Science.gov

Sample records for adequate eye protection

  1. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  2. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  3. Anterior eye protection with orbital neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of adequate doses of radiation to tumors involving the orbit and surrounding facial structures and sinuses is often complicated by the need to protect the sensitive ocular components, the lens and cornea. A technique has been devised that uses four photon beam fields and an optional electron field to treat the contents of both orbits and adjacent sinuses with effective, reproducible protection of cornea and lens. Essential features include: alignment of the corneal surfaces with the central plane of rotation of the treatment machine, use of a narrow eye block across the entire beam to shield a strip equal to the width of the cornea, positioned symmetrically across the central plane of rotation, fine alignment of the eye block with both corneal surfaces by altering pedestal angle, treatment with paired, wedged, anterior oblique fields to encompass desired orbital and sinus volumes with additional blocking placed as needed, and complementary, lateral strip fields using collimators set to eye block thickness to equalize dose in the posterior orbit shielded by the strip eye block. A similar anterior electron beam strip field may be added to boost the medial orbit and ethmoid regions covered by the eye block. Bite block head immobilization and easy, direct daily visualization of block position assures eye protection for each treatment and provides substantial reduction in dose to the cornea, lens and iris. Additional blocking may be incorporated to provide partial lacrimal and parotid sparing.

  4. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  5. Are rehabilitation services for patients in UK eye clinics adequate? A survey of eye care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie-Gallery, H; Conway, M L; Subramanian, A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine whether specific services such as emotional and family support are currently available in the United Kingdom for people with visual impairment. Methods A validated online survey was created and distributed to clinical staff in eye clinics (for example, ophthalmologists and optometrists) and rehabilitation staff (for example, social and rehabilitation workers) in the community, who worked with people with visual impairment. A total of 67 clinical and 42 rehabilitation staff completed the entire survey online. Results Only 67% of the respondents claimed their clinics provide emotional support and 44% of respondent's clinics provided family support. Clinical and rehabilitation staff have differences in opinion over what constitutes an essential service for a visually impaired patient. Rehabilitation staff considered emotional support and referral to social services as essential more often than clinical staff (P<0.05). There is some confusion over the type of personnel who provides each type of service, with some services showing substantial repetition. Conclusion In the clinics sampled, there appears to be an underprovision of emotional support (attentive listening plus constructive suggestions) and family support (emotional support and advice for family members) for visually impaired patients in the United Kingdom. There also seems to be some discrepancy in services that eye care professionals feel are available and previous reports by visually impaired patients of the service they receive. There is a need to develop standardised pathways across the United Kingdom, to solve some of these issues. PMID:22814804

  6. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  7. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  8. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  9. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  10. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  11. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  12. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  13. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  14. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  15. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  16. Eye and Face Protection in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Choosing what eye and face protection to provide for the high school science laboratory is often a challenge. Science teachers and school administrators may not fully understand the relevant safety regulations and standards or be able to correctly identify the various types of eye protection devices. Although some schools have received training…

  17. Protective area of laser eye protectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, E.; Schirmacher, A.

    2001-06-01

    An objective definition of the protective area of laser eye protectors is discussed. First an appropriate test method is described, which is based on the current eye protection standard EN 168. For a variety of already CE type approved laser eye protectors, i.e. for different goggle and spectacle types, results of corresponding measurements are shown. From these results the requirements on the vertical and horizontal angle ranges are derived, which have to be covered by laser eye protectors. This proposal will be implemented in the currently processed amendments of the laser safety standards EN 207 and EN 208.

  18. Protect Your Eyes When You Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency room doctors treat an estimated 42,000 sports-related eye injuries each year in the U.S. Nearly all of ... lenses, and sunglasses do not protect you from sports-related eye injury. You need to wear safety goggles over them. ...

  19. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  20. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... safety analysis, or DSA, is to be prepared for every DOE nuclear facility. This DSA, once approved by...

  1. Analyzing Eye Protection Needs in the Technology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudebush, Clair J.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a guide to what is needed for eye protection in the technology laboratory. Topics include low impact vs. high impact spectacles, side shield requirements, safety goggles, face protection, and eye protection vs. face protection. (JOW)

  2. Laser eye protection for flight personnel.

    PubMed

    Chisum, G T

    1979-03-01

    Developments in laser technology have resulted in an expanding use of lasers in many field and laboratory situations. The implications of the use of lasers in military applications have been examined for flight personnel, and the requirement for eye protection determined. Recommendations for methods of providing that protection are made. PMID:454323

  3. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    PubMed

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  4. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  14. EYE LENS DOSIMETRY FOR FLUOROSCOPICALLY GUIDED CLINICAL PROCEDURES: PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO PROTECTION AND DOSE MONITORING.

    PubMed

    Martin, Colin J

    2016-06-01

    Doses to the eye lenses of clinicians undertaking fluoroscopically guided procedures can exceed the dose annual limit of 20 mSv, so optimisation of radiation protection is essential. Ceiling-suspended shields and disposable radiation absorbing pads can reduce eye dose by factors of 2-7. Lead glasses that shield against exposures from the side can lower doses by 2.5-4.5 times. Training in effective use of protective devices is an essential element in achieving good protection and acceptable eye doses. Effective methods for dose monitoring are required to identify protection issues. Dosemeters worn adjacent to the eye provide the better option for interventional clinicians, but an unprotected dosemeter worn at the neck will give an indication of eye dose that is adequate for most interventional staff. Potential requirements for protective devices and dose monitoring can be determined from risk assessments using generic values for dose linked to examination workload. PMID:26454269

  15. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  16. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  17. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the...

  18. Eyelashes divert airflow to protect the eye.

    PubMed

    Amador, Guillermo J; Mao, Wenbin; DeMercurio, Peter; Montero, Carmen; Clewis, Joel; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David L

    2015-04-01

    Eyelashes are ubiquitous, although their function has long remained a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the aerodynamic benefits of eyelashes. Through anatomical measurements, we find that 22 species of mammals possess eyelashes of a length one-third the eye width. Wind tunnel experiments confirm that this optimal eyelash length reduces both deposition of airborne particles and evaporation of the tear film by a factor of two. Using scaling theory, we find this optimum arises because of the incoming flow's interactions with both the eye and eyelashes. Short eyelashes create a stagnation zone above the ocular surface that thickens the boundary layer, causing shear stress to decrease with increasing eyelash length. Long eyelashes channel flow towards the ocular surface, causing shear stress to increase with increasing eyelash length. These competing effects result in a minimum shear stress for intermediate eyelash lengths. This design may be employed in creating eyelash-inspired protection for optical sensors. PMID:25716186

  19. Eyelashes divert airflow to protect the eye

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Mao, Wenbin; DeMercurio, Peter; Montero, Carmen; Clewis, Joel; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Eyelashes are ubiquitous, although their function has long remained a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the aerodynamic benefits of eyelashes. Through anatomical measurements, we find that 22 species of mammals possess eyelashes of a length one-third the eye width. Wind tunnel experiments confirm that this optimal eyelash length reduces both deposition of airborne particles and evaporation of the tear film by a factor of two. Using scaling theory, we find this optimum arises because of the incoming flow's interactions with both the eye and eyelashes. Short eyelashes create a stagnation zone above the ocular surface that thickens the boundary layer, causing shear stress to decrease with increasing eyelash length. Long eyelashes channel flow towards the ocular surface, causing shear stress to increase with increasing eyelash length. These competing effects result in a minimum shear stress for intermediate eyelash lengths. This design may be employed in creating eyelash-inspired protection for optical sensors. PMID:25716186

  20. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  1. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  2. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  3. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1926.102 Section 1926.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment § 1926.102 Eye and face protection....

  5. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1910.133 Section 1910.133 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.133 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  6. Ultraviolet and short wavelength visible light exposure: why ultraviolet protection alone is not adequate.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Alan W; Citek, Karl; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The danger of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both the natural environment and artificial occupational settings has long been recognized by national and international standards committees and worker safety agencies. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that protection from UV exposure is not enough. Unprotected exposure to the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum, termed the "blue light hazard", is gaining acceptance as a true risk to long-term visual health. Global standards and experts in the field are now warning that those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with high impact resistant lenses that provide 100% UV filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. The Skin Cancer Foundation has endorsed certain sunglasses as "product[s]...effective [as] UV filter[s] for the eyes and surrounding skin". However, such endorsement does not necessarily mean that the eyewear meets all the protective needs for outdoor use. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision, available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features. PMID:17073573

  7. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eye and face protection. 214.117 Section 214.117..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.117 Eye and...

  8. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eye and face protection. 214.117 Section 214.117..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.117 Eye and...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the specific wavelength of the laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy involved. Table E-3 lists the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by glasses of optical densities from 5 through 8. Table E-3—Selecting Laser Safety Glass Intensity, CW...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the specific wavelength of the laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy involved. Table E-3 lists the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by glasses of optical densities from 5 through 8. Table E-3—Selecting Laser Safety Glass Intensity, CW...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the specific wavelength of the laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy involved. Table E-3 lists the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by glasses of optical densities from 5 through 8. Table E-3—Selecting Laser Safety Glass Intensity, CW...

  12. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27 Section 142.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment §...

  13. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... corrective lenses, when required by this section to wear eye protection, shall be protected by goggles or...; (ii) Goggles that can be worn over corrective lenses without disturbing the adjustment of the...

  14. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... corrective lenses, when required by this section to wear eye protection, shall be protected by goggles or...; (ii) Goggles that can be worn over corrective lenses without disturbing the adjustment of the...

  15. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... corrective lenses, when required by this section to wear eye protection, shall be protected by goggles or...; (ii) Goggles that can be worn over corrective lenses without disturbing the adjustment of the...

  16. Spectacle-related eye injuries, spectacle-impact performance and eye protection.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha; Dain, Stephen J; Mackey, David A

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to review the prevalence of spectacle-related ocular trauma and the performance of currently available spectacle materials and to identify the risk factors associated with spectacle-related ocular trauma. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase and Google with the keywords 'eyeglasses' OR 'spectacles' AND 'ocular injury' / 'eye injury'/ 'eye trauma' / 'ocular trauma'. Articles published prior to 1975 were excluded from this review because of advances in spectacle lens technology and Food and Drug Administration legislative changes requiring impact resistance of all prescription spectacle lenses in the United States. Six hundred and ninety-five individual ocular traumas, for which spectacles contributed to or were the main cause of injury, were identified in the literature. Eye injuries occurred when spectacles were worn in sports, in which medium- to high-impact energies were exerted from balls, racquets or bats and/or as a result of a collision with another player. Frame, lens design and product material choice were found to be associated with ocular injury, with polycarbonate lenses cited as the material of choice in the literature. International, regional and national standards for spectacle lenses had a wide range of impact requirements for prescription spectacle lenses, sports eye protection and occupational eye protection. Spectacle-related injury represents a small but preventable cause of ocular injury. With the increasing numbers of spectacle wearers and calls to spend more time outdoors to reduce myopia, spectacle wearers need to be made aware of the potential risks associated with wearing spectacles during medium- to high-risk activities. At particular risk are those prone to falls, the functionally one-eyed, those who have corneal thinning or have had previous eye surgery or injury. With increased understanding of specific risk factors, performance guidelines can be developed for prescription spectacle eye-protection

  17. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... welding (heavy), over 1/2-inch 6 or 8 (2) Laser protection. (i) Employees whose occupation or assignment requires exposure to laser beams shall be furnished suitable laser safety goggles which will protect for the specific wavelength of the laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy...

  18. For Parents, Teachers and Coaches: About Sports Eye Injury and Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protection Resources for Adults Resources for Children About Sports Eye Injury and Protective Eyewear Parents and coaches play an ... activities and protective eyewear, visit: Coalition to Prevent Sports Eye Injuries Vision Council of America Prevent Blindness America Photo ...

  19. Optical power limiting for eye protection from tunable lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Golovlev, Valeri V.; Garrett, W. R.; Goedert, Robert V.; Whittaker, Thomas A., III; Templeton, Douglas W.

    1997-10-01

    Due to the extensive use of lasers in aiming devices, range fmders, and in remote sensing, the protection of eyes and sensors from laser beams becomes critically important. It has been a challenging task to provide protection from wave-length tunable lasers without the serious sacrifice of vision capability. In this work, we describe two different approaches which can significantly attenuate the laser beam through the whole visible region. One approach is to use specific geometric configuration with thin film aluminum mirrors"2. The other is to use the properties of reverse saturable absorption of fullerene3'4. The combination of these two approaches can possibly become an effective device for eye protection from high power tunable lasers. The principle and mechanism to achieve eye protection will also be discussed. The goal for eye and sensor protection is to attenuate the amount of incident light below the damage threshold. The ANSI standards indicate that for visible wavelengths and nanosecond pulse durations, the maximum permissible exposure on the surface of the comeas is about 0.2 J. The damage threshold by a nanosecond laser on a rhesus monkey was measured to be of the order of a few microjoules5.

  20. Does the new EU Regulation on clinical trials adequately protect vulnerable research participants?

    PubMed

    Gennet, Éloïse; Andorno, Roberto; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerable research participants deserve special protection because of their increased risks of being wronged. Yet, paradoxically, the conduct of trials involving vulnerable groups is sometimes inescapable to develop safe and efficient therapies suitable to these groups. The key question is therefore how to protect vulnerable research participants from harm and exploitation without excluding the populations they belong to from the benefits of research. The European Union faced this challenge in April 2014 when adopting the new Regulation on clinical trials, which will replace the currently applicable 2001 Clinical Trials Directive in 2016. In order to assess the protection of vulnerable persons in the new Regulation, this paper makes four suggestions: first, the need to adopt a risk-based approach to vulnerability in biomedical research; second, to better distinguish between decisional vulnerabilities and health-related vulnerabilities; third, to emphasise the need to preserve the freedom of consent of subjects with decisional vulnerability, who are more susceptible to undue influence; and finally to assert the need of actively promoting specific clinical trials involving people with physical or psychological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, this paper claims that the protection of vulnerable subjects still needs to be improved in the new EU Regulation. PMID:25951954

  1. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes. PMID:26468088

  2. Movement and spawning migration patterns suggest small marine reserves can offer adequate protection for exploited emperorfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. M.; Mills, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    A critical feature of effective marine reserves is to be large enough to encompass home ranges of target species, thereby allowing a significant portion of the population to persist without the threat of exploitation. In this study, patterns of movement and home range for Lethrinus harak and Lethrinus obsoletus were quantified using an array of 33 acoustic receivers that covered approximately three quarters of Piti Marine Reserve in the Pacific island of Guam. This array was designed to ensure extensive overlap of receiver ranges throughout the study area. Eighteen individuals (12 L. harak and 6 L. obsoletus) were surgically implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and passively tracked for 4 months. Both species displayed high site fidelity and had relatively small home ranges. The home ranges of L. harak expanded with increasing body size. Feeding of fish by humans, which was common but restricted to a small area within the study site, had little effect on the distribution of the resident populations. L. harak made nightly spawning migrations within the reserve between full moon and last quarter moon of each lunar cycle, coinciding with a strong ebbing tide. Results indicate that even small reserves can include many individual home ranges of these emperorfishes and can protect spawning sites for L. harak. These species are heavily targeted in Guam, and there are major demographic differences between fished and protected sites. This study shows the potential for protected areas to sustain reproductive viability in exploited populations.

