4. 4 kGauss-meter for 6 milliseconds

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.T.

    1989-07-01

    Most energy discharge power supplies obtain their bursts of power from the energy stored in charged capacitors when it is suddenly released into a load. This note describes the design of a similar small 800 Joules energy discharge type power supply and magnet. The magnet gap is 2 in.{times}2 in.{times}25-1/2 in. long and produces about 4.4 kGauss-meters at a rate of 12 pulses per minute. Each pulse is current regulated at the top for a duration of 6 msec. and varies less than 0.6% of set value. Current regulation at flattop is obtained by switching a resistor in and out of the discharge circuit with an IGBT at a rate of about 5 kHz. Most energy discharge systems produce half sine wave pulses, and current regulation is obtained by controlling the charge voltage at the energy storage capacitor, resulting only in a controlled peak current value of the half sine wave pulse. The current value at the top changes substantially during 6 msec. depending on the operating frequency.

  19. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to..., producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  20. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to..., producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  1. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to..., producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  2. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A... supplying the stated volume of oil to a specified recipient including, but not limited to, distributing, producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  3. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A... supplying the stated volume of oil to a specified recipient including, but not limited to, distributing, producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  4. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  5. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  6. Decomposition and control of complex systems - Application to the analysis and control of industrial and economic systems /energy production/ with limited supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coligny, M.

    Optimized control strategies are developed for industrial installations where many variables of energy supply and storage are involved, with a particular focus on characteristics of a solar central tower power plant. It is shown that optimal regulation resides in controlling all disturbances which occur in a limited domain of the entire system, using robust control schemes. Choosing a command is then dependent on defining precise operational limits as constraints on the machines' performances. Attention is given to the development of variational principles used for the elements of the command logic. Particular consideration is given to a limited supply in storage in spatial and temporal terms. Commands for alterations in functions are then available on-line, and discontinuities are not a feature of the control system. The strategy is applied to the case of a field of heliostats and a central tower themal receiver showing that management is possible on the basis of a sliding horizon.

  7. Predictive methodology for supply disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, M.; D'Acierno, J.

    1982-04-01

    Energy supply disruptions do not suddenly arise in a full-blown fashion. Lags in the energy system provide a time horizon which allows for the prediction of a possible supply problem. A simple model is described which can be used to provide a set of indicators for the possible onset of an energy emergency. The methodology was tested on the gasoline shortage of 1979, and the results are presented.

  8. Energy/economic model analysis. Macroeconomic impacts of research and development in gas supply and end use technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettle, R. J., IV; Hudson, E. A.

    1980-06-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) needs to consider the economic impact of the various technologies whose research and development is supported by GRI funding. Three energy-economic models are useful for such a technology assessment. These models are: Energy Economic Modeling System, Energy Policy Model, and Time Stepped Energy System Optimization/Long Term Inter-Industry Transaction Model. These three models were used to help in the economic impact evaluation of various GRI research and development programs.

  9. Control of electron heating and ion energy distributions in capacitive plasmas by voltage waveform tailoring based on a novel power supply and impedance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Birk; Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schuengel, Edmund; Koepke, Mark; Schulze, Julian

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel RF power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. By adjusting the individual phases and amplitudes of multiple consecutive harmonics any voltage waveform can be realized as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz in argon. The effect of changing the shape of the driving voltage waveform on the electron heating and sheath dynamics is investigated by Phase Resolved Optical Emission Spectroscopy (PROES) for different electrode gaps, pressures, and applied voltages. At low pressure the results are correlated with ion energy distribution functions measured at both electrodes. Tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy. A comparison with the reference case of a dual-frequency discharge reveals that using more than two consecutive harmonics significantly enlarges the control range of the mean ion energy.

  10. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to the Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    Since the third National Energy Plan in 1981 total energy efficiency has increased, domestic energy resources are being developed more effectively, oil prices have declined, US dependence on foreign energy sources has diminished, and the nation's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions has been reduced markedly. The policy goal is an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs. Strategies include minimizing federal control and involvement in energy markets while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality and promoting a balanced and mixed energy resource system. Federal programs and actions in energy are reviewed.

  14. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  15. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  16. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  17. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 5.1:Expand the Number of Faculty Working in Wind Energy: Wind Energy Supply Chain and Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY Wind as a source of energy has gained a significant amount of attention because it is free and green. Construction of a wind farm involves considerable investment, which includes the cost of turbines, nacelles, and towers as well as logistical costs such as transportation of oversized parts and installation costs such as crane-rental costs. The terrain effects at the project site exert considerable influence on the turbine assembly rate and the project duration, which increases the overall installation cost. For higher capacity wind turbines (>3MW), the rental cost of the cranes is significant. In this study, the impact of interest rate, sales price of electricity, terrain effects and availability of cranes on the duration of installation and payback period for the project is analyzed. Optimization of the logistic activities involved during the construction phase of a wind farm contributes to the reduction of the project duration and also increases electricity generation during the construction phase.

  18. Incorporating the productivity benefits into the assessment of cost effective energy savings potential using conservation supply curves

    SciTech Connect

    Laitner, John A.; Ruth, Michael; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-07-24

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The paper explores the implications of how this change in perspective might affect the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the U.S. It is found that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research for this important area.

