Science.gov

Sample records for adequate eye protection

  1. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  2. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  3. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  4. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  5. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  6. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  7. [Protection of the eyes in racket sports].

    PubMed

    Prince, P; Laurencelle, L

    1988-06-01

    A survey was conducted on 1032 racket sport players from 10 randomly selected racket sport centers in Quebec during the month of October 1985. The use of protective eye glasses was found to be higher in racketball (70.2%) and squash (45.8%) than in badminton (8.8%) or tennis (3.5%). While a little less than 60% of protective eye glasses were equipped with unbreakable lenses, 40% of protective glasses were simple eye guards, containing no lens at all. Hence a large number of players assumed that they had adequate protection while wearing simple eye guards or their everyday normal glasses. Gender differences did not seem to affect the use of protective eye glasses. A general observation was that the older the player the better the eye protection, whereas novice players tended to be less prepared to use the protective glasses. The use of protective eye glasses was found to be compulsory in close to 46% of racketball centers and in 25% of squash clubs.

  8. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  9. Eye Protection in Racket Sports: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrook, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A review of the status of the use of protective equipment indicates that seven commercially available eye guards meet Canadian and United States standards recently established to protect squash and racketball players from eye injuries. (Author/CB)

  10. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  11. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  12. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  13. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  14. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  15. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  16. 30 CFR 57.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 57.15004 Section 57.15004... Surface and Underground § 57.15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face... exists which could cause injury to unprotected eyes....

  17. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  18. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  19. 30 CFR 56.15004 - Eye protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection. 56.15004 Section 56.15004....15004 Eye protection. All persons shall wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields or other suitable... injury to unprotected eyes....

  20. Eye and Face Protection in School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Choosing what eye and face protection to provide for the high school science laboratory is often a challenge. Science teachers and school administrators may not fully understand the relevant safety regulations and standards or be able to correctly identify the various types of eye protection devices. Although some schools have received training…

  1. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on current patterns of organismal and ecosystem-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern California to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern California within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and current reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.

  2. Analyzing Eye Protection Needs in the Technology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roudebush, Clair J.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a guide to what is needed for eye protection in the technology laboratory. Topics include low impact vs. high impact spectacles, side shield requirements, safety goggles, face protection, and eye protection vs. face protection. (JOW)

  3. [Sun and skin and eye protection].

    PubMed

    Darie, H; Crepy, P

    1997-01-01

    Overexposure to sunlight during travel can have harmful short- and long-term effects on the eyes and skin. Cutaneous effects include premature aging, actinic keratosis, and cancer. The eye is highly sensitive to invisible radiation, especially ultraviolet rays which can damage the crystalline lens and cornea. Retinal lesions usually involve the macula on which rays of the visible spectrum come to focus. Various natural and artificial methods can be used for sun protection. Limiting sun exposure is advisable for all. Sunscreens should be used to attenuate the effects of sun and not to prolong exposure. Fair-skinned subjects, especially those with numerous nevi, must use total sunscreen preparations starting from birth. Eye protection is necessary for everyone but especially young children, aphakic subjects, and patients presenting congenital or acquired retinal lesions. Dark lenses with a category 2 protection rating according to European Economic Community standards are recommended in tropical areas.

  4. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    PubMed

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  5. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1926.102 Section 1926.102 Labor... § 1926.102 Eye and face protection. (a) General. (1) Employees shall be provided with eye and face protection equipment when machines or operations present potential eye or face injury from physical,...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.101 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1918.101 Section 1918.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Personal Protective Equipment § 1918.101 Eye and... uses appropriate eye and/or face protection when the employee is exposed to an eye or face hazard,...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.91 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1917.91 Section 1917.91 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.91 Eye and face protection. (a)(1)(i) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective eye and face protection devices that...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1910.133 Section 1910.133 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.133 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1910.133 Section 1910.133 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.133 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1910.133 Section 1910.133 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.133 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1910.133 Section 1910.133 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Personal Protective Equipment § 1910.133 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye...

