Science.gov

Sample records for adequate excess reactivity

  1. Management of Excess Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Doering, O.

    2011-12-01

    Managing the impacts of excessive reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment is a complex problem that begins with the recognition of the obligate dietary need for Nr by all living populations. The human solution to this need has been to devise ways to bring Nr into the biosphere (via the Haber-Bosch process) to grow food. Other Nr is created as a by-product of fossil-fuel combustion. The net result is the introduction of more than five times the Nr created by natural processes in the U.S., only a fraction of which is converted back to diatomic nitrogen through denitrification. This presentation summarizes findings and recommendations of the newly-released US EPA Science Advisory Board's Integrated Nitrogen Committee report, "Reactive Nitrogen in the United States: An Analysis of Flows, Consequences, and Management Options", that deal specifically with approaches for solving the excess Nr problem. These can be grouped into four general areas: (1) Recognition of the Problem. Until there is recognition that excess Nr is a serious problem with economic, health, and societal consequences, there will be little willingness to expend resources on this issue. Education, communication and outreach are critically important to engender in regulators, and the public at large, sufficient will to undertake the large scale effort needed to reduce Nr in the environment. (2) Development of Integrated Regulatory Approaches. Given what is known about the way Nr behaves, efforts to deal with excess Nr must be organized in a way that reflects the nature of the problem. Unfortunately, most approaches tend to conceive of Nr issues within a narrowly focused disciplinary model, and our policy and regulatory institutions are often bound by enabling legislation that stresses source-by-source, chemical-by-chemical, and media-by-media. The resulting regulatory structure that has evolved for problems such as Nr that affect human health and the environment is apt to miss the complex nature of the

  2. A novel concept of QUADRISO particles. Part II: Utilization for excess reactivity control.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.

    2010-07-01

    In high temperature reactors, burnable absorbers are utilized to manage the excess reactivity at the early stage of the fuel cycle. In this paper QUADRISO particles are proposed to manage the initial excess reactivity of high temperature reactors. The QUADRISO concept synergistically couples the decrease of the burnable poison with the decrease of the fissile materials at the fuel particle level. This mechanism is set up by introducing a burnable poison layer around the fuel kernel in ordinary TRISO particles or by mixing the burnable poison with any of the TRISO coated layers. At the beginning of life, the initial excess reactivity is small because some neutrons are absorbed in the burnable poison and they are prevented from entering the fuel kernel. At the end of life, when the absorber is almost depleted, more neutrons stream into the fuel kernel of QUADRISO particles causing fission reactions. The mechanism has been applied to a prismatic high temperature reactor with europium or erbium burnable absorbers, showing a significant reduction in the initial excess reactivity of the core.

  3. A novel concept of QUADRISO particles : Part II Utilization for excess reactivity control.

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.

    2011-01-01

    In high temperature reactors, burnable absorbers are utilized to manage the excess reactivity at the early stage of the fuel cycle. In this paper QUADRISO particles are proposed to manage the initial excess reactivity of high temperature reactors. The QUADRISO concept synergistically couples the decrease of the burnable poison with the decrease of the fissile materials at the fuel particle level. This mechanism is set up by introducing a burnable poison layer around the fuel kernel in ordinary TRISO particles or by mixing the burnable poison with any of the TRISO coated layers. At the beginning of life, the initial excess reactivity is small because some neutrons are absorbed in the burnable poison and they are prevented from entering the fuel kernel. At the end of life, when the absorber is almost depleted, more neutrons stream into the fuel kernel of QUADRISO particles causing fission reactions. The mechanism has been applied to a prismatic high temperature reactor with europium or erbium burnable absorbers, showing a significant reduction in the initial excess reactivity of the core.

  4. Arginine deiminase modulates endothelial tip cells via excessive synthesis of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Wei; Song, Xiaomin; Zhou, Hao; Luo, Yongzhang

    2011-10-01

    ADI (arginine deiminase), an enzyme that hydrolyses arginine, has been reported as an anti-angiogenesis agent. However, its molecular mechanism is unclear. We have demonstrated for the first time that ADI modulates the angiogenic activity of endothelial tip cells. By arginine depletion, ADI disturbs actin filament in endothelial tip cells, causing disordered migratory direction and decreased migration ability. Furthermore, ADI induces excessive synthesis of ROS (reactive oxygen species), and activates caspase 8-, but not caspase 9-, dependent apoptosis in endothelial cells. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which ADI inhibits tumour angiogenesis through modulating endothelial tip cells.

  5. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Maaike J.; Mugambi, Gladys; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Kraemer, Klaus; Osendarp, Saskia; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gallagher, Alison M.; Verhagen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods. PMID:25630617

  6. Specific cue reactivity on computer game-related cues in excessive gamers.

    PubMed

    Thalemann, R; Wölfling, K; Grüsser, S M

    2007-06-01

    It has been posited that excessive computer game playing behavior, referred to as computer game addiction, meets criteria that have been internationally established to define drug addiction. Nevertheless, there have been no psychophysiological investigations of the underlying mechanisms available to support the characterization of excessive computer gaming as behavioral addiction. To investigate whether excessive computer gaming parallels learning processes in development and maintenance (which are assumed to underlie drug addiction), the authors obtained a psychophysiological assessment of the (learned) emotional processing of computer game-relevant and -irrelevant cues. For this purpose, electroencephalographic recordings in excessive and casual computer game players were conducted. Significant between-group differences in event-related potentials evoked by computer game related-cues were found at parietal regions and point to an increased emotional processing of these cues in excessive pathological players compared with casual players. These results are in concordance with the suggestion that addiction is characterized and maintained through sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system along with incentive salience of specific addiction-associated cues.

  7. Liver Fibrosis Can Be Induced by High Salt Intake through Excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-kwan; Wong, Wing-Yan; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-fan; Zhang, Jing-li; Yan, Yu; Wong, Ching-yee; Tang, Jun-jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-24

    High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system.

  8. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  9. Excess reactive oxygen species production mediates monoclonal antibody-induced human embryonic stem cell death via oncosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji Yun; Tan, Heng Liang; Matsudaira, Paul Thomas; Choo, Andre

    2017-03-01

    Antibody-mediated cell killing has significantly facilitated the elimination of undesired cells in therapeutic applications. Besides the well-known Fc-dependent mechanisms, pathways of antibody-induced apoptosis were also extensively studied. However, with fewer studies reporting the ability of antibodies to evoke an alternative form of programmed cell death, oncosis, the molecular mechanism of antibody-mediated oncosis remains underinvestigated. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), TAG-A1 (A1), was generated to selectively kill residual undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) so as to prevent teratoma formation upon transplantation of hESC-derived products. We revealed that A1 induces hESC death via oncosis. Aided with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we uncovered nanoscale morphological changes in A1-induced hESC oncosis, as well as A1 distribution on hESC surface. A1 induces hESC oncosis via binding-initiated signaling cascade, most likely by ligating receptors on surface microvilli. The ability to evoke excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via the Nox2 isoform of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is critical in the cell death pathway. Excess ROS production occurs downstream of microvilli degradation and homotypic adhesion, but upstream of actin reorganization, plasma membrane damage and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. To our knowledge, this is the first mechanistic model of mAb-induced oncosis on hESC revealing a previously unrecognized role for NAPDH oxidase-derived ROS in mediating oncotic hESC death. These findings in the cell death pathway may potentially be exploited to improve the efficiency of A1 in eliminating undifferentiated hESC and to provide insights into the study of other mAb-induced cell death.

  10. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunyun; Yun, Jisoo; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair.

  11. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 μg L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 μg L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 μg L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris.

  12. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jisoo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair. PMID:27668035

  13. Excessive Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive tanning appears to be evident in about one quarter of regular sunbathers. Susceptible individuals are likely to be young Caucasians from Western societies. Despite ongoing education by the media to the public about the risks of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the availability of potent sunscreens, there seems to be a concurrent proliferation of tanning facilities. What might be potential psychological explanations for excessive or pathological tanning? Psychopathological explanations may exist on both Axes I and II and include substance use, obsessive-compulsive, body dysmorphic, and borderline personality disorders. While there is no known treatment for pathological sunbathing, we discuss several treatment interventions from the literature that have been successfully used for the general public. PMID:20622941

  14. Excessive reactive oxygen species induces apoptosis in fibroblasts: Role of mitochondrially accumulated hyaluronic acid binding protein 1 (HABP1/p32/gC1qR)

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Anindya Roy; Ghosh, Ilora Datta, Kasturi

    2008-02-01

    Constitutively expressed HABP1 in normal murine fibroblast cell line induces growth perturbation, morphological abnormalities alongwith initiation of apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that though HABP1 accumulation started in mitochondria from 48 hr of growth, induction of apoptosis with the release of cytochrome c and apoptosome complex formation occurred only after 60 hr. This mitochondrial dysfunction was due to gradual increase in ROS generation in HABP1 overexpressing cells. Along with ROS generation, increased Ca{sup 2+} influx in mitochondria leading to drop in membrane potential was evident. Interestingly, upon expression of HABP1, the respiratory chain complex I was shown to be significantly inhibited. Electronmicrograph confirmed defective mitochondrial ultrastructure. The reduction in oxidant generation and drop in apoptotic cell population accomplished by disruption of HABP1 expression, corroborating the fact that excess ROS generation in HABP1 overexpressing cells leading to apoptosis was due to mitochondrial HABP1 accumulation.

  15. Co-occurring increases of calcium and organellar reactive oxygen species determine differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta) exposed to copper excess.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alberto; Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Dennett, Geraldine; Mellado, Macarena; Morales, Bernardo; Correa, Juan A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2010-10-01

    In order to analyse copper-induced calcium release and (reactive oxygen species) ROS accumulation and their role in antioxidant and defense enzymes activation, the marine alga Ulva compressa was exposed to 10 µM copper for 7 d. The level of calcium, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (eHP), intracellular hydrogen peroxide (iHP) and superoxide anions (SA) as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (AP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were determined. Calcium release showed a triphasic pattern with peaks at 2, 3 and 12 h. The second peak was coincident with increases in eHP and iHP and the third peak with the second increase of iHP. A delayed wave of SA occurred after day 3 and was not accompanied by calcium release. The accumulation of iHP and SA was mainly inhibited by organellar electron transport chains inhibitors (OETCI), whereas calcium release was inhibited by ryanodine. AP activation ceased almost completely after the use of OETCI. On the other hand, GR and GST activities were partially inhibited, whereas defense enzymes were not inhibited. In contrast, PAL and LOX were inhibited by ryanodine, whereas AP was not inhibited. Thus, copper stress induces calcium release and organellar ROS accumulation that determine the differential activation of antioxidant and defense enzymes.

  16. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  18. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  19. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  20. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  1. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  2. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  3. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms.

  4. Excessive Blinking in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratch on the front surface of the eye), conjunctivitis (pink eye), foreign body in the eye, or ... is excessive blinking treated? If an abrasion or conjunctivitis is diagnosed, eye drops or ointment may be ...

  5. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  6. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  7. The effects and underlying mechanism of excessive iodide on excessive fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Qiang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Zhao, Liang; Hou, Changchun; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Gang; Liu, Yeming; Jiang, Chunyang; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-07-01

    In many regions, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide coexist in groundwater, which may lead to biphasic hazards to human thyroid. To explore fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity and the mechanism underlying the effects of excessive iodide on fluoride-induced cytotoxicity, a thyroid cell line (Nthy-ori 3-1) was exposed to excessive fluoride and/or excessive iodide. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, apoptosis, and the expression levels of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were detected. Fluoride and/or iodide decreased cell viability and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. ROS, the expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), IRE1, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) were enhanced by fluoride or the combination of the two elements. Collectively, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide have detrimental influences on human thyroid cells. Furthermore, an antagonistic interaction between fluoride and excessive iodide exists, and cytotoxicity may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis.

  8. Nonaccommodative convergence excess.

    PubMed

    von Noorden, G K; Avilla, C W

    1986-01-15

    Nonaccommodative convergence excess is a condition in which a patient has orthotropia or a small-angle esophoria or esotropia at distance and a large-angle esotropia at near, not significantly reduced by the addition of spherical plus lenses. The AC/A ratio, determined with the gradient method, is normal or subnormal. Tonic convergence is suspected of causing the convergence excess in these patients. Nonaccommodative convergence excess must be distinguished from esotropia with a high AC/A ratio and from hypoaccommodative esotropia. In 24 patients treated with recession of both medial recti muscles with and without posterior fixation or by posterior fixation alone, the mean correction of esotropia was 7.4 prism diopters at distance and 17 prism diopters at near.

  9. [Excessive daytime sleepiness].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Silva, Rogério Santos; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    2005-05-01

    Sleepiness is a physiological function, and can be defined as increased propension to fall asleep. However, excessive sleepiness (ES) or hypersomnia refer to an abnormal increase in the probability to fall asleep, to take involuntary naps, or to have sleep atacks, when sleep is not desired. The main causes of excessive sleepiness is chronic sleep deprivation, sleep apnea syndrome, narcolepsy, movement disorders during sleep, circadian sleep disorders, use of drugs and medications, or idiopathic hypersomnia. Social, familial, work, and cognitive impairment are among the consequences of hypersomnia. Moreover, it has also been reported increased risk of accidents. The treatment of excessive sleepiness includes treating the primary cause, whenever identified. Sleep hygiene for sleep deprivation, positive pressure (CPAP) for sleep apnea, dopaminergic agents and exercises for sleep-related movement disorders, phototherapy and/or melatonin for circadian disorders, and use of stimulants are the treatment modalities of first choice.

  10. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  11. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  12. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories.

  13. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Cancer.gov

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  14. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess.

  15. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOEpatents

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  16. [Excessive population and health].

    PubMed

    Rivera, A A

    1995-07-01

    Population density in El Salvador is among the highest in the world. In metropolitan San Salvador and the other main cities, crowding, squatter settlements, unemployment and underemployment, scarcity of basic services, squalor, and other social pathologies appear to be increasing. Overpopulation poses an enormous challenge for development. Reflection on the benefits of family planning has been delayed in El Salvador, and in the interim there have been increases in social inequality, misery, and hunger. Family planning programs have been referred to as "neo-Malthusian" and contrary to the right to life, but in fact they promote birth spacing and free selection of methods by couples, contributing to improvement in the quality of family life. Family planning allows couples to limit their offspring to those they can adequately care for emotionally and materially. People must be shown that family planning alleviates many of humanity's problems.

  17. Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ...

  18. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  19. Reactive Nitrogen in Atmospheric Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess reactive Nitrogen (NT) has become one of the most pressing environmental problems leading to air pollution, acidification and eutrophication of ecosystems, biodiversity impacts, leaching of nitrates into groundwater and global warming. This paper investigates how current i...

  20. Hunger, escaping excess.

    PubMed

    Gardner, G; Halweil, B

    2000-01-01

    According to the WHO, in spite of decades of global food surpluses, half of humanity, in both rich and poor nations, is still malnourished. Malnutrition has become a significant impediment to development in rich and poor countries, alike. At the individual level, both hunger and poor eating habits reduce a person's physical fitness, increase susceptibility to illness, and shorten lifespan. In addition, children deprived of adequate nutrients during development can suffer from permanently reduced mental capacity. At the national level, poor eating hampers educational performance, curtails economic productivity, increases the burden on health care, and reduces well-being. Confronting this epidemic of poor eating will have widespread benefits, but the myths and misconceptions permeating humanity¿s understanding of malnutrition should be addressed first. It is noted that the major cause of hunger is poverty, not scarcity of food; it is the lack of access to the goods and services essential for a healthy life. On the other hand, for those who have access to plenty of food, dietary intake includes meat, dairy products, and highly processed items loaded with fat and sugar. This leads to the problem of obesity, a condition that increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and shortens lifespan. In view of this, efforts to improve nutrition should focus on poverty eradication, health education, agricultural change, and policy change towards promotion of good nutrition.

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  3. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  4. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  11. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  13. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  14. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  15. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  16. Reactive nitrogen emissions from agricultural operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive nitrogen is essential to the growth of plants and animals and is typically the most limiting nutrient in agricultural production. While reactive nitrogen in fertilizer has enabled the growing global population to maintain food production, the inefficient and sometimes excessive use of nitro...

  17. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  18. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  19. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  20. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  1. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  2. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  3. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  4. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  5. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  9. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  11. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  13. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  14. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  15. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  16. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  17. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  18. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  19. [Excessive sweating related to hydromorphone].

    PubMed

    Vinit, J; Devilliers, H; Audia, S; Leguy, V; Mura, H; Falvo, N; Berthier, S; Besancenot, J-F; Bonnotte, B; Lorcerie, B

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse and abundant sweating in a middle age patient evolving for several weeks should raise suspicion of malignant lymphoma and infectious or neuroendocrine disorders before considering a drug origin. We report a patient who presented with severe and invalidating excessive sweating related to hydromorphone therapy for vertebral pain. Amongst their many reported side-effects, excessive sweating disappearing with discontinuation of the drug have been reported with some opiates.