  19. Engineering cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A supply in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Pathway stoichiometry, free-energy conservation and redox-cofactor balancing.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Harmen M; Kozak, Barbara U; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2016-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial cell factory and an attractive experimental model for evaluating novel metabolic engineering strategies. Many current and potential products of this yeast require acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) as a precursor and pathways towards these products are generally expressed in its cytosol. The native S. cerevisiae pathway for production of cytosolic acetyl-CoA consumes 2 ATP equivalents in the acetyl-CoA synthetase reaction. Catabolism of additional sugar substrate, which may be required to generate this ATP, negatively affects product yields. Here, we review alternative pathways that can be engineered into yeast to optimize supply of cytosolic acetyl-CoA as a precursor for product formation. Particular attention is paid to reaction stoichiometry, free-energy conservation and redox-cofactor balancing of alternative pathways for acetyl-CoA synthesis from glucose. A theoretical analysis of maximally attainable yields on glucose of four compounds (n-butanol, citric acid, palmitic acid and farnesene) showed a strong product dependency of the optimal pathway configuration for acetyl-CoA synthesis. Moreover, this analysis showed that combination of different acetyl-CoA production pathways may be required to achieve optimal product yields. This review underlines that an integral analysis of energy coupling and redox-cofactor balancing in precursor-supply and product-formation pathways is crucial for the design of efficient cell factories. PMID:27016336

  20. Estrogen deprivation and excess energy supply accelerate 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumor growth in C3H/HeN mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Yoon Hee; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity is a risk factor of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deprivation has been suggested to cause alteration of lipid metabolism thereby creating a cellular microenvironment favoring tumor growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of estrogen depletion in combination with excess energy supply on breast tumor development. MATERIALS/METHODS Ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated C3H/HeN mice at 4 wks were provided with either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HD) for 16 weeks. Breast tumors were induced by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene once a week for six consecutive weeks. RESULTS Study results showed higher serum concentrations of free fatty acids and insulin in the OVX+HD group compared to other groups. The average tumor volume was significantly larger in OVX+HD animals than in other groups. Expressions of mammary tumor insulin receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin proteins as well as the ratio of pAKT/AKT were significantly increased, while pAMPK/AMPK was decreased in OVX+HD animals compared to the sham-operated groups. Higher relative expression of liver fatty acid synthase mRNA was observed in OVX+HD mice compared with other groups. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that excess energy supply affects the accelerated mammary tumor growth in estrogen deprived mice. PMID:26634052

  1. Electrochemical treatment of tannery effluent using a battery integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply--an approach towards environment and energy management.

    PubMed

    Iyappan, K; Basha, C Ahmed; Saravanathamizhan, R; Vedaraman, N; Tahiyah Nou Shene, C A; Begum, S Nathira

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of tannery effluent was carried out in batch, batch recirculation and continuous reactor configurations under different conditions using a battery-integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply. The effect of current density, electrolysis time and fluid flow rate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy consumption has been evaluated. The results of batch reactor show that a COD reduction of 80.85% to 96.67% could be obtained. The results showed that after 7 h of operation at a current density of 2.5 A dm(-2) and flow rate of 100 L h(-1) in batch recirculation reactor, the removal of COD is 82.14% and the specific energy consumption was found to be 5.871 kWh (kg COD)(-1) for tannery effluent. In addition, the performance of single pass flow reactors (single and multiple reactors) system of various configurations are analyzed. PMID:24844896

  2. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  3. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  4. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  5. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  6. Energy infrastructure: Mapping future electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, Anthony C.

    2016-08-01

    Electricity distribution system planners rely on estimations of future energy demand to build adequate supply, but these are complicated to achieve. An approach that combines spatially resolved projections of population movement and climate change offers a method for building better demand maps to mid-century.

  7. Design of an implantable power supply for an intraocular sensor, using POWER (power optimization for wireless energy requirements)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, F.; Chung, M. D.; Blaauw, D.; Sylvester, D. M.; Wise, K. D.; Sastry, A. M.

    The reduction in size and power usage of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices has enabled development of fully implantable medical devices [K.D. Wise, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Magaz. 24(5) (2005) 22-29], though major obstacles remain in developing devices of very small scale (<1 mm) [T. Simunic, L. Benini, G. De Micheli, IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 9 (2001) 15-28]. One of the most challenging applications; an intraocular sensor (IOS) developed by the Wireless Integrated Micro-Systems-Engineering Research Center (WIMS-ERC) at The University of Michigan; is the subject of the present study. Our specific objectives are fourfold: (1) to model the power usage of an intraocular sensor (IOS); (2) to develop a methodology for optimization of Hybrid Implantable Power Systems (HIPS); (3) to apply the selection tool to identify candidate power systems; and (4) to establish a methodology to fabricate and test the performance of an optimized power supply. In the present study we fabricated and tested three different cells. For one of these, 10 complete discharge and recharge cycles were successfully obtained. The experimental capacity was 7.70 mAh (15% of theoretical) for a discharge rate of C/5. As part of future work, a microbattery will be built for the WIMS-ERC IOS and tested in a fully integrated testbed.

  8. The Supply of Scientists and Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bueche, Arthur M.

    The supply of scientists and engineers should be viewed not only in terms of quantity, but also in terms of quality and preparation. Forecasts have proven inaccurate in the past so that industry must assure an adequate quantity of students entering the science and engineering fields by the promise of employment. The quality of the professionals…

  9. THE SUPPLY OF PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANPOWER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, which was directed by Congress, describes EPA's strategy for ensuring that there is an adequate supply of trained professionals to meet the environmental workforce needs in the U.S. The report describes EPA's mission and gives a historical perspective of graduate trai...

  10. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  11. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  12. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  13. Longer-term domestic supply problems for nonrenewable materials with special emphasis on energy-related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Goeller, H E

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made on how materials are used in present and future energy production and use. Problem areas which are discussed include by-products production, import limitations, substitution and recycle, accelerated use, synthesis, and the adequacy of the data bases availability. (FS)

  14. Influence of energy supply on expression of genes encoding for lipogenic enzymes and regulatory proteins in growing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty crossbred beef steers were used to determine the effects metabolizable energy (ME) intake and of site and complexity of carbohydrate (CHO) infusion on expression of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes and regulatory proteins in subcutaneous (SC), mesenteric (MES) and omental (OM) adipose. Treatm...