  4. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  5. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  6. Eyelashes divert airflow to protect the eye

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Mao, Wenbin; DeMercurio, Peter; Montero, Carmen; Clewis, Joel; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Eyelashes are ubiquitous, although their function has long remained a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the aerodynamic benefits of eyelashes. Through anatomical measurements, we find that 22 species of mammals possess eyelashes of a length one-third the eye width. Wind tunnel experiments confirm that this optimal eyelash length reduces both deposition of airborne particles and evaporation of the tear film by a factor of two. Using scaling theory, we find this optimum arises because of the incoming flow's interactions with both the eye and eyelashes. Short eyelashes create a stagnation zone above the ocular surface that thickens the boundary layer, causing shear stress to decrease with increasing eyelash length. Long eyelashes channel flow towards the ocular surface, causing shear stress to increase with increasing eyelash length. These competing effects result in a minimum shear stress for intermediate eyelash lengths. This design may be employed in creating eyelash-inspired protection for optical sensors. PMID:25716186

  7. Eyelashes divert airflow to protect the eye.

    PubMed

    Amador, Guillermo J; Mao, Wenbin; DeMercurio, Peter; Montero, Carmen; Clewis, Joel; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David L

    2015-04-01

    Eyelashes are ubiquitous, although their function has long remained a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the aerodynamic benefits of eyelashes. Through anatomical measurements, we find that 22 species of mammals possess eyelashes of a length one-third the eye width. Wind tunnel experiments confirm that this optimal eyelash length reduces both deposition of airborne particles and evaporation of the tear film by a factor of two. Using scaling theory, we find this optimum arises because of the incoming flow's interactions with both the eye and eyelashes. Short eyelashes create a stagnation zone above the ocular surface that thickens the boundary layer, causing shear stress to decrease with increasing eyelash length. Long eyelashes channel flow towards the ocular surface, causing shear stress to increase with increasing eyelash length. These competing effects result in a minimum shear stress for intermediate eyelash lengths. This design may be employed in creating eyelash-inspired protection for optical sensors. PMID:25716186

  8. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  9. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  10. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  11. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  12. 33 CFR 142.27 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 142.27... Eye and face protection. (a) Personnel engaged in or observing welding, grinding, machining, chipping, handling hazardous materials, or acetylene burning or cutting shall wear the eye and face...

  13. Protect Their Eyes: An Eye Safety Guide for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Society to Prevent Blindness, Columbus.

    This guide provides information on eye safety and aids educators, administrators, and supervisors in the development and implementation of eye safety programs. The American National Standards Institute (AMSI) requirements for both street and safety glasses; essential eyewear for safety in hazardous areas; the National Society to Prevent…

  14. Ultraviolet and short wavelength visible light exposure: why ultraviolet protection alone is not adequate.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Alan W; Citek, Karl; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The danger of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both the natural environment and artificial occupational settings has long been recognized by national and international standards committees and worker safety agencies. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that protection from UV exposure is not enough. Unprotected exposure to the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum, termed the "blue light hazard", is gaining acceptance as a true risk to long-term visual health. Global standards and experts in the field are now warning that those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with high impact resistant lenses that provide 100% UV filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. The Skin Cancer Foundation has endorsed certain sunglasses as "product[s]...effective [as] UV filter[s] for the eyes and surrounding skin". However, such endorsement does not necessarily mean that the eyewear meets all the protective needs for outdoor use. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision, available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features.

  15. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eye and face protection. 214.117 Section 214.117..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.117 Eye and...

  16. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eye and face protection. 214.117 Section 214.117..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.117 Eye and...

  17. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eye and face protection. 214.117 Section 214.117..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.117 Eye and...

  18. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eye and face protection. 214.117 Section 214.117..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.117 Eye and...