  20. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  1. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  2. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  3. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  4. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  5. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  6. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  8. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  9. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  10. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  11. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  12. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  13. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  14. Multiscale reactive molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chris; Lindberg, Gerrick E.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    Many processes important to chemistry, materials science, and biology cannot be described without considering electronic and nuclear-level dynamics and their coupling to slower, cooperative motions of the system. These inherently multiscale problems require computationally efficient and accurate methods to converge statistical properties. In this paper, a method is presented that uses data directly from condensed phase ab initio simulations to develop reactive molecular dynamics models that do not require predefined empirical functions. Instead, the interactions used in the reactive model are expressed as linear combinations of interpolating functions that are optimized by using a linear least-squares algorithm. One notable benefit of the procedure outlined here is the capability to minimize the number of parameters requiring nonlinear optimization. The method presented can be generally applied to multiscale problems and is demonstrated by generating reactive models for the hydrated excess proton and hydroxide ion based directly on condensed phase ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting models faithfully reproduce the water-ion structural properties and diffusion constants from the ab initio simulations. Additionally, the free energy profiles for proton transfer, which is sensitive to the structural diffusion of both ions in water, are reproduced. The high fidelity of these models to ab initio simulations will permit accurate modeling of general chemical reactions in condensed phase systems with computational efficiency orders of magnitudes greater than currently possible with ab initio simulation methods, thus facilitating a proper statistical sampling of the coupling to slow, large-scale motions of the system.

  15. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess...

  16. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  17. [Does sleep apnea disappear once acromegaly is adequately treated?].

    PubMed

    Bruyneel, M; Haumont, S; Devuyst, F

    2016-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disease related to excessive growth hormone secretion. It can result in a range of complications, including cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, articular and neoplastic disorders. Among patients with the condition, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome occurs frequently and the effect of treatment is inconstant: improvement, statu quo or deterioration can be observed. We here report three clinical cases, which illustrate the unpredictable evolution of this condition.

  18. Reactive sintering and reactive hot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. C.; German, R. M.

    1992-09-01

    NbAl3 has been synthesized from elemental powders by reactive sintering (RS) and reactive hot isostatic pressing (RHIP). Both processes involve a self-propagating exothermic reaction between the constituent powders to form an intermetallic compound. The RHIP approach uses simultaneous external pressurization to make a higher density product. This study focused on developing a method to use reactive synthesis to form high-density NbAl3 compacts. High RS and RHIP densities were possible with the appropriate raw materials and processing parameters. These include powder purity, particle sizes, degassing, heating rate, furnace temperature, and compaction pressures. Near full density was attained with RHIP, and up to 95 pct density was attained with RS.

  19. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  20. Light and Excess Manganese1

    PubMed Central

    González, Alonso; Steffen, Kenneth L.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of light intensity on antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and chlorophyll content was studied in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to excess Mn. Leaves of bean genotypes contrasting in Mn tolerance were exposed to two different light intensities and to excess Mn; light was controlled by shading a leaflet with filter paper. After 5 d of Mn treatment ascorbate was depleted by 45% in leaves of the Mn-sensitive genotype ZPV-292 and by 20% in the Mn-tolerant genotype CALIMA. Nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and glutathione reductase were not affected by Mn or light treatment. Ten days of Mn-toxicity stress increased leaf ascorbate peroxidase activity of cv ZPV-292 by 78% in low light and by 235% in high light, and superoxide dismutase activity followed a similar trend. Increases of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity observed in cv CALIMA were lower than those observed in the susceptible cv ZPV-292. The cv CALIMA had less ascorbate oxidation under excess Mn-toxicity stress. Depletion of ascorbate occurred before the onset of chlorosis in Mn-stressed plants, especially in cv ZPV-292. Lipid peroxidation was not detected in floating leaf discs of mature leaves exposed to excess Mn. Our results suggest that Mn toxicity may be mediated by oxidative stress, and that the tolerant genotype may maintain higher ascorbate levels under stress than the sensitive genotype. PMID:9765534

  1. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  2. OUTFLOWS IN SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jongwon; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jeong, Hyunjin

    2015-08-10

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  3. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  4. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  5. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  6. The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

  7. Excess carbon in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Oxley, M. P.; Puzyrev, Y.; Tuttle, B. R.; Duscher, G.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2010-12-01

    The application of SiC in electronic devices is currently hindered by low carrier mobility at the SiC/SiO2 interfaces. Recently, it was reported that 4H-SiC/SiO2 interfaces might have a transition layer on the SiC substrate side with C/Si ratio as high as 1.2, suggesting that carbon is injected into the SiC substrate during oxidation or other processing steps. We report finite-temperature quantum molecular dynamics simulations that explore the behavior of excess carbon in SiC. For SiC with 20% excess carbon, we find that, over short time (˜24 ps), carbon atoms bond to each other and form various complexes, while the silicon lattice is largely unperturbed. These results, however, suggest that at macroscopic times scale, C segregation is likely to occur; therefore a transition layer with 20% extra carbon would not be stable. For a dilute distribution of excess carbon, we explore the pairing of carbon interstitials and show that the formation of dicarbon interstitial cluster is kinetically very favorable, which suggests that isolated carbon clusters may exist inside SiC substrate.

  8. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  9. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  10. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by...

  11. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and...

  12. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  13. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  14. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  15. What Is Reactive Arthritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  16. Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 µg day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 µg L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 µmol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 µg L(-1) (3.95 µmol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P < 0.001), indicating excessive iodine intake. About 20% of the study subjects had 'more than adequate' urinary iodine, while over 71% had excessive UIC. Salt iodine content varied between 5.1 and 80.1 ppm in the five market salt samples analysed. In conclusion, excessive iodine intake was evident in the Dadaab refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies.

  17. Excess deferred taxes: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.

    1985-04-04

    The states originally split on whether to accelerate refunds to customers for overpaid taxes resulting from the decrease in corporate income taxes, but recent regulatory decisions favor a quick payback of excess deferred taxes. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) indicates that this may violate normalization rules for accounting and threaten the utility's eligibility for accelerated depreciation deductions. After reviewing the positions of the IRS, state commissions, and the courts, the author concludes that the debate will continue until the Treasury Department issues definitive regulations. 1 table.

  18. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  19. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  20. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  1. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  2. Modulation of copper toxicity-induced oxidative damage by excess supply of iron in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Parma Nand

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we examined the modulation of Cu toxicity-induced oxidative stress by excess supply of iron in Zea mays L. plants. Plants receiving excess of Cu (100 microM) showed decreased water potential and simultaneously showed wilting in the leaves. Later, the young leaves exhibited chlorosis and necrotic scorching of lamina. Excess of Cu suppressed growth, decreased concentration of chloroplastic pigments and fresh and dry weight of plants. The activities of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7; POD), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11; APX) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) were increased in plants supplied excess of Cu. However, activity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6; CAT), was depressed in these plants. In gel activities of isoforms of POD, APX and SOD also revealed upregulation of these enzymes. Excess (500 microM)-Fe-supplemented Cu-stressed plants, however, looked better in their phenotypic appearance, had increased concentration of chloroplastic pigments, dry weight, and improved leaf tissue water status in comparison to the plants supplied excess of Cu. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes including CAT were further enhanced and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and H(2)O(2) concentrations decreased in excess-Fe-supplemented Cu-stressed plants. In situ accumulation of H(2)O(2), contrary to that of O(2)(*-) radical, increased in both leaf and roots of excess-Cu-stressed plants, but Cu-excess plants supplied with excess-Fe showed reduced accumulation H(2)O(2) and little higher of O(2)(*-) in comparison to excess-Cu plants. It is, therefore, concluded that excess-Cu (100 microM) induces oxidative stress by increasing production of H(2)O(2) despite of increased antioxidant protection and that the excess-Cu-induced oxidative damage is minimized by excess supply of Fe.

  3. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  4. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  5. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  6. The effects of excessive humidity.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B

    1998-06-01

    Humidification devices and techniques can expose the airway mucosa to a wide range of gas temperatures and humidities, some of which are excessive and may cause injury. Humidified gas is a carrier of both water and energy. The volume of water in the gas stream depends on whether the water is in a molecular form (vapor), particulate form (aerosol), or bulk form (liquid). The energy content of gas stream is the sum of the sensible heat (temperature) of the air and any water droplets in it and the heat of vaporization (latent energy) of any water vapor present. Latent heat energy is much larger than sensible heat energy, so saturated air contains much more energy than dry air. Thus every breath contains a water volume and energy (thermal) challenge to the airway mucosa. When the challenge exceeds the homeostatic mechanisms airway dysfunction begins, starting at the cellular and secretion level and progressing to whole airway function. A large challenge will result in quick progression of dysfunction. Early dysfunction is generally reversible, however, so large challenges with short exposure times may not cause irreversible injury. The mechanisms of airway injury owing to excess water are not well studied. The observation of its effects lends itself to some general conclusions, however. Alterations in the ventilation-perfusion ratio, decrease in vital capacity and compilance, and atelectasis are suggestive of partial or full occlusion of small airways. Changes in surface tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient are consistent with flooding of alveoli. There also may be osmotic challenges to mucosal cell function as evidenced by the different reaction rates with hyper- and hypotonic saline. The reaction to nonisotonic saline also may partly explain increases in specific airway resistance. Aerosolized water and instilled water may be hazardous because of their demonstrated potential for delivering excessive water to the airway. Their use for airway humidification or

  7. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  8. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  9. 7 CFR 945.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 945.44 Section 945.44 Agriculture... Assessments § 945.44 Excess funds. (a) The funds remaining at the end of a fiscal period which are in excess... amount not to exceed approximately one fiscal period's budgeted expenses. Funds in such reserve shall...

  10. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  11. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  12. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b)...

  13. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  14. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  15. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  16. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  17. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  18. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  19. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  20. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  1. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  2. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  3. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  4. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  5. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  6. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  7. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  8. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  9. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  10. The 'reactive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Piccardo, Giovanni; Guarnieri, Luisa

    2010-05-01

    The Ligurian ophiolitic peridotites [South Lanzo, Erro-Tobbio, Internal Ligurides and Corsica] are characterized by the abundance of spinel(Sp) peridotites showing depleted compositions and ranging from Cpx-poor Sp lherzolites to Sp harzburgites. They were recognized in the last decades as refractory residua by MORB-forming partial melting of the asthenosphere, and were similar to abyssal peridotites. Recent structural and compositional studies promoted a better understanding of their structural and compositional features and their genetic processes. In the field these depleted peridotites replace with primary contacts pyroxenite-bearing fertile Sp lherzolites that have been recognized as sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Field relationships evidence that decametric-hectometric bodies of pristine pyroxenite-veined lithospheric Sp lherzolites are preserved as structural remnants within the km-scale masses of depleted peridotites. The depleted peridotites show coarse-grained recrystallized textures and reaction micro-structures indicating pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation that have been considered as records of melt/peridotite interaction during reactive diffuse porous flow of undersaturated melts. They show, moreover, contrasting bulk and mineral chemistries that cannot be produced by simple partial melting and melt extraction. In particular, their bulk compositions are depleted in SiO2 and enriched in FeO with respect to refractory residua after any kind of partial melting, as calculated by Niu (1997), indicating that they cannot be formed by simple partial melting and melt extraction processes. Moreover, TiO2 content in Sp is usually significantly higher (up to 0.8-1.0 wt%) than typical TiO2 contents of spinels (usually < 0.1-0.2 wt %) in fertile mantle peridotites and melting refractory residua, indicating that spinel attained element equilibration with a Ti-bearing basaltic melt. The depleted peridotites usually show strongly variable Cpx modal

  11. Androgen excess in cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Marynick, S P; Chakmakjian, Z H; McCaffree, D L; Herndon, J H

    1983-04-28

    We measured hormone levels in 59 women and 32 men with longstanding cystic acne resistant to conventional therapy. Affected women had higher serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. Affected men had higher levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17-hydroxyprogesterone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. To lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dexamethasone was given to men, and dexamethasone or an oral contraceptive pill, Demulen (or both), was given to women. Of the patients treated for six months, 97 per cent of the women and 81 per cent of the men had resolution or marked improvement in their acne. The dose of dexamethasone required to reduce dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels was low, rarely exceeding the equivalent of 20 mg of hydrocortisone per day. We conclude that most patients with therapeutically resistant cystic acne have androgen excess and that lowering elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate results in improvement or remission of acne in most instances.

  12. Androgen excess: Investigations and management.

    PubMed

    Lizneva, Daria; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia. Moreover, assessment of biochemical hyperandrogenism is necessary, particularly in patients with unclear or absent hirsutism, and will include assessing total and free testosterone (T), and possibly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, although these latter contribute limitedly to the diagnosis. Assessment of T requires use of the highest quality assays available, generally radioimmunoassays with extraction and chromatography or mass spectrometry preceded by liquid or gas chromatography. Management of clinical hyperandrogenism involves primarily either androgen suppression, with a hormonal combination contraceptive, or androgen blockade, as with an androgen receptor blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor, or a combination of the two. Medical treatment should be combined with cosmetic treatment including topical eflornithine hydrochloride and short-term (shaving, chemical depilation, plucking, threading, waxing, and bleaching) and long-term (electrolysis, laser therapy, and intense pulse light therapy) cosmetic treatments. Generally, acne responds to therapy relatively rapidly, whereas hirsutism is slower to respond, with improvements observed as early as 3 months, but routinely only after 6 or 8 months of therapy. Finally, FPHL is the slowest to respond to therapy, if it will at all, and it may take 12 to 18 months of therapy for an observable response.

  13. Limiting excessive postoperative blood transfusion after cardiac procedures. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, V A; Ferraris, S P

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of blood product use after cardiac operations reveals that a few patients (< or = 20%) consume the majority of blood products (> 80%). The risk factors that predispose a minority of patients to excessive blood use include patient-related factors, transfusion practices, drug-related causes, and procedure-related factors. Multivariate studies suggest that patient age and red blood cell volume are independent patient-related variables that predict excessive blood product transfusion after cardiac procedures. Other factors include preoperative aspirin ingestion, type of operation, over- or underutilization of heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass, failure to correct hypothermia after cardiopulmonary bypass, and physician overtransfusion. A survey of the currently available blood conservation techniques reveals 5 that stand out as reliable methods: 1) high-dose aprotinin therapy, 2) preoperative erythropoietin therapy when time permits adequate dosage before operation, 3) hemodilution by harvest of whole blood immediately before cardiopulmonary bypass, 4) autologous predonation of blood, and 5) salvage of oxygenator blood after cardiopulmonary bypass. Other methods, such as the use of epsilon-aminocaproic acid or desmopressin, cell saving devices, reinfusion of shed mediastinal blood, and hemofiltration have been reported to be less reliable and may even be harmful in some high-risk patients. Consideration of the available data allows formulation of a 4-pronged plan for limiting excessive blood transfusion after surgery: 1) recognize the causes of excessive transfusion, including the importance of red blood cell volume, type of procedure being performed, preoperative aspirin ingestion, etc.; 2) establish a quality management program, including a survey of transfusion practices that emphasizes physician education and availability of real-time laboratory testing to guide transfusion therapy; 3) adopt a multimodal approach using institution-proven techniques; and

  14. Excess noise in tunable diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The method and the apparatus for identifying excess-noise regions in tunable diode lasers are described. These diode lasers exhibit regions of excess noise as their wavelength is tuned. If a tunable diode laser is to be used as a local oscillator in a superheterodyne optical receiver, these excess-noise regions severely degrade the performance of the receiver. Measurement results for several tunable diode lasers are given. These results indicate that excess noise is not necessarily associated with a particular wavelength, and that it is possible to select temperature and injection current such that the most ideal performance is achieved.

  15. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  16. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  20. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  1. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  2. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  3. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  4. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  5. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  6. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Eligibility Requirements for Mortgage Insurance... Section 236 interest reduction payments may apply to retain Excess Income for project use unless the mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  17. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment... current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment Agreement or the mortgagor falls within any... of Excess Income that was: (i) Repaid in accordance with a Workout or Repayment Agreement with...

  18. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment... current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment Agreement or the mortgagor falls within any... of Excess Income that was: (i) Repaid in accordance with a Workout or Repayment Agreement with...

  19. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    PubMed

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  20. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost…

  1. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0086. Form Numbers: None--form... INFORMATION CONTACT: Leroy McKinney Jr., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and...

  2. [Normal bone marrow and common reactive alterations].

    PubMed

    Tzankov, A; Dirnhofer, S; Beham-Schmid, C

    2012-11-01

    Histological examination of bone marrow biopsies is an important and powerful diagnostic tool to assess various hematological and non-hematological disorders. Morphological examination of such biopsies requires knowledge of the composition of normal bone marrow and its variations, such as age-related changes. Diagnostic problems may arise due to poor specimen quality, insufficient sections or stainings and insufficient experience with reactive bone marrow changes which occasionally resemble neoplastic disorders. Reactive bone marrow processes can affect one or more hematopoietic cell lines, lead to disruption of the normal architecture and specifically affect the bone marrow stroma. Optimal bone marrow diagnosis requires adequately stained slides and, when needed, immunophenotyping and molecular examinations. Furthermore, rather than biopsy interpretation of other organs, pathologists routinely need clinical history information for correct interpretation and diagnosis of bone marrow changes. In this article, the normal features of bone marrow as well as the most frequent reactive bone marrow alterations are described.