  15. 10 CFR 600.233 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplies. 600.233 Section 600.233 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative Requirements... supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the...

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  18. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  19. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  20. Enzyme activity in energy supply of spermatozoon motility in two taxonomically distant fish species (sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenseriformes and common carp Cyprinus carpio, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek

    2016-03-01

    As spermatozoon motility duration differs significantly among fish species, the mechanism of ATP generation-regeneration and its distribution along the flagellum may be species-dependent. The present study compared the role of creatine kinase (CK) with that of adenylate kinase (AK) in ATP regeneration during motility of demembranated spermatozoa of taxonomically distant fish species, sterlet, and common carp, allowing investigation for the presence of the creatine-phosphocreatine (PCr) shuttle in sterlet spermatozoa. The flagellar beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was measured in reactivating media in the presence or absence of ATP, ADP, PCr, and CK and AK inhibitors. After demembranation, AK, CK, and total ATPase activity was measured in spermatozoon extracts. Beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was found to be positively correlated with ATP levels in reactivating medium and to reach a plateau at 0.8 mM and 0.6 mM ATP for carp and sterlet, respectively. It was shown for the first time that sterlet axonemal dynein ATPases have a higher affinity for ATP than do those of carp. Supplementation of reactivating medium with ADP and PCr without ATP resulted in beat frequencies comparable to that measured with 0.3 to 0.5-mM ATP for both studied species. The presence of the PCr-CK phosphagen system and its essential role in ATP regeneration were first confirmed for sturgeon spermatozoa. The inhibition of CK exerted a high impact on spermatozoon energy supply in both species, whereas the inhibition of AK was more pronounced in sterlet than in carp. This was confirmed by the quantification of enzyme activity in spermatozoon extracts. We concluded that spermatozoa of these taxonomically distant species use similar systems to supply energy for flagella motility, but with different efficacy. PMID:26483312

  1. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1331 Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft— (a) Each required flight instrument... power source; and (3) A visual means integral with each instrument to indicate when the power adequate to sustain proper instrument performance is not being supplied. The power must be measured at or...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1331 Instruments using a power supply. For category A rotorcraft— (a) Each required flight instrument... power source; and (3) A visual means integral with each instrument to indicate when the power adequate to sustain proper instrument performance is not being supplied. The power must be measured at or...

  3. HOME ENERGY SUPPLY-DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SYSTEM OF SOLAR HEAT COLLECTOR AND HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    In order to evaluate effectiveness of a combined system of solar heat collecctor (SHC) and heat pump water heater (HPWH), optimum operation scheduling moldel of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming was enhanced. Applying this model with one house data in Tokyo, it was found that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has the enough energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction potential under the existing electricity late and the operation method of the HPWH. Furthermore, the calculation results under the future system show that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has also the reduction effect of reverse power flow from residential photovoltaic system.

  4. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  5. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  6. International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 40 — Sustainable International Energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand -- Country Report 2009 for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Richard Nelson; Carl Wolf

    2009-06-01

    This report outlines the status of U.S. biomass resources currently and future potentials for domestic and export markets of residues, energy crops, and woody resources. Includes energy and fuel production and consumption statistics, driving policies, targets, and government investment in bioenergy industry development.

  7. International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 40 — Sustainable International Energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand -- Country Report 2010 for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Richard Nelson; Carl Wolf

    2011-12-01

    This report updates the status of U.S. biomass resources currently and future potentials for domestic and export markets of residues, energy crops, and woody resources. Includes energy and fuel production and consumption statistics, driving policies, targets, and government investment in bioenergy industry development.

  8. Effects of altered glucose supply and adiposity on expression of hypothalamic energy balance regulatory genes in late gestation growth restricted ovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Adam, C L; Bake, T; Findlay, P A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    2011-11-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes obesity in adulthood. This may be due to altered fetal nutrition causing sustained changes within the developing hypothalamic energy balance regulatory system. Using our established ovine model of IUGR, 130-day singleton fetuses (term=147 days) were obtained from growing adolescent mothers on control dietary intake (C), high intake (H) or H with growth hormone administration during either early (H+early GH) or late gestation (H+late GH) (n=6/group). GH increased maternal glycemia for the duration of treatment. H and H+early GH fetuses showed IUGR compared with C fetuses; body weight was partially restored in H+late GH fetuses, with 40% increased adiposity. In the fetal hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA (anorexigenic) was decreased in H fetuses and correlated across all groups with total fetal liver glycogen. Neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide (orexigenic) and proopiomelanocortin (anorexigenic) mRNAs were not different between groups. Insulin receptor mRNA in the ARC was increased in H, H+early GH and H+late GH fetuses and correlated negatively with fetal plasma insulin. Leptin receptor mRNA in the ARC correlated positively with fetal plasma leptin concentration and fetal fat content. Therefore, in IUGR fetuses, a key anorexigenic neuropeptide is sensitive to altered glucose supply and the hypothalamic leptin-signaling pathway is altered prenatally by increased adiposity and leptinemia. These changes could impact on postnatal energy balance regulation. PMID:21616134

  9. Carbon-Neutral Energy Supply and Energy Demand-Reduction Technology Needed for Continued Economic Growth Without Dangerous Interference in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at levels likely to avoid unacceptable climate risk will require a major transformation in the ways we produce and use energy. Most of our energy will need to come from sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and that energy will need to be used efficiently. The required reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as global energy consumption and GDP grow imposes quantitative requirements on some combination of carbon-neutral primary power and energy demand reduction. (Emission reductions are expressed relative to an implicit or explicit baseline; explicit being better for policy-making. Energy demand reduction involves both efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes.) These requirements can be expressed as CO2 emission reductions needed, or as carbon-neutral primary power production needed combined with power not used by virtue of increased energy end use efficiency or lifestyle changes ("negawatts"), always subject to some reasonably well-characterized uncertainty limits. Climatic changes thus far have been closer to the more extreme zone of the climatic uncertainty envelope of global warming indicating the potential for disastrous impacts by mid-century and beyond for business-as-usual. Emission reductions needed to avoid "dangerous interference in the climate system" imply a revolutionary change in the global energy system beginning now; particularly ominous are massive conventional coal-fired electric power energy infrastructures under construction by the US, China & India. Strong arguments, based on physical science considerations, exist for prompt measures such as (1) an immediate moratorium on coal-fired plants that don't sequester CO2, (2) a gradually increasing price on carbon emissions and (3) regulatory standards, for example, that would encourage utilities and car manufacturers to improve efficiency, and (4) Apollo-scale R & D projects beginning now to develop sustainable carbon-neutral power that can be