  19. Eye observation and corneal protection during endonasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, P J; Whittet, H

    2005-07-01

    Traumatic orbital complications of endonasal surgery, although rare, are a cause of significant morbidity. Although a variety of methods of monitoring eye function during surgery have been described, the best method remains direct perioperative observation of the eye. However, the eye must also be protected during surgery otherwise corneal drying will occur and corneal abrasion may result. This article describes and illustrates the use of Geliperm, a sterile, transparent, pliant hydrogel dressing, as a corneal protector allowing continuous observation of the eye during endonasal surgery.

  20. Wave-front analysis of personal eye protection.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Timo; Zoric, Katja; Speck, Alexis; Zelzer, Benedikt; Götzelmann, Jens; Nagengast, Dieter; Langenbucher, Achim

    2012-07-30

    Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensing has been successfully applied to many fields of optical testing including the human eye itself. We propose wave-front measurement for testing protective eye wear for production control and investigation of aberrations. Refractive power data is derived from the wave-front data and compared to a subjective measurement technique based on a focimeter. Additional image quality classification was performed with a multivariate model using objective parameters to resample a subjectively determined visual quality. Wave-front measurement advances optical testing of protective eye wear and may be used for objective quality control.

  1. Spectacle-related eye injuries, spectacle-impact performance and eye protection.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha; Dain, Stephen J; Mackey, David A

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to review the prevalence of spectacle-related ocular trauma and the performance of currently available spectacle materials and to identify the risk factors associated with spectacle-related ocular trauma. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase and Google with the keywords 'eyeglasses' OR 'spectacles' AND 'ocular injury' / 'eye injury'/ 'eye trauma' / 'ocular trauma'. Articles published prior to 1975 were excluded from this review because of advances in spectacle lens technology and Food and Drug Administration legislative changes requiring impact resistance of all prescription spectacle lenses in the United States. Six hundred and ninety-five individual ocular traumas, for which spectacles contributed to or were the main cause of injury, were identified in the literature. Eye injuries occurred when spectacles were worn in sports, in which medium- to high-impact energies were exerted from balls, racquets or bats and/or as a result of a collision with another player. Frame, lens design and product material choice were found to be associated with ocular injury, with polycarbonate lenses cited as the material of choice in the literature. International, regional and national standards for spectacle lenses had a wide range of impact requirements for prescription spectacle lenses, sports eye protection and occupational eye protection. Spectacle-related injury represents a small but preventable cause of ocular injury. With the increasing numbers of spectacle wearers and calls to spend more time outdoors to reduce myopia, spectacle wearers need to be made aware of the potential risks associated with wearing spectacles during medium- to high-risk activities. At particular risk are those prone to falls, the functionally one-eyed, those who have corneal thinning or have had previous eye surgery or injury. With increased understanding of specific risk factors, performance guidelines can be developed for prescription spectacle eye-protection

  2. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... welding (heavy), over 1/2-inch 6 or 8 (2) Laser protection. (i) Employees whose occupation or assignment requires exposure to laser beams shall be furnished suitable laser safety goggles which will protect for the specific wavelength of the laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy...

  3. Optical power limiting for eye protection from tunable lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Golovlev, Valeri V.; Garrett, W. R.; Goedert, Robert V.; Whittaker, Thomas A., III; Templeton, Douglas W.

    1997-10-01

    Due to the extensive use of lasers in aiming devices, range fmders, and in remote sensing, the protection of eyes and sensors from laser beams becomes critically important. It has been a challenging task to provide protection from wave-length tunable lasers without the serious sacrifice of vision capability. In this work, we describe two different approaches which can significantly attenuate the laser beam through the whole visible region. One approach is to use specific geometric configuration with thin film aluminum mirrors"2. The other is to use the properties of reverse saturable absorption of fullerene3'4. The combination of these two approaches can possibly become an effective device for eye protection from high power tunable lasers. The principle and mechanism to achieve eye protection will also be discussed. The goal for eye and sensor protection is to attenuate the amount of incident light below the damage threshold. The ANSI standards indicate that for visible wavelengths and nanosecond pulse durations, the maximum permissible exposure on the surface of the comeas is about 0.2 J. The damage threshold by a nanosecond laser on a rhesus monkey was measured to be of the order of a few microjoules5.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... face protection when exposed to eye or face hazards from flying particles, molten metal, liquid... Minimum* Protective Shade Shielded metal arc welding Less than 3 Less than 60 7 3-5 60-160 8 5-8 160-250 10 More than 8 250-550 11 Gas metal arc welding and flux cored arc welding less than 60 7 60-160...