  3. System for reactivating catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  4. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  5. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources for This Page Fukami M, Shozu M, Ogata T. Molecular bases and phenotypic determinants of aromatase ... T, Nishigaki T, Yokoya S, Binder G, Horikawa R, Ogata T. Aromatase excess syndrome: identification of cryptic duplications ...

  6. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are in excess of the average annual per-student expenditure in an LEA during the preceding school year for an elementary school or secondary school student, as may be appropriate, and that must be...

  7. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0497 TITLE: Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use...SUBTITLE Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ability to measure alcohol quantity consumed and associated damage better than can be done with ethyl alcohol level measures and other existing

  8. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    S. et al. (2002). Decreased activity of brain phospholipid metabolic enzymes in human users of cocaine and methamphetamine. Drug & Alcohol ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0497 TITLE: Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use...NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  9. Properties of a Hydrated Excess Proton Near the Cholesterol-Containing Phospholipid Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takefumi

    In order to study effects of cholesterol (Chol) on the interaction between the excess proton and the phospholipid bilayer, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the multistate empirical valence bond model. Although Chol significantly affects the bilayer structure, the proton affinity of the Chol-containing phospholipid bilayer is as high as that of the pure phospholipid bilayer. It is found that the excess proton is strongly trapped by the carbonyl groups and the phosphate groups of the phospholipids. This structure is quite similar to the structure observed in the pure lipid bilayer systems.

  10. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  11. SELECTION AND CALIBRATION OF SUBSURFACE REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELS USING A SURROGATE-MODEL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    While standard techniques for uncertainty analysis have been successfully applied to groundwater flow models, extension to reactive transport is frustrated by numerous difficulties, including excessive computational burden and parameter non-uniqueness. This research introduces a...

  12. Hydrated Excess Protons Can Create Their Own Water Wires.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuxing; Swanson, Jessica M J; Kang, Seung-gu; Zhou, Ruhong; Voth, Gregory A

    2015-07-23

    Grotthuss shuttling of an excess proton charge defect through hydrogen bonded water networks has long been the focus of theoretical and experimental studies. In this work we show that there is a related process in which water molecules move ("shuttle") through a hydrated excess proton charge defect in order to wet the path ahead for subsequent proton charge migration. This process is illustrated through reactive molecular dynamics simulations of proton transport through a hydrophobic nanotube, which penetrates through a hydrophobic region. Surprisingly, before the proton enters the nanotube, it starts "shooting" water molecules into the otherwise dry space via Grotthuss shuttling, effectively creating its own water wire where none existed before. As the proton enters the nanotube (by 2-3 Å), it completes the solvation process, transitioning the nanotube to the fully wet state. By contrast, other monatomic cations (e.g., K(+)) have just the opposite effect, by blocking the wetting process and making the nanotube even drier. As the dry nanotube gradually becomes wet when the proton charge defect enters it, the free energy barrier of proton permeation through the tube via Grotthuss shuttling drops significantly. This finding suggests that an important wetting mechanism may influence proton translocation in biological systems, i.e., one in which protons "create" their own water structures (water "wires") in hydrophobic spaces (e.g., protein pores) before migrating through them. An existing water wire, e.g., one seen in an X-ray crystal structure or MD simulations without an explicit excess proton, is therefore not a requirement for protons to transport through hydrophobic spaces.

  13. Hydrated Excess Protons Can Create Their Own Water Wires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Grotthuss shuttling of an excess proton charge defect through hydrogen bonded water networks has long been the focus of theoretical and experimental studies. In this work we show that there is a related process in which water molecules move (“shuttle”) through a hydrated excess proton charge defect in order to wet the path ahead for subsequent proton charge migration. This process is illustrated through reactive molecular dynamics simulations of proton transport through a hydrophobic nanotube, which penetrates through a hydrophobic region. Surprisingly, before the proton enters the nanotube, it starts “shooting” water molecules into the otherwise dry space via Grotthuss shuttling, effectively creating its own water wire where none existed before. As the proton enters the nanotube (by 2–3 Å), it completes the solvation process, transitioning the nanotube to the fully wet state. By contrast, other monatomic cations (e.g., K+) have just the opposite effect, by blocking the wetting process and making the nanotube even drier. As the dry nanotube gradually becomes wet when the proton charge defect enters it, the free energy barrier of proton permeation through the tube via Grotthuss shuttling drops significantly. This finding suggests that an important wetting mechanism may influence proton translocation in biological systems, i.e., one in which protons “create” their own water structures (water “wires”) in hydrophobic spaces (e.g., protein pores) before migrating through them. An existing water wire, e.g., one seen in an X-ray crystal structure or MD simulations without an explicit excess proton, is therefore not a requirement for protons to transport through hydrophobic spaces. PMID:25369445

  14. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  17. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  20. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  1. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  2. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  3. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  4. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  5. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  6. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  7. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  8. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  10. Active-reactive coupling in optimal reactive dispatch: A solution via Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Granville, S.; Rodrigo de Miranda Alves, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Decoupled model based algorithms have been widely used to solve the optimal reactive dispatch problem. However, in presence of non-negligible active-reactive coupling, convergence and solution reliability problems may appear. This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm based on the estimation of active power related Lagrange multipliers to solve the optimal reactive dispatch. The estimation process is based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. Adequate treatment of non-separable objective functions and numerical results carried out on test-cases (17 buses) and real-life networks (329 and 447 buses) are reported.

  11. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  12. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  13. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  14. Reactivity Control Schemes for Fast Spectrum Space Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-21

    Several different reactivity control schemes are considered for future space nuclear reactor power systems. Each of these control schemes uses a combination of boron carbide absorbers and/or beryllium oxide reflectors to achieve sufficient reactivity swing to keep the reactor subcritical during launch and to provide sufficient excess reactivity to operate the reactor over its expected 7-15 year lifetime. The size and shape of the control system directly impacts the size and mass of the space reactor's reflector and shadow shield, leading to a tradeoff between reactivity swing and total system mass. This paper presents a trade study of drum, shutter, and petal control schemes based on reactivity swing and mass effects for a representative fast-spectrum, gas-cooled reactor. For each control scheme, the dimensions and composition of the core are constant, and the reflector is sized to provide $5 of cold-clean excess reactivity with each configuration in its most reactive state. The advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are discussed, along with optimization techniques and novel geometric approaches for each scheme.

  15. Excess Electron Localization in Solvated DNA Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, Maeve; Kohanoff, Jorge

    2011-06-10

    We present a first-principles molecular dynamics study of an excess electron in condensed phase models of solvated DNA bases. Calculations on increasingly large microsolvated clusters taken from liquid phase simulations show that adiabatic electron affinities increase systematically upon solvation, as for optimized gas-phase geometries. Dynamical simulations after vertical attachment indicate that the excess electron, which is initially found delocalized, localizes around the nucleobases within a 15 fs time scale. This transition requires small rearrangements in the geometry of the bases.

  16. Photoreceptor damage following exposure to excess riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Eckhert, C D; Hsu, M H; Pang, N

    1993-12-15

    Flavins generate oxidants during metabolism and when exposed to light. Here we report that the photoreceptor layer of retinas from black-eyed rats is reduced in size by a dietary regime containing excess riboflavin. The effect of excess riboflavin was dose-dependent and was manifested by a decrease in photoreceptor length. This decrease was due in part to a reduction in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer, a structure formed from stacked photoreceptor nuclei. These changes were accompanied by an increase in photoreceptor outer segment autofluorescence following illumination at 328 nm, a wavelength that corresponds to the excitation maxima of oxidized lipopigments of the retinal pigment epithelium.

  17. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  18. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  19. Phenylethynyl reactive diluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having a specified general structure is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having a specified general structure is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react with to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  20. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  1. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  2. [Conservative and surgical treatment of convergence excess].

    PubMed

    Ehrt, O

    2016-07-01

    Convergence excess is a common finding especially in pediatric strabismus. A detailed diagnostic approach has to start after full correction of any hyperopia measured in cycloplegia. It includes measurements of manifest and latent deviation at near and distance fixation, near deviation after relaxation of accommodation with addition of +3 dpt, assessment of binocular function with and without +3 dpt as well as the accommodation range. This diagnostic approach is important for the classification into three types of convergence excess, which require different therapeutic approaches: 1) hypo-accommodative convergence excess is treated with permanent bifocal glasses, 2) norm-accommodative patients should be treated with bifocals which can be weaned over years, especially in patients with good stereopsis and 3) non-accommodative convergence excess and patients with large distance deviations need a surgical approach. The most effective operations include those which reduce the muscle torque, e. g. bimedial Faden operations or Y‑splitting of the medial rectus muscles.

  3. Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, C W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area. PMID:10029502

  4. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  5. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a... than Federal Perkins Loan Program funds, that an institution does not disburse to students or parents... funds that an institution receives from the Secretary under the just-in-time payment method. (b)...

  6. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236.60 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  7. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  8. Excessive Interviews: Listening to Maternal Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willink, Kate

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits an interview with Ava Montalvo--a mother of two living in Albuquerque, New Mexico--which initially confounded her interpretive resources. This reflexive, performative article examines the role of excess as an analytical lens through which to understand maternal subjectivity and elaborates the methodological…

  9. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  10. Controlled expedient disposal of excess gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M R; Thiboutot, S; Walsh, M E; Ampleman, G

    2012-06-15

    The expedient field disposal of excess gun propellants on the ground is an integral part of live-fire training in many countries. However, burning excess propellant in the field will leave significant quantities of energetic residues and heavy metals in the environment. Compounds such as dinitrotoluene and nitroglycerin and metals such as lead will leach into the soil column, eventually migrating to groundwater. Contamination of the environment will lead to high remediation costs and the possible loss of the training facility. After investigating the contamination at several propellant disposal sites, a portable propellant burn pan was developed and tested. The pan was transported to training sites where excess propellant was loaded and burned in a controlled manner. Up to 120 kg of excess single-base propellant charges have been burned during two series of tests at a consumption rate of greater than 99.9%. Less than 0.03% of the energetic material was recovered outside the burn pan. Recovered lead is largely contained within the pan. The turnover rate for burns is 15 min. The residues can be collected following cool-down for proper disposal.

  11. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  14. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  17. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  19. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  20. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  1. Central Greenland Holocene Deuterium Excess Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Jouzel, J.; Falourd, S.; Cattani, O.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Johnsen, S.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; White, J. W. C.

    Water stable isotopes (oxygen 18 and deuterium) have been measured along the Holocene part of two deep ice cores from central Greenland, GRIP and North GRIP. Theoretical studies have shown that the second-order isotopic parameter, the deu- terium excess (d=dD-8d18O), is an indicator of climatic changes at the oceanic mois- ture source reflecting at least partly changes in sea-surface-temperature. The two deu- terium excess records from GRIP and North GRIP show a long term increasing trend already observed in Antarctic deep ice cores and related to changes in the Earth's obliquity during the Holocene : an decreased obliquity is associated with a larger low to high latitude annual mean insolation gradient, warmer tropics, colder poles, and a more intense atmospheric transport from the tropics to the poles, resulting in a higher moisture source temperature and higher deuterium excess values. Superimposed onto this long term trend, central Greenland deuterium excess records also exhibit small abrupt events (8.2 ka BP and 4.5 ka BP) and a high frequency variability.

  2. Why Excess Immigration Damages the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population-Environment Balance

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between excessive immigration and environmental degradation. Explains the position that a stable United States population size is essential in prevention further deterioration of the natural resource base. Maintains that balancing immigration and emigration will be instrumental in balancing population with environment.…

  3. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  4. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  5. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  6. 7 CFR 966.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 966.44 Section 966.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  7. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  8. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  9. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  10. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  11. Vitiligo pathogenesis: autoimmune disease, genetic defect, excessive reactive oxygen species, calcium imbalance, or what else?

    PubMed

    Schallreuter, K U; Bahadoran, P; Picardo, M; Slominski, A; Elassiuty, Y E; Kemp, E H; Giachino, C; Liu, J B; Luiten, R M; Lambe, T; Le Poole, I C; Dammak, I; Onay, H; Zmijewski, M A; Dell'Anna, M L; Zeegers, M P; Cornall, R J; Paus, R; Ortonne, J P; Westerhof, W

    2008-02-01

    The pathobiology of vitiligo has been hotly disputed for as long as one remembers, and has been a magnet for endless speculation. Evidently, the different schools of thought--ranging, e.g. from the concept that vitiligo essentially is a free-radical disorder to that of vitiligo being a primary autoimmune disease--imply very different consequences for the best therapeutic strategies that one should adopt. As a more effective therapy for this common, often disfiguring pigmentary disorder is direly needed, we must strive harder to settle the pathogenesis debate definitively--on the basis of sound experimental evidence, rather than by a war of dogmatic theories. Recognizing, however, that it is theories which tend to guide our experimental designs and choice of study parameters, the various pathogenesis theories on the market deserve to be critically, yet unemotionally re-evaluated. This Controversies feature invites you to do so, and to ask yourself: is there something important or worthwhile exploring in other pathogenesis scenarios than those already favoured by you that may help you improve your own study design, next time you have a fresh look at vitiligo? Vitiligo provides a superb model for the study of many fundamental problems in skin biology and pathology. Therefore, even if it later turns out that, as far as your own vitiligo pathogenesis concept is concerned, you have barked-up the wrong tree most of the time, chances are that you shall anyway have generated priceless new insights into skin function along the way.

  12. Altered Brain Reactivity to Game Cues After Gaming Experience.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Chung, Hwan Jun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure. All participants performed a cue reactivity task with game, drama, and neutral cues in the brain scanner, both before and after the exposure sessions. The game group showed an increased reactivity to game cues in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The degree of VLPFC activation increase was positively correlated with the self-reported increase in desire for the game. The drama group showed an increased cue reactivity in response to the presentation of drama cues in the caudate, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. The results indicate that exposure to either Internet games or TV dramas elevates the reactivity to visual cues associated with the particular exposure. The exact elevation patterns, however, appear to differ depending on the type of media experienced. How changes in each of the regions contribute to the progression to pathological craving warrants a future longitudinal study.

  13. Predictive factors of excessive online poker playing.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Anthony A B; Nicki, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the widespread rise of online poker playing, there is a paucity of research examining potential predictors for excessive poker playing. The aim of this study was to build on recent research examining motives for Texas Hold'em play in students by determining whether predictors of other kinds of excessive gambling apply to Texas Hold'em. Impulsivity, negative mood states, dissociation, and boredom proneness have been linked to general problem gambling and may play a role in online poker. Participants of this study were self-selected online poker players (N = 179) who completed an online survey. Results revealed that participants played an average of 20 hours of online poker a week and approximately 9% of the sample was classified as a problem gambler according to the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Problem gambling, in this sample, was uniquely predicted by time played, dissociation, boredom proneness, impulsivity, and negative affective states, namely depression, anxiety, and stress.

  14. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  15. Excess junction current of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, E. Y.; Legge, R. N.; Christidis, N.

    1973-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of n(plus)-p silicon solar cells with 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, and 10 ohm-cm p-type base materials have been examined in detail. In addition to the usual I-V measurements, we have studied the temperature dependence of the slope of the I-V curve at the origin by the lock-in technique. The excess junction current coefficient (Iq) deduced from the slope at the origin depends on the square root of the intrinsic carrier concentration. The Iq obtained from the I-V curve fitting over the entire forward bias region at various temperatures shows the same temperature dependence. This result, in addition to the presence of an aging effect, suggest that the surface channel effect is the dominant cause of the excess junction current.

  16. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  17. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect

    Raharto, Moedji

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  18. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  19. [CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF AN EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS COMPLAINT].

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Elisa; Barateau, Lucie; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Excessive sleepiness is a common problem, defined by a complaint of excessive daytime sleepiness almost daily with an inability to stay awake and alert dosing periods at sleep, with episodes of irresistible sleep need or drowsiness or non-intentional sleep, or by a night's sleep time overly extended often associated with sleep inertia. This sleepiness is variable in terms of phenotype and severity to be specified by the out-patient clinic. It is considered to be chronic beyond three months and often responsible for significant functional impairment of school and professional performance, of the accidents and cardiovascular risk. We need to decipher the causes of excessive sleepiness: sleep deprivation, toxic and iatrogenic, psychiatric disorders (including depression), non-psychiatric medical problems (obesity, neurological pathologies...), sleep disorders (as for example the sleep apnea syndrome), and finally the central hypersomnias namely narcolepsy type 1 and 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, and Kleine-Levin syndrome. If careful questioning often towards one of these etiologies, need most of the time a paraclinical balance with a sleep recording to confirm the diagnosis. Patients affected with potential central hypersomnia must be referred to the Sleep Study Centers that have the skills and the appropriate means to achieve this balance sheet.

  20. Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.

    2009-04-23

    The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<>c{sub q}, negativity of the excess noise can occur at finite frequency when the transmission coefficients are energy dependent, i.e. in the presence of Fabry-Perot resonances or band curvature. In the opposite regime c < or approx. c{sub q}, a non trivial voltage dependence of the noise arises even for energy independent transmission coefficients: at zero frequency the noise decreases with voltage as a power law when cexcess noise are present due to Andreev-type resonances.