  10. Energy and Resources: A plan is outlined according to which solar and wind energy would supply Denmark's needs by the year 2050.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, B

    1975-07-25

    Two possible futures for the industrial world may be distinguished: (i) Large amounts of low-cost energy become available and the more energy-intensive methods for extracting resources from lowergrade deposits continue to sustain industrial expansion until either the environmental impact becomes unacceptable or ultimate limits, such as climate disruptions, put an end to such growth. (ii) The cost of nonrenewable energy resources continue to rise, but a fixed amount of energy from continuous sources may be utilized at constant cost. In this case a lower production level may be set by the amount of energy that is available from renewable sources, and society may thus have to be reshaped with energy economization in focus. If it is possible to choose between these two alternatives, the choice should be based on a discussion of the pros and cons of each one, and in particular on the desirability of having to process an increasing fraction of the earth's crust in search of raw materials in order to maintain growth as long as possible. However, the availability, of the first option is far from certain and it thus seems reasonable to plan for the second alternative. I have tried to propose such a plan for a small, homogeneous geographical region, namely Denmark. The ceiling on the consumption of energy from continuous sources is chosen in accordance with the criterion of not having to convert a major part of the land area to energy-collecting systems. The proposed annual average energy consumption of 19 gigawatts by the year 2050 corresponds to solar energy collecting panels (in use only 50 percent of the time) with an area of roughly 180 square kilometers and a windmill swept area of about 150 square kilometers. These (vertical) areas constitute less than 1 percent of the total land area. The selection of solar or wind energy for different applications has been based on known technology and may be subject to adjustments. The project has been shown to be economically

  11. Blood supply of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I M; Lagopoulos, M; McConnell, P; Soames, R W; Sefton, G K

    1998-09-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the most common sites of injury and rupture as a result of overuse. Evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of rupture could involve the pattern of its blood supply. With use of angiographic and histological techniques, the blood supply of the Achilles tendon was investigated in 12 human cadaveric specimens. Angiography confirmed Mayer's 1916 finding that the blood supply to the tendon is from three areas: the musculotendinous and osseotendinous junctions and the paratenon, with the posterior tibial artery providing the major contribution. However, qualitative and quantitative histological analyses in this study showed that the Achilles tendon has a poor blood supply throughout its length, as determined by the small number of blood vessels per cross-sectional area, which do not in general vary significantly along its length. In light of these findings, it is suggested that poor vascularity may prevent adequate tissue repair following trauma, leading to further weakening of the tendon. PMID:9820283

  12. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  13. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  14. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  15. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  16. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of acid dye using Ni-TiO2 with the energy supplied by solar cell: mechanism and economical studies.

    PubMed

    Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Pirkarami, Azam; Soleimani, Majid; Bahmaei, Manochehr

    2013-05-30

    This paper reports an investigation into the effect of a number of operating factors on the removal of Acid Red 88 from an aqueous solution through photoelectrocatalysis: photocatalyst dose, dye concentration, pH, bias potential, and electrolyte concentration. The photocatalyst was Ni-TiO2 applied in suspension to the solution to achieve a larger catalyst surface area. The optimum values for photocatalyst dose, dye concentration, and electrolyte concentration turned out to be 0.6 mg L(-1), 50 mg L(-1), and 5 mg L(-1), respectively. Also, the best pH was found to be 7, and bias potential proved to be best at 1.6 V. The aqueous solution was characterized for its COD and TOC. Photocatalyst efficiency was evaluated using SEM and XRD techniques. The characterization of the post-treatment product using FT-IR, HPLC, and GC-MS studies revealed intermediate compounds. A pathway was proposed for the degradation of the dye. The energy required by the experiment was supplied by solar cells, meaning the money that would have otherwise been spent on electricity was saved. Cost analysis was also done for the treatment process. PMID:23562912

  17. Enhancement in current density and energy conversion efficiency of 3-dimensional MFC anodes using pre-enriched consortium and continuous supply of electron donors

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A

    2011-01-01

    Using a pre-enriched microbial consortium as the inoculum and continuous supply of carbon source, improvement in performance of a three-dimensional, flow-through MFC anode utilizing ferricyanide cathode was investigated. The power density increased from 170 W/m3 (1800 mW/m2) to 580 W/m3 (6130 mW/m2), when the carbon loading increased from 2.5 g/l-day to 50 g/l-day. The coulombic efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 23% with increasing carbon loading. The CEs are among the highest reported for glucose and lactate as the substrate with the maximum current density reaching 15.1 A/m2. This suggests establishment of a very high performance exoelectrogenic microbial consortium at the anode. A maximum energy conversion efficiency of 54% was observed at a loading of 2.5 g/l-day. Biological characterization of the consortium showed presence of Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the dominant members. Imaging of the biofilms revealed thinner biofilms compared to the inoculum MFC, but a 1.9-fold higher power density.