  5. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes.

  6. Movement and spawning migration patterns suggest small marine reserves can offer adequate protection for exploited emperorfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. M.; Mills, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    A critical feature of effective marine reserves is to be large enough to encompass home ranges of target species, thereby allowing a significant portion of the population to persist without the threat of exploitation. In this study, patterns of movement and home range for Lethrinus harak and Lethrinus obsoletus were quantified using an array of 33 acoustic receivers that covered approximately three quarters of Piti Marine Reserve in the Pacific island of Guam. This array was designed to ensure extensive overlap of receiver ranges throughout the study area. Eighteen individuals (12 L. harak and 6 L. obsoletus) were surgically implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and passively tracked for 4 months. Both species displayed high site fidelity and had relatively small home ranges. The home ranges of L. harak expanded with increasing body size. Feeding of fish by humans, which was common but restricted to a small area within the study site, had little effect on the distribution of the resident populations. L. harak made nightly spawning migrations within the reserve between full moon and last quarter moon of each lunar cycle, coinciding with a strong ebbing tide. Results indicate that even small reserves can include many individual home ranges of these emperorfishes and can protect spawning sites for L. harak. These species are heavily targeted in Guam, and there are major demographic differences between fished and protected sites. This study shows the potential for protected areas to sustain reproductive viability in exploited populations.

  7. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    PubMed Central

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  8. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  9. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  10. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  11. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  12. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  13. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  14. 30 CFR 56.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 56.15014 Section 56.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Personal Protection § 56.15014 Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. Face shields...

  15. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  16. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15014 - Eye protection when operating grinding wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye protection when operating grinding wheels. 57.15014 Section 57.15014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15014 Eye protection when...

  18. Aircrew laser eye protection: visual consequences and mission performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S R

    1994-05-01

    Battlefield laser proliferation poses a mounting risk to aircrew and ground personnel. Laser eye protection (LEP) based on current mature, mass-producible technologies absorbs visible light and can impact visual performance and color identification. These visual consequences account for many of the mission incompatibilities associated with LEP. Laboratory experiments and field investigations that examined the effects of LEP on visual performance and mission compatibility are reviewed. Laboratory experiments assessed the ability of subjects to correctly read and identify the color of head-down display symbology and tactical pilotage charts (TPC's) with three prototype LEP visors. Field investigations included Weapons Systems Trainer (WST), ground, and flight tests of the LEP visors. Recommendations for modifying aviation lighting systems to improve LEP compatibility are proposed. Issues concerning flight safety when using LEP during air operation are discussed.

  19. Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

  20. 76 FR 63942 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Mask With a Protective Eye Shield AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Surgical Mask with a Protective Eye Shield. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that Turkey is the country of origin of the Surgical Mask with a Protective Eye Shield,...

  1. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  2. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  3. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  4. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  5. 33 CFR 150.609 - When is eye and face protection required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 1910.133; and (b) Maintained in good condition or replaced when necessary. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is eye and face protection... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Eyes and...