  3. Eye dosimetry and protective eyewear for interventional clinicians.

    PubMed

    Martin, C J; Magee, J S; Sandblom, V; Almén, A; Lundh, C

    2015-07-01

    Doses to the eyes of interventional clinicians can exceed 20 mSv. Various protective devices can afford protection to the eyes with the final barrier being protective eyewear. The protection provided by lead glasses is difficult to quantify, and the majority of dosimeters are not designed to be worn under lead glasses. This study has measured dose reduction factors (DRFs) equal to the ratio of the dose with no protection, divided by that when lead glasses are worn. Glasses have been tested in X-ray fields using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate the patient and clinician. DRFs for X-rays incident from the front vary from 5.2 to 7.6, while values for orientations reminiscent of clinical practice are between 1.4 and 5.2. Results suggest that a DRF of two is a conservative factor that could be applied to personal dosimeter measurements to account for the dose reduction provided by most types of lead glasses. PMID:25848118

  4. Evaluation of eye protection filters for use with dental curing and bleaching lamps.

    PubMed

    Bruzell, Ellen M; Johnsen, Bjørn; Aalerud, Tommy Nakken; Christensen, Terje

    2007-06-01

    Exposure to intense radiation sources in a dental clinic necessitates the use of eye protective filters to avoid blue-light photochemical retinal hazard. We have investigated the filtering quality and assessed whether the filters protect sufficiently against retinal hazards throughout the workday. Visible light transmittance of 18 protective filters was measured. These products consisted of spectacles, stationary lamp shields, and a hand-held shield intended for use in dental clinics. Nine of the 18 tested filters had adequate filtering capacity according to today's lamp technology and exposure limit values. These filters transmitted less than 0.1% of the radiation at any wavelength between 400 nm and 525 nm. Seven of the nine filters showed transmission values below the detection limit (approximately 10(-3)%) in the wavelength band between 400 nm and 500 nm. Filters of inferior quality may prove inadequate if the use and radiation intensity of the lamps further increase. Lack of protection may also occur if a filter is used to protect against emission from a lamp with properties other than the lamp for which the filter has been intended. It is of major importance that the spectacles/shields accommodate the emission from the lamp source. The suppliers of dental radiation sources should be responsible for information on the need for and proper use of eye protectors. In addition, the filters should be marked according to testing procedures appropriate for the specific use. PMID:17474033

  5. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    PubMed Central

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  6. Caffeine Eye Drops Protect Against UV-B Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Kronschläger, Martin; Löfgren, Stefan; Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Varma, Shambhu D.; Söderberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if topically applied caffeine protects against in vivo ultraviolet radiation cataract and if so, to estimate the protection factor. Three experiments were carried out. First, two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with a single application of either placebo or caffeine eye drops in both eyes. All animals were then unilaterally exposed in vivo to 8 kJ/m2 UV-B radiation for 15 min. One week later, the lens GSH levels were measured and the degree of cataract was quantified by measurement of in vitro lens light scattering. In the second experiment, placebo and caffeine pre-treated rats were divided in five UV-B radiation dose groups, receiving 0.0, 2.6, 3.7, 4.5 or 5.2 kJ/m2 UV-B radiation in one eye. Lens light scattering was determined after one week. In the third experiment, placebo and caffeine pre-treated rats were UV-B-exposed and the presence of activated caspase-3 was visualized by immunohistochemistry. There was significantly less UV-B radiation cataract in the caffeine group than in the placebo group (95% confidence interval for mean difference in lens light scattering between the groups = 0.10 ± 0.05 tEDC), and the protection factor for caffeine was 1.23. There was no difference in GSH levels between the placebo- and the caffeine group. There was more caspase-3 staining in UV-B-exposed lenses from the placebo group than in UV-B-exposed lenses from the caffeine group. Topically applied caffeine protects against ultraviolet radiation cataract, reducing lens sensitivity 1.23 times. PMID:23644096

  7. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  8. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  9. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  10. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  11. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  12. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  13. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  14. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  15. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  16. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  17. Aircrew laser eye protection: visual consequences and mission performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R

    1994-05-01

    Battlefield laser proliferation poses a mounting risk to aircrew and ground personnel. Laser eye protection (LEP) based on current mature, mass-producible technologies absorbs visible light and can impact visual performance and color identification. These visual consequences account for many of the mission incompatibilities associated with LEP. Laboratory experiments and field investigations that examined the effects of LEP on visual performance and mission compatibility are reviewed. Laboratory experiments assessed the ability of subjects to correctly read and identify the color of head-down display symbology and tactical pilotage charts (TPC's) with three prototype LEP visors. Field investigations included Weapons Systems Trainer (WST), ground, and flight tests of the LEP visors. Recommendations for modifying aviation lighting systems to improve LEP compatibility are proposed. Issues concerning flight safety when using LEP during air operation are discussed. PMID:8018069

  18. Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

  19. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  20. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  1. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  2. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  3. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  4. Eye Safety At-A-Glance: Protecting Your Child's Vision in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related eye injuries are quite common, yet the number of children who use protective eyewear (safety glasses or goggles) is extremely low. More than 600,000 eye injuries related to sports occur each year, and approximately one-third of these injuries occur in children. When children participate in sports they not only increase their…

  5. [Illumination in the dental office and eye protection].

    PubMed

    Brondel, G; Beirnaert, V

    1991-02-01

    Visual problems may be due to an inadequate illumination. In this article some recommendations are presented with regard to the illumination in the dental office. Prior to this, a description of some technical terms such as lux and candela is presented. Some light sources may be dangerous for the eye if used for a longer period of time. Mechanical damage to the eyes and infection by hard and large particles of the aerosol may be serious. Spectacles and air suction devices are therefore a necessity. Lastly, some attention is given to working with monitors of personal computers. PMID:1961321

  6. Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Eye and Face Protection. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-25

    On March 13, 2015, OSHA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to revise its eye and face protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and construction by updating the references to national consensus standards approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). OSHA received no significant objections from commenters and therefore is adopting the amendments as proposed. This final rule updates the references in OSHA's eye and face standards to reflect the most recent edition of the ANSI/International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) eye and face protection standard. It removes the oldest-referenced edition of the same ANSI standard. It also amends other provisions of the construction eye and face protection standard to bring them into alignment with OSHA's general industry and maritime standards. PMID:27017630

  7. Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean; Béhar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Ortega Garcia, Paula; Peña-García, Pablo; Remé, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James

    2014-01-01

    While knowledge about standardization of skin protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has progressed over the past few decades, there is no uniform and generally accepted standardized measurement for UV eye protection. The literature provides solid evidence that UV can induce considerable damage to structures of the eye. As well as damaging the eyelids and periorbital skin, chronic UV exposure may also affect the conjunctiva and lens. Clinically, this damage can manifest as skin cancer and premature skin ageing as well as the development of pterygia and premature cortical cataracts. Modern eye protection, used daily, offers the opportunity to prevent these adverse sequelae of lifelong UV exposure. A standardized, reliable and comprehensive label for consumers and professionals is currently lacking. In this review we (i) summarize the existing literature about UV radiation-induced damage to the eye and surrounding skin; (ii) review the recent technological advances in UV protection by means of lenses; (iii) review the definition of the Eye-Sun Protection Factor (E-SPF®), which describes the intrinsic UV protection properties of lenses and lens coating materials based on their capacity to absorb or reflect UV radiation; and (iv) propose a strategy for establishing the biological relevance of the E-SPF. PMID:24303877

  8. ColorDazl/Daylight Dazzler and eye protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, James Pierre; Hamadani, Siavosh; Fine, Kevin; Edrich, David A.; Eagan, Justin

    2009-05-01

    The "ColorDazl" is a device designed to be used for testing eye and sensor dazzling, at modest range, in a package that can be carried, and with a projector that could be mounted to a lethal weapon (or if desired, to another type of non-lethal device such as a "stinger"). The Tri-Laser Module (TLM) is a completely self contained subsystem of the device containing functional 3 color (RGV) laser sources. The laser beams are transmitted to the projector by an optical fiber. A 2" or larger diameter projector produces an eye-safe beam throughout its range, yet one of sufficient Irradiance or Illuminance to potentially dazzle sensors, and the unaided eye at ranges between 20' and 200' under night-time or twilight conditions. The TLM is a single pulse laser source, which can be fired every few seconds, with computer controls which keep it eye-safe at the exit aperture, and throughout the range. The output is adjustable with varying power levels and varying pulse duration of the three colors, allowing a flickering output. The system is operated from a LapTop computer which controls the total power, and pulse lengths of each individual laser, so that the total power is below 500 mW, and the energy per pulse for all 3 beams is kept below 30 mJ per pulse. This mode of operation ensures that the device is a Class 3b source as determined by ANSI Z136 classification, and is therefore free from the limitations of Class 4 which include key lock, emission delay, audible warning, etc. With simple refinements to the ColorDazl laser controller software and new projector and receiver combinations currently being considered, a higher power dazzler could be designed in the near future that will be effective and relatively safe under brighter ambient lighting and longer range conditions.

  9. Occupational radiation dose to eyes from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in light of the revised eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, A; Malone, L; O’Reilly, G

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure that combines the use of X-ray fluoroscopy and endoscopy for examination of the bile duct. Published data on ERCP doses are limited, including staff eye dose from ERCP. Occupational eye doses are of particular interest now as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended a reduction in the dose limit to the lens of the eye. The aim of this study was to measure occupational eye doses obtained from ERCP procedures. Methods: A new eye lens dosemeter (EYE-D™, Radcard, Krakow, Poland) was used to measure the ERCP eye dose, Hp(3), at two endoscopy departments in Ireland. A review of radiation protection practice at the two facilities was also carried out. Results: The mean equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of a gastroenterologist is 0.01 mSv per ERCP procedure with an undercouch X-ray tube and 0.09 mSv per ERCP procedure with an overcouch X-ray tube. Staff eye dose normalised to patient kerma area product is also presented. Conclusion: Staff eye doses in ERCP have the potential to exceed the revised ICRP limit of 20 mSv per annum when an overcouch X-ray tube is used. The EYE-D dosemeter was found to be a convenient method for measuring lens dose. Eye doses in areas outside of radiology departments should be kept under review, particularly in light of the new ICRP eye dose limit. Advances in knowledge: Occupational eye lens doses from ERCP procedures have been established using a new commercially available dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. PMID:23385992

  10. Effects of ultraviolet light on the eye: Role of protective glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kuijk, F.J.G.M. van )

    1991-12-01

    Global atmospheric changes such as depletion of ozone in the stratosphere are though to lead to increased levels of ultraviolet radiation on earth. This can have adverse effects on human health, and long-term effects of ultraviolet light on the eye are of increasing concern. Ultraviolet light exposure to the eye has been associated with cataract formation and retinal degeneration. In both cases, it is hypothesized that ultraviolet light can initiate formation of free radicals, which can cause protein modification and lipid peroxidation. Several procedures can be recommended to prevent ultraviolet light damage to the eye, such as the use of suitable protective glasses when outdoors. 101 refs., 2 figs. 1 tab.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Electrode Size 1/32 in. Arc Current... Energy Operations Plate thickness—inches Plate thickness—mm Minimum* Protective Shade Gas Welding: Light... shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Table I-1—Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Electrode size 1/32 in. Arc... Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Plate thickness—inches Plate thickness—mm Minimum... a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a...

  13. Aging and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Eyes Heath and Aging Aging and Your Eyes Steps to Protect Your Eyesight Common Eye Problems ... weight can also help protect your vision. Common Eye Problems The following common eye problems can be ...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Torch brazing 3 Torch soldering 2 Carbon arc welding 14 Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant... the weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Torch brazing 3 Torch soldering 2 Carbon arc welding 14 Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant... the weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 11 100− 400 400− 800 Plasma arc cutting (light)** Less than 300 8 (medium)** 300-400 9 (heavy)** 400... Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Plate thickness—inches Plate thickness—mm Minimum* protective shade Gas welding: Light Under 1/8 Under 3.2 4 Medium 1/8 to 1/2 3.2 to 12.7 5 Heavy Over 1/2...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 11 100− 400 400− 800 Plasma arc cutting (light)** Less than 300 8 (medium)** 300-400 9 (heavy)** 400... Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Plate thickness—inches Plate thickness—mm Minimum* protective shade Gas welding: Light Under 1/8 Under 3.2 4 Medium 1/8 to 1/2 3.2 to 12.7 5 Heavy Over 1/2...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 11 100− 400 400− 800 Plasma arc cutting (light)** Less than 300 8 (medium)** 300-400 9 (heavy)** 400... Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy Operations Plate thickness—inches Plate thickness—mm Minimum* protective shade Gas welding: Light Under 1/8 Under 3.2 4 Medium 1/8 to 1/2 3.2 to 12.7 5 Heavy Over 1/2...

  19. Assessment of fogging resistance of anti-fog personal eye protection.

    PubMed

    Dain, S J; Hoskin, A K; Winder, C; Dingsdag, D P

    1999-07-01

    The propensity for occupational eye protectors to fog in warm and moist conditions is often offered as a reason by workers not to wear occupational eye protection even where mandatory eye protection areas have been specified. A study of eye protection practices in the New South Wales coal mining industry identified the number one issue in underground coal mine conditions as being fogging of eye safety wear. Conventional anti-fog treatments and cleaners were considered by the miners as completely inadequate in these conditions. At the time of the study claims were being made for a new generation of lens treatments. These merited evaluation. Spectacles and goggles claimed to be fog resistant were obtained from manufacturers and suppliers and subjected to the test set out in BS EN 168 and the compliance criterion of BS EN 166. Some lenses claimed to be fog resistant failed the requirement, some new technology lenses showed arguably superior performance but failed the criterion of the standard. Modifications to the test procedure of BS EN 168 and acceptance criteria of BS EN 166 are proposed. PMID:10645393

  20. Eye Wear

    MedlinePlus

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  1. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  2. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 400-800 11 Plasma arc cutting (light)** less than 300 8 (medium)** 300-400 9 (heavy)** 400-800 10... Energy Operations Plate thickness—inches Plate thickness—mm Minimum* Protective Shade Gas Welding: Light Under 1/8 Under 3.2 4 Medium 1/8 to 1/2 3.2 to 12.7 5 Heavy Over 1/2 Over 12.7 6 Oxygen cutting:...