  18. Hyperinsulinemia shifted energy supply from glucose to ketone bodies in early nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from high-fat high-sucrose diet induced Bama minipigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-lin; Xia, Ji-han; Zhang, Yuan-yuan; Fan, Jian-gao; Wang, Hua; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Zhan-zhao; Pan, Qin; Mu, Yu-lian; Xin, Lei-lei; Chen, Yao-xing; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The minipig can serve as a good pharmacological model for human subjects. However, the long-term pathogenesis of high-calorie diet-induced metabolic syndromes, including NASH, has not been well described in minipigs. We examined the development of metabolic syndromes in Bama minipigs that were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months, by using histology and serum biochemistry and by profiling the gene expression patterns in the livers of HFHSD pigs compared to controls. The pathology findings revealed microvesicular steatosis, iron overload, arachidonic acid synthesis, lipid peroxidation, reduced antioxidant capacity, increased cellular damage, and inflammation in the liver. RNA-seq analysis revealed that 164 genes were differentially expressed between the livers of the HFHSD and control groups. The pathogenesis of early-stage NASH was characterized by hyperinsulinemia and by de novo synthesis of fatty acids and nascent triglycerides, which were deposited as lipid droplets in hepatocytes. Hyperinsulinemia shifted the energy supply from glucose to ketone bodies, and the high ketone body concentration induced the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The iron overload, CYP2E1 and alcohol dehydrogenase 4 overexpression promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which resulted in arachidonic and linoleic acid peroxidation and, in turn, led to malondialdehyde production and a cellular response to ROS-mediated DNA damage. PMID:26358367

  19. Hyperinsulinemia shifted energy supply from glucose to ketone bodies in early nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from high-fat high-sucrose diet induced Bama minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-lin; Xia, Ji-han; Zhang, Yuan-yuan; Fan, Jian-gao; Wang, Hua; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Zhan-zhao; Pan, Qin; Mu, Yu-lian; Xin, Lei-lei; Chen, Yao-xing; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The minipig can serve as a good pharmacological model for human subjects. However, the long-term pathogenesis of high-calorie diet-induced metabolic syndromes, including NASH, has not been well described in minipigs. We examined the development of metabolic syndromes in Bama minipigs that were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months, by using histology and serum biochemistry and by profiling the gene expression patterns in the livers of HFHSD pigs compared to controls. The pathology findings revealed microvesicular steatosis, iron overload, arachidonic acid synthesis, lipid peroxidation, reduced antioxidant capacity, increased cellular damage, and inflammation in the liver. RNA-seq analysis revealed that 164 genes were differentially expressed between the livers of the HFHSD and control groups. The pathogenesis of early-stage NASH was characterized by hyperinsulinemia and by de novo synthesis of fatty acids and nascent triglycerides, which were deposited as lipid droplets in hepatocytes. Hyperinsulinemia shifted the energy supply from glucose to ketone bodies, and the high ketone body concentration induced the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The iron overload, CYP2E1 and alcohol dehydrogenase 4 overexpression promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which resulted in arachidonic and linoleic acid peroxidation and, in turn, led to malondialdehyde production and a cellular response to ROS-mediated DNA damage. PMID:26358367

  20. Underground coal gasification with extended CO2 utilization as economic and carbon neutral approach to address energy and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Islam, Rafiqul; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    injected in the scope of the scheduled EGR operation. Our techno-economic modeling results considering EGR reservoir simulations demonstrate that an economic and carbon neutral operation of UCG combined with fertilizer production and CCS is feasible. The suggested approach may provide a bridging technology to tackle fertilizer and power supply shortages in Bangladesh, and in addition support further production from depleting natural gas deposits. References Kempka, T., Plötz, M.L., Hamann, J., Deowan, S.A., Azzam, R. (2010) Carbon dioxide utilisation for carbamide production by application of the coupled UCG-urea process. Energy Procedia 4: 2200-2205. Nakaten, N., Schlüter, R., Azzam, R., Kempka, T. (2014) Development of a techno-economic model for dynamic calculation of COE, energy demand and CO2 emissions of an integrated UCG-CCS process. Energy (in print). Doi 10.1016/j.energy.2014.01.014

  1. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  2. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  6. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  13. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  15. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  16. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  17. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate...

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  20. Metabolic parameters and their relationship to energy balance in multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in the periparturient period as influenced by energy supply pre- and post-calving.

    PubMed

    Urdl, M; Gruber, L; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three energy supply (E) levels [low (L), medium (M), high (H)], both pre-partum (PRE) and post-partum (POST), and their interactions on metabolic parameters and energy balance (EB) in dairy cows of three breeds. In both phases, E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n = 27 for each breed) were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. During the pre-calving period, serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher for L(PRE) cows, and glucose concentrations were elevated for H(PRE) cows. During the lactation period, NEFA concentrations were greatest for treatment L(POST). Mean concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were highest for cows of the L(POST) treatment, intermediate for M(POST) and lowest for H(POST). Glucose concentrations were lower for L(POST) cows. SI cows had lower BHB concentrations both pre- and post-calving and higher glucose concentrations during early lactation than the other breeds. BHB concentration POST was highest for BS cows. Restricted feeding PRE resulted in a better energy status of cows fed above energy requirements POST (E(PRE) × E(POST) interaction). HF cows had a higher EB pre-calving, whereas SI cows had a less negative EB during early lactation, compared with the other breeds respectively. Correlations of serum NEFA, BHB and glucose concentrations with EB were strongest during the transition period. Results suggest that controlling energy intake during the dry period might be advantageous for the energy status of dairy cows after calving, whereas energy restriction in early lactation leads to metabolic stress. Evidence is provided of a clear relationship between EB and the blood metabolites NEFA and BHB, especially in the transition period. PMID:24605925

  1. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  2. Design, construction and operational results of the IGBT controlled solid state modulator high voltage power supply used in the high power RF systems of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.T. III; Rees, D.; Przeklasa, R.S.; Scott, M.C.