  1. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988–2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature. PMID:26300582

  2. Submillimeter to centimeter excess emission from the Magellanic Clouds. II. On the nature of the excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bot, C.; Ysard, N.; Paradis, D.; Bernard, J. P.; Lagache, G.; Israel, F. P.; Wall, W. F.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Dust emission at sub-millimeter to centimeter wavelengths is often simply the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of dust particles at thermal equilibrium and is used as a cold mass tracer in various environments, including nearby galaxies. However, well-sampled spectral energy distributions of the nearby, star-forming Magellanic Clouds have a pronounced (sub-)millimeter excess. Aims: This study attempts to confirm the existence of this millimeter excess above expected dust, free-free and synchrotron emission and to explore different possibilities for its origin. Methods: We model near-infrared to radio spectral energy distributions of the Magellanic Clouds with dust, free-free, and synchrotron emission. A millimeter excess emission is confirmed above these components and its spectral shape and intensity are analyzed in light of different scenarios: very cold dust, cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations, a change of the dust spectral index and spinning dust emission. Results: We show that very cold dust or CMB fluctuations are very unlikely explanations for the observed excess in these two galaxies. The excess in the Large Magellanic Cloud can be satisfactorily explained either by a change of the spectral index related to intrinsic properties of amorphous grains, or by spinning dust emission. In the Small Magellanic Cloud, however, the excess is larger and the dust grain model including TLS/DCD effects cannot reproduce the observed emission in a simple way. A possible solution was achieved with spinning dust emission, but many assumptions on the physical state of the interstellar medium had to be made. Conclusions: Further studies, with higher resolution data from Planck and Herschel are needed to probe the origin of this observed submillimeter-centimeter excess more definitely. Our study shows that the different possible origins will be best distinguished where the excess is the highest, as is the case in the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  3. Excess and unlike interaction second virial coefficients and excess enthalpy of mixing of (carbon monoxide + pentane)

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, P.J.; Buchanan, S.

    1995-03-01

    Carbon monoxide and pentane are minor components of natural gas. The excess second virial coefficient of the mixture carbon monoxide + pentane has been determined at 299.5, 313.15, 328.15, and 343.15 K using the pressure change on mixing method. Unlike interaction second virial coefficients were derived and compared with the predictions of the Tsonopoulos correlation. The excess enthalpy of mixing was also estimated.

  4. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  5. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  6. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  7. When is arthritis reactive?

    PubMed Central

    Hamdulay, S S; Glynne, S J; Keat, A

    2006-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is an important cause of lower limb oligoarthritis, mainly in young adults. It is one of the spondyloarthropathy family; it is distinguishable from other forms of inflammatory arthritis by virtue of the distribution of affected sites and the high prevalence of characteristic extra‐articular lesions. Many terms have been used to refer to this and related forms of arthritis leading to some confusion. Reactive arthritis is precipitated by an infection at a distant site and genetic susceptibility is marked by possession of the HLA‐B27 gene, although the mechanism remains uncertain. Diagnosis is a two stage process and requires demonstration of a temporal link with a recognised “trigger” infection. The identification and management of “sexually acquired” and “enteric” forms of reactive arthritis are considered. Putative links with HIV infection are also discussed. The clinical features, approach to investigation, diagnosis, and management of reactive arthritis are reviewed. PMID:16822921

  8. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  9. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  10. Use of "excess" human embryos for stem cell research: protecting women's rights and health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C B

    2000-01-01

    Proposed National Institutes of Health guidelines for stem cell research are too narrowly drawn and do not adequately protect the freedom of choice and health of women who donate embryos. They need to be expanded to cover not only the point of embryo donation, but also that of embryo creation. Guidelines are provided to ensure that donors undergoing hyperstimulation and egg retrieval gave voluntary informed consent to the production of embryos that might later prove in excess. A standard for determining when embryos have been overproduced is presented to address the possibility that additional embryos will be created for stem cell research in violation of the guidelines and at risk to women's health.

  11. [The association between self-rated living environment and excess weight in a small Brazilian town].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marília Augusta Sousa; Zucolotto, Daniela Cristina Candela; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes

    2015-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the relationship between self-rated living environment and excess body weight in a sample of 216 adults from Itirapuã, São Paulo State, Brazil. Logistic regression adjusted for gender and age showed that people living far from outdoor areas for physical exercise [OR = 2.05 (95%CI: 1.15; 3.66)] and primary schools [OR = 1.99 (95%CI: 1.13; 3.47)] had higher odds of excess weight. Satisfaction with the quality of available supermarkets [OR = 0.14 (95%CI: 0.03; 0.69) p = 0.02], adequate street lighting [OR = 0.37 (95%CI: 0.14; 0.96) p = 0.02], and pedestrians walking on sidewalks within one's line-of-sight [OR = 0.41 (95%CI: 0.18; 0.94) p = 0.03] were inversely associated with excess weight. The results suggest that small-town individuals' negative perceptions of their living environment are associated with excess weight.

  12. Mineralocorticoid excess, dietary sodium, and myocardial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brilla, C G; Weber, K T

    1992-12-01

    Unlike the non-renin-dependent hypertension associated with infrarenal aorta banding, an abnormal accumulation of fibrillar collagen occurs within the adventitia of intramural coronary arteries and neighboring interstitial space of the left and right ventricles in arterial hypertension associated with primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism. Based on these findings it was suggested that this interstitial and perivascular fibrosis was mediated by mineralocorticoid excess (i.e., elevated plasma aldosterone relative to dietary sodium) and not ventricular loading. To further address the importance of mineralocorticoid excess, we examined the fibrous tissue response after 8 weeks in the following uninephrectomized rat groups receiving a high-sodium diet: D-aldosterone (ALDO) infusion (0.75 micrograms/hr sc, n = 16); deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) administration (100 mg/kg/wk sc, n = 8); and administration of a mineralocorticoid-like substance, glycyrrhizic acid (GA; 1 gm kg/wk sc, n = 8). Compared with ALDO infusion and sodium deprivation (n = 9), untreated controls (n = 14), and uninephrectomized rats with high dietary sodium and no mineralocorticoid administration (n = 15), we found (1) hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy with all forms of mineralocorticoid excess; (2) a rise in collagen volume fraction with ALDO, and an increase in perivascular collagen with DOCA; and (3) no observance of myocardial fibrosis with GA or experimental controls, including ALDO infusion and sodium deprivation. Thus, in the presence of enhanced sodium intake, chronic administration of ALDO or DOCA are associated with collagen accumulation in the myocardium, whereas with the mineralocorticoid-like compound GA, myocardial fibrosis was not seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Reactive oxygen species in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Gupta, Rajan; Bhardwaj, Rohit; Chaudhary, Karun; Kaur, Simerpreet

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies reveal that more than two-third of the world's population suffers from one of the chronic forms of periodontal disease. The primary etiological agent of this inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial complex, predominantly Gram negative anaerobic or facultative bacteria within the sub-gingival biofilm. These bacterial species initiate the production of various cytokines such as interleukin-8 and TNF-α, further causing an increase in number and activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) along with these cytokines, PMNs also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide via the respiratory burst mechanism as the part of the defence response to infection. ROS just like the interleukins have deleterious effects on tissue cells when produced in excess. To counter the harmful effects of ROS, human body has its own defence mechanisms to eliminate them as soon as they are formed. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of different free radicals, ROS, and antioxidants in the pathophysiology of periodontal tissue destruction. PMID:24174716

  14. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    than 4 standard drinks in a day (or more than 14 per week ) and women who drink more than 3 drinks in a day (or more than 7 per week ). Non-civilian...excessive drinking is defined as men who drink more than 4 standard drinks in a day (or more than 14 per week ) and women who drink more than 3 drinks in a...day (or more than 7 per week ). Non-civilian military personnel have been deployed in support of the war efforts in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring

  15. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  16. [Excessive spending by misuse of clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Benítez-Arvizu, Gamaliel; Novelo-Garza, Bárbara; Mendoza-Valdez, Antonia Lorena; Galván-Cervantes, Jorge; Morales-Rojas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Seventy five percent or more of a diagnosis comes from a proper medical history along with an excellent physical examination. This leaves to the clinical laboratory the function of supporting the findings, determining prognosis, classifying the diseases, monitoring the diseases and, in the minimum of cases, establishing the diagnosis. In recent years there has been a global phenomenon in which the allocation of resources to health care has grown in an excessive way; the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social is not an exception with an increase of 29 % from 2009 to 2011; therefore, it is necessary to set containment and reduction without compromising the quality of patient care.

  17. Subcorneal hematomas in excessive video game play.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Maria; Rizzo, Jason; Lennox, Luke; Rothman, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of subcorneal hematomas caused by excessive video game play in a 19-year-old man. The hematomas occurred in a setting of thrombocytopenia secondary to induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. It was concluded that thrombocytopenia subsequent to prior friction from heavy use of a video game controller allowed for traumatic subcorneal hemorrhage of the hands. Using our case as a springboard, we summarize other reports with video game associated pathologies in the medical literature. Overall, cognizance of the popularity of video games and related pathologies can be an asset for dermatologists who evaluate pediatric patients.

  18. Immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L J; Mansourov, O A

    1999-01-25

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  19. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  20. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  1. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  2. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  3. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  4. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  5. 45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all systems in which identifiable personal data... data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of personal data. (4... technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual...

  6. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  7. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  9. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  10. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  11. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  12. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  13. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  14. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  15. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  16. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  17. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  18. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  19. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  20. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  1. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  2. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  6. 30 CFR 227.801 - What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delegated function? 227.801 Section 227.801 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.801 What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function? If your performance of the delegated function does...

  7. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  8. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  9. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  10. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  11. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  12. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  13. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  14. Adequate Yearly Progress for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Temple-Harvey, Kimberly K.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2009-01-01

    Because schools are held accountable for the academic performance of all students, it is important to focus on academics and the need for effective teaching practices. Adequate yearly progress, a method of accountability that is part of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), profoundly affects the education of students who have emotional and…

  15. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  16. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  17. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  18. Reactive power compensator

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  19. Surgery for residual convergence excess esotropia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himanshu I; Dawson, Emma; Lee, John

    2011-12-01

    The outcome of bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures +/- central tenotomy was assessed as a secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia in 11 patients. Ten had previously undergone bilateral medial rectus recessions. One had recess/resect surgery on the deviating eye. The average preoperative near angle was 30 prism diopters with a range of 16 to 45 prism diopters. Eight patients underwent bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with central tenotomy. Two had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures only, and one had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation suture, a lateral rectus resection, and an inferior oblique disinsertion. The postoperative near angle ranged from 4-30 prism diopters, with mean of 12 prism diopters. Five patients demonstrated some stereopsis preoperatively, all needing bifocals. Postoperatively, nine patients demonstrated an improvement in stereopsis, none needing bifocals. Two showed smaller near angles and better control without bifocals. Final stereopsis ranged from 30 seconds of arc to 800 seconds of arc. We feel that bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with or without central tenotomy is a viable secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia.

  20. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia.

  1. Narcolepsy and disorders of excessive somnolence.

    PubMed

    Dyken, Mark E; Yamada, Thoru

    2005-06-01

    Recent studies provide valid criteria that help differentiate idiopathic narcolepsy from other disorders of excessive daytime somnolence [3]. Research to date suggests that idiopathic narcolepsy might properly be considered a disorder of excessive sleepiness with dysfunctional REM-sleep mechanisms, clinically evidenced as cataplexy and electrophysiologically recognized as SOREMPs. Given these criteria, a diagnosis can generally be made using a combination of history, PSG, and MSLT. Traditionally, the medical treatment of idiopathic narcolepsy has centered on a two-drug regimen (stimulants for sleepiness and TCAs for cataplexy and auxiliary symptoms). Some newer medications are proving efficacious for sleepiness with minimal adverse effects, whereas others may provide a single-drug regimen that simultaneously addresses sleepiness and cataplexy [18]. New research has allowed some experts to hypothesize that idiopathic narcolepsy may be the result of a genetic predisposition to autoimmune disease [176]. It is possible that aberrant genetic coding of elements in the hypocretin/orexin systems allows a sensitivity to inducible and possibly virally mediated changes, which leave cells in the lateral hypothalamus susceptible to autoimmune attack [96]. As such, genetic screening of high-risk individuals might eventually rationalize the prophylactic use of immunosuppressants in some instances. In the future, for atypical cases(poorly responsive to therapy), genetic, CSF, and brain imaging studies, and possibly even neuronal transplantation may prove beneficial in the assessment and treatment of idiopathic narcolepsy.

  2. Reactive system verification case study: Fault-tolerant transputer communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis; Hamory, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactive program is one which engages in an ongoing interaction with its environment. A system which is controlled by an embedded reactive program is called a reactive system. Examples of reactive systems are aircraft flight management systems, bank automatic teller machine (ATM) networks, airline reservation systems, and computer operating systems. Reactive systems are often naturally modeled (for logical design purposes) as a composition of autonomous processes which progress concurrently and which communicate to share information and/or to coordinate activities. Formal (i.e., mathematical) frameworks for system verification are tools used to increase the users' confidence that a system design satisfies its specification. A framework for reactive system verification includes formal languages for system modeling and for behavior specification and decision procedures and/or proof-systems for verifying that the system model satisfies the system specifications. Using the Ostroff framework for reactive system verification, an approach to achieving fault-tolerant communication between transputers was shown to be effective. The key components of the design, the decoupler processes, may be viewed as discrete-event-controllers introduced to constrain system behavior such that system specifications are satisfied. The Ostroff framework was also effective. The expressiveness of the modeling language permitted construction of a faithful model of the transputer network. The relevant specifications were readily expressed in the specification language. The set of decision procedures provided was adequate to verify the specifications of interest. The need for improved support for system behavior visualization is emphasized.

  3. Molecular simulation of excess isotherm and excess enthalpy change in gas-phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Nicholson, D

    2009-01-29

    We present a new approach to calculating excess isotherm and differential enthalpy of adsorption on surfaces or in confined spaces by the Monte Carlo molecular simulation method. The approach is very general and, most importantly, is unambiguous in its application to any configuration of solid structure (crystalline, graphite layer or disordered porous glass), to any type of fluid (simple or complex molecule), and to any operating conditions (subcritical or supercritical). The behavior of the adsorbed phase is studied using the partial molar energy of the simulation box. However, to characterize adsorption for comparison with experimental data, the isotherm is best described by the excess amount, and the enthalpy of adsorption is defined as the change in the total enthalpy of the simulation box with the change in the excess amount, keeping the total number (gas + adsorbed phases) constant. The excess quantities (capacity and energy) require a choice of a reference gaseous phase, which is defined as the adsorptive gas phase occupying the accessible volume and having a density equal to the bulk gas density. The accessible volume is defined as the mean volume space accessible to the center of mass of the adsorbate under consideration. With this choice, the excess isotherm passes through a maximum but always remains positive. This is in stark contrast to the literature where helium void volume is used (which is always greater than the accessible volume) and the resulting excess can be negative. Our definition of enthalpy change is equivalent to the difference between the partial molar enthalpy of the gas phase and the partial molar enthalpy of the adsorbed phase. There is no need to assume ideal gas or negligible molar volume of the adsorbed phase as is traditionally done in the literature. We illustrate this new approach with adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  4. Effect of excess iron on oxidative stress and gluconeogenesis through hepcidin during mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Joo Sun; Lee, Hye Ja; Kim, Won-Ho; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun

    2015-12-01

    Excessive tissue iron levels are a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are associated with alterations in iron metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study used human liver SK-HEP-1 cells to examine how excess iron induces mitochondrial dysfunction and how hepcidin controls gluconeogenesis. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulated iron due to iron overload induced mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate content and cytochrome c oxidase III expression, with an associated increase in gluconeogenesis. Disturbances in mitochondrial function caused excess iron deposition and unbalanced expression of iron metabolism-related proteins such as hepcidin, ferritin H and ferroportin during the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are responsible for increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. Desferoxamine and n-acetylcysteine ameliorated these deteriorations by inhibiting p38 MAPK and C/EBPα activity through iron chelation and ROS scavenging activity. Based on experiments using hepcidin shRNA and hepcidin overexpression, the activation of hepcidin affects ROS generation and iron deposition, which disturbs mitochondrial function and causes an imbalance in iron metabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. Repression of hepcidin activity can reverse these changes. Our results demonstrate that iron overload is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and that together they can cause abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis. Hepcidin expression may modulate this disorder by regulating ROS generation and iron deposition.

  5. Excessive sodium ions delivered into cells by nanodiamonds: implications for tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Li, Wenxin; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jing; Liang, Le; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Chen, Nan; Sun, Yanhong; Chen, Wen; Tai, Renzhong; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Qing

    2012-06-11

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) possess many excellent physical and chemical properties that make them attractive materials for applications in biomedicine. In this paper, the adsorption and delivery of a large amount of sodium ions into the cell interior by NDs in serum-free medium is demonstrated. The excess sodium ions inside the cells induce osmotic stresses followed by cell swelling and an increase in the intracellular levels of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to severe cellular damage. In complete culture medium, however, serum proteins wrapped around the NDs effectively prevent the sodium ions from adsorbing onto the NDs, and thus the NDs show no cytotoxicity. This work is the first to elaborate on the correlation between the sodium ions adsorbed on the nanomaterials and their bio-effects. Excessive ions delivered into cells by NDs might have potential applications in tumor therapy.