  4. A Protective Eye Shield for Prevention of Media Opacities during Small Animal Ocular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and other non-invasive imaging techniques are increasingly used in eye research to document disease-related changes in rodent eyes. Corneal dehydration is a major contributor to the formation of ocular opacities that can limit the repeated application of these techniques to individual animals. General anesthesia is usually required for imaging, which is accompanied by the loss of the blink reflex. As a consequence, the tear film cannot be maintained, drying occurs and the cornea becomes dehydrated. Without supplemental hydration, structural damage to the cornea quickly follows. Soon thereafter, anterior lens opacities can also develop. Collectively these changes ultimately compromise image quality, especially for studies involving repeated use of the same animal over several weeks or months. To minimize these changes, a protective shield was designed for mice and rats that prevent ocular dehydration during anesthesia. The eye shield, along with a semi-viscous ophthalmic solution, is placed over the corneas as soon as the anesthesia immobilizes the animal. Eye shields are removed for only the brief periods required for imaging and then reapplied before the fellow eye is examined. As a result, the corneal surface of each eye is exposed only for the time required for imaging. The device and detailed methods described here minimize the corneal and lens changes associated with ocular surface desiccation. When these methods are used consistently, high quality images can be obtained repeatedly from individual animals. PMID:25245081

  5. Eye Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... requirements” lenses will block at least 99% of UV light. •Polycarbonate (high-index plastic) tinted lenses will filter ... expose you to visible, infrared (IR), and sometimes UV light radiation. Arc welding exposes you to all three ...

  6. Occupational radiation dose to eyes from interventional radiology procedures in light of the new eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, C; Gallagher, A; Dowling, A; Guiney, M; Ryan, J M; McEniff, N; O'Reilly, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a substantial reduction in the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye, in line with a reduced threshold of absorbed dose for radiation-induced cataracts. This is of particular relevance in interventional radiology (IR) where it is well established that staff doses can be significant, however, there is a lack of data on IR eye doses in terms of Hp(3). Hp(3) is the personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm in soft tissue and is used for measuring lens dose. We aimed to obtain a reliable estimate of eye dose to IR operators. Methods: Lens doses were measured for four interventional radiologists over a 3-month period using dosemeters specifically designed to measure Hp(3). Results: Based on their typical workloads, two of the four interventional radiologists would exceed the new ICRP dose limit with annual estimated doses of 31 and 45 mSv to their left eye. These results are for an “unprotected” eye, and for IR staff who routinely wear lead glasses, the dose beneath the glasses is likely to be significantly lower. Staff eye dose normalized to patient kerma–area product and eye dose per procedure have been included in the analysis. Conclusion: Eye doses to IR operators have been established using a dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. Estimated annual doses have the potential to exceed the new ICRP limit. Advances in knowledge: We have estimated lens dose to interventional radiologists in terms of Hp(3) for the first time in an Irish hospital setting. PMID:25761211

  7. 76 FR 63942 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of a... determination that Turkey is the country of origin of the Surgical Mask with a Protective Eye Shield, for... Regulations (19 CFR part 177, subpart B), CBP issued a final determination concerning the country of origin...

  8. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses.

    PubMed

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Struelens, L; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that 'wrap around' glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient's skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the Hp(10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the Hp(3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. PMID:24938591

  9. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  10. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  11. Awareness and Utilization of Welders' Personal Protective Eye Devices and Associated Factors: Findings and Lessons From a Nigerian Population.

    PubMed

    Eze, Boniface I; Okoye, Obiekwe; Aguwa, Emmanuel N

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed commercial welders' awareness and utilization of personal protective eye devices (PPEDs), and their associations, in Enugu, Nigeria, between January and March, 2011. The participants included 343 males, age 33.9 years±10.0 SD years. The participants reported high awareness of welding-associated ocular hazards (99.4%) and PPEDs (75.2%-98.3%), but low PPED possession and utilization rates. Cost and "presumed lack of utility" were the leading barriers to PPED possession; non-utilization was mainly attributed to "user inconvenience" and "presumed lack of protective benefit." PPED utilization was significantly associated with lower educational status (p=.030) and electric welding (p<.0001). The underlying causes are amenable to preventive occupational eye health education, enhanced ergonomics and affordability of PPEDs, and legislative enforcement of their use. PMID:26012516

  12. Low-dose CT of the paranasal sinuses with eye lens protection: effect on image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hein, Eike; Rogalla, Patrik; Klingebiel, Randolph; Hamm, Bernd

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of lens protection on image quality and radiation dose to the eye lenses in CT of the paranasal sinuses. In 127 patients referred to rule out sinusitis, an axial spiral CT with a lens protection placed on the patients eyes was obtained (1.5/2/1, 50 mAs, 120 kV). Coronal views were reconstructed at 5-mm interval. To quantify a subjective impression of image quality, three regions of interest within the eyeball were plotted along a line perpendicular to the protection at 2, 5, and 9 mm beneath skin level on the axial images. Additionally, dose reduction of a bismuth-containing latex shield was measured using a film-dosimetry technique. The average eyeball density was 17.97 HU (SD 3.7 HU). The relative increase in CT density was 180.6 (17.7), 103.3 (11.7), and 53.6 HU (9.2), respectively. There was no diagnostic information loss on axial and coronal views observed. Artifacts were practically invisible on images viewed in a bone window/level setting. The use of the shield reduced skin radiation from 7.5 to 4.5 mGy. The utilization of a radioprotection to the eye lenses in paranasal CT is a suitable and effective means of reducing skin radiation by 40%. PMID:12111059

  13. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  14. Model for predicting the effects of laser exposures and eye protection on vision. Interim report, January 1989-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, A.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Laser safety standards and eye protection (filters) are designed to limit ocular exposures to prevent retinal lesions, yet eyesafe laser exposures can disrupt vision by causing glare and flashblindness. Protective filters can have opposing effects on vision function. They reduce laser exposures but also reduce task luminance and contrast. Filters alone may interfere with vision and consequently reduce work safety and performance. It is therefore important to be able to predict the effects of both laser exposures and protective filters to assess trade-offs between protection and visual function. This paper briefly reviews the methods, concepts, and experimental database used in our laboratory to predict laser, filter, and laser-plus-filter effects on tasks involving visual detection. The modeling approach uses estimates of the spatial distribution of light in the retinal image of the laser source to predict glare, flashblindness, and retinal lesions. It also considers the non-uniformity of visual abilities across the retina in predicting the impact of a laser exposure of a given size and retinal location. The proposed modeling approach provides a general framework for the interpretation, integration, and application of data from various studies. It has the potential to assess the effects of lasers and eye-protection devices on vision, and to guide visual simulations of the appearance of displays and scenes after laser exposures. The model is far from complete and is complicated by the number of variables affecting laser exposures, vision, and the role of vision in occupational tasks.

  15. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. PMID:26875849

  16. Use of the field-of-view evaluation apparatus (FOVEA) for laser eye protection research: capabilities, limitations, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVilbiss, Carita A.; Schmeisser, Elmar T.; Ercoline, William R.; Cantu, Naomi

    2001-05-01

    While the major technological goal of laser eye protection (LEP) is to attenuate any laser radiation that passes through it, consideration of the physical format in which it is realized must not be overlooked. The best protective material can be rendered essentially useless if it does not cover the appropriate field of regard for the wearer. To map the visual field of regard (FOR) coverage provided by LEP devices, the field of view evaluation apparatus (FOVEA) was used. The FOVEA is a one-meter radius arc perimeter containing computer-controlled light emitting diodes at one-degree intervals. Three different mapppings of the visual field can be obtained with this facility: (a) the monocular baseline FOR; (b) the accessibility the LEP demonstrates against the direct threat (i.e., a laser source entering the eye beyond frame edge); and (c) the accessibility to indirect hazard (i.e., laser energy reflected from the lens backside entering the eye). Comparison of the direct and indirect fields of regard demonstrates the wide coverage variation generated by alternate frame styles and differing head shapes. These results need to be interpreted with respect to FOVEA limitations. First, the full FOR is mapped without regard for the relative importance of the periphery versus the fovea. Second, the coverage from a particular frame style must be measured and specified with an appropriate range of anthropometric face forms to ensure coverage consistency.

  17. Transocular Entry of Seasonal Influenza–Attenuated Virus Aerosols and the Efficacy of N95 Respirators, Surgical Masks, and Eye Protection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Tanya; Russell, Gregory B.; Peters, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of barrier precautions to prevent influenza transmission is unknown. Methods. Twenty-eight participants were exposed to monodispersed live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) particles (4.9 μm) in 6 groups: group 1, no precautions; group 2, ocular exposure only; group 3, surgical mask without eye protection; group 4, surgical mask with eye protection; group 5, fit-tested N95 respirator without eye protection; and group 6, fit-tested N95 respirator with eye protection. Influenza was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture in nasal washes. Exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results. Influenza was detected in 4 of 4 participants in group 1 (95% CI, 0–.60), 3 of 4 in group 2 (95% CI, .006–.806]), 5 of 5 in group 3 (95% CI, 0–.522), 5 of 5 in group 4, (95% CI, 0–.522), 3 of 5 in group 5 (95% CI, .053–.853), and 1 of 5 in group 6 (95% CI, .05–.72). RT-PCR revealed significant differences between group 1 and all other groups except group 3. Conclusions. Transocular transmission of LAIV occured in most participants suggesting the necessity of eye protection. An N95 respirator provided the best guard further enhanced by eye protection. PMID:21673029

  18. Eye safety: irritants, exposure effects, and protective devices. January 1975-March 1989 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1975-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development, performance and applications of eye-protection devices. Eye protection from laser radiation is examined. Eye safe hand-held laser range finders, laser beam safety in tactical training, human eye exposure limitations to laser radiation, and the development and testing of protective goggles and glasses against laser beams are discussed. Fluorescent lighting effects on the human eye, eye strain from visual display units, and the use of closed circuit TV for monitoring hazardous engineering processes are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 260 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interest or other lien against property of the covered financial company that is subject to a security... lease of the property or the grant of a security interest or other lien against the property by the... property; (2) Providing to the claimant an additional or replacement lien to the extent that the sale,...

  20. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov . NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® References AREDS2 Research Group. “Lutein/Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The Age-Related Eye Disease ...

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester: its protective role against certain major eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Ugurcu, Veli; Balci, Mehmet; Gurel, Ayse; Erden, Gonul; Cakmak, Ozlem; Akyol, Omer

    2014-11-01

    As an effective compound found mainly in the honeybee product propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been commonly utilized as a medicine and remedial agent, in a number of countries. Specifically, it might inhibit nuclear factor kappa B at micromolar concentrations and demonstrate antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiproliferative, cytostatic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory features. This review article summarizes the recent progress regarding the favorable effects of CAPE on a number of eye disease models, including cataract and posterior capsule opacification, corneal diseases, retina and optic nerve-related diseases, ischemia/reperfusion injury of retina, inflammation and infection-related diseases. CAPE has been found to exhibit promising efficacy, with minimal adverse effects, in animal and cell culture studies of several eye diseases. PMID:25100535

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  3. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  4. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Protect the Ocular Surface by Suppressing Inflammation in an Experimental Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Joung; Ko, Ah Young; Ko, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Khwarg, Sang In; Oh, Joo Youn

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ocular diseases affecting nearly 10% of the US population. Most of the currently available treatments are palliative, and few therapeutic agents target biological pathway of DES. Although DES is a multifactorial disease, it is well-known that inflammation in the ocular surface plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DES. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to repair tissues by modulating excessive immune responses in various diseases. Therefore, we here investigated the therapeutic potential of MSCs in a murine model of an inflammation-mediated dry eye that was induced by an intraorbital injection of concanavalin A. We found that a periorbital administration of MSCs reduced the infiltration of CD4+ T cells and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the intraorbital gland and ocular surface. Also, MSCs significantly increased aqueous tear production and the number of conjunctival goblet cells. Subsequently, corneal epithelial integrity was well-preserved by MSCs. Together, the results demonstrate that MSCs protect the ocular surface by suppressing inflammation in DES, and suggest that MSCs may offer a therapy for a number of ocular surface diseases where inflammation plays a key role. PMID:25152016

  5. Radiation protection of the eye lens in medical workers--basis and impact of the ICRP recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Stephen Gr; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Quinlan, Roy A; Bouffler, Simon D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the evidence for the revised European Union basic safety standard (BSS) radiation dose limits to the lens of the eye, in the context of medical occupational radiation exposures. Publications in the open literature have been reviewed in order to draw conclusions on the exposure profiles and doses received by medical radiation workers and to bring together the limited evidence for cataract development in medical occupationally exposed populations. The current status of relevant radiation-protection and monitoring practices and procedures is also considered. In conclusion, medical radiation workers do receive high doses in some circumstances, and thus working practices will be impacted by the new BSS. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that compliance with the new lower dose limits will be possible, although education and training of staff alongside effective use of personal protective equipment will be paramount. A number of suggested actions are given with the aim of assisting medical and associated radiation-protection professionals in understanding the requirements. PMID:26828972

  6. Radiation protection of the eye lens in medical workers—basis and impact of the ICRP recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Quinlan, Roy A; Bouffler, Simon D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the evidence for the revised European Union basic safety standard (BSS) radiation dose limits to the lens of the eye, in the context of medical occupational radiation exposures. Publications in the open literature have been reviewed in order to draw conclusions on the exposure profiles and doses received by medical radiation workers and to bring together the limited evidence for cataract development in medical occupationally exposed populations. The current status of relevant radiation-protection and monitoring practices and procedures is also considered. In conclusion, medical radiation workers do receive high doses in some circumstances, and thus working practices will be impacted by the new BSS. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that compliance with the new lower dose limits will be possible, although education and training of staff alongside effective use of personal protective equipment will be paramount. A number of suggested actions are given with the aim of assisting medical and associated radiation-protection professionals in understanding the requirements. PMID:26828972

  7. Eye Safety. Mississippi Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is designed to help industrial arts teachers eliminate student eye injuries within industrial arts programs. Presented first is Mississippi eye safety law. Following a discussion of eye protection equipment, illustrations of eye protection devices are provided. Guidelines are set forth for selecting shade numbers for welding filters.…

  8. Corneal-Protective Effects of an Artificial Tear Containing Sodium Hyaluronate and Castor Oil on a Porcine Short-Term Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Takashi; AMAKO, Hideki; YAMAMOTO, Takeshi; TAZAWA, Mariko; SAKAMOTO, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear. PMID:24881653

  9. The impact of various protective tools on the dose reduction in the eye lens in an interventional cardiology-clinical study.