  6. Eye Safety At-A-Glance: Protecting Your Child's Vision in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related eye injuries are quite common, yet the number of children who use protective eyewear (safety glasses or goggles) is extremely low. More than 600,000 eye injuries related to sports occur each year, and approximately one-third of these injuries occur in children. When children participate in sports they not only increase their…

  7. Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Eye and Face Protection. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-25

    On March 13, 2015, OSHA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to revise its eye and face protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and construction by updating the references to national consensus standards approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). OSHA received no significant objections from commenters and therefore is adopting the amendments as proposed. This final rule updates the references in OSHA's eye and face standards to reflect the most recent edition of the ANSI/International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) eye and face protection standard. It removes the oldest-referenced edition of the same ANSI standard. It also amends other provisions of the construction eye and face protection standard to bring them into alignment with OSHA's general industry and maritime standards. PMID:27017630

  8. Are research subjects adequately protected? A review and discussion of studies conducted by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Kass, Nancy E; Sugarman, Jeremy

    1996-09-01

    In light of information uncovered about human radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War, an important charge for the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was to assess the current state of protections for human research subjects. This assessment was designed to enhance the Committee's ability to make informed recommendations for the improvement of future policies and practices for the protection of research subjects. The Committee's examination of current protections revealed great improvement over those from the past, yet some problems remain. Although the data collected by the Committee highlight specific areas in need of attention, the Committee's work should be viewed in part as the beginning of a series of ongoing assessments of the adequacy and effectiveness of the protections afforded to human subjects.

  9. Laser eye protection in a contact lens using plasmon resonant nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Glenn P.; Payne, J. Donald; Wang, James C.; Jackson, Joseph B.

    2009-02-01

    As the use of lasers proliferate in military and civilian applications, the importance of laser eye protection becomes increasingly significant. Of particular relevance is protection from non-visible laser sources operating in the near-infrared, as it is impossible to determine when the eye is being exposed to such harmful radiation. Current technologies for laser eye protection, such as dyes or reflective coatings of visors/glasses, are generally bulky, which presents a challenge for use and integration with oxygen masks, helmets and night vision apparatus. A contact-lens based laser eye protection system would offer the advantage of minimal modification of current equipment to provide protection against laser exposure. A laser eye protection system has been developed based on the unique optical properties of gold nanoshells. Gold nanoshells consist of a dielectric silica core, surrounded by a thin (nm) shell of gold. By adjusting the core size and the shell thickness, these nanoparticles can provide high extinction levels throughout the near-infrared region of the spectrum. Unlike some organic dyes, the particles are photostable and non-toxic, increasing the practical life of the lens. The design and fabrication of a soft contact lens containing nanoshells is described. The optical and physiochemical properties are compared to a standard soft contact control. The results of preliminary toxicity studies are also presented

  10. Effects of ultraviolet light on the eye: Role of protective glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kuijk, F.J.G.M. van )

    1991-12-01

    Global atmospheric changes such as depletion of ozone in the stratosphere are though to lead to increased levels of ultraviolet radiation on earth. This can have adverse effects on human health, and long-term effects of ultraviolet light on the eye are of increasing concern. Ultraviolet light exposure to the eye has been associated with cataract formation and retinal degeneration. In both cases, it is hypothesized that ultraviolet light can initiate formation of free radicals, which can cause protein modification and lipid peroxidation. Several procedures can be recommended to prevent ultraviolet light damage to the eye, such as the use of suitable protective glasses when outdoors. 101 refs., 2 figs. 1 tab.

  11. Occupational radiation dose to eyes from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in light of the revised eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, A; Malone, L; O’Reilly, G