  6. Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Lluch, Anne; Maillot, Matthieu; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Vaudaine, Sarah; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p-values < 0.01). In order to meet nutritional targets, for both FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS individuals, the main dietary changes in optimized diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes. PMID:28230722

  7. Phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having the general structure: ##STR1## (wherein X is F, Cl, or NO.sub.2, and Y is CO, SO.sub.2 or C(CF.sub.3).sub.2) is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having the general structure: ##STR2## (wherein R is any aliphatic or aromatic moiety) is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  8. Interactive chemical reactivity exploration.

    PubMed

    Haag, Moritz P; Vaucher, Alain C; Bosson, Maël; Redon, Stéphane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the samson programming environment.

  9. Management of excessive movable tissue: a modified impression technique.

    PubMed

    Shum, Michael H C; Pow, Edmond H N

    2014-08-01

    Excessive movable tissue is a challenge in complete denture prosthetics. A modified impression technique is presented with polyvinyl siloxane impression material and a custom tray with relief areas and perforations in the area of the excessive movable tissue.

  10. RESTORED STREAMS ENHANCE ABILITY TO REMOVE EXCESS NITROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten human and aquatic ecosystem health. Furthermore, degraded ecosystems like those impacted by urbanization have reduced ability to process and remove excess nitrogen from t...

  11. Faint Infrared-Excess Field Galaxies: FROGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, L. A.; Davis, M.; Zepf, S. E.; Bunker, A. J.

    Deep near-infrared and optical imaging surveys in the field reveal a curious population of galaxies that are infrared-bright (I-K>4), yet with relatively blue optical colors (V-I<2). Their surface density, several per square arcminute at K>20, is high enough that if placed at z>1 as our models suggest, their space densities are about one-tenth of phi-*. The colors of these ``faint red outlier galaxies'' (fROGs) may derive from exceedingly old underlying stellar populations, a dust-embedded starburst or AGN, or a combination thereof. Determining the nature of these fROGs, and their relation with the I-K>6 ``extremely red objects,'' has implications for our understanding of the processes that give rise to infrared-excess galaxies in general. We report on an ongoing study of several targets with HST & Keck imaging and Keck/LRIS multislit spectroscopy.

  12. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance.

  13. Mapping interfacial excess in atom probe data.

    PubMed

    Felfer, Peter; Scherrer, Barbara; Demeulemeester, Jelle; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Cairney, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    Using modern wide-angle atom probes, it is possible to acquire atomic scale 3D data containing 1000 s of nm(2) of interfaces. It is therefore possible to probe the distribution of segregated species across these interfaces. Here, we present techniques that allow the production of models for interfacial excess (IE) mapping and discuss the underlying considerations and sampling statistics. We also show, how the same principles can be used to achieve thickness mapping of thin films. We demonstrate the effectiveness on example applications, including the analysis of segregation to a phase boundary in stainless steel, segregation to a metal-ceramic interface and the assessment of thickness variations of the gate oxide in a fin-FET.

  14. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis. PMID:26322161

  15. Invisible excess of sense in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Koubová, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The question of visibility and invisibility in social understanding is examined here. First, the phenomenological account of expressive phenomena and key ideas of the participatory sense-making theory are presented with regard to the issue of visibility. These accounts plead for the principal visibility of agents in interaction. Although participatory sense-making does not completely rule out the existence of opacity and invisible aspects of agents in interaction, it assumes the capacity of agents to integrate disruptions, opacity and misunderstandings in mutual modulation. Invisibility is classified as the dialectical counterpart of visibility, i.e., as a lack of sense whereby the dynamics of perpetual asking, of coping with each other and of improvements in interpretation are brought into play. By means of empirical exemplification this article aims at demonstrating aspects of invisibility in social interaction which complement the enactive interpretation. Without falling back into Cartesianism, it shows through dramaturgical analysis of a practice called "(Inter)acting with the inner partner" that social interaction includes elements of opacity and invisibility whose role is performative. This means that opacity is neither an obstacle to be overcome with more precise understanding nor a lack of meaning, but rather an excess of sense, a "hiddenness" of something real that has an "active power" (Merleau-Ponty). In this way it contributes to on-going social understanding as a hidden potentiality that naturally enriches, amplifies and in part constitutes human participation in social interactions. It is also shown here that this invisible excess of sense already functions on the level of self-relationship due to the essential self-opacity and self-alterity of each agent of social interaction. The analysis consequently raises two issues: the question of the enactive ethical stance toward the alterity of the other and the question of the autonomy of the self

  16. Invisible excess of sense in social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Koubová, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The question of visibility and invisibility in social understanding is examined here. First, the phenomenological account of expressive phenomena and key ideas of the participatory sense-making theory are presented with regard to the issue of visibility. These accounts plead for the principal visibility of agents in interaction. Although participatory sense-making does not completely rule out the existence of opacity and invisible aspects of agents in interaction, it assumes the capacity of agents to integrate disruptions, opacity and misunderstandings in mutual modulation. Invisibility is classified as the dialectical counterpart of visibility, i.e., as a lack of sense whereby the dynamics of perpetual asking, of coping with each other and of improvements in interpretation are brought into play. By means of empirical exemplification this article aims at demonstrating aspects of invisibility in social interaction which complement the enactive interpretation. Without falling back into Cartesianism, it shows through dramaturgical analysis of a practice called “(Inter)acting with the inner partner” that social interaction includes elements of opacity and invisibility whose role is performative. This means that opacity is neither an obstacle to be overcome with more precise understanding nor a lack of meaning, but rather an excess of sense, a “hiddenness” of something real that has an “active power” (Merleau-Ponty). In this way it contributes to on-going social understanding as a hidden potentiality that naturally enriches, amplifies and in part constitutes human participation in social interactions. It is also shown here that this invisible excess of sense already functions on the level of self-relationship due to the essential self-opacity and self-alterity of each agent of social interaction. The analysis consequently raises two issues: the question of the enactive ethical stance toward the alterity of the other and the question of the autonomy of the

  17. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-08-25

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis.

  18. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  19. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  20. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applies to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1986 (see Q&A d-11 of this section). Excess... employee's benefits under the plan is distributed to an individual, how are the distribution of such... the special grandfather rule. b-3: Q. How does an eligible individual make a valid election to use...

  1. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applies to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1986 (see Q&A d-11 of this section). Excess... employee's benefits under the plan is distributed to an individual, how are the distribution of such... the special grandfather rule. b-3: Q. How does an eligible individual make a valid election to use...

  2. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applies to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1986 (see Q&A d-11 of this section). Excess... employee's benefits under the plan is distributed to an individual, how are the distribution of such... the special grandfather rule. b-3: Q. How does an eligible individual make a valid election to use...

  3. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... applies to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1986 (see Q&A d-11 of this section). Excess... employee's benefits under the plan is distributed to an individual, how are the distribution of such... the special grandfather rule. b-3: Q. How does an eligible individual make a valid election to use...

  4. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applies to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1986 (see Q&A d-11 of this section). Excess... employee's benefits under the plan is distributed to an individual, how are the distribution of such... the special grandfather rule. b-3: Q. How does an eligible individual make a valid election to use...

  5. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) General rule. In the case of any plan (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section), there is imposed a...) Special rule for simplified employee pensions—(i) An employer that maintains a simplified employee pension... contributions made—(1) General rule. No tax is imposed under this section on any excess contribution or...

  6. Defining the Role of Excess Electrons in the Surface Chemistry of TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, N. Aaron; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel

    2010-04-08

    We have performed a systematic study of the role of excess electrons resulting from points defects such as oxygen vacancies, bridging row hydroxyls, and interstitial Ti species in TiO2 on adsorbed surface species using density functional theory. Strong charge transfer to adsorbates affects significantly their binding and reactivity. Specifically we examined the adsorption and reactivity of O2 in detail. We also present a generalization of these findings for a variety of species by characterizing the Lewis acid/base properties of the surface/adsorbate complex: when the electronegativity of the adsorbate is greater than the surface electronegativity (or work function) charge transfer from the reduced surface to the absorbate occurs. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  7. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  8. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  9. A novel reactive processing technique: using telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcraft, Earl C; Ji, Haining; Mays, Jimmy; Dadmun, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    Difunctional reactive polymers, telechelics, were used to reactively form multiblock copolymers in situ when melt-blended with a blend of polystyrene and polyisoprene. To quantify the ability of the copolymer to compatibilize the blends, the time evolution of the domain size upon annealing was analyzed by SEM. It was found that the most effective parameter to quantify the ability of the copolymer to inhibit droplet coalescence is Kreltstable, the relative coarsening constant multiplied by the stabilization time. These results indicate that intermediate-molecular-weight telechelic pairs of both highly reactive Anhydride-PS-Anhydride/NH2-PI-NH2 and slower reacting Epoxy-PS-Epoxy/COOH-PI-COOH both effectively suppress coalescence, with the optimal molecular weight being slightly above the critical molecular weight of the homopolymer,Mc. The effects of telechelic loading were also investigated, where the optimal loading concentration for this system was 0.5 wt %, as higher concentrations exhibited a plasticizing effect due to the presence of unreacted low-molecular-weight telechelics present in the blend. A determination of the interfacial coverage of the copolymer shows that a conversion of 1.5-3.0% was required for 20% surface coverage at 5.0 wt % telechelic loading, indicating a large excess of telechelics in this system. At the optimal loading level of 0.5 wt %, a conversion of 15% was required for 20% surface coverage. The results of these experiments provide a clear understanding of the role of telechelic loading and molecular weight on its ability to reactively form interfacial modifiers in phase-separated polymer blends and provide guidelines for the development of similar reactive processing schemes that can use telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize a broad range of polymer blends.

  10. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  11. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  12. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  13. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  14. 7 CFR 929.104 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.104 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES... excess cranberries. (a) In accordance with § 929.61, excess cranberries may be disposed of only in...

  15. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  16. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  17. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  18. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  19. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1324 - Suspension due to excess resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension due to excess resources. 416.1324... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1324 Suspension due to excess resources... payments because of excess resources is required effective with the month in which: (1)...

  4. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed...

  5. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  6. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  7. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  8. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  9. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  10. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  11. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  12. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaka, F.

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  13. Reactive power compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  14. Reactive Sensor Networks (RSN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Networks,” Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems DARS 2000, pp. 471-472, Springer Verlag, Tokyo. R. R. Brooks. “Stigmergy an intelligence metric...Paper, March 2003. • R. Brooks, et al. “Reactive Sensor Networks: Mobile Code Support for Autonomous Sensor Networks,” Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems DARS

  15. Reactive transport modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special section in the Vadose Zone Journal focusing on reactive transport modeling was developed from a special symposium jointly sponsored by the Soil Physics and Soil Chemistry Divisions of the Soil Science Society of America at the 2010 annual meetings held in Long Beach, CA. It contains eig...

  16. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  17. Modeling Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen is an essential building block of all proteins and thus an essential nutrient for all life. Reactive nitrogen, which is naturally produced via enzymatic reactions, forest fires and lightning, is continually recycled and cascades through air, water, and soil media. Human ...

  18. Mitochondrial and cellular mechanisms for managing lipid excess

    PubMed Central

    Aon, Miguel A.; Bhatt, Niraj; Cortassa, Sonia C.

    2014-01-01

    Current scientific debates center on the impact of lipids and mitochondrial function on diverse aspects of human health, nutrition and disease, among them the association of lipotoxicity with the onset of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and with heart dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Mitochondria play a fundamental role in aging and in prevalent acute or chronic diseases. Lipids are main mitochondrial fuels however these molecules can also behave as uncouplers and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Knowledge about the functional composition of these contradictory effects and their impact on mitochondrial-cellular energetics/redox status is incomplete. Cells store fatty acids (FAs) as triacylglycerol and package them into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs). New emerging data shows the LD as a highly dynamic storage pool of FAs that can be used for energy reserve. Lipid excess packaging into LDs can be seen as an adaptive response to fulfilling energy supply without hindering mitochondrial or cellular redox status and keeping low concentration of lipotoxic intermediates. Herein we review the mechanisms of action and utilization of lipids by mitochondria reported in liver, heart and skeletal muscle under relevant physiological situations, e.g., exercise. We report on perilipins, a family of proteins that associate with LDs in response to loading of cells with lipids. Evidence showing that in addition to physical contact, mitochondria and LDs exhibit metabolic interactions is presented and discussed. A hypothetical model of channeled lipid utilization by mitochondria is proposed. Direct delivery and channeled processing of lipids in mitochondria could represent a reliable and efficient way to maintain reactive oxygen species (ROS) within levels compatible with signaling while ensuring robust and reliable energy supply. PMID:25132820

  19. Posterior fixation suture and convergence excess esotropia.

    PubMed

    Steffen; Auffarth; Kolling

    1998-09-01

    The present study investigates the results of Cuppers' 'Fadenoperation' in patients with non-accommodative convergence excess esotropia. Particular attention is given to postoperative eye alignment at distance fixation. Group 1 (n=96) included patients with a 'normal' convergence excess. The manifest near angles (mean ET 16.73 degrees +/- 6.33 degrees, range 4 degrees -33 degrees ) were roughly twice the size of the distance angles (mean ET 6.50 degrees +/- 3.62 degrees, range 0 degrees -14 degrees ). These patients were treated with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti without additional eye muscle surgery. Three months after surgery, the mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 3.3 degrees (range XT 11 degrees -ET 5 degrees ) for distance fixation, and ET 2.7 degrees +/- 3.6 degrees (range XT 5 degrees -ET 14 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. Postoperative convergent angles at near fixation >ET 10 degrees were present in two patients (1.9%). Group 2 (n=21) included patients with a mean preoperative distance angle of ET 9.2 degrees +/- 3.7 degrees (range 6 degrees -16 degrees ) and a mean preoperative near angle of ET 23.4 degrees +/- 3.1 degrees (range 16 degrees -31 degrees ). These patients were operated on with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti and a simultaneous recession of one or both medial rectus muscles. Mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees (range XT 12 degrees -ET 7 degrees ) for distance fixation and ET 1.4 degrees +/- 4.5 degrees (range XT 8 degrees -ET 13 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. In this group, 2 patients (10.6%) had a postoperative exotropia >XT 5 degrees at distance fixation, and two patients had residual esotropia>ET 10 degrees at near fixation. Group 3 (n=17) included patients with a pronounced non-accommodative convergence excess. Near angle values (mean of 17.8 degrees +/- 5.3 degrees, range ET 7 degrees -26 degrees ) were several times higher than the distance

  20. 75 FR 30846 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income (Correction)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income (Correction... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of..., Jr., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451...

  1. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned

  2. Modeling the nucleophilic reactivity of small organochlorine electrophiles: A mechanistically based quantitative structure-activity relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaar, H.J.M.; Seinen, W.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Rorije, E.; Borkent, H.

    1996-06-01

    Environmental pollutants can be divided into four broad categories, narcosis-type chemicals, less inert (polar narcosis) chemicals, reactive chemicals, and specifically acting chemicals. For narcosis-type, or baseline, chemicals and for less inert chemicals, adequate quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are available for estimation of toxicity to aquatic species. This is not the case for reactive chemicals and specifically acting chemicals. A possible approach to develop aquatic toxicity QSARs for reactive chemicals based on simple considerations regarding their reactivity is given. It is shown that quantum chemical calculations on reaction transition states can be used to quantitatively predict the reactivity of sets of reactive chemicals. These predictions can then be used to develop aquatic toxicity QSARs.

  3. Populus yunnanensis males adopt more efficient protective strategies than females to cope with excess zinc and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2013-05-01

    Dioecious plants show sexually different responses to environmental stresses. However, little is known about the dimorphic morphological and physiological responses to soil pollution. To investigate sex-related adaptive responses of Populus yunnanensis seedlings when exposed to excess zinc (Zn), acid rain (AR) and their combination (Zn+AR), we analyzed growth parameters, Zn accumulation and allocation, photosynthetic capacity and biochemical responses under different treatments. Results revealed that both excess Zn and Zn+AR have a negative effect on plant growth. Males have a greater potential than females to enrich Zn. The photosynthesis limitation could be attributable to a lower stomatal conductance, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and nitrate reductase activity induced by Zn accumulation. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species was detected, and females showed higher levels of H2O2 and O2- than did males under excess Zn and Zn+AR. In addition, indicators related to plant injury showed expected increases and exhibited sexual differences. Males synthesized more biochemical molecules, such as proline and non-protein thiol, showing a stronger defense capacity in responses to either excess Zn or Zn+AR. Taking into account the Zn accumulation and the resulting injuries in plants, we suggest that excess Zn causes sex-related adaptive responses and males possess a more effective self-protection mechanism, Zn-stressed individuals suffering from AR did not show notable aggravation or alleviation when compared to damages induced by excess Zn alone.