    PubMed

    Domienik, J; Bissinger, A; Grabowicz, W; Jankowski, Ł; Kręcki, R; Makowski, M; Masiarek, K; Plewka, M; Lubiński, A; Peruga, J Z

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to check, in clinical practice, the potential for the dose reduction of lead eyewear and a ceiling-suspended shield used to protect the eye lens of physicians working in interventional cardiology. To this end, for the lead eyewear, the dose reduction factors were derived to correct the readings from a dosimeter used routinely outside the glasses. Four types of lead eyewear with attached loose thermoluminescent dosimeters and EYE-D dosimeters were worn by physicians in two clinical centres, for two-month periods, during coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and pacemaker procedures. In order to analyse, separately, how a ceiling-suspended lead screen absorbs the scattered radiation, a series of measurements was carried out during single CA/PCI procedures performed with and without the protection. The lead eyewear may reduce the doses to the eye closest to the x-ray tube by a factor between 1.1 and 3.4, depending on its model and the physician's position. The effectiveness of the eyewear may, however, vary-even for the same model and physician-almost twofold between different working periods. The ceiling-suspended shield decreases the doses in clinical practice by a factor of 2.3. The annual eye lens doses without the eyewear estimated from routine measurements are high-above or close to the new eye lens dose limit established by the recent EU Basic Safety Standards, even though the ceiling-suspended shield was used. Therefore, to comply with the new dose limit that is set in the Directive, protection of the eyes of physicians with high workloads might require the use of both the eyewear and the ceiling-suspended shield. PMID:27183002

  10. An ants-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, M. C.; Bronstein, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar-secreting plants (EFN plants) is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the extrafloral nectar-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5000m2, and workers visit between five and thirty-four extrafloral nectar-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to twenty nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms PMID:23515612

  11. An ant's-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism.

    PubMed

    Lanan, M C; Bronstein, J L

    2013-07-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar (EFN)-secreting plants is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the EFN-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5 m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5,000 m(2), and workers visit between five and 34 EFN-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to 20 nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms. PMID:23515612

  12. Materials for occupational eye protectors.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    The selection of lens materials for non-prescription personal protective equipment has been a relatively simple process and has its origins in many studies around the 1970s. The viable materials available at that time were tempered glass, hard resin (n = 1.50) and polycarbonate. The modern spectacle non-prescription eye protector of choice is inevitably hard coated polycarbonate, which has exemplary impact resistant properties. In the prescription lens area, there is a bewildering array of materials of various refractive indices with a variety of coatings. The selection of an ophthalmic lens has optical and cosmetic considerations ahead of impact resistance. In complying with the Australian/New Zealand standard on prescription eye protection, adequate impact resistance must rate as the foremost requirement, with optical and cosmetic considerations as important but lesser considerations. In this review, the evidence on impact resistance of the available materials is presented, the standards set for testing impact resistance are detailed and some guidance is provided for the selection of prescription eye protection materials. PMID:22329636

  13. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  14. Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis. PMID:24911686

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  20. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  3. Comparison of the safety and protective efficacy of vaccination with glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye-drop, drinking water or aerosol.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J M; Browning, G F; Gilkerson, J R; Fenton, S P; Hartley, C A

    2008-02-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations due to residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence. To avoid these problems and to better control disease, attention has recently turned towards developing a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s). Glycoprotein G (gG) is a virulence factor in ILTV. A gG-deficient strain of ILTV has been shown to be less pathogenic than currently available vaccine strains following intratracheal inoculation of specific pathogen free chickens. Intratracheal inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV has also been shown to induce protection against disease following challenge with virulent virus. Intratracheal inoculation, however, is not suitable for large-scale vaccination of commercial poultry flocks. In this study, inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV via eye-drop, drinking water and aerosol were investigated. Aerosol inoculation resulted in undesirably low levels of safety and protective efficacy. Inoculation via eye-drop and drinking water was safe, and the levels of protective efficacy were comparable with intratracheal inoculation. Thus, gG-deficient ILTV appears to have potential for use in large-scale poultry vaccination programmes when administered via eye-drop or in drinking water. PMID:18202954

  4. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  5. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  6. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trauma A black eye is usually caused by direct trauma to the eye or face. The bruise ... can cause bruising around the eyes, even without direct injury to the eye. Sometimes, serious damage to ...

  7. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  8. Double Eye Brow: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Sudipta; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Sarkar, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Eye brows are essential for esthetic and functional purposes. Various kinds of eye brows are found in human species. Protective function is one of the important functions of eye brows. Double eye brow is a very rare condition found in human. This case report describes one of the rare cases of double eye brow. PMID:24574697

  9. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  10. Marek's disease virus infection in the eye: chronological study of the lesions, virus replication, and vaccine-induced protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) infection in the eye was studied chronologically after inoculating one-day-old chickens with a very virulent MDV strain Md5. Based on the location of the lesions and the severity of the distribution, lesions could be classified as early lesions (6 to 11 days post inoculat...

  11. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  12. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  13. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  14. Study on the Protective Effect of a New Manganese Superoxide Dismutase on the Microvilli of Rabbit Eyes Exposed to UV Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grumetto, Lucia; Del Prete, Antonio; Ortosecco, Giovanni; Barbato, Francesco; Del Prete, Salvatore; Borrelli, Antonella; Schiattarella, Antonella; Mancini, Roberto; Mancini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on the protective effects against UV radiation of a gel formulation containing a new recombinant form of manganese superoxide dismutase on the conjunctiva and corneal epithelia of rabbit eyes. The integrity of the microvilli of both ocular tissues has been considered as an indicator of the health of the tissues. Samples, collected by impression cytology technique, were added of 80 µL of a gel formulation containing superoxide dismutase (2.0 µg/mL) and irradiated with UV rays for 30 minutes and were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the possible occurrence of statistically significant differences between damage for treated and nontreated tissues. Application of gel produces a significant reduction of damage by UV irradiation of ocular epithelia; both epithelia present a significant reduction of damaged microvilli number if treated with the superoxide dismutase gel formulation: the p values (differences between damage found for treated and nontreated both ocular tissues) for conjunctiva and cornea samples were p ≪ 0.01 and p ≪ 0.0001, respectively, at confidence level of 95%. The administration of this gel formulation before UV exposure plays a considerable protective role in ocular tissues of rabbit eye with a significant reduction of the damage. PMID:26064973

  15. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular...

  16. 29 CFR 98.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Adequate evidence. 98.900 Section 98.900 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  20. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in the cells of the retina. ... from other parts of the body. Treatment for eye cancer varies by the type and by how advanced ...

  1. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  2. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  3. Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do you have diabetes, and have you noticed any changes in your vision? Yes Over time, too much glucose (sugar) in the ... eye pink, red or irritated, and are there any secretions or mucus from the eye? Yes CONJUNCTIVITIS, also called "PINK EYE," can be caused ...

  4. Eye floaters

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes are not on the surface of your eyes, but inside them. These floaters are bits of cell debris that drift around ... is the layer in the back of the eye.) If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or if you see floaters along with flashes ...

  5. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support the reasonable belief that a particular act or omission has occurred. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec....

  6. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  7. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.110 Adequate safeguards. (a) In addition to the election safeguards discussed in this part, the Act contains a general mandate in section...

  8. Tear dynamics and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, K

    1998-10-01

    Tears undergo four processes: production by the lacrimal gland, distribution by blinking, evaporation from the ocular surface and drainage through the nasolacrimal duct. Abnormalities in any of these steps can cause dry eye. There are two kinds of tear production, basic and reflex, which can be distinguished from each other by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation. Reflex tearing is important because it supplies such essential components as EGF and vitamin A, whose deficiency may cause squamous metaplasia. There is no reflex tearing in Sjogren's syndrome because of destruction of the lacrimal gland. In cases of diminished or absent reflex tearing, topical autologous serum is the treatment of choice. Even when there is adequate tear production, insufficient distribution, such as occurs with the decreased blinking associated with the use of video display terminals (VDT), may cause dry eye. Any process or activity that suppresses blinking interferes with tear distribution. Tear evaporation increases under certain conditions and in some diseases. When the exposed ocular surface area is increased, such as in VDT work, tear evaporation increases. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) also causes increased tear evaporation by altering the quality of the oily layer in tears. Tear evaporation can be suppressed by using a warm compresser or a humidifier, narrowing the palpebral fissure, or wearing protective eyeglasses. The tear clearance rate is measured by fluorescein dye dilution in the conjunctiva. When the tear clearance is low, inflammatory cytokines or preservatives accumulate in the conjunctival sac, resulting in ocular surface diseases. Frequent use of artificial tears without preservative is the key treatment. A differential diagnosis of the abnormalities of tear dynamics can give us a proper understanding of the pathogenesis of dry eye. With this knowledge, we can formulate an efficient therapeutic approach. PMID:9777650

  9. Human Subject Protection In India – Is It Adequate?

    PubMed Central

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India′s experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible. PMID:21829776

  10. Human subject protection in India - is it adequate?

    PubMed

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India's experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible. PMID:21829776

  11. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect their eyes with hats and sunglasses. UV Light: Good in Moderation for a Good Night's Sleep ... accumulated during the day. Some research suggests that light-sensitive cells in the eye are important to ...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  14. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  15. Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158510.html Americans Getting Adequate Water Daily, CDC Finds Men take in an average ... new government report finds most are getting enough water each day. The data, from the U.S. National ...

  16. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  17. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  18. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  19. Ophthalmohelioses and peripheral light focusing by the anterior eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroneo, Minas T.

    1994-07-01

    A coincidence of the locations of foci of scattered light in the anterior eye with the usual locations of common sun-related eye conditions has been observed. These phenomena may explain the pathogenesis of pterygium and the initial location of certain cortical lens opacities and eyelid malignancies. Human and bovine eyes were used to demonstrate that the anterior eye acts as a side-on lens system. Light incident at the temporal limbus can be concentrated at the nasal limbus or beyond or at the nasal crystalline lens equator. The main pathways of light are transcameral and this is demonstrated by the use of baffles. Although this phenomenon is obvious with visible light, focusing of light at 308nm can be demonstrated. Computer-assisted optical ray tracing in a standard human anterior segment model showed that the peak intensity at the distal limbus is approximately twenty times that of the incident light intensity. The degree of limbal focusing is determined by corneal shape and anterior chamber depth. Such light focusing may be particularly injurious to corneal and lenticular epithelial stem cells. These observations provide circumstantial evidence that peripheral refraction phenomena are involved in the pathogenesis of the anterior ophthalmohelioses. Adequate lateral protection of the eye from increasing ultraviolet insolation may be prudent.

  20. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  1. Laser protective eyewear program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Winburn, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proliferation of lasers at Los Alamos focused considerable attention on providing adequate eye protection for experimenters involved in the use of a wide variety of nonionizing radiation. Experiments with fast-pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, HF, and CO/sub 2/) were performed to gain biological threshold data on ocular damage. In parallel, eye protection devices were evaluated, which resulted in the development of lightweight, comfortable spectacles of colored glass filters that can be ground to prescription specifications. Goggle styles are employed in specific applications.

  2. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  3. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, called punctal cautery, is recommended to permanently close the drainage holes. The procedure helps keep the limited volume of tears on the eye for a longer period of time. In some patients with dry eye, supplements or dietary sources (such as tuna fish) of omega-3 fatty ...

  4. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  5. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  6. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  7. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  8. Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

  9. Clinical light damage to the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  10. Nutrition and the eye.

    PubMed

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

  11. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training and Jobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  12. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  13. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and there is a good chance of recovery. Alkaline substances -- such as lime, lye, drain cleaners, and ... at high speed by machining, grinding, or hammering metal have the highest risk of injuring the eye. ...

  14. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  15. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  17. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION...

  19. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  20. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  1. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  2. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  3. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  4. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  5. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  6. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  7. Effectiveness of Existing Eye Safety Legislation in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaspy, Roy Eugene

    This study was designed to ascertain the current practices of eye safety in Arizona high school industrial education laboratories, including the enforcement of eye safety legislation, use of eye protection devices, how the eye ware meets the American National Standards Institute specifications, and the teachers' interpretations of the existing eye…

  8. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  9. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  10. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  11. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  12. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  13. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  14. 17β-Estradiol eye drops protect the retinal ganglion cell layer and preserve visual function in an in vivo model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatrai, Katalin Prokai; Xin, Hua; Nguyen, Vien; Szarka, Szabolcs; Blazics, Balazs; Prokai, Laszlo; Koulen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotection in glaucoma as a curative strategy complementary to current therapies to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) is highly desirable. This study was designed to investigate neuroprotection by 17β-estradiol (E2) to prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in a glaucoma model of surgically elevated IOP in rats. We found that daily treatment with E2 containing eye drops resulted in significant E2 concentration in the retina with concomitant profound neuroprotective therapeutic benefits, even in the presence of continually elevated IOP. The number of apoptotic cells in the RGC layer was significantly decreased in the E2-treated group, when compared to the vehicle-treated controls. Deterioration in visual acuity in these animals was also markedly prevented. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, beneficial changes in the expression of several proteins implicated in the maintenance of retinal health were also found in the retina of E2-treated animals. On the other hand, systemic side-effects could not be avoided with the eye drops, as confirmed by the measured high circulating estrogen levels and through the assessment of the uterus representing a typical hormone-sensitive peripheral organ. Collectively, the demonstrated significant neuroprotective effect of topical E2 in the selected animal model of glaucoma provides a clear rationale for further studies aiming at targeting E2 into the eye while avoiding systemic E2 exposure to diminish undesirable off target side-effects. PMID:23841874

  15. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence. PMID:21267658

  16. Alignment modification for pencil eye shields

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.D.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Accurate alignment of pencil beam eye shields to protect the lens of the eye may be made easier by means of a simple modification of existing apparatus. This involves drilling a small hole through the center of the shield to isolate the rayline directed to the lens and fabricating a suitable plug for this hole.