    1998-12-31

    The 1700 MeV, 100 mA Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Proton Linac will require 244 1 MW, continuous wave RF systems. 1 MW continuous wave klystrons are used as the RF source and each klystron requires 95 kV, 17 A of beam voltage and current. The cost of the DC power supplies is the single largest percentage of the total RF system cost. Power supply reliability is crucial to overall RF system availability and AC to DC conversion efficiency affects the operating cost. The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will serve as the prototype and test bed for APT. The design of the RF systems used in LEDA is driven by the need to field test high efficiency systems with extremely high reliability before APT is built. The authors present a detailed description and test results of one type of advanced high voltage power supply system using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) that has been used with the LEDA High Power RF systems. The authors also present some of the distinctive features offered by this power supply topology, including crowbarless tube protection and modular construction which allows graceful degradation of power supply operation.

  3. A Pluridisciplinary Study of the Impact of Future Ice Sheets Instability on Sea Level Rise, Climate Changes, Migrations and Energy Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, G.; Defrance, D.; Dumas, C.; Charbit, S.; Gemenne, F.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Bouneau, S.; David, S.

    2014-12-01

    From paleoclimate data and GCM models simulations, we learnt that, when ice sheets are unstable, they produce large surges of icebergs that cover North Atlantic and produce global climate instability through atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Indeed, these instabilities are associated with a cold (glacial) context. In a warming world, it appears that the two remaining ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) are becoming unstable. The probability of abrupt ice sheet changes is therefore to be investigated. In comparison with predicted AR5 sea level rise (SLR) (28 to 82 cm), such a fast melting could add a contribution of 2 to 5 meters, which corresponds to the sea level rise estimate of glacial instability (Heinrich events). The aim of this presentation is to describe consistent sea level and climate simulations. We define 3 scenarios, the sea level rise is produced by the melting of about third of the Greenland, or the disappearance of West Antarctica, or finally a mixture of both ice sheets melting. We first analyze, using IPSL OAGCM, the climatic impact. Indeed, superimposed to direct sea level rise, climate changes has drastic consequences in North Atlantic (Europe and east of North America) due to the thermohaline circulation breakdown. Moreover, when freshwater is injected into North Atlantic, far field effects on the location and amplitude of Asian Monsoon have been shown with its drastic decrease. The second step of this multidisciplinary study is to quantify the impact of the sea level rise and the climatic changes on populations migration, with a focus on Southern Asia with a prospective migration of several hundreds of people. In a third step, we intend to simulate the reorganization of power supply to adapt to the expected new distribution of population, using a quantitative energy model (COSIME). Here, we show the climate response to the 3 investigated climate scenarios and the response in terms of migration, which is huge due to the very large part of the

  4. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  6. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  15. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  16. Energy and recreation: an overview of energy availability and utilization for recreational use. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Armbruster, F.; Brown, W.M.; Thomas, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A study of recreational energy requirements in the context of the present US situation and energy needs through the year 2000 shows that 4.4% of automotive fuel is presently used for recreational vehicles. The demand for gasoline may peak in the near future and decline as more-efficient automobiles and fuel substitution increase. The authors conclude that use of fuel for recreation is justifiable for social and economic reasons, although periodic supply disruptions may occur. They feel there is no justification for the limits-to-growth philosophy which projects disaster, because energy-use patterns have historically shifted when it was necessary. They predict that adequate and affordable energy supplies will be available from increased US and world fuel supplies and increased efficiency. 23 references, 11 figures, 11 tables. (DCK)

  17. Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Prince, J; Andrus, David M; Gwinner, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism. PMID:17220489

  18. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  20. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  1. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  2. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  4. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  5. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  6. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  7. 10 CFR 603.1330 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplies. 603.1330 Section 603.1330 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in... a useful life of less than one year or an acquisition cost of less than $5,000 per unit....

  8. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  9. Penumatic-power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Portable compressed air supply has two or more outputs at pressures from 20 to 100 psi. Applications include operating production equipment, spraying paint and lubricants, and pressurizing refrigeration systems. Supply filters air from standard high-pressure line, reduces it to working pressure, and adds lubricant when required. Regulator supplies low-pressure air to output channels. On channel lines, vernier-control valves select output pressures.

  10. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  11. New vessel formation in the context of cardiomyocyte regeneration – the role and importance of an adequate perfusing vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Boehm, Manfred; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    The history of revascularization for cardiac ischemia dates back to the early 1960's when the first coronary artery bypass graft procedures were performed in humans. With this 50 year history of providing a new vasculature to ischemic and hibernating myocardium, a profound depth of experience has been amassed in clinical cardiovascular medicine as to what does, and does not work in the context of cardiac revascularization, alleviating ischemia and adequacy of myocardial perfusion. These issues are of central relevance to contemporary cell-based cardiac regenerative approaches. While the cardiovascular cell therapy field is surging forward on many exciting fronts, several well accepted clinical axioms related to the cardiac arterial supply appear to be almost overlooked by some of our current basic conceptual and experimental cell therapy paradigms. We present here information drawn from five decades of the clinical revascularization experience, review relevant new data on vascular formation via cell therapy, and put forward the case that for optimal cell-based cardiac regeneration due attention must be paid to providing an adequate vascular supply. PMID:24841067

  12. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  13. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    Confusion about the determinants of nonrenewable resource supply is one of the vexing problems at the intersection of economics and public policy. Specifically, questions of oil and natural gas supply response have been at the core of arguments over price controls, taxes, and other policy measures. Supply responses also figure prominently in concern about future availability and cost of petroleum and minerals. What is needed to clear up the confusion is an approach that brings together a theory of resource supply, data to make that theory operational, and a methodology to bring the two together - all set within an institutional framework sufficiently rich to illuminate behavioral consequences. Without this amalgam, economists will not be able to answer questions of the sort suggested above with sufficient precision and certainty to provide specific and persuasive policy guidance. In a broader sense, their conclusions on resource supply trends over the longer term will remain conjectural. In market economies such as the US, approaches grounded in abstract social decision rules have limited relevance. An adequate theory must start with the behavior of individual actors and the interaction of incentives, expectations, and decisions over time. Moreover, the process of bringing resources to the market integrates across production stages and cannot be successfully modeled otherwise. Another issue that deserves special attention is the aggregation of individual behavior at the industry level.