  4. Reactivity Network: Secondary Sources for Inorganic Reactivity Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an eclectic annotated bibliography of secondary sources for inorganic reactivity information of interest to reactivity network review authors and to anyone seeking information about simple inorganic reactions in order to develop experiments and demonstrations. Gives 119 sources. (MVL)

  5. The effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time of broilers fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Watson, B C; Matthews, J O; Southern, L L; Shelton, J L

    2006-03-01

    chicks fed the Ca and nPP deficient diet than in chicks fed the nutritionally adequate diet (Ca and nPP x phytase, P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 4, and 5, transit time on d 1 was faster (P < 0.03) in chicks fed phytase. On d 7, transit time tended to be faster in chicks fed phytase, but the effect was not significant (P = 0.15). These data indicate that phytase increases ADG and ADFI in diets deficient in Ca and nPP and in diets formulated to be adequate (or excess) in all nutrients for broiler chicks. The increase in ADG and ADFI in chicks fed the nutritionally adequate diet may be due to a faster transit time of feed through the digestive tract, resulting in a greater feed intake and gain.

  6. Phytochelatin Synthesis Promotes Leaf Zn Accumulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Grown in Soil with Adequate Zn Supply and is Essential for Survival on Zn-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Hofmann, Christian; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Schmidt, Holger; Schempp, Stefanie; Weber, Michael; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis is essential for the detoxification of non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd). In vitro experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings had indicated a contribution to zinc (Zn) tolerance as well. We addressed the physiological role of PC synthesis in Zn homeostasis of plants under more natural conditions. Growth responses, PC accumulation and leaf ionomes of wild-type and AtPCS1 mutant plants cultivated in different soils representing adequate Zn supply, Zn deficiency and Zn excess were analyzed. Growth on Zn-contaminated soil triggers PC synthesis and is strongly impaired in PC-deficient mutants. In fact, the contribution of AtPCS1 to tolerating Zn excess is comparable with that of the major Zn tolerance factor MTP1. For plants supplied with a normal level of Zn, a significant reduction in leaf Zn accumulation of AtPCS1 mutants was detected. In contrast, AtPCS1 mutants grown under Zn-limited conditions showed wild-type levels of Zn accumulation, suggesting the operation of distinct Zn translocation pathways. Contrasting phenotypes of the tested AtPCS1 mutant alleles upon growth in Zn- or Cd-contaminated soil indicated differential activation of PC synthesis by these metals. Experiments with truncated versions identified a part of the AtPCS1 protein required for the activation by Zn but not by Cd.

  7. Vergence adaptation in subjects with convergence excess.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria; Brautaset, Rune L

    2011-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the vergence adaptive ability in subjects diagnosed with convergence excess (CE) phoria (ie, subjects with an esophoric shift from distance to near but without an intermittent tropia at near). Vergence adaptation was measured at far and near with both base-in and base-out prisms using a "flashed" Maddox rod technique in 20 control subjects and 16 subjects with CE. In addition, accommodative adaptation and the stimulus AC/A and CA/C cross-links were measured. The AC/A and CA/C ratios were found to be high and low, respectively, and accommodative adaptation was found to be reduced in CE subjects as compared with the controls (P<0.005), all as predicted by the present theory. However, vergence adaptive ability was found to be reduced in the CE subjects at both distance and near and in response to both base-in and base-out prisms (P=0.002). This finding is not in accordance with and is difficult to reconcile with the present theory of CE.

  8. [Base excess. Parameter with exceptional clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Schaffartzik, W

    2007-05-01

    The base excess of blood (BE) plays an important role in the description of the acid-base status of a patient and is gaining in clinical interest. Apart from the Quick test, the age, the injury severity score and the Glasgow coma scale, the BE is becoming more and more important to identify, e. g. the risk of mortality for patients with multiple injuries. According to Zander the BE is calculated using the pH, pCO(2), haemoglobin concentration and the oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (sO(2)). The use of sO(2 )allows the blood gas analyser to determine only one value of BE, independent of the type of blood sample analyzed: arterial, mixed venous or venous. The BE and measurement of the lactate concentration (cLac) play an important role in diagnosing critically ill patients. In general, the change in BE corresponds to the change in cLac. If DeltaBE is smaller than DeltacLac the reason could be therapy with HCO(3)(-) but also with infusion solutions containing lactate. Physician are very familiar with the term BE, therefore, knowledge about an alkalizing or acidifying effect of an infusion solution would be very helpful in the treatment of patients, especially critically ill patients. Unfortunately, at present the description of an infusion solution with respect to BE has not yet been accepted by the manufacturers.

  9. Prevention and treatment of excessive dermal scarring.

    PubMed Central

    Roseborough, Ingrid E.; Grevious, Mark A.; Lee, Raphael C.

    2004-01-01

    Today, wound management to avoid excessive scar formation is increasingly important, especially in populations with Fitzpatrick 3 or higher skin pigmentation. Medical science and industrial development are devoting more effort toward understanding and offering better therapy to control scars. However, advances in scar management have been hampered by the confusing or ambiguous terminology. There is no consensus on what amount of post-traumatic skin scar formation is "normal" and what should be considered "hypertrophic". In the World Health Organization's ICD-9, there is no diagnostic code for hypertrophic scar--only keloid is listed. Yet, the medical and scientific literature distinguishes them as different conditions. Our experience suggests that the diagnosis of keloid disease is greatly over-rendered. For black patients, an elevated scar seems, by default, diagnosed as keloid by most. This confusion results in inappropriate management of scar formation, and occasionally contributes to decision making related to elective or cosmetic surgery. Given that patients are expecting better outcomes from wound care today than in the past, this review article attempts to capture the essential biological factors related to wound scar production and discusses treatment options and indications used by the authors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:14746360

  10. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  11. Excessive internet use and depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mihajlović, Goran; Hinić, Darko; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Gajić, Tomislav; Dukić-Dejanović, Slavica

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies of Internet influence on behavioural disorders of its users, have created quite a polarised ambience. On the one hand, there are those who believe that the Internet is a new better medium for enabling various patterns of communication and social relations. On the other hand, others maintain that Internet use can lead to social isolation and other forms of psychological disorders, for an example depression. The aim of this work is a review of research attempts to confirm a connection between increased Internet use and psychological disorders, in the first place, depression. The number of studies on this subject is not very great thus far. This is mainly because depression and similar disorders are serious distorsions in basic psychological processes; this suggests how difficult it may be to work with such examinees, and how complex it may appear to distinguish etiological factors. These facts do not lessen the importance of the aim itself, i.e. defining potential consequences of excessive Internet use when it comes to psychological wellbeing, since the Internet is expected to become a basic form of social interaction in the near future, and consequently one of the major factors of socialisation and constitution of one's psychological identity. Due to that fact, the aim of this work is to indicate methodological and conceptual flaws of the studies which have attempted to make a connection between mood disorders and the Internet, so as to establish the base for future studies of the psychological consequences of Internet development.

  12. "Excess Water" Following Deforestation by Beetle Kill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, K.; Miller, S. N.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation resulting from tree mortality by insects and disease may reduce transpiration demand and increase available water in mountain environments throughout. We tested this hypothesis using three large catchments (97-407 km2) located in the Snowy Mountains of Wyoming where hydrology is snowmelt dominated. An epidemic of spruce bark beetle and associated tree mortality emerged in 2006 and has since impacted 60 to 80% of basal area of the spruce-fir and mixed conifer forests. A 25-year continuous record (1998-2013) of daily snowfall, temperature, and stream discharge data between 1 April and 30 September of each year were available for each catchment. We used quantile regression and multivariate time series analysis first to control for the effects of temperature and snow water equivalent on the timing and magnitude of discharge and then to test for changes in discharge trends since 2006. We found no compelling evidence of changes in discharge trends associated with the onset of the beetle epidemic independent of snowmelt trends. Several factors could explain this apparent lack of "excess water" following tree mortality by insects and disease. Any increases in water may be scale dependent, a local phenomenon that does not transfer through large catchments. Other vegetation including young cohorts of affected tree species, shrubs, and herbaceous cover may respond robustly to the open canopy and utilize soil water previously consumed by the infected trees.

  13. The Neurometabolic Fingerprint of Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sévin, Daniel C; Klee, Manuela L; Dieter, Sandra; Sauer, Uwe; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    ‘Omics' techniques are widely used to identify novel mechanisms underlying brain function and pathology. Here we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further ascertain the role of frontostriatal brain regions for the expression of addiction-like behaviors in rat models of alcoholism. Rats were made alcohol dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following a 3-week abstinence period, rats had continuous access to alcohol in a two-bottle, free-choice paradigm for 7 weeks. Nontargeted flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to assess global metabolic profiles of two cortical (prelimbic and infralimbic) and two striatal (accumbens core and shell) brain regions. Alcohol consumption produces pronounced global effects on neurometabolomic profiles leading to a clear separation of metabolic phenotypes between treatment groups, particularly. Further comparisons of regional tissue levels of various metabolites, most notably dopamine and Met-enkephalin, allow the extrapolation of alcohol consumption history. Finally, a high-drinking metabolic fingerprint was identified indicating a distinct alteration of central energy metabolism in the accumbens shell of excessively drinking rats that could indicate a so far unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism in alcohol addiction. In conclusion, global metabolic profiling from distinct brain regions by mass spectrometry identifies profiles reflective of an animal's drinking history and provides a versatile tool to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in alcohol dependence. PMID:25418809

  14. Excess-density-driven snakes in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, A. Y.; Shaing, K. C.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2011-10-01

    ``Snakes'' refer to sinusoidal patterns observed on space-time plots of soft-X-ray signals in tokamak plasmas. They are generally attributed to persistent and localized density perturbations that form at a rational surface after pellet injection (Weller, JET 1987), and Parker, Alcator-C 1987), or impurity accumulation (Naujoks, ASDEX 1996, Delgado-Aparicio, C-Mod 2011). It is not clear whether all snake observations have a unique origin. A likely explanation is that material trapped inside an island driven by a temperature hole leads to the observed soft-X-ray signals (Wesson 1995). More recently, it has been suggested that they could be the result of saturated nonlinear internal kinks in low, or reversed-shear geometries (Cooper 2011). We have started an examination of some of these issues using ideas from neoclassical transport theory (Shaing 2007) in conjunction with various magnetohydrodynamic models. In a RMHD model, we demonstrated that excess-density-driven bootstrap current can stabilize a resistive m = 1 island at a small amplitude, leaving a radially and poloidally localized snake-like structure. Extension of this work to more sophisticated models that include diamagnetic effects, and possibly more realistic geometries, will be presented. This research was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Gel injection successfully shuts off excess water

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Unocal applied a high-temperature organic polymer gel in Feather field Well H-43 in the UK North Sea to reduce water production in them more-permeable upper perforated section of the Brent Sand. The operation and technical details of the polymer system developed by Unocal, and how it was applied, are described in paper SPE 30426, ``Water shut off in the North Sea; Testing a new polymer system in the Heather field, UKCS Block 2/5.`` The authors concluded that the new gel system successfully isolated the Upper Brent water production, increasing oil production and decreasing water production. Lower perforations were successfully isolated using sized calcium carbonate suspended in an HEC polymer--a technique difficult to monitor in the deviated well. Batch mixing provided ``excellent`` quality gel, closely matching lab measured performance. And the gel required no pre-cooling in the near-wellbore area. Some 1,100 bbl were injected without excessive wellhead pressure, at 1 bpm. A summary of the paper`s highlights is presented here.

  16. The neurometabolic fingerprint of excessive alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sévin, Daniel C; Klee, Manuela L; Dieter, Sandra; Sauer, Uwe; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-03-13

    'Omics' techniques are widely used to identify novel mechanisms underlying brain function and pathology. Here we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further ascertain the role of frontostriatal brain regions for the expression of addiction-like behaviors in rat models of alcoholism. Rats were made alcohol dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following a 3-week abstinence period, rats had continuous access to alcohol in a two-bottle, free-choice paradigm for 7 weeks. Nontargeted flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to assess global metabolic profiles of two cortical (prelimbic and infralimbic) and two striatal (accumbens core and shell) brain regions. Alcohol consumption produces pronounced global effects on neurometabolomic profiles leading to a clear separation of metabolic phenotypes between treatment groups, particularly. Further comparisons of regional tissue levels of various metabolites, most notably dopamine and Met-enkephalin, allow the extrapolation of alcohol consumption history. Finally, a high-drinking metabolic fingerprint was identified indicating a distinct alteration of central energy metabolism in the accumbens shell of excessively drinking rats that could indicate a so far unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism in alcohol addiction. In conclusion, global metabolic profiling from distinct brain regions by mass spectrometry identifies profiles reflective of an animal's drinking history and provides a versatile tool to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in alcohol dependence.

  17. Convergence Insufficiency/Divergence Insufficiency Convergence Excess/Divergence Excess: Some Facts and Fictions.

    PubMed

    Khawam, Edward; Abiad, Bachir; Boughannam, Alaa; Saade, Joanna; Alameddine, Ramzi

    2015-01-01

    Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies of the fusional amplitudes. Our purpose is to show that numerous factors, other than anomalies in the AC/A ratio or anomalies in the fusional conv. or divergence amplitudes, can contaminate either the distance or the near deviations. This results in significant discrepancies between the distance and the near deviations despite a normal AC/A ratio and normal fusional amplitudes, leading to erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate treatment models.

  18. Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Hektor, Andi; Marzola, Luca

    2016-07-25

    Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

  19. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  20. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  1. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  2. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  3. Computer synthesis of human motion as a part of an adequate motion analysis experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandre A.; Sholukha, Victor A.; Zinkovsky, Anatoly V.

    1999-05-01

    The role of problem of computer synthesis of a human motion for a traditional problem of control generalized and muscular forces determination is discussed. It is emphasized significance of computer model choice for adequate analysis kinematic and dynamic experimental data. On the basis of an imitation computer model influence of model's parameters values is demonstrated. With help of non-stationary constraints we can simulate human motions that satisfy to the most significant parameters of the concerned class of motion. Some results of simulation are discussed. We arrive at a conclusion that for correct interpretation of an experiment mixed problem of bodies system dynamics must be solved.

  4. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  5. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  6. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  7. Nonquaternary Cholinesterase Reactivators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-30

    Methylphosphonyl-AChE by la, lb, 2, and 3 . .............................................. 83 Chapter III 1 Lineweaver - Burke Plot for Compound 3a...Not determined. I11 ................ ."--..-. . . .S . -. -.. .i.,...,. _. o, . ’._ -. .-. . , , I I 1 .. .! 8.08.O 1I i i 7.0 LINEWEAVER - BURKE ...10 15 20 25 30 35 40 [AcSCh] - 1 , M -1 x 10 -4 JA-1 043-23 FIGURE 1 LINEWEAVER - BURKE PLOT FOR COMPOUND 3a 112 nonquaternary reactivators with ethyl

  8. Skylab reactivation mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    On July 11, 1979, Skylab impacted the Earth's surface. The debris dispersion area stretched from the South Eastern Indian Ocean across a sparsely populated section of Western Australia. The events leading to the reentry of Skylab are discussed and a final assessment of the Skylab debris impact footprint is presented. Also included are detailed evaluations of the various Skylab systems that were reactivated when control of Skylab was regained in mid-1978 after having been powered down since February 4, 1974.

  9. Excess Visceral Adipose Tissue Worsens the Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Objective Visceral fat obesity and metabolic syndrome correlate with atherosclerosis in part due to insulin resistance and various other factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods In 71 T2DM patients, the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) was measured using an Endo-PAT 2000, and VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured via CT. We also measured various metabolic markers, including high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-AN). Results VAT correlated negatively with the natural logarithm of RHI (L_RHI), the primary endpoint (p=0.042, r=-0.242). L_RHI did not correlate with SAT, VAT/SAT, abdominal circumference, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, urinary C-peptide reactivity, HMW-AN, or alanine amino transferase, the secondary endpoints. A linear multivariate analysis via the forced entry method using age, sex, VAT, and smoking history as independent variables and L_RHI as the dependent variable revealed a lack of any determinants of L_RHI. Conclusion Excess VAT worsens the vascular endothelial function, represented by RHI which was analyzed using Endo-PAT, in Japanese patients with T2DM. PMID:27803400

  10. Expression of genes involved in redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense in a marine macroalga Ulva fasciata by excess copper.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Meng; Hsu, Yuan-Ting; Sung, Ming-Shiuan; Hsu, Yi-Ting; Lee, Tse-Min

    2009-10-04

    The expression of genes involved in the control of redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense was studied in macroalga Ulva fasciata Delile in response to 5 and 50 microM CuSO(4). Redox-related genes, methionine sulfoxide reductase A (UfMsrA), thioredoxin (UfTrx), cyclophilin (UfCyp), and ferritin (UfFer) that were up-regulated by excess Cu [Wu, T.M., Lee, T.M., 2008. Regulation of activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ulva fasciata Delile (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in response to excess copper. Phycologia 47, 346-360] were cloned and their expression was compared to superoxide dismutase (UfMnsod and UfFesod), ascorbate peroxidase (UfApx), glutathione reductase (UfGr), and catalase (UfCat). Transcripts of UfMsrA, UfCyp, and UfFer were increased by excess Cu with a peak at 3h and that of UfTrx increased after 6-9h, but not affected by 4-day exposure to excess Cu, except an increase in UfMsrA transcript. Transcripts of UfMnsod, UfFesod, UfApx, UfGr and UfCat can be increased by 4-day exposure to Cu excess [Wu, T.M., Lee, T.M., 2008. Regulation of activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ulva fasciata Delile (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) in response to excess copper. Phycologia 47, 346-360] but not by short-term excess Cu treatment, except UfGr whose transcript increased after 3h. Reactive oxygen species involved in up-regulation of antioxidant defense enzymes genes. These results suggest that the expression of genes of antioxidant defense enzymes and UfMsrA are associated with long-term adaptation of U. fasciata to Cu excess and transcription of redox-related genes and UfGr is up-regulated for short-term acclimation.