  17. [Eye and the environment].

    PubMed

    Voide, Nathalie; Kaeser, Pierre-François; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-12-16

    The eyes are exposed to multiple environmental factors, which affect visual development, comfort, and visual health. While overexposure to sunlight can cause ocular surface and retinal pathologies, insufficient exposure to daylight could significantly contribute to myopia progression. New artificial lights, namely LED, have a higher risk of retinal phototoxicity, and could alter ocular circadian rhythm. The significant increase of prevalence of ocular allergies could be caused by the proliferation of environmental polluting substances, like tobacco smoke, fuel combustion by-products, or phtalates, which are found in many types of plastics. Finally, some dietary supplements could play a protective role in certain types of ocular pathologies, namely retinal pathologies. PMID:26852551

  18. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

  19. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  20. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  1. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a drug safely and for the purposes...

  2. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200.14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...

  5. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 200....14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure...

  6. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  7. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  8. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  9. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  10. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  11. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  12. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  13. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  14. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  15. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  16. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  17. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  18. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  19. Status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in European hospitals.

    PubMed

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ginjaume, Merce; O'Connor, Una; Kopec, Renata; Sans Merce, Marta

    2014-12-01

    A questionnaire was developed by the members of WG12 of EURADOS in order to establish an overview of the current status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in hospitals. The questionnaire was sent to medical physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals across Europe. Specific topics were addressed in the questionnaire such as: knowledge of the proposed eye lens dose limit; monitoring and dosimetry issues; training and radiation protection measures. The results of the survey highlighted that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens protection is crucial. Personnel should be properly trained in how to use protective equipment in order to keep eye lens doses as low as reasonably achievable. Finally, the results also highlighted the need to improve the design of eye dosemeters in order to ensure satisfactory use by workers. PMID:25222935

  20. Indications for eye removal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Koylu, Mehmet T.; Gokce, Gokcen; Uysal, Yusuf; Ceylan, Osman M.; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Gunal, Armagan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the indications and types of eye removals at a military tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Methods: The medical records (age, gender, affected eye, type of surgical procedure, indications of surgery) of 123 patients who underwent evisceration and enucleation in the course of a 15-year period (January 2000 to December 2014) at Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was 35.61±18.52 (range 3-80 years). The number of male in the patient group was 92 (74.8%) and female was 31 (25.2%). Patients who underwent evisceration were 95 (77.2%), whereas 28 (22.8%) of them underwent enucleation. The mean age of the eviscerated patients was 30.63±13.08, whereas the mean age of the enucleated patients was 52.50±23.92 (p<0.001). The leading indications for eye amputations were trauma (n=62, 50.4%), malignancy (n=20, 16.3%), painful blind eye and absolute glaucoma (n=20, 16.3%), endophthalmitis (n=12, 9.7%), and phthisis bulbi, and cosmetic reasons (n=9, 7.3%). Conclusion: Trauma was the most common etiology for evisceration, and malignancy was the most common etiology for enucleation. Using protective eyewear and early detection of intraocular malignancy and glaucoma through routine ophthalmic examinations are essential for providing non-invasive treatment modalities instead of eye removal. PMID:26446332

  1. Protection performance evaluation regarding imaging sensors hardened against laser dazzling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Gunnar; Körber, Michael; Forster, Daniel; Eberle, Bernd

    2014-10-01

    Electro-optical imaging sensors are widely distributed and used for many different tasks in military operations and civil security. However, their operational capability can be easily disturbed by laser radiation. The likeliness of such an incidence has dramatically increased in the past years due to the free availability of high-power laser pointers. These laser systems, offering laser powers of several watts, pose an increased risk to the human eye as well as to electro-optical sensors. An adequate protection of electro-optical sensors against dazzling is highly desirable. Such protection can be accomplished with different technologies; however, none of the existing technologies can provide a sufficient protection. All current protection measures possess individual advantages and disadvantages. We present the results on the performance of two different protection technologies. The evaluation is based on automatic optical pattern recognition of sensor images taken from a scene containing triangles.

  2. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital for... Licensee, and to receive Leverage. (a) You must have enough Regulatory Capital to provide...

  5. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  9. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  10. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Permanent Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  11. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  12. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must find... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan....

  13. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  14. Effects of PUVA on the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome.

  15. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  16. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  17. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... foreign object in ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  18. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  19. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

  20. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your child's eyes should look normal a few weeks after the surgery. ... Surgical Approach to the Rectus Muscles. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, ... Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and ...

  1. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  2. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  3. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical exam before the procedure Orthoptic measurements (eye movement measurements) Always tell your child's doctor or nurse: ... D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and alignment. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson ...

  4. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  5. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... dilated eye exam. This is called digital retinal photography. Your eye doctor may ask you to come ... doctor if: You cannot see well in dim light. You have blind spots. You have double vision ( ...

  6. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema: blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  7. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye (vitreous hemorrhage) Cancer of the retina ( retinoblastoma ), under the retina, or in other parts of ... Cataract removal Melanoma of the eye Retinal detachment Retinoblastoma Ultrasound Update Date 2/23/2015 Updated by: ...

  8. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  9. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  10. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know ...

  11. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... are near. Sunlight can damage your eye. Wear dark glasses or shade your eyes until the effects ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  12. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... it becomes red or pink. This is called conjunctivitis or “pinkeye”. Lacrimal Gland: The lacrimal gland produces tears that ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  13. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002084.htm Eye - foreign object in To use the sharing features on this ... Blinking The eye will often flush out small objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. ...

  14. Get Your Eyes Tested

    MedlinePlus

    ... over age 40 Have a family history of glaucoma Have diabetes People with diabetes may need eye exams more ... or if you have a family member with diabetes or an eye disease. Eye diseases like glaucoma can lead to vision loss and blindness if ...

  15. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  16. Eye Safety in Dentistry and Associated Liability.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Peter; Tayebi, Amad

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of this article is to expressan experimental-work-supported opinion ofits authors regarding the inadequacy of thepresent dental mask and regular eyewearcombination for protecting dental care practitioners. Its second objective is to suggestamending OSHA Standard 1910.133(a)(1) tomandate effective eye protection for dentalcare practitioners by requiring the use ofeffective means for closing the bottom gapsbetween the lower rims of the lenses of theprotective eyewear and the upper edge ofthe mask worn by the practitioner.The various types and sources of dentalpractice eye occupational hazards and thepossible entry routes of dental debris towarddental practitioners'eyes are discussed.Experimental work, confirming theinadequacy of the present dental mask andeyewear combination for protecting dentalcare practitioners, is presented. PMID:27197360

  17. 46 CFR 153.527 - Toxic vapor protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency escape breathing apparatus does not protect the eyes from vapors, a set of goggles that either: (1) Meet the specifications of ANSI Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,...

  18. 46 CFR 153.527 - Toxic vapor protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency escape breathing apparatus does not protect the eyes from vapors, a set of goggles that either: (1) Meet the specifications of ANSI Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,...

  19. 46 CFR 153.527 - Toxic vapor protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency escape breathing apparatus does not protect the eyes from vapors, a set of goggles that either: (1) Meet the specifications of ANSI Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,...

  20. 46 CFR 153.932 - Goggles and protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or tight-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if that person is...-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if the person is: (1) In the...

  1. 46 CFR 153.527 - Toxic vapor protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency escape breathing apparatus does not protect the eyes from vapors, a set of goggles that either: (1) Meet the specifications of ANSI Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,...

  2. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    PubMed

    Zobel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of these classes of root. This then suggests that Arabidopsis root research can be considered an adequate model for dicot plant root systems. PMID:26904040

  3. Squash ball to eye ball: the likelihood of squash players incurring an eye injury.

    PubMed

    Barrell, G V; Cooper, P J; Elkington, A R; Macfadyen, J M; Powell, R G; Tormey, P

    1981-10-01

    The records of the 118 patients treated as Southampton Eye Hospital during 1978-9 for injuries incurred while playing squash, badminton, tennis, table tennis, cricket, and football show that for squash the main cause of eye injury was the player being hit by the ball. Severe eye injuries--those requiring treatment as an inpatient--were rare but much more frequent than such injuries in other sports. Less serious injuries--those requiring treatment as an outpatient--were also rare, with a frequency comparable with that of similar injuries in football and badminton. Squash players are most unlikely to incur an eye injury, but should this occur it has far-reaching consequences both in the short and the long term. Each individual player must weigh these chances and consequences against the possible inconvenience of using some form of eye protection. PMID:6793167

  4. Dry Eye Disease and Microbial Keratitis: Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Srihari; Redfern, Rachel L.; Miller, William L.; Nichols, Kelly K.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms operate to protect the dry eye from invading pathogens. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology of ocular surface infection in dry eye patients and laboratory-based studies on innate immune mechanisms operating at the ocular surface and their alterations in human dry eye and animal models. The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae. PMID:23583043

  5. The modern office environment desiccates the eyes?

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, P; Nøjgaard, J K; Franck, C; Skov, P

    2006-08-01

    Eye irritation is a common complaint in the office environment. The purpose of this overview is to merge knowledge within indoor air science, ophthalmology, and occupational health to promote understanding eye irritation symptomatology, the cause of which is still partly unknown. High periocular relative humidity appears to protect the pre-corneal tear film against desiccation and sensory irritating pollutants and reduces the development of eye irritation symptoms. This is particularly relevant for intensive computer work, where the pre-corneal tear film is altered resulting in dry spot formation and eye dryness, in addition to enhanced susceptibility towards sensory irritating pollutants. The workplace, thermal conditions, and work schedule (including breaks) should be planned in such a way to help maintain a normal eye blink frequency to minimize alterations of the pre-corneal tear film. The role of relative humidity on eye irritation symptoms should not be underestimated. Multiple short breaks are justified by the beneficial effect on the pre-corneal tear film. In addition, longer breaks in tasks, which require demanding visual work, should be considered. In addition, air temperature as well as certain alkene oxidation products by ozone may worsen eye irritation symptoms, but the latter factor may be smaller at higher relative humidity. PMID:16842606

  6. Radiation exposure of eyes, thyroid gland and hands in orthopaedic staff: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various procedures, especially minimal invasive techniques using fluoroscopy, pose a risk of radiation exposure to orthopaedic staff. Anatomical sites such as the eyes, thyroid glands and hands are more vulnerable to radiation considering the limited use of personal protective devices in the workplace. The objective of the study is to assess the annual mean cumulative and per procedure radiation dose received at anatomical locations like eyes, thyroid glands and hands in orthopaedic staff using systematic review. Methods The review of literature was conducted using systematic search of the database sources like PUBMED and EMBASE using appropriate keywords. The eligibility criteria and the data extraction of literature were based on study design (cohort or cross-sectional study), study population (orthopaedic surgeons or their assistants), exposure (doses of workplace radiation exposure at hands/fingers, eye/forehead, neck/thyroid), language (German and English). The literature search was conducted using a PRISMA checklist and flow chart. Results Forty-two articles were found eligible and included for the review. The results show that radiation doses for the anatomical locations of eye, thyroid gland and hands were lower than the dose levels recommended. But there is a considerable variation of radiation dose received at all three anatomical locations mainly due to different situations including procedures (open and minimally invasive), work experience (junior and senior surgeons),distance from the primary and secondary radiation, and use of personal protective equipments (PPEs). The surgeons receive higher radiation dose during minimally invasive procedures compared to open procedures. Junior surgeons are at higher risk of radiation exposure compared to seniors. PPEs play a significant role in reduction of radiation dose. Conclusions Although the current radiation precautions appear to be adequate based on the low dose radiation, more in-depth studies

  7. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  8. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  10. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  11. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  12. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  13. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED...

  14. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  15. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  16. Maintaining adequate hydration and nutrition in adult enteral tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the nutritional and fluid requirements of enterally-fed patients can be challenging and the practicalities of ensuring adequate delivery must be taken into consideration. Patients who are enterally fed can be more reliant on clinicians, family members and carers to meet their nutrition and hydration needs and identify any deficiencies, excesses or problems with delivery. Estimating a patient's requirements can be challenging due to the limitations of using predictive equations in the clinical setting. Close monitoring by all those involved in the patient's care, as well as regular review by a dietitian, is therefore required to balance the delivery of adequate feed and fluids to meet each patient's individual needs and prevent the complications of malnutrition and dehydration. Increasing the awareness of the signs of malnutrition and dehydration in patients receiving enteral tube feeding among those involved in a patient's care will help any deficiencies to be detected early on and rectified before complications occur. PMID:26087203

  17. Assessing juvenile sex offenders to determine adequate levels of supervision.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, K E; Gourley, M M; Cash, M C

    1995-08-01

    The present study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories currently being used by probation officers in the state of Utah to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. The internal consistency or reliability of the inventories ranged from moderate to good. Factor analysis was utilized to significantly increase the reliability of the four inventories by collapsing them into the following three factors: (a) Custodian's and Juvenile's Attitude Toward Intervention; (b) Offense Characteristics; and (c) Historical Risk Factors. These three inventories/factors explained 41.2% of the variance in the combined inventories' scores. Suggestions are made regarding the creation of an additional inventory. "Characteristics of the Victim" to account for more of the variance. In addition, suggestions as to how these inventories can be used by probation officers to make objective and consistent decisions about adequate supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders are discussed. PMID:7583754

  18. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  19. One in the eye for an orthopaedic surgeon.

    PubMed Central

    Lourie, J.; Hamid, K.

    1996-01-01

    Despite many reports of injuries to surgeons during operative procedures, there is no record of an eye injury caused by a foreign body. Orthopaedic surgeons are particularly vulnerable to such injury. An instance in which a penetrating eye injury occurred while hammering a rasp into the femur during a hip replacement is described. There is a potential oblique trajectory for a foreign body to reach the eye from the operative field despite the use of a visor for eye protection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8659981

  20. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  1. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  2. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series To use the sharing features ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  3. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the inner eye. It changes light and images that enter the eye into nerve signals, which are sent to the brain. Diabetic retinopathy is a main cause of decreased vision or blindness in Americans 20 to 74 years old. People with type 1 or type 2 ...

  4. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface of the cornea will be stained by the dye and appear green under the blue light. The provider can determine the location and ...

  5. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  6. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  7. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  8. Drugs affecting the eye.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  9. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  10. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Sports and Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — ... health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Fireworks Eye Safety Jun 10, 2016 Top 10 Tips ...