  14. 77 FR 60972 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 18, 2012, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel), 6363 Main Street.... Reitz, Deputy General Counsel, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street,...

  15. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  16. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  17. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  18. Exploring current and projected tradeoffs between hydropower profitability and reliability of supply in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    The recent spreading of renewable energy across Europe and the associated production variability and uncertainty are emerging challenges for hydropower system operation. Widely distributed and highly intermittent solar and wind power generation systems, along with feed-in-tariffs, at which they are remunerated, are threating the operation of traditional hydropower systems. For instance, in countries where the transition to a larger production by means of renewable power systems is a novel process, e.g. Switzerland, many hydropower companies are operating their reservoirs with low or no profits, claiming for a revision of the entire energy market system. This situation goes along with the problem of ensuring energy supply both nowadays and in the future, with changing energy demand and available water resources. In this work, we focus on a hydropower system in the Swiss Alps to explore how different operating policies can cope with both adequate energy supply and profitable operation under current and future climate and socio-economic conditions. We investigate the operation of the Mattmark reservoir in South-West Switzerland. Mattmark is a pumped reservoir of 98 106 m3 fed by a natural catchment of 37 km2 and contributing catchments, summing up to 51 km2, connected by several diversion channels. The hydrological regime, snow- and ice-melt dominated, has already experienced changes in the last decades due to glacier retreat and is expected to be strongly impacted by climate change in the future. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to explore current tradeoffs between profitability and secure supply. We then investigate how tradeoffs may evolve in time under different climate change projections and energy market scenarios. Results inform on the co-evolution of climate- and socio-economic induced variations, thus unveiling potential co-benefit situations to hydropower generation and providing insights to future energy market design.

  19. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  20. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  1. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  2. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  3. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  4. Urbanization and water supplies for northeastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    Increasing populations in northeastern Colorado have resulted in reductions in irrigated acreage and the proportionate quantities of water available to support that segment of the agricultural industry. The growth has caused increased demands for municipal-domestic and industrial water supplies from the South Platte and Colorado River Basins. These impacts have been determined by comparing hydrologic data in conjunction with water use for agricultural, municipal-domestic, and industrial purposes between the period 1975 to 1979. Pricing and water rights ownership were also compared for the same period, as were land conversion data, population data, and crop production valuation. Proper administration of nonconsumptive return flows coupled with the importation of water from the Colorado River Basin will provide adequate, industrial, and irrigation water supplies for this growth intense area and downstream farm lands. 8 figures.

  5. Workplace protection factors--supplied air hood.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T J; Wheeler, T H; Mustard, T S

    2001-01-01

    Several organizations list assigned protection factors. For supplied air hoods, the value of the assigned protection factors varies from <10 to 2,000 depending on the organization. Workplace protection factors (WPFs) of a supplied air hood were measured during aircraft sanding and painting operations on several types of aircraft to evaluate whether the American National Standard Z88.2 (1992) assigned protection factor of 1,000 was realistic. The primary contaminant during these activities is strontium chromate. Samples collected inside the hood show that employees during sanding and painting operations were not exposed to strontium. The respirator performed adequately. This study is consistent with other simulated and WPF studies in that the ANSI Z88.2 WPF of 1,000 is supported. PMID:11258874

  6. Control units for APS power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed.

  7. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; minimum requirements. 75.1107-7 Section 75.1107-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate...

  9. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... remaining sources, with reasonable conservation measures, cannot provide adequate supplies of drinking water... all cases, reasonable water conservation measures must be implemented. Local interests will...

  10. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... remaining sources, with reasonable conservation measures, cannot provide adequate supplies of drinking water... all cases, reasonable water conservation measures must be implemented. Local interests will...

  11. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... remaining sources, with reasonable conservation measures, cannot provide adequate supplies of drinking water... all cases, reasonable water conservation measures must be implemented. Local interests will...

  12. 10 CFR 215.3 - Supply reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF FOREIGN OIL SUPPLY AGREEMENT INFORMATION § 215.3 Supply reports. (a) Any person... barrels per day or more of crude oil for a period of at least one year, or (2) a total of 55,000,000 barrels of crude oil for a period of less than one year, or (3) a total of 150,000,000 barrels of...

  13. 10 CFR 215.3 - Supply reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF FOREIGN OIL SUPPLY AGREEMENT INFORMATION § 215.3 Supply reports. (a) Any person... barrels per day or more of crude oil for a period of at least one year, or (2) a total of 55,000,000 barrels of crude oil for a period of less than one year, or (3) a total of 150,000,000 barrels of...

  14. 10 CFR 215.3 - Supply reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF FOREIGN OIL SUPPLY AGREEMENT INFORMATION § 215.3 Supply reports. (a) Any person... barrels per day or more of crude oil for a period of at least one year, or (2) a total of 55,000,000 barrels of crude oil for a period of less than one year, or (3) a total of 150,000,000 barrels of...

  15. 10 CFR 215.3 - Supply reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... barrels per day or more of crude oil for a period of at least one year, or (2) a total of 55,000,000 barrels of crude oil for a period of less than one year, or (3) a total of 150,000,000 barrels of crude... ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF FOREIGN OIL SUPPLY AGREEMENT INFORMATION § 215.3 Supply reports. (a) Any...

  16. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  17. Supply options. [hydrogen market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of captive hydrogen (produced and consumed on site) and merchant hydrogen (externally supplied) is considered. A low-merchant-captive ratio market and a high-merchant-captive ratio market are described and compared.