  11. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  12. Dynamics of the G-excess illusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baylor, K. A.; Reschke, M.; Guedry, F. E.; Mcgrath, B. J.; Rupert, A. H.

    1992-01-01

    The G-excess illusion is increasingly recognized as a cause of aviation mishaps especially when pilots perform high-speed, steeply banked turns at low altitudes. Centrifuge studies of this illusion have examined the perception of subject orientation and/or target displacement during maintained hypergravity with the subject's head held stationary. The transient illusory perceptions produced by moving the head in hypergravity are difficult to study onboard centrifuges because the high angular velocity ensures the presence of strong Coriolis cross-coupled semicircular canal effects that mask immediate transient otolith-organ effects. The present study reports perceptions following head movements in hypergravity produced by high-speed aircraft maintaining a banked attitude with low angular velocity to minimize cross-coupled effects. Methods: Fourteen subjects flew on the NASA KC-135 and were exposed to resultant gravity forces of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 G for 3 minute periods. On command, seated subjects made controlled head movements in roll, pitch, and yaw at 30 second intervals both in the dark and with faint targets at a distance of 5 feet. Results: head movement produced transient perception of target displacement and velocity at levels as low as 1.3 G. Reports of target velocity without appropriate corresponding displacement were common. At 1.8 G when yaw head movements were made from a face down position, 4 subjects reported oscillatory rotational target displacement with fast and slow alternating components suggestive of torsional nystagmus. Head movements evoked symptoms of nausea in most subjects, with 2 subjects and 1 observer vomiting. Conclusions: The transient percepts present conflicting signals, which introduced confusion in target and subject orientation. Repeated head movements in hypergravity generate nausea by mechanisms distinct from cross-coupled Coriolis effects.

  13. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system.

  14. [Incidence of primary malignant lesions in clinically benign teratoma: on the problem of adequate surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, G; Jung, E M; Maassen, V; Bise, K

    1996-08-01

    The Problem of an Adequate Surgical Approach: Frequency of malignant teratomas is, according to the literature, 2%-10%. Examining 194 own cases (1983-1993) it was 1.5%. We found one squamous cell carcinoma (0.5%). Additionally we found 2 immature teratomas (1%). We point out the different biological behaviour of malignant mature teratomas and immature teratomas. We agree with the majority of authors that the method of choice is the intact removal of all teratomas without iatrogen rupture or contamination of the abdominal cavity by contents of the teratoma. This adequate surgical procedure can and should be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy with endobag. The often practised method of cutting open the cyst during laparoscopy, sucking off the contents or cutting the teratoma into pieces, has been proven to lead to implantation and worsening the prognosis in case of a malignant teratoma. Even the rinsing of the abdominal cavity, usually carried out with this method, could not compensate always for the disadvantage of this "dirty" endoscopical method compared with usual oncological standards. This is pointed out by case reports in the literature and the first analysis of a German survey with early-follow-up of 192 laparoscopically managed ovarian malignancies [11a]. The principle of intact removal of every teratoma should again be kept in mind.

  15. MRI can determine the adequate area for debridement in the case of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Fujita, Fumihiko; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Yuichiro; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of gluteal pain. His right buttock had flare and swelling. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis, and renal failure was evident. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abscess, including gas, was widespread into the hypodermal tissue of the right buttock. Fournier's gangrene had been suspected, and immediate drainage was performed on the right buttock. The symptom and the condition improved rapidly, but on the day after the operation, the patient became drowsy and fell into endotoxic shock. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed strong inflammation along the entire fascia of the right femur and necrotizing fasciitis. MRI was very useful for identification of the necrotic range. Immediately, an emergency operation was performed; 3 wide incisions were made on the right thigh and crus for drainage. The patient was cared for intensively under a sedated condition, and irrigation and debridement were repeated every day. Culture of the pus revealed mixed infection of Escherichia coli and anaerobic bacteria, and a large quantity of antimicrobial drug was used. The inflammatory reaction decreased, and the patient's general condition tentatively improved. With Fournier's gangrene, initiating adequate surgical and medical treatment is essential. Therefore, MRI should be used in the early exact diagnosis of this disease to obtain knowledge of the extent of necrosis and to determine the adequate area for debridement.

  16. Duration of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infectiousness under Adequate Therapy, as Assessed Using Induced Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yousang; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Suh-Young; Park, So Young; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Changhwan

    2017-01-01

    Background A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. Methods We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. Results Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). Conclusion The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB. PMID:28119744

  17. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    PubMed Central

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Results Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). Conclusion According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies. PMID:24427475

  18. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  19. Molecular modeling and assignment of IR spectra of the hydrated excess proton in isotopically dilute water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Rajib; Carpenter, William; Voth, Gregory A.; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the water O-H stretch has been widely used to probe both the local hydrogen-bonding structure and dynamics of aqueous systems. Although of significant interest, the IR spectroscopy of excess protons in water remains difficult to assign as a result of extensive and strong intermolecular interactions in hydrated proton complexes. As an alternate approach, we develop a mixed quantum-classical model for the vibrational spectroscopy of the excess proton in isotopically dilute water that draws on frozen proton-water clusters taken from reactive molecular dynamics trajectories of the latest generation multi-state empirical valence bond proton model (MS-EVB 3.2). A semi-empirical single oscillator spectroscopic map for the instantaneous transition frequency and transition dipole moment is constructed using potential energy surfaces for the O-H stretch coordinate of the excess proton using electronic structure calculations. Calculated spectra are compared with experimental spectra of dilute H+ in D2O obtained from double-difference FTIR to demonstrate the validity of the map. The model is also used to decompose IR spectra into contributions from different aqueous proton configurations. We find that the O-H transition frequency continuously decreases as the oxygen-oxygen length for a special pair proton decreases, shifting from Eigen- to Zundel-like configurations. The same shift is accompanied by a shift of the flanking water stretches of the Zundel complex to higher frequency than the hydronium O-H vibrations.

  20. Is caffeine excess part of your differential diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Bridle, Leisa; Remick, June; Duffy, Evelyn

    2004-04-01

    The consumption of caffeine, and its effect on the human body, is a topic of ongoing debate. The average consumer may unwittingly consume excessive amounts of caffeine that may lead to adverse physiological side effects. Even the most astute clinician may miss caffeine-excess in the differential diagnosis. Therefore, a careful patient history, including a food and beverage diary, may be helpful in diagnosis of caffeine excess.

  1. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  2. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  3. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  4. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to... use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction...

  5. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  6. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  7. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  8. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  9. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  10. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    PubMed

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  11. Adequate connexin-mediated coupling is required for proper insulin production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To assess whether connexin (Cx) expression contributes to insulin secretion, we have investigated normal and tumoral insulin-producing cells for connexins, gap junctions, and coupling. We have found that the glucose-sensitive cells of pancreatic islets and of a rat insulinoma are functionally coupled by gap junctions made of Cx43. In contrast, cells of several lines secreting insulin abnormally do not express Cx43, gap junctions, and coupling. After correction of these defects by stable transfection of Cx43 cDNA, cells expressing modest levels of Cx43 and coupling, as observed in native beta-cells, showed an expression of the insulin gene and an insulin content that were markedly elevated, compared with those observed in both wild-type (uncoupled) cells and in transfected cells overexpressing Cx43. These findings indicate that adequate levels of Cx-mediated coupling are required for proper insulin production and storage. PMID:8522612

  12. Switching off angiogenic signalling: creating channelled constructs for adequate oxygen delivery in tissue engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Cheema, U; Alekseeva, T; Abou-Neel, E A; Brown, R A

    2010-10-06

    A major question in biomimetic tissue engineering is how much of the structure/function of native vasculature needs to be reproduced for effective tissue perfusion. O2 supplied to cells in 3D scaffolds in vitro is initially dependent upon diffusion through the scaffold and cell consumption. Low O2 (3%) enhances specific cell behaviours, but where O2 is critically low (pathological hypoxia) cell survival becomes compromised. We measured real-time O2 in 3D scaffolds and introduced micro-channelled architecture to controllably increase delivery of O2 to cells and switch off the hypoxic response. Simple static micro-channelling gives adequate perfusion and can be used to control cell generated hypoxia-induced signalling.

  13. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  14. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  15. J-modulated ADEQUATE experiments using different kinds of refocusing pulses.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Christina M; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Owing to the recent developments concerning residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), the interest in methods for the accurate determination of coupling constants is renascenting. We intended to use the J-modulated ADEQUATE experiment by Kövér et al. for the measurement of (13)C - (13)C coupling constants at natural abundance. The use of adiabatic composite chirp pulses instead of the conventional 180 degrees pulses, which compensate for the offset dependence of (13)C 180 degrees pulses, led to irregularities of the line shapes in the indirect dimension causing deviations of the extracted coupling constants. This behaviour was attributed to coupling evolution, during the time of the adiabatic pulse (2 ms), in the J-modulation spin echo. The replacement of this pulse by different kinds of refocusing pulses indicated that a pair of BIPs (broadband inversion pulses), which behave only partially adiabatic, leads to correct line shapes and coupling constants conserving the good sensitivity obtained with adiabatic pulses.

  16. Comparison of toxicity of class-based organic chemicals to algae and fish based on discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin J; Tai, Hong W; Yu, Yang; Wen, Yang; Wang, Xiao H; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity data to fish and algae were used to investigate excess toxicity between species. Results show that chemicals exhibiting excess toxicity to fish also show excess toxicity to algae for most of the compounds. This indicates that they share the same mode of action between species. Similar relationships between logKOW and toxicities to fish and algae for baseline and less inert compounds suggest that they have similar critical body residues in the two species. Differences in excess toxicity for some compounds suggest that there is a difference of physiological structure and metabolism between fish and algae. Some reactive compounds (e.g. polyamines) exhibit greater toxic effects for algae than those for fish because of relatively low bio-uptake potential of these hydrophilic compounds in fish as compared with that in algae. Esters exhibiting greater toxicity in fish than that in algae indicate that metabolism can affect the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level. Algae growth inhibition is a very good surrogate for fish lethality. This is not only because overall toxicity sensitivity to algae is greater than that to fish, but also the excess toxicity calculated from algal toxicity can better reflect reactivity of compounds with target molecules than fish toxicity.

  17. A Nomogram to Predict Adequate Lymph Node Recovery before Resection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Li, Cong; Gao, Wei; Yin, Xiao-wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Liu, Nan; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymph node count (LNC) has been associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The study aims to identify new predictors and develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the probability of adequate LNC (≥ 12). 501 eligible patients were retrospectively selected to identify clinical-pathological factors associated with LNC ≥ 12 through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The nomogram was built according to multivariate analyses of preoperative factors. Model performance was assessed with concordance index (c-index) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), followed by internal validation and calibration using 1000-resample bootstrapping. Clinical validity of the nomogram and LNC impact on stage migration were also evaluated. Multivariate analyses showed patient age, CA19-9, circulating lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, tumor diameter, histology and deposit significantly correlated with LNC (P < 0.05). The effects were marginal for CEA, anemia and CRC location (0.05 < P < 0.1). The multivariate analyses of preoperative factors suggested decreased age, CEA, CA19-9, neutrophils, proximal location, and increased platelets and diameter were significantly associated with increased probability of LNC ≥ 12 (P < 0.05). The nomogram achieved c-indexes of 0.75 and 0.73 before and after correction for overfitting. The AUC was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.79) and the clinically valid threshold probabilities were between 10% and 60% for the nomogram to predict LNC < 12. Additionally, increased probability of adequate LNC before surgery was associated with increased LNC and negative lymph nodes rather than increased positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, pN stages or AJCC stages. Collectively, the results indicate the LNC is multifactorial and irrelevant to stage migration. The significant correlations with preoperative circulating markers may

  18. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  19. [Quality of Mesorectal Excision ("Plane of Surgery") - Which Quality Targets are Adequate?].

    PubMed

    Hermanek, P; Merkel, S; Ptok, H; Hohenberger, W

    2015-12-01

    Today, the examination of rectal cancer specimens includes the obligate macroscopic assessment of the quality of mesorectal excision by the pathologist reporting the plane of surgery. The frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery (earlier described as incomplete mesorectal excision) is essential. The quality of mesorectal excision is important for the prognosis, especially as local recurrences are observed more frequently after operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery. For the definition of quality targets, data of 13 studies published between 2006 and 2012, each with more than 100 patients and adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeons (5413 patients), data of the prospective multicentric observation study "Quality Assurance - Rectal Cancer" (at the Institute for Quality Assurance in Operative Medicine at the Otto-von-Guericke University at Magdeburg) from 2005 to 2010 (8044 patients) and data of the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, from 1998 to 2011 (991 patients) were analysed. The total incidence of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery was 5.0 % (721/14 448). Even with adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeon, the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery is higher in abdominoperineal excisions than in sphincter-preserving surgery (8.4 vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.001). Thus, the quality target for the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane should be defined as < 5 % for sphincter-preserving procedures and as < 10 % for abdominoperineal excisions.

  20. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  1. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

  2. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  3. Pregnant x-ray technologist: providing adequate radiation safety for the fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Caprio, M.L. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    The human embryo-fetus is highly radiosensitive and must be protected from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The maximum permissible dose equivalent for the developing embryo-fetus is set at 0.5 rem per year - the MPD level for members of the general public. Methods by which supervisory personnel can limit the fetal dose incurred by the occupational exposure of the mother are presented. It is recommended that supervisory personnel attempt to limit occupational exposure to the current non-occupational MPD levels for all x-ray technologists, thereby, insuring that the fetal dose limits are not surpassed and providing an added safety factor for personnel by keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable.

  4. Studies of excess electrons in sodium chloride clusters and of excess protons in water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, R.N.; Cheng, H.P.; Hakkinen, H.; Landman, U.

    1995-05-11

    Electronic structure calculations using the local density functional method with nonlocal norm-conserving pseudopotentials, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, and a novel method of all-quantum simulations, combining a quantum path-integral description of the nuclear degrees of freedom with concurrent electronic structure calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface, were employed in investigations of the structure and dynamics of sodium chloride and protonated water clusters. The Na{sub 14}Cl{sub 9} (or Na{sub 14}Cl{sub 9}{sup +}) cluster exhibits a face (surface) segregated metallic Na{sub 5} (Na{sub 5}{sup +}) over-layer, the stability of which is demonstrated by a molecular dynamics simulation at 660 K. In analogy with color centers in bulk ionic crystals, the excess electrons in the halogen-deficient clusters in the various metallization sequences occupy energy levels which are split from the bottom of the unoccupied `conduction band` of the corresponding stoichiometric parent. Analysis of the electronic spatial distributions and participation ratios indicates that the excess electrons are of a more delocalized nature in comparison with the electrons occupying the p-like `valence band`. 133 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Titanium-Oxygen Reactivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafey, J. E.; Scheck, W. G.; Witzell, W. E.

    1962-01-01

    A program has been conducted at Astronautics to investigate the likelihood of occurrence of the catastrophic oxidation of titanium alloy sheet under conditions which simulate certain cases of accidental failure of the metal while it is in contact with liquid or gaseous oxygen. Three methods of fracturing the metal were used; they consisted of mechanical puncture, tensile fracture of welded joints, and perforation by very high velocity particles. The results of the tests which have been conducted provide further evidence of the reactivity of titanium with liquid and gaseous oxygen. The evidence indicates that the rapid fracturing of titanium sheet while it is in contact with oxygen initiates the catastrophic oxidation reaction. Initiation occurred when the speed of the fracture was some few feet per second, as in both the drop-weight puncture tests and the static tensile fracture tests of welded joints, as well as when the speed was several thousand feet per second, as in the simulated micrometeoroid penetration tests. The slow propagation of a crack, however, did not initiate the reaction. It may logically be concluded that the localized frictional heat of rapid fracture and/or spontaneous oxidation (exothermic) of minute particles emanating from the fracture cause initiation of the reaction. Under conditions of slow fracture, however, the small heat generated may be adequately dissipated and the reaction is not initiated. A portion of the study conducted consisted of investigating various means by which the reaction might be retarded or prevented. Providing a "barrier" at the titanium-oxygen interface consisting of either aluminum metal or a coating of a petroleum base corrosion inhibitor appeared to be only partially effective in retarding the reaction. The accidental puncturing or similar rupturing of thin-walled pressurized oxygen tanks on missiles and space vehicle will usually constitute loss of function, and may sometimes cause their catastrophic destruction

  6. A behavioral intervention to reduce excessive gestational weight gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is a key modifiable risk factor for negative maternal and child health. We examined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in preventing excessive GWG. 230 participants (87.8% Caucasian, mean age= 29.1 years; second parity) completed the 36 week gestational...