  11. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2010-01-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy. PMID:20844607

  12. CHARACTERIZING AND PROVIDING ADEQUATE PROTECTION FOR SUSCEPTIBLE SUBPOPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE AGED

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: An important Agency mandate is to identify subpopulations particularly susceptible to adverse effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants. For example, a critical public health question is the extent to which exposure to environmental contaminants cont...

  13. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  14. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe; Yepes, Pablo

    2009-03-10

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  15. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  16. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  17. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  18. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  19. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  20. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    PubMed

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  1. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  2. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data

  3. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Spanish-language ... FAQ Watch out for your vision! Glossary Resources Glaucoma Glaucoma Home How Much Do You Know? What ...

  4. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  5. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  6. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  7. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  9. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Home About AAPOS Patient Info Resources Allied Health News & Events Meetings J AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Eye Terms ...

  10. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  11. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. ... exam Diagnostic staining of the cornea and tear film Measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) ...

  12. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  13. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  14. Melanoma of the eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... modified July 9, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/eye/hp/intraocular-melanoma-treatment-pdq . Accessed October 7, 2015. Read ... by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed ...

  15. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  16. [Straight in the eyes].

    PubMed

    Diop, E; Beylot, V; Berta, C; Dugardin, C; Aigle, L

    2015-01-01

    This case report about a young French soldier hit in the eye by a spitting cobra in the Central African Republic prompts us to review the potential toxicity of this venom to the eyes and the management of this injury. The initial phase is simple to implement, but is often performed badly or not at all because unknown. It is a condition, however, for optimal recovery of the cornea. PMID:26067984

  17. Are PPS payments adequate? Issues for updating and assessing rates

    PubMed Central

    Sheingold, Steven H.; Richter, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Declining operating margins under Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) have focused attention on the adequacy of payment rates. The question of whether annual updates to the rates have been too low or cost increases too high has become important. In this article we discuss issues relevant to updating PPS rates and judging their adequacy. We describe a modification to the current framework for recommending annual update factors. This framework is then used to retrospectively assess PPS payment and cost growth since 1985. The preliminary results suggest that current rates are more than adequate to support the cost of efficient care. Also discussed are why using financial margins to evaluate rates is problematic and alternative methods that might be employed. PMID:10127450

  18. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Principi, S; Delgado Soler, C; Ginjaume, M; Beltran Vilagrasa, M; Rovira Escutia, J J; Duch, M A

    2015-07-01

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y(-1), averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y(-1). This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y(-1). Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y(-1). It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. PMID:25809107

  19. [The pregnant employee in anaesthesia and intensive care - An evidence-based approach to designing adequate workplaces].

    PubMed

    Röher, Katharina; Göpfert, Matthias S

    2015-07-01

    In the light of a rising percentage of women among employees in anaesthesia and intensive care designing adequate workplaces for pregnant employees plays an increasingly important role. Here it is necessary to align the varied interests of the pregnant employee, fellow employees and the employer, where the legal requirements of the Maternity Protection Act ("Mutterschutzgesetz") form the statutory framework. This review describes how adequate workplaces for pregnant employees in anaesthesia and intensive care can be established considering the scientific evidence on the subject. PMID:26230896

  20. Los Alamos Laser Eye Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Odom, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    A student working in a laser laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory sustained a serious retinal injury to her left eye when she attempted to view suspended particles in a partially evacuated target chamber. The principle investigator was using the white light from the flash lamp of a Class 4 Nd:YAG laser to illuminate the particles. Since the Q-switch was thought to be disabled at the time of the accident, the principal investigator assumed it would be safe to view the particles without wearing laser eye protection. The Laboratory Director appointed a team to investigate the accident and to report back to him the events and conditions leading up to the accident, equipment malfunctions, safety management causal factors, supervisory and management action/inaction, adequacy of institutional processes and procedures, emergency and notification response, effectiveness of corrective actions and lessons learned from previous similar events, and recommendations for human and institutional safety improvements. The team interviewed personnel, reviewed documents, and characterized systems and conditions in the laser laboratory during an intense six week investigation. The team determined that the direct and primary failures leading to this accident were, respectively, the principle investigator's unsafe work practices and the institution's inadequate monitoring of worker performance. This paper describes the details of the investigation, the human and institutional failures, and the recommendations for improving the laser safety program.

  1. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  2. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    PubMed

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  3. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  4. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... harmful gases while on flight deck duty; (2) That equipment must include— (i) Masks covering the eyes... eyes; and (3) That equipment must supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crewmember at...

  5. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  6. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  7. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  8. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  9. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  10. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... harmful gases while on flight deck duty; (2) That equipment must include— (i) Masks covering the eyes... eyes; and (3) That equipment must supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crewmember at...

  11. COMPU-EYE: a high resolution computational compound eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Jang, Hwanchol; Park, Sangjun; Song, Young Min; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-02-01

    In nature, the compound eyes of arthropods have evolved towards a wide field of view (FOV), infinite depth of field and fast motion detection. However, compound eyes have inferior resolution when compared with the camera-type eyes of vertebrates, owing to inherent structural constraints such as the optical performance and the number of ommatidia. For resolution improvements, in this paper, we propose COMPUtational compound EYE (COMPU-EYE), a new design that increases acceptance angles and uses a modern digital signal processing (DSP) technique. We demonstrate that the proposed COMPU-EYE provides at least a four-fold improvement in resolution. PMID:26906778

  12. Artificial neural superposition eye.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-09-17

    We propose an ultra-thin imaging system which is based on the neural superposition compound eye of insects. Multiple light sensitive pixels in the footprint of each lenslet of this multi-channel configuration enable the parallel imaging of the individual object points. Together with the digital superposition of related signals this multiple sampling enables advanced functionalities for artificial compound eyes. Using this technique, color imaging and a circumvention for the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity of ultra-compact camera devices have been demonstrated in this article. The optical design and layout of such a system is discussed in detail. Experimental results are shown which indicate the attractiveness of microoptical artificial compound eyes for applications in the field of machine vision, surveillance or automotive imaging. PMID:19547555

  13. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  14. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  15. Photorefraction of the Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-02-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

  16. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  17. Eye evolution: two eyes can be better than one.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth W

    2009-03-10

    The development of our eyes is owed in part to ancestral structures which functioned in phototaxis. With the origin of bilateral annelid larva, two eyes co-evolved with neurons to improve phototaxis performance. PMID:19278637

  18. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  19. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  20. The Eyes Have It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards of working with the visual display systems of computers, in particular the eye problems associated with long-term use of video display terminals. Excerpts from and ordering information for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health report on such hazards are included. (JJD)

  1. The Eyes Have It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

  2. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  3. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  4. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  5. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... blurred vision is caused by having too much sugar and water in the lens of the eye, which is in front of the retina. Control your blood pressure . Blood pressure less than 130/80 is a ... sugar - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke ...

  6. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  7. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  8. Common eye emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gelston, Christopher D

    2013-10-15

    Ocular emergencies such as retinal detachments, mechanical globe injuries, and chemical injuries can cause permanent vision loss if they are not recognized and treated promptly. Family physicians should be familiar with the signs and symptoms associated with each condition, and be able to perform a basic eye examination to assess the situation. The assessment includes measurement of visual acuity, pupillary examination, visual field testing, slit lamp or penlight examination of the anterior segment of the eye, and direct funduscopic examination. Patients with symptomatic floaters and flashing lights require a dilated fundoscopic examination and prompt referral to an ophthalmologist for evaluation of a retinal tear or detachment. A globe laceration or rupture should be suspected in patients with a recent history of trauma from a blunt or penetrating object. Prophylactic oral antibiotics can be administered after a globe injury to prevent endophthalmitis, and the eye should be covered with a metal shield until evaluation by an ophthalmologist. Chemical injuries require immediate irrigation of the eye to neutralize the pH of the ocular surface. PMID:24364572

  9. Rethinking eye health systems to achieve universal coverage: the role of research.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Karl; Gilbert, Clare; de Savigny, Don

    2014-10-01

    Achieving universal coverage in eye care remains a tremendous challenge as 226 million people in the world remain visually impaired, the majority from avoidable causes. The impact of eye care interventions has been constrained by the limited capacities of health systems in low-income and middle-income countries to deliver effective eye care services. Services for eye health are still not adequately integrated into the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries. We contend that radical rethinking and deeper development of eye health systems are necessary to achieve VISION 2020 goals. Responding to the challenges of chronic eye diseases will require systems thinking, analysis and action, based on evidence from health systems research. PMID:24990874

  10. Rethinking eye health systems to achieve universal coverage: the role of research

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Karl; Gilbert, Clare; de Savigny, Don

    2014-01-01

    Achieving universal coverage in eye care remains a tremendous challenge as 226 million people in the world remain visually impaired, the majority from avoidable causes. The impact of eye care interventions has been constrained by the limited capacities of health systems in low-income and middle-income countries to deliver effective eye care services. Services for eye health are still not adequately integrated into the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries. We contend that radical rethinking and deeper development of eye health systems are necessary to achieve VISION 2020 goals. Responding to the challenges of chronic eye diseases will require systems thinking, analysis and action, based on evidence from health systems research. PMID:24990874

  11. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  12. Infographic on the Aging Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... retina. Dry eye Low vision Damage to the optic nerve. Eyes do not make enough tears. Difficulty ... retina that can be seen through undilated pupil. OPTIC NERVE RAY OF LIGHT PUPIL RETINA Portion of ...

  13. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and seek medical attention. In case of a chemical burn to the eye: Immediately flush the eye ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  14. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials ...

  15. Eye shielding for patients treated with total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Reft, C; Rash, C; Dabrowski, J; Roeske, J C; Hallahan, D

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of cataracts in patients who have received total body irradiation (TBI) is about 20% and increases to 40% if the patient is treated for graft-versus-host disease. At our institution, all TBI patients are treated with two lateral opposed 24 MV photon fields. No attempt is usually made to shield the eyes during the TBI treatment because of the amount of lead required to adequately attenuate megavoltage photon beams, the difficulty in properly positioning an eye shield and the possibility of compromising the effectiveness of the treatment. However, we were asked to treat a TBI patient who is a professional pilot, and thus his livelihood is contingent upon maintaining perfect vision. A custom eye shield was constructed out of lead and ionization chamber and film measurements were performed under TBI conditions to determine the thickness and location of the eye block to optimize the competing effects of increased scatter and attenuation from the lead. Phantom data were also obtained for 6 MV irradiation for comparison with 24 MV. In-vivo patient and phantom measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters showed that with visual positioning of the eye block the dose was reduced from 16 to 20% across the orbits of both eyes. PMID:8807606

  16. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  17. How the Human Eye Focuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Jane F.; Handelman, George H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the decline in people's ability to focus their eyes as their age increases. Discusses probable causes of this effect including changes in the eye's geometry and biochemistry. Diagrammatically illustrates age related changes in the lens of the human eye. (CW)

  18. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

    2001-01-01

    The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

  19. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  20. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  1. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... having eye cancer What happens after treatment for eye cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  2. What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?

    MedlinePlus

    ... su oculista What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? You may think your eyes are healthy, but ... eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye exam is the only way to really be sure. ...

  3. Accounting for direction and speed of eye motion in planning visually guided manual tracking.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Guillaume; Blohm, Gunnar; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Accurate motor planning in a dynamic environment is a critical skill for humans because we are often required to react quickly and adequately to the visual motion of objects. Moreover, we are often in motion ourselves, and this complicates motor planning. Indeed, the retinal and spatial motions of an object are different because of the retinal motion component induced by self-motion. Many studies have investigated motion perception during smooth pursuit and concluded that eye velocity is partially taken into account by the brain. Here we investigate whether the eye velocity during ongoing smooth pursuit is taken into account for the planning of visually guided manual tracking. We had 10 human participants manually track a target while in steady-state smooth pursuit toward another target such that the difference between the retinal and spatial target motion directions could be large, depending on both the direction and the speed of the eye. We used a measure of initial arm movement direction to quantify whether motor planning occurred in retinal coordinates (not accounting for eye motion) or was spatially correct (incorporating eye velocity). Results showed that the eye velocity was nearly fully taken into account by the neuronal areas involved in the visuomotor velocity transformation (between 75% and 102%). In particular, these neuronal pathways accounted for the nonlinear effects due to the relative velocity between the target and the eye. In conclusion, the brain network transforming visual motion into a motor plan for manual tracking adequately uses extraretinal signals about eye velocity. PMID:23926035

  4. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Ben; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Scott, Robert A.H.; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs), MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissues (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC), together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment. PMID:25752437

  5. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease. PMID:25275793

  6. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  7. [The eye and cancer].