  18. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  19. A modified split-supply switched-reluctance drive inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.; Omar, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the application of a new simple voltage-boosting feature to split-supply SR (switched-reluctance) inverter. As its name implies, the SR motor always operates in switching mode and has distinct motoring and generating rotor angular regions. The effectiveness of the energy conversion process of SR motor depends basically on the ability of its inverter to inject adequate current during the positive-torque angular region and to reduce the current to negligible value during negative-torque angular region. The modified inverter effectively generates boost voltages for accelerating current build-up and decay and hence enhances the performance of SR drives. Benefits of the added boosting include: higher average current, better energy recovery during commutation and a wider feasible speed range. This paper will assess the implications of the boost feature on inverter cost and performance. A time-stepping simulation procedure which includes the modelling of current overlapping between phases will be presented together with simulation results.

  20. Energy, food, environment: Realities, myths, options

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first three chapters are devoted to detailed surveys of the major energy, food, and environmental controversies. The remaining chapters analyse the environmental consequences of obtaining sufficient energy and food by taking a close look at the three key biogeochemical cycles which are most affected by human actions, those of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. The book concludes by weighing the evidence presented by pessimists and optimists about future prospects and brings some common sense to the debate on how civilization can survive with abundant flows of energy, an adequate supply of food, and an environment fit to live in.

  1. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  2. A method for determining adequate resistance form of complete cast crown preparations.

    PubMed

    Weed, R M; Baez, R J

    1984-09-01

    A diagram with various degrees of occlusal convergence, which takes into consideration the length and diameter of complete crown preparations, was designed as a guide to assist the dentist to obtain adequate resistance form. To test the validity of the diagram, five groups of complete cast crown stainless steel dies were prepared (3.5 mm long, occlusal convergence 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees). Gold copings were cast for each of the 50 preparations. Displacement force was applied to the casting perpendicularly to a simulated 30-degree cuspal incline until the casting was displaced. Castings were deformed at margins except for the 22-degree group. Castings from this group were displaced without deformation, and it was concluded that there was a lack of adequate resistance form as predicted by the diagram. The hypothesis that the diagram could be used to predict adequate or inadequate resistance form was confirmed by this study. PMID:6384470

  3. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  4. Comparison of four standards for determining adequate water intake of nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2011-01-01

    Adequate hydration for nursing home residents is problematic. The purpose of this study was to compare four standards used to determine a recommended water intake among nursing home residents. Inconsistencies in the amount of water intake recommended based on the standards compared were identified. The standard based on height and weight provides the most individualized recommendation. An individualized recommendation would facilitate goal setting for the care plan of each older person and assist in the prevention of dehydration. It is essential that a cost-effective and clinically feasible approach to determine adequate water intake be determined for this population to prevent the adverse outcomes associated with dehydration. PMID:21469538

  5. 10 CFR 429.37 - Class A external power supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... external power supplies; and (2) For each basic model of external power supply selected for testing, a... of the estimated energy consumption of a basic model for which consumers would favor lower values... and (ii) Any represented value of the estimated energy consumption of a basic model for...

  6. Control Electronics for Solar/Flywheel Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Control circuit automatically directs flow of electrical energy to and from motor with flywheel that constitutes storage element of solar-power system. When insolation is sufficient for charging, power is supplied by solar-cell array to load and motor. During periods of darkness, motor made to act as generator, drawing kinetic energy from flywheel and supplying it to load.

  7. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  8. Scaling laws in urban supply networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnert, Christian; Helbing, Dirk; West, Geoffrey B.

    2006-04-01

    In previous work, it has been proposed that urban structures may be understood as a result of self-organization principles. In particular, researchers have identified fractal structures of public transportation networks and land use patterns. Here, we will study spatial distribution systems for energy, fuel, medical, and food supply. It is found that these systems show power-law scaling as well, when the number of “supply stations” is plotted over the population size. Surprisingly, only some supply systems display a linear scaling with population size. Others show sublinear or superlinear scaling. We suggest an interpretation regarding the kind of scaling law that is expected in dependence of the function and constraints of the respective supply system.

  9. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  10. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  11. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  12. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  13. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  14. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  15. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  16. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  18. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  19. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  20. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  4. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  7. Special or Not so Special: Special Education Background Experiences of Principals and Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study researched the special education background experience of principals and the effect on students in the subgroup of Students with Disabilities in making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In the state of Ohio, schools and districts are expected to make AYP as a whole and additionally make AYP for each subgroup (various…

  8. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  9. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the State's requirements for availability of services, as set forth in § 438.206. (e) CMS' right... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services....

  10. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  11. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  12. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements: (1) Offers an appropriate range of preventive, primary care, and specialty services that is adequate for the anticipated number of enrollees for the service area. (2) Maintains a network of providers... enrollment in its service area in accordance with the State's standards for access to care under this...

  13. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  14. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... recognized by the scientific community as the essentials of an adequate and well-controlled clinical... randomization and blinding of patients or investigators, or both. If the intent of the trial is to...

  15. Final 2004 Report on Adequate Yearly Progress in the Montgomery County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jose W.

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of Montgomery County public schools made sufficient progress on state testing and accountability standards in 2004 to comply with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001." Information released by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) in October 2004 shows that…

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  18. Estimates of Adequate School Spending by State Based on National Average Service Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a method for estimating expenditures per student needed to provide educational adequacy in each state. Illustrates the method using U.S., Arkansas, New York, Texas, and Washington State data, covering instruction, special needs, operations and maintenance, administration, and other costs. Estimates ratios of "adequate" to actual spending…

  19. Leadership Style and Adequate Yearly Progress: A Correlational Study of Effective Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leapley-Portscheller, Claudia Iris

    2008-01-01

    Principals are responsible for leading efforts to reach increasingly higher levels of student academic proficiency in schools associated with adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to identify the degree to which perceptions of principal transformational, transactional, and…

  20. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...