  7. 7 CFR 1744.67 - Temporary excess construction funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary excess construction funds. 1744.67 Section... Advance and Disbursement of Funds § 1744.67 Temporary excess construction funds. (a) When unanticipated events delay the borrower's disbursement of advanced funds, the funds may be used as follows: (1)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.162-8 - Treatment of excessive compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of excessive compensation. 1.162-8...-8 Treatment of excessive compensation. The income tax liability of the recipient in respect of an amount ostensibly paid to him as compensation, but not allowed to be deducted as such by the payor,...

  9. 26 CFR 1.162-8 - Treatment of excessive compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of excessive compensation. 1.162-8...-8 Treatment of excessive compensation. The income tax liability of the recipient in respect of an amount ostensibly paid to him as compensation, but not allowed to be deducted as such by the payor,...

  10. 40 CFR 76.13 - Compliance and excess emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance and excess emissions. 76.13 Section 76.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.13 Compliance and excess...

  11. 40 CFR 76.13 - Compliance and excess emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance and excess emissions. 76.13 Section 76.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.13 Compliance and excess...

  12. 40 CFR 76.13 - Compliance and excess emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance and excess emissions. 76.13 Section 76.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.13 Compliance and excess...

  13. 40 CFR 76.13 - Compliance and excess emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance and excess emissions. 76.13 Section 76.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.13 Compliance and excess...

  14. 40 CFR 76.13 - Compliance and excess emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance and excess emissions. 76.13 Section 76.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.13 Compliance and excess...

  15. The Role of Alcohol Advertising in Excessive and Hazardous Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of advertising on excessive and dangerous drinking in a survey of 1,200 adolescents and young adults who were shown advertisements depicting excessive consumption themes. Results indicated that advertising stimulates consumption levels, which leads to heavy drinking and drinking in dangerous situations. (JAC)

  16. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA...

  17. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA...

  18. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA...

  19. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA...

  20. 12 CFR 740.3 - Advertising of excess insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising of excess insurance. 740.3 Section... ACCURACY OF ADVERTISING AND NOTICE OF INSURED STATUS § 740.3 Advertising of excess insurance. Any advertising that mentions share or savings account insurance provided by a party other than the NCUA...

  1. Excess attenuation of an acoustic beam by turbulence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Naixian

    2003-12-01

    A theory based on the concept of a spatial sinusoidal diffraction grating is presented for the estimation of the excess attenuation in an acoustic beam. The equation of the excess attenuation coefficient shows that the excess attenuation of acoustic beam not only depends on the turbulence but also depends on the application parameters such as the beam width, the beam orientation and whether for forward propagation or back scatter propagation. Analysis shows that the excess attenuation appears to have a frequency dependence of cube-root. The expression for the excess attenuation coefficient has been used in the estimations of the temperature structure coefficient, C(T)2, in sodar sounding. The correction of C(T)2 values for excess attenuation reduces their errors greatly. Published profiles of temperature structure coefficient and the velocity structure coefficient in convective conditions are used to test our theory, which is compared with the theory by Brown and Clifford. The excess attenuation due to scattering from turbulence and atmospheric absorption are both taken into account in sodar data processing for deducing the contribution of the lower atmosphere to seeing, which is the sharpness of a telescope image determined by the degree of turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. The comparison between the contributions of the lowest 300-m layer to seeing with that of the whole atmosphere supports the reasonableness of our estimation of excess attenuation.

  2. 30 CFR 75.323 - Actions for excessive methane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions for excessive methane. 75.323 Section... excessive methane. (a) Location of tests. Tests for methane concentrations under this section shall be made.... (1) When 1.0 percent or more methane is present in a working place or an intake air course,...

  3. Hydration of proteins: excess partial volumes of water and proteins.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A; Komissarov, Igor A; Khadiullina, Aigul V

    2012-04-05

    High precision densitometry was applied to study the hydration of proteins. The hydration process was analyzed by the simultaneous monitoring of the excess partial volumes of water and the proteins in the entire range of water content. Five unrelated proteins (lysozyme, chymotrypsinogen A, ovalbumin, human serum albumin, and β-lactoglobulin) were used as models. The obtained data were compared with the excess partial enthalpies of water and the proteins. It was shown that the excess partial quantities are very sensitive to the changes in the state of water and proteins. At the lowest water weight fractions (w(1)), the changes of the excess functions can mainly be attributed to water addition. A transition from the glassy to the flexible state of the proteins is accompanied by significant changes in the excess partial quantities of water and the proteins. This transition appears at a water weight fraction of 0.06 when charged groups of proteins are covered. Excess partial quantities reach their fully hydrated values at w(1) > 0.5 when coverage of both polar and weakly interacting surface elements is complete. At the highest water contents, water addition has no significant effect on the excess quantities. At w(1) > 0.5, changes in the excess functions can solely be attributed to changes in the state of the proteins.

  4. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refunds of excess customs duties. 10.625 Section 10.625 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of...

  5. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No...

  6. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No...

  7. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No...

  8. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No...

  9. 30 CFR 75.323 - Actions for excessive methane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions for excessive methane. 75.323 Section... excessive methane. (a) Location of tests. Tests for methane concentrations under this section shall be made.... (1) When 1.0 percent or more methane is present in a working place or an intake air course,...

  10. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  11. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  12. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  13. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 300 - Excess Costs Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess Costs Calculation A Appendix A to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. A Appendix A to Part 300—Excess Costs Calculation Except...

  14. 20 CFR 410.530 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; excess earnings. 410.530 Section 410.530 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.530 Reductions; excess...

  15. 20 CFR 410.530 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; excess earnings. 410.530 Section 410.530 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.530 Reductions; excess...

  16. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of the... Agreement and payment of refunds for any excess duties paid with respect to entries of textile and apparel.... 1514 or any other provision of law, and subject to paragraph (c) of this section, a textile or...

  17. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of the... Agreement and payment of refunds for any excess duties paid with respect to entries of textile and apparel.... 1514 or any other provision of law, and subject to paragraph (c) of this section, a textile or...

  18. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of the... Agreement and payment of refunds for any excess duties paid with respect to entries of textile and apparel.... 1514 or any other provision of law, and subject to paragraph (c) of this section, a textile or...

  19. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Apparel Goods § 10.625 Refunds of excess customs duties. (a) Applicability. Section 205 of the... Agreement and payment of refunds for any excess duties paid with respect to entries of textile and apparel.... 1514 or any other provision of law, and subject to paragraph (c) of this section, a textile or...

  20. 32 CFR 644.476 - Excessing civil works property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excessing civil works property. 644.476 Section... Land) § 644.476 Excessing civil works property. The DE are authorized to approve the disposal of... works purposes. (f) Temporary buildings or improvements which have served the purpose for which...

  1. 10 CFR 765.32 - Reimbursement of excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement of excess funds. 765.32 Section 765.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement Procedures § 765.32 Reimbursement of excess funds. (a) No...

  2. On Infrared Excesses Associated with Li-Rich K Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Black, David V.; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Cashen, Sarah; Clarke, Matthew; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant lithium and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched lithium, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and lithium abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be lithium-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by approximately 20 micrometers (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few lithium-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C. IR excesses by 20 micrometers, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of lithium-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported

  3. ON INFRARED EXCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH Li-RICH K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Cashen, Sarah; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Clarke, Matthew; Black, David V.

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the

  4. Excessive recreational computer use and food consumption behaviour among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data, we explore the association between excessive recreational computer use and specific food consumption behavior among California's adolescents aged 12-17. Method The adolescent component of CHIS 2005 measured the respondents' average number of hours spent on viewing TV on a weekday, the average number of hours spent on viewing TV on a weekend day, the average number of hours spent on playing with a computer on a weekday, and the average number of hours spent on playing with computers on a weekend day. We recode these four continuous variables into four variables of "excessive media use," and define more than three hours of using a medium per day as "excessive." These four variables are then used in logistic regressions to predict different food consumption behaviors on the previous day: having fast food, eating sugary food more than once, drinking sugary drinks more than once, and eating more than five servings of fruits and vegetables. We use the following variables as covariates in the logistic regressions: age, gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, household poverty status, whether born in the U.S., and whether living with two parents. Results Having fast food on the previous day is associated with excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 1.38, p < 0.01). Having sugary food more than once is associated with excessive weekend TV viewing (O.R. = 1.50, p < 0.001). Having sugary drinks more than once is associated with excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 1.41, p < 0.01), excessive weekday recreational computer use (O.R. = 1.38, p < 0.05), and excessive weekend TV viewing (O.R. = 1.43, p < 0.001). Finally, having more than five servings of fruits and vegetables on the previous day is negatively associated with all four media use variables: excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 0.64, p < 0.001), excessive weekday recreational computer use (O.R. = 0.68, p < 0.01), excessive weekend TV viewing

  5. Enhanced concentrations of reactive nitrogen species in wildfire smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, Katherine B.; Prenni, Anthony J.; Carrico, Christian M.; Sullivan, Amy P.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    During the summer of 2012 the Hewlett Gulch and High Park wildfires burned an area of 400 km2 northwest of Fort Collins, Colorado. These fires both came within 20 km of the Department of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University, allowing for extensive measurements of smoke-impacted air masses over the course of several weeks. In total, smoke plumes were observed at the measurement site for approximately 125 h. During this time, measurements were made of multiple reactive nitrogen compounds, including gas phase species NH3, NOx, and HNO3, and particle phase species NO3- and NH4+, plus an additional, unspeciated reactive nitrogen component that is measured by high temperature conversion over a catalyst to NO. Concurrent measurements of CO, levoglucosan and PM2.5 served to confirm the presence of smoke at the monitoring site. Significant enhancements were observed for all of the reactive nitrogen species measured in the plumes, except for NH4+ which did not show enhancements, likely due to the fresh nature of the plume, the presence of sufficient regional ammonia to have already neutralized upwind sulfate, and the warm conditions of the summer measurement period which tend to limit ammonium nitrate formation. Excess mixing ratios for NH3 and NOx relative to excess mixing ratios of CO in the smoke plumes, ΔNH3/ΔCO (ppb/ppb) and ΔNOx/ΔCO (ppb/ppb), were determined to be 0.027 ± 0.002 and 0.0057 ± 0.0007, respectively. These ratios suggest that smoldering combustion was the dominant source of smoke during our plume interceptions. Observations from prior relevant laboratory and field measurements of reactive nitrogen species are also briefly summarized to help create a more comprehensive picture of reactive nitrogen and fire.

  6. Effortful Control and Parenting: Associations with HPA Axis Reactivity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryski, Katie R.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2013-01-01

    While activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an adaptive response to stress, excessive HPA axis reactivity may be an important marker of childhood vulnerability to psychopathology. Parenting, including parent affect during parent-child interactions, may play an important role in shaping the developing HPA system; however,…

  7. Introducing new reactivity descriptors: "Bond reactivity indices." Comparison of the new definitions and atomic reactivity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Márquez, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    A new methodology to obtain reactivity indices has been defined. This is based on reactivity functions such as the Fukui function or the dual descriptor and makes it possible to project the information of reactivity functions over molecular orbitals instead of the atoms of the molecule (atomic reactivity indices). The methodology focuses on the molecule's natural bond orbitals (bond reactivity indices) because these orbitals (with physical meaning) have the advantage of being very localized, allowing the reaction site of an electrophile or nucleophile to be determined within a very precise molecular region. This methodology gives a reactivity index for every Natural Bond Orbital (NBO), and we have verified that they have equivalent information to the reactivity functions. A representative set of molecules has been used to test the new definitions. Also, the bond reactivity index has been related with the atomic reactivity one, and complementary information has been obtained from the comparison. Finally, a new atomic reactivity index has been defined and compared with previous definitions.

  8. Dimethylphosphoryl-inhibited human cholinesterases: inhibition, reactivation, and aging kinetics.

    PubMed

    Worek, F; Diepold, C; Eyer, P

    1999-02-01

    Human poisoning by organophosphates bearing two methoxy groups, e.g. by malathion, paraoxon-methyl, dimethoate and oxydemeton-methyl, is generally considered to be rather resistant to oxime therapy. Since the oxime effectiveness is influenced not only by its reactivating potential but also by inhibition, aging and spontaneous reactivation kinetics, experiments were performed with human acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to determine the respective kinetic constants. The efficacy of obidoxime in reactivating dimethylphosphoryl-AChE was 40, 9 and 3 times higher than of HI 6, pralidoxime and HLö 7, respectively. Aging (t1/2 3.7 h) and spontaneous reactivation (t1/2 0.7 h) occurred concomitantly, with the portion of the aged enzyme being dependent on the presence of excess inhibitor. Calculation of steady-state AChE activity in the presence of inhibitor and oxime revealed that obidoxime was superior to pralidoxime. In addition, organophosphate concentrations up to 10(-6) M (paraoxon-methyl) and 10(-4) M (oxydemeton-methyl) could be counteracted at clinically relevant oxime concentrations (10 microM). These data indicate that oximes may effectively reactivate human dimethylphosphoryl-AChE. Failure of oximes may be attributed to megadose intoxications and to prolonged time intervals between poison uptake and oxime administration. The potency of the oximes to reactivate dimethylphosphoryl-BChE was much lower and the spontaneous reactivation slower (t1/2 9 h), while aging proceeded at a comparable rate. Thus, BChE activity determination for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring may give no reliable information on AChE status.

  9. Implications of the role of reactive cystein in arginine kinase: reactivation kinetics of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-modified arginine kinase reactivated by dithiothreitol.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ji-Cheng; Cheng, Yuan; Hui, En-Fu; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2004-04-30

    The reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-modified arginine kinase by dithiothreitol has been investigated using the kinetic theory of the substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity. The results show that the modified arginine kinase can be fully reactivated by an excess concentration of dithiothreitol in a monophasic kinetic course. The presence of ATP or the transition-state analog markedly slows the apparent reactivation rate constant, while arginine shows no effect. The results of ultraviolet (UV) difference and intrinsic fluorescence spectra indicate that the substrate arginine-ADP-Mg2+ can induce conformational changes of the modified enzyme but adding NO3- cannot induce further changes that occur with the native enzyme. The reactive cysteines' location and role in the catalysis of arginine kinase are discussed. It is suggested that the cysteine may be located in the hinge region of the two domains of arginine kinase. The reactive cysteine of arginine kinase may play an important role not in the binding to the transition-state analog but in the conformational changes caused by the transition-state analog.

  10. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  11. Reactive attachment disorder.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect affects the lives of many American children and can result in physical injury and disability as well as psychological trauma. Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is one possible psychological consequence of child abuse and neglect for very young children, younger than 5 years of age. RAD is described as markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness usually beginning before age 5 years. These behavioral manifestations are the direct result of and come after pathogenic care. To better understand RAD, it is first necessary to understand attachment; therefore, attachment theory is examined. Risk factors for the development of RAD are presented. Implications for pediatric nurse practitioner practice are explored. The pediatric nurse practitioner can play a vital role in recognizing RAD and ensuring that children with this disorder receive prompt mental health assessment and therapy.

  12. Reactive flow in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassart, Laurence; Suo, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    When guest atoms diffuse into a host solid and react, the host may flow inelastically. Often a reaction can stimulate flow in a host too brittle to flow under a mechanical load alone. We formulate a theory of reactive flow in solids by regarding both flow and reaction as nonequilibrium processes, and placing the driving forces for flow and reaction on equal footing. We construct chemomechanical rate-dependent kinetic models without yield strength. In a host under constant stress and chemical potential, flow will persist indefinitely, but reaction will arrest. We also construct chemomechanical yield surface and flow rule by extending the von Mises theory of plasticity. We show that the host under a constant deviatoric stress will flow gradually in response to ramp chemical potential, and will ratchet in response to cyclic chemical potential.

  13. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  14. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    PubMed

    Thurling, Catherine H; Harris, Candice

    2012-06-05

    South Africa's high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation. The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training. A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation. The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted. The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  15. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  16. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  17. Radiation dose reduction in invasive cardiology by restriction to adequate instead of optimized picture quality.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Dorn, Christian; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the cinegraphic image intensifier entrance dose level for coronary angiography was changed in four steps from dose level A (0.041 microGy frame(-1)), allowing high contrast, but coarse mottled background, to level D (0.164 microGy frame(-1)), affording high transparency and sharpness. Using this new approach throughout the course of 404 consecutive cardiac catheterizations, we reduced patient radiation exposures down to 11 to 16% of currently typical values: i.e., mean dose area products of 5.97 Gy cm2 (n = 91), 6.73 (n = 113), 8.11 (n = 91), and 8.90 (n = 109); cinegraphic dose area products of 2.34, 3.64, 4.56, and 5.49; and cinegraphic dose area products frame(-1) of 13.3, 19.8, 27.0, and 30.2 mGy cm2, for levels A, B, C, and D, respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames ranged within 168 to 182 per case. Our results show that during catheterization interventionalists should vary image intensifier entrance dose levels in accordance with documented structure, angulation, and body mass index. With the exception of cases with special requirements, lower dose levels typically guarantee an adequate image quality.

  18. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  19. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic antidepressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  20. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.