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, Ann; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-12-16

    Cancer involves so rarely the eye that it may be recognized late. The most frequent primary intra-ocular tumours are retinoblastoma in small children and uveal melanoma in adults. Vision loss in systemic cancer has a varied differential diagnosis. Uveal metastases are most often associated with breast cancer, but can herald lung carcinoma. Masquerade syndrome looks like inflammation but represents the ocular involvement of primary CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Systemic cancer drugs, as well as radiotherapy, can cause ocular toxicity, mostly at the retina. In the rare paraneoplastic syndromes, patient's cancer antibodies cross-react with retinal antigens, leading to severe vision loss. When cancer involves the eye, a fast referral into specialized care can significantly improve visual and vital prognosis. PMID:26852556

  8. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  9. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  10. Michelangelo's eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gallenga, P E; Neri, Giampiero; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Pettorrossi, Vito Enrico; Alfieri, Emilio; Capasso, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Charged by the Pope Julius II for painting the Cappella Sistina in Rome (between 1508 and 1512), Michelangelo worked in an elevated scaffolding, in an anomalous position with dyes (including poisoning lead salts) and solvents (such as toxic turpentine) dripping on his face and continuously inhaling, in a dim environment illuminated only with oil lamps and candles, as he described himself and sketched in a sonet addressed to Giovanni da Pistoia. In 1510 he began suffering from eye disease: the main symptom was the necessity to elevate the document he was reading up to the level of his eyes. This defect disappeared few months after he finished painting his masterpiece. We hypothesize that the Michelangelo's eyes disease was a form of acquired and transitory nystagmus induced by the many hours he spent in up gaze, with a skew deviation, a form of ocular tilt reaction resulting from the impairment of spatial sensitivity (inversion illusion) due to the persistence of the artist's head in a horizontal position, looking upward. PMID:22425178

  11. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  12. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  13. An augmented reality assistance platform for eye laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Ee Ping Ong; Lee, Jimmy Addison; Jun Cheng; Beng Hai Lee; Guozhen Xu; Laude, Augustinus; Teoh, Stephen; Tock Han Lim; Wong, Damon W K; Jiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel augmented reality assistance platform for eye laser surgery. The aims of the proposed system are for the application of assisting eye doctors in pre-planning as well as providing guidance and protection during laser surgery. We developed algorithms to automatically register multi-modal images, detect macula and optic disc regions, and demarcate these as protected areas from laser surgery. The doctor will then be able to plan the laser treatment pre-surgery using the registered images and segmented regions. Thereafter, during live surgery, the system will automatically register and track the slit lamp video frames on the registered retina images, send appropriate warning when the laser is near protected areas, and disable the laser function when it points into the protected areas. The proposed system prototype can help doctors to speed up laser surgery with confidence without fearing that they may unintentionally fire laser in the protected areas. PMID:26737252

  14. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  15. Assessment of eye lens doses for workers during interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Urboniene, A; Sadzeviciene, E; Ziliukas, J

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of eye lens doses for workers during interventional radiology (IR) procedures was performed using a new eye lens dosemeter. In parallel, the results of routine individual monitoring were analysed and compared with the results obtained from measurements with a new eye lens dosemeter. The eye lens doses were assessed using Hp(3) measured at the level of the eyes and were compared with Hp(10) measured with the whole-body dosemeter above the lead collar. The information about use of protective measures, the number of performed interventional procedures per month and their fluoroscopy time was also collected. The assessment of doses to the lens of the eye was done for 50 IR workers at 9 Lithuanian hospitals for the period of 2012-2013. If the use of lead glasses is not taken into account, the estimated maximum annual dose equivalent to the lens of the eye was 82 mSv. PMID:25877533

  16. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  17. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  18. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  19. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  20. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production performance, or biased observation. One or more adequate and well-controlled studies are required... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies. 514.117... Applications § 514.117 Adequate and well-controlled studies. (a) Purpose. The primary purpose of...

  1. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  2. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  3. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  4. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  5. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  6. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  7. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  10. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  11. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  12. How to administer eye drops and eye ointment.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mary

    2016-05-25

    Rationale and key points Eye drops and eye ointment are the mainstay of treatment of ocular conditions. Failure to prioritise administration of these medicines can prolong the condition and may present a risk to the patient's vision. ▶ Eye drops and eye ointments are used to treat acute and chronic conditions of the eye and surrounding structures. Eye drops must be instilled before applying eye ointment, since the ointment will affect the absorption of the eye drop. ▶ Nurses require knowledge of the technique, side effects and potential interactions associated with systemically or topically applied medicines to the eye to ensure patient safety and optimum outcomes. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding treatment of ocular conditions. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27224628

  13. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  14. Temperature Distribution Simulation of the Human Eye Exposed to Laser Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mirnezami, Seyyed Abbas; Rajaei Jafarabadi, Mahdi; Abrishami, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Human eye is a sensitive part of human body with no direct protection and due to its lack of protection against the external heat waves, studying the temperature distribution of heat waves on the human eye is of utmost importance. Various lasers are widely used in medical applications such as eye surgeries. The most significant issue in the eye surgeries with laser is estimation of temperature distribution and its increase in eye tissues due to the laser radiation intensity. Experimental and invasive methods to measure the eye temperature usually have high risks. Methods: In this paper, human eye has been modeled through studying the temperature distribution of three different laser radiations, using the finite element method. We simulated human eye under 1064 nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, 193 nm argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser, and 1340 nm Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (Nd: YAP) laser radiation. Results: The results show that these radiations cause temperature rise in retina, lens and cornea region, which will in turn causes serious damages to the eye tissues. Conclusion: This simulation can be a useful tool to study and predict the temperature distribution in laser radiation on the human eye and evaluate the risk involved in using laser to perform surgery. PMID:25606327

  15. Eye color as a risk factor for acquired sensorineural hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Mota, Mario A; Schermbrucker, Jonah; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-02-01

    Eye color may be an indicator of inner ear melanin content and has been associated with hearing loss. There is controversy as to whether eye color has an effect on acquired causes of sensorineural hearing loss. This review was conducted to analyze the literature evaluating the relationship between eye color and causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Six databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Included articles were independently assessed for quality by two authors. Eighteen articles were eligible for review. Eye color was not found to have an effect in the non-exposed population or in presbycusis. In noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss, light-eyed patients had more significant loss following noise exposure, although the variability reported due to eye color was modest (r(2) = 0.01-0.14). Two out of three studies reported that dark eye color is associated with cisplatin ototoxicity. In one study, green-eyed patients were found to be at higher risk of radiation-induced hearing loss. Eye color does not appear to play a role in hearing loss in non-exposed individuals or presbycusis. It is possible that dark-eyed individuals, with greater inner ear melanin content, are better protected against noise-induced hearing loss. Evidence suggests that melanin can be protective against radiation-induced sensorineural hearing loss, but may predispose individuals to cisplatin ototoxicity. Future studies are required to support these conclusions. PMID:25529530

  16. Pathology of a lepromatous eye.

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, G J; Daniel, E

    2000-03-01

    Histopathological examination of an enucleated eye from a lepromatous leprosy patient showed the cornea, ciliary body, and part of the choroid to be infiltrated by macrophages filled with Mycobacterium leprae. The walls of blood vessels in the sclera, ciliary body and the anterior choroid demonstrated the presence of M. leprae, giving credence to the blood-borne entry of M. leprae into the eye. Unlike the eyes of experimental animals infected with M. leprae, histopathological study of this eye from a lepromatous leprosy patient demonstrated that M. leprae, although demonstrable in the anterior choroid, could not be found in the posterior parts of the eye, substantiating the claim that leprosy does not affect the posterior parts of the eye directly. PMID:10834066

  17. What Can We Do to Bring the Sparkle Back into This Child's Eyes? Child Rights/Community Development Principles: Key Elements for a Strengths-Based Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…

  18. Preventing Eye Damage from the Sun's Ultraviolet Light: What Health Educators Should Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmer, Mary Kelly

    1989-01-01

    Health educators are in an ideal position to teach individuals about dangers from the sun's ultraviolet light and how to prevent damage to eyes. Ultraviolet light is described, eye pathology which can be caused by it is outlined, and protective eyewear is discussed. (IAH)

  19. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  20. Correlates of recency of eye examination among elderly African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, M; Baker, R S; Bazargan, S

    1998-06-01

    This study uses a theoretical model of health services utilization to assess the effects of predisposing, enabling, and need-for-care characteristics on recency of eye examinations among a sample of 998 elderly African-American persons. More than 64% of participants reported that they had had eye examinations within the last 12 months. Multiple logistics regression analysis explains 13.3% of the variance of eye examinations. This data indicates that recency of eye examination is related to health locus of control, private insurance, Medicare, insulin-dependent diabetes, and presence of eye disease. No significant relationship between recency of eye examination and self-rated health status, social support, vision impairment, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes were detected. The lack of association between non-insulin-dependent diabetes and the recency of eye examination suggests that the amount of preventive care in place may not be adequate. This data shows that the unique contributions of need characteristics account for a major variance of recency of eye examination. However, enabling characteristics play a significant role in sending the participants of this study to eye-specialists, even after need-for-care factors are held constant. PMID:9672909

  1. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  2. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  3. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  4. Eye Expert Dr. Emily Chew: 3 Ways to Keep Your Sight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Feature: Vision Eye Expert Dr. Emily Chew: 3 Ways to Keep Your Sight Past Issues / Summer ... a healthy diet. New research shows that omega-3 fatty acids may protect the retina from wear. ...

  5. Self-inflicted eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R; al-Bachari, M A; Kambhampati, K K

    1991-01-01

    Five cases of self-inflicted eye injury are described and discussed. A review of the literature shows that several psychiatric diagnoses have been assigned to people who damage their eyes. A variety of mechanisms to explain this phenomenon are described. PMID:1873272

  6. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  7. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  8. Photographic Screening for Eye Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

  9. Occupational eye injuries in Finland.

    PubMed

    Saari, K M; Parvi, V

    1984-01-01

    In Finland 11.9% of all industrial accidents in 1973 were eye injuries including superficial eye injuries (79.2%), ultraviolet burns of the cornea (3.9%), eye burns (3.6%), blunt ocular trauma (2,5%), wounds (2.4%), and post-traumatic infections (5.8%). Eye injuries constituted 34.3% of all industrial accidents which needed only ambulatory treatment and 17.5% of all industrial accidents causing an absence for 1-2 days. In 1981 2.1% of all compensated industrial accidents (incapacity for work 3 days or more) were eye injuries. Most compensated eye injuries occurred in manufacturing and in construction work (80.4%) and 8.5% occurred in agriculture. The annual incidence rates of compensated accidents to the eyes (accidents X 1 000/number of employees) were highest in several branches of metal industry (4.96-6.88), excavating and foundation work (6.88), and in logging (5.64). Compensated eye injuries were caused by machines (32.8%), hand tools (25.6%), other equipment and constructions (4.8%), work environment (23.6%), chemical substances (10.8%), and other accidents (2.3%). PMID:6328849

  10. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  11. Microoptical telescope compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

  12. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  13. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes. PMID:25817504

  14. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  15. Evaluation of different projectiles in matched experimental eye impact simulations.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Kennedy, Eric A; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-03-01

    impacts and further validate the eye model's ability to predict globe rupture. Results of this study are relevant to the design and regulation of safety systems and equipment to protect against eye injury. PMID:21303178

  16. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cap, be sure to protect exposed areas with sunscreen. Wear sunglasses. They protect your child’s eyes from ... both UVA and UVB rays as possible. Apply sunscreen. Use sunscreen with at least SPF 15 and ...

  17. Evaluation of the Painful Eye.

    PubMed

    Pflipsen, Matthew; Massaquoi, Mariama; Wolf, Suzanne

    2016-06-15

    Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, and herpetic keratitis. The history should focus on vision changes, foreign body sensation, photophobia, and associated symptoms, such as headache. The physical examination includes an assessment of visual acuity and systematic evaluation of the conjunctiva, eyelids, sclera, cornea, pupil, anterior chamber, and anterior uvea. Further examination with fluorescein staining and tonometry is often necessary. Because eye pain can be the first sign of an ophthalmologic emergency, the physician should determine if referral is warranted. Specific conditions that require ophthalmology consultation include acute angle-closure glaucoma, optic neuritis, orbital cellulitis, scleritis, anterior uveitis, and infectious keratitis. PMID:27304768

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.7 - Personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Personal protective... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.7 Personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective...

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.7 - Personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personal protective... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.7 Personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.7 - Personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Personal protective... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.7 Personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.7 - Personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Personal protective... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.7 Personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fish-eye disease , also called partial LCAT deficiency, is ...

  3. Goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Dhanapal, Praveen; Nath, Manas; Haripriya, Aravind; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2015-01-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat's eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5–5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat's capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat's eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training. PMID:25971179

  4. Goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Dhanapal, Praveen; Nath, Manas; Haripriya, Aravind; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2015-03-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat's eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5-5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat's capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat's eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training. PMID:25971179

  5. Eye injuries in the extreme environment ultra-marathon runner.

    PubMed

    Cope, Thomas Adam; Kropelnicki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of an ultra-marathon runner who developed a painful irritated eye due to prolonged exposure to high wind speed and sub-zero temperatures causing transient freezing and subsequent abrasion of the cornea. We recommend that all ultra-marathon runners racing in windy or exposed conditions should wear wrap-around eye protection or goggles. If runners present to checkpoints or after the race to primary care or the emergency department with ocular pain, corneal freezing and abrasions should be considered. Management should include ocular examination and withdrawing the runner from harmful conditions. PMID:26038387

  6. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  7. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  8. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. PMID:26913507

  9. A method to reduce patient's eye lens dose in neuro-interventional radiology procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Kadir, K. A. A.; Sani, F. M.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-08-01

    Complex and prolonged neuro-interventional radiology procedures using the biplane angiography system increase the patient's risk of radiation-induced cataract. Physical collimation is the most effective way of reducing the radiation dose to the patient's eye lens, but in instances where collimation is not possible, an attenuator may be useful in protecting the eyes. In this study, an eye lens protector was designed and fabricated to reduce the radiation dose to the patients' eye lens during neuro-interventional procedures. The eye protector was characterised before being tested on its effectiveness in a simulated aneurysm procedure on an anthropomorphic phantom. Effects on the automatic dose rate control (ADRC) and image quality are also evaluated. The eye protector reduced the radiation dose by up to 62.1% at the eye lens. The eye protector is faintly visible in the fluoroscopy images and increased the tube current by a maximum of 3.7%. It is completely invisible in the acquisition mode and does not interfere with the clinical procedure. The eye protector placed within the radiation field of view was able to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens by direct radiation beam of the lateral x-ray tube with minimal effect on the ADRC system.

  10. Eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel: dosemeters, calibration and practical aspects of H p (3) monitoring. A 2015 review.

    PubMed

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ferrari, Paolo; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj; Gingaume, Merce; Merce, Marta Sans; O'Connor, Una

    2015-09-01

    A thorough literature review about the current situation on the implementation of eye lens monitoring has been performed in order to provide recommendations regarding dosemeter types, calibration procedures and practical aspects of eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel. Most relevant data and recommendations from about 100 papers have been analysed and classified in the following topics: challenges of today in eye lens monitoring; conversion coefficients, phantoms and calibration procedures for eye lens dose evaluation; correction factors and dosemeters for eye lens dose measurements; dosemeter position and influence of protective devices. The major findings of the review can be summarised as follows: the recommended operational quantity for the eye lens monitoring is H p (3). At present, several dosemeters are available for eye lens monitoring and calibration procedures are being developed. However, in practice, very often, alternative methods are used to assess the dose to the eye lens. A summary of correction factors found in the literature for the assessment of the eye lens dose is provided. These factors can give an estimation of the eye lens dose when alternative methods, such as the use of a whole body dosemeter, are used. A wide range of values is found, thus indicating the large uncertainty associated with these simplified methods. Reduction factors from most common protective devices obtained experimentally and using Monte Carlo calculations are presented. The paper concludes that the use of a dosemeter placed at collar level outside the lead apron can provide a useful first estimate of the eye lens exposure. However, for workplaces with estimated annual equivalent dose to the eye lens close to the dose limit, specific eye lens monitoring should be performed. Finally, training of the involved medical staff on the risks of ionising radiation for the eye lens and on the correct use of protective systems is strongly recommended. PMID

  11. [Eye Myiasis - a Case Report].

    PubMed

    Kopecký, A; Němčanský, J; Doležil, Z; Mašková, R; Mašek, P

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe a case of 47 years old patient who came to the department of ophthalmology with eye discomfort, ear bleeding and itching of both legs. The diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis was made after an eye examination. Manual extraction of maggots from upper and lower fornix of the left eye was performed and symptomatic therapy was given. The patient was sent to otolaryngology and dermatology departments and MRI. The maggots were also found in both external auditory meatus and between the toes. MRI excluded affection of the deeper structures of the head. Improvement of the local condition was observed since the first follow-up visit. PMID:26782730

  12. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-evident (general anesthetics, drug metabolism). (3) The method of selection of subjects provides adequate... respect to pertinent variables such as age, sex, severity of disease, duration of disease, and use of... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adequate and well-controlled studies....

  13. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  14. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a)...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care §...

  16. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  18. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  19. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  20. The eyes of LITENING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  1. Bovine hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron does not support adequate iron status in copper-adequate or copper-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was designed to determine whether hemoglobin as the sole source of dietary iron (Fe) could sustain normal Fe status in growing rats. Because adequate copper (Cu) status is required for efficient Fe absorption in the rat, we also determined the effects of Cu deficiency on Fe status of...

  2. Dose distribution under external eye shields for high energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rustgi, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Effectiveness of eye shields in reducing the dose to the eye lens from 6 and 9 MeV electron beams from a linear accelerator has been evaluated. The thickness of the shields made from cerrobend was such that only bremsstrahlung photons were transmitted. A shield with a diameter of 1.3 cm and thickness of 1 cm was adequate for the 9 MeV electron beam. The optimum shield to phantom surface distance was 1 cm or less. The same shield with a thickness of 0.5 cm was found to be ineffective with a 6 MeV electron beam. The dose under the shield is greater than predicted by transmission measurements because of the contribution of phantom and electron cone generated scattered electrons.

  3. Research on laser protection: an overview of 20 years of activities at Fraunhofer IOSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, G.; Walter, D.; Eberle, B.

    2013-10-01

    Since the advent of the laser in 1960, the protection of human eyes and sensors against intended or unintended damage by laser radiation is a hot research topic. As long as the parameters of a laser source such as the wavelength and the output power are known, adequate laser safety can be ensured simply by utilizing conventional laser protection filters which are based on absorption or interference effects. This is typically the case in cooperative environments like a laboratory or industrial facilities. A very different situation prevails in military defense or civil security. There, the parameters of encountering laser threats are usually unknown. Protection measures, helping against all types of laser threats, are the long desired objective of countless research activities. The biggest challenge in finding an effective measure arises from single laser pulses of unknown wavelength. The problem demands for a passive protection concept and may be based for example on intensity dependent effects. Moreover, the requested solutions shall comprise add-on possibilities like thin films to be put on existing optics, windshields or glasses. Unfortunately, such an all-embracing solution is still far out of reach. The Fraunhofer IOSB has been working on the evaluation and development of non-conventional laser protection methods for more than 20 years. An overview of the past and present research activities shall be presented, comprising protection measures against laser damaging and laser dazzling.

  4. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter ... related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss for people over 60. But new research ...

  5. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The importance of vision screening There are many eye conditions and diseases ... child’s vision. Focus and alignment disorders that affect vision If any of the following conditions is suspected, ...

  6. Portable eye-safe ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryuchkov, A. V.; Grishin, A. I.; Gricuta, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Developed and tested a simplified version of the definition of the cloud base height of the backscatter signal obtained in the laser meter height of the cloud base with eye-safe level of radiation intensity.

  7. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  8. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  9. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Mar. 23, 2012 Thanks to news coverage, ... of breast or ovarian cancer. Physicians now use genetic tests to decide on treatment for some types ...

  10. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  11. Desperate for Shut-Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Desperate for Shut-Eye? Physicians' group recommends cognitive behavioral therapy before drugs for insomnia To use the sharing ... recommends. Specifically, people with chronic insomnia should try cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the experts said. This treatment combines talk ...

  12. Eye movements when viewing advertisements.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  13. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  14. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  15. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  16. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  17. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  18. Simulation of Ametropic Human Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, James W. L.

    2004-11-01

    The computational simulation of the performance of human eyes is complex because the optical parameters of the eye depend on many factors, including age, gender, race, refractive status (accommodation and near- or far-sightedness). This task is made more difficult by the inadequacy of the population statistical characteristics of these parameters. Previously we simulated ametropic (near- or far-sighted) eyes using three independent variables: the axial length of the eye, the corneal surface curvature, and the intraocular refractive index gradient. The prescription for the correction of an ametropic eye is determined by its second-order coefficients of the wavefront aberrations. These corrections are typically achieved using contact lens, spectacle lens, or laser surgery (LASIK). However, the higher order aberrations, which are not corrected and are likely complicated or enhanced by the lower-order correction, could be important for visual performance in a darkened environment. In this paper, we investigate the higher order wavefront aberrations of synthetic ametropic eyes and compare results with measured data published in the past decade. The behavior of three types of ametropes is discussed.

  19. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  20. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  1. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  3. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  4. Eye Movements, Perceptual Span, and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Research is reviewed on eye movements during reading, on the perceptual span and control of eye movements during normal reading, and on the nature of eye movements in dyslexia. Rather than the cause of dyslexia, eye movements are said to reflect underlying cognitive or neurological problems. (CL)

  5. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  6. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  7. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  8. Application of a dummy eye shield for electron treatment planning

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik

    2013-01-01

    Metallic eye shields have been widely used for near-eye treatments to protect critical regions, but have never been incorporated into treatment plans because of the unwanted appearance of the metal artifacts on CT images. The purpose of this work was to test the use of an acrylic dummy eye shield as a substitute for a metallic eye shield during CT scans. An acrylic dummy shield of the same size as the tungsten eye shield was machined and CT scanned. The BEAMnrc and the DOSXYZnrc were used for the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, with the appropriate material information and density for the aluminum cover, steel knob and tungsten body of the eye shield. The Pinnacle adopting the Hogstrom electron pencil-beam algorithm was used for the one-port 6-MeV beam plan after delineation and density override of the metallic parts. The results were confirmed with the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors and the Gafchromic EBT2 film measurements. For both the maximum eyelid dose over the shield and the maximum dose under the shield, the MC results agreed with the EBT2 measurements within 1.7%. For the Pinnacle plan, the maximum dose under the shield agreed with the MC within 0.3%; however, the eyelid dose differed by –19.3%. The adoption of the acrylic dummy eye shield was successful for the treatment plan. However, the Pinnacle pencil-beam algorithm was not sufficient to predict the eyelid dose on the tungsten shield, and more accurate algorithms like MC should be considered for a treatment plan. PMID:22915776

  9. Application of a dummy eye shield for electron treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik

    2013-01-01

    Metallic eye shields have been widely used for near-eye treatments to protect critical regions, but have never been incorporated into treatment plans because of the unwanted appearance of the metal artifacts on CT images. The purpose of this work was to test the use of an acrylic dummy eye shield as a substitute for a metallic eye shield during CT scans. An acrylic dummy shield of the same size as the tungsten eye shield was machined and CT scanned. The BEAMnrc and the DOSXYZnrc were used for the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, with the appropriate material information and density for the aluminum cover, steel knob and tungsten body of the eye shield. The Pinnacle adopting the Hogstrom electron pencil-beam algorithm was used for the one-port 6-MeV beam plan after delineation and density override of the metallic parts. The results were confirmed with the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors and the Gafchromic EBT2 film measurements. For both the maximum eyelid dose over the shield and the maximum dose under the shield, the MC results agreed with the EBT2 measurements within 1.7%. For the Pinnacle plan, the maximum dose under the shield agreed with the MC within 0.3%; however, the eyelid dose differed by -19.3%. The adoption of the acrylic dummy eye shield was successful for the treatment plan. However, the Pinnacle pencil-beam algorithm was not sufficient to predict the eyelid dose on the tungsten shield, and more accurate algorithms like MC should be considered for a treatment plan. PMID:22915776

  10. Mixed donor chimerism and low level iduronidase expression may be adequate for neurodevelopmental protection in Hurler Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jennifer; Dyack, Sarah; Crooks, Bruce N A; Fernandez, Conrad V

    2005-07-01

    Hurler syndrome is a lysosomal storage disease resulting in fatal cardiac or neurologic sequelae unless alpha-iduronidase production is reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report on a 4-year, 6-month-old boy with mixed donor chimerism and low enzyme levels but a normal neurodevelopmental trajectory. PMID:16027706

  11. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains

  12. Systane lubricant eye drops in the management of ocular dryness.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of dry eye disease has advanced recently through increasing recognition that the etiology of the condition involves both tear evaporation and insufficient tear production, and that tear film instability and inflammation play roles in the various stages of the disease. Of significance, it has been recognized that lipid layer thickness correlates with tear film stability. The management of dry eye involves various strategies and therapeutic approaches that address one or more etiopathological components of the disease. The purpose of this review is to outline the characteristics and clinical utility of the Systane(®) ocular lubricants that contain hydroxypropyl-guar and one or both of the demulcents, ie, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol. Clinically, these products are safe and are indicated for the temporary relief of burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye. In particular, this review describes the formulations, mechanisms of action, and clinical utility of the newest additions to this topical ocular lubricant family, Systane Ultra(®) and Systane Balance(®). Both of these ocular products are formulated with an intelligent delivery system and both provide symptomatic relief to patients with dry eye. However, Systane Balance is a novel formulation that contains both polymer and lipid components designed to protect the ocular surface and replenish tear film lipids simultaneously, a factor that is of particular relevance to patients who have dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:21750611

  13. Insects have hairy eyes that reduce particle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, G. J.; Durand, F.; Mao, W.; Pusulri, S.; Takahashi, H.; Nguyen, V.-T.; Shimoyama, I.; Alexeev, A.; Hu, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    An insect's eyes may make up to 40% of its body's surface, and are in danger of being coated by foreign particles such as dust and pollen. To protect them, several insect species possess an array of ocular hairs evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Although these hairs have been observed for over 50 years, their purpose remains a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the function of ocular hairs using a combination of experiments, numerical simulation and micro-fabrication. We measure the eyes of 18 species of insects and find that the length of their ocular hairs is equal to their spacing. We conduct wind tunnel experiments using both an insect eye mimic and an at-scale fabricated micro-pillar array of the same dimensions as the insect eye. Our experiments and simulations show that ocular hairs reduce airflow at the eye surface by up to 90%. We conclude that ocular hairs act similarly to mammalian eyelashes: as insects fly, ocular hairs deflect incoming air and create a zone of stagnant air. Airflow and particle deposition are reduced dramatically, while light is only minimally occluded. Micro-scale ocular hairs may find application in the deployment of sensors outdoors, for which accumulation of airborne dust and pollen has no current solution.

  14. Radiation dose to physicians’ eye lens during interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahruddin, N. A.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.; Bakar, K. A.

    2016-03-01

    The demand of interventional radiology has increased, leading to significant risk of radiation where eye lens dose assessment becomes a major concern. In this study, we investigate physicians' eye lens doses during interventional procedures. Measurement were made using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) dosimeters and was recorded in equivalent dose at a depth of 0.07 mm, Hp(0.07). Annual Hp(0.07) and annual effective dose were estimated using workload estimation for a year and Von Boetticher algorithm. Our results showed the mean Hp(0.07) dose of 0.33 mSv and 0.20 mSv for left and right eye lens respectively. The highest estimated annual eye lens dose was 29.33 mSv per year, recorded on left eye lens during fistulogram procedure. Five physicians had exceeded 20 mSv dose limit as recommended by international commission of radiological protection (ICRP). It is suggested that frequent training and education on occupational radiation exposure are necessary to increase knowledge and awareness of the physicians’ thus reducing dose during the interventional procedure.

  15. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  16. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  17. Eye dose to staff involved in interventional and procedural fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, D.; Hadaya, D.; Tse, J.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) lowered the occupational eye dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv/yr [1]. While international jurisdictions are in a process of adopting these substantial changes, medical physicists at the clinical level have been advising medical colleagues on specific situations based on dose measurements. Commissioned and calibrated TLDs mounted in commercially available holders designed to simulate the measurement of Hp(3), were applied to staff involved in x-ray procedures for a one month period. During this period clinical procedure data was concurrently collected and subject to audit. The use or not of eye personal protective equipment (PPE) was noted for all staff. Audits were conducted in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, the interventional angiography rooms and the procedural room where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures are performed. Significant levels of occupational dose were recorded in the cardiac and interventional procedures, with maximum reading exceeding the new limit for some interventional radiologists. No significant eye doses were measured for staff performing ERCP procedures. One outcome of the studies was increased use of eye PPE for operators of interventional equipment with increased availability also to nursing staff, when standing in close proximity to the patient during procedures.

  18. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J.; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A.; Kolar, Grant R.; Gleave, Martin E.; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Wilson, Mark R.; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye. PMID:26402857

  19. [Effect of eye shielding block position on dose to lens during radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Hong, J H; Lin, F J; Chen, H H

    1990-02-01

    The lens of the eye is very sensitive to radiation and a low dose of radiation may induce cataracts a few years after radiation therapy. In treatment of head and neck tumors, such as cancer of the ethmoid or maxillary sinus, an adequate eye shielding block is mandatory for reducing the lens dose in order to prevent cataract formation. Experiments were designed to simulate the setup of the lens during radiation therapy and it was observed that the dose to the lens was correlated with the distance between the eye shielding block and the eye surface for Co-60, 10MV and 6MV X-rays. With properly fabricated divergent blocks, the optimal shielding points were found to be 6 cm, 0.9 cm and 1.4 cm above the eye surface for Co-60, 10MV and 6MV X-rays, respectively. In a 10 x 10 cm2 field, by moving the eye shielding block on the blocking tray to the optimal shielding point near the surface, the dose to the lens can be reduced from 14% to 8% for Co-60 beams and from 17% to 7% for 10MV and 6MV X-rays. This effect is more evident in larger field sizes. We recommend that the eye shielding block be placed at the optimal shielding point to minimize the dose to the lens. If the eye shielding block cannot be placed at the optimal shielding point, a simple coin placed on the eye lid surface will also reduce the lens dose substantially when a regular eye shielding block is placed on the blocking tray (Lin's coin effect). PMID:1973723

  20. Eye movements reset visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Michael A.; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)—perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264