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure that combines the use of X-ray fluoroscopy and endoscopy for examination of the bile duct. Published data on ERCP doses are limited, including staff eye dose from ERCP. Occupational eye doses are of particular interest now as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended a reduction in the dose limit to the lens of the eye. The aim of this study was to measure occupational eye doses obtained from ERCP procedures. Methods: A new eye lens dosemeter (EYE-D™, Radcard, Krakow, Poland) was used to measure the ERCP eye dose, Hp(3), at two endoscopy departments in Ireland. A review of radiation protection practice at the two facilities was also carried out. Results: The mean equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of a gastroenterologist is 0.01 mSv per ERCP procedure with an undercouch X-ray tube and 0.09 mSv per ERCP procedure with an overcouch X-ray tube. Staff eye dose normalised to patient kerma area product is also presented. Conclusion: Staff eye doses in ERCP have the potential to exceed the revised ICRP limit of 20 mSv per annum when an overcouch X-ray tube is used. The EYE-D dosemeter was found to be a convenient method for measuring lens dose. Eye doses in areas outside of radiology departments should be kept under review, particularly in light of the new ICRP eye dose limit. Advances in knowledge: Occupational eye lens doses from ERCP procedures have been established using a new commercially available dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. PMID:23385992

  12. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Energy. Applications Operation Hazards Recommended protectors: Bold type numbers signify preferred... energy—(1) Selection of shade numbers for welding filter. Table E-2 shall be used as a guide for the... Protection Against Radiant Energy Welding operation Shade number Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-,...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Energy. Applications Operation Hazards Recommended protectors: Bold type numbers signify preferred... energy—(1) Selection of shade numbers for welding filter. Table E-2 shall be used as a guide for the... Protection Against Radiant Energy Welding operation Shade number Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-,...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.102 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Energy. Applications Operation Hazards Recommended protectors: Bold type numbers signify preferred... energy—(1) Selection of shade numbers for welding filter. Table E-2 shall be used as a guide for the... Protection Against Radiant Energy Welding operation Shade number Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-,...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazards caused by flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acid or caustic liquids, chemical... current Minimum protective shade Shielded metal arc welding Less than 3 Less than 7 3-5 60 8 5-8 60-160 10 More than 8 160-250 11 250-550 Gas metal arc welding and flux cored arc welding Less than 7 60 10...

  16. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bielen, Holger; Houart, Corinne

    2012-10-16

    Depletion of Wnt signaling is a major requirement for the induction of the anterior prosencephalon. However, the molecular events driving the differential regionalization of this area into eye-field and telencephalon fates are still unknown. Here we show that the BMP pathway is active in the anterior neural ectoderm during late blastula to early gastrula stage in zebrafish. Bmp2b mutants and mosaic loss-of-function experiments reveal that BMP acts as a repressor of eye-field fate through inhibition of its key transcription factor Rx3, thereby protecting the future telencephalon from acquiring eye identity. This BMP-driven mechanism initiates the establishment of the telencephalon prior to the involvement of Wnt antagonists from the anterior neural border. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rx3 and BMP are respectively required to maintain and restrict the chemokine receptor cxcr4a, which in turn contributes to the morphogenetic separation of eye-field and telencephalic cells during early neurulation.

  17. Assessment of fogging resistance of anti-fog personal eye protection.

    PubMed

    Dain, S J; Hoskin, A K; Winder, C; Dingsdag, D P

    1999-07-01

    The propensity for occupational eye protectors to fog in warm and moist conditions is often offered as a reason by workers not to wear occupational eye protection even where mandatory eye protection areas have been specified. A study of eye protection practices in the New South Wales coal mining industry identified the number one issue in underground coal mine conditions as being fogging of eye safety wear. Conventional anti-fog treatments and cleaners were considered by the miners as completely inadequate in these conditions. At the time of the study claims were being made for a new generation of lens treatments. These merited evaluation. Spectacles and goggles claimed to be fog resistant were obtained from manufacturers and suppliers and subjected to the test set out in BS EN 168 and the compliance criterion of BS EN 166. Some lenses claimed to be fog resistant failed the requirement, some new technology lenses showed arguably superior performance but failed the criterion of the standard. Modifications to the test procedure of BS EN 168 and acceptance criteria of BS EN 166 are proposed.

  18. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Long term adequate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet protects from depressive-like behavior but not from working memory disruption and brain cytokine expression in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moranis, Aurélie; Delpech, Jean-Christophe; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Aubert, Agnès; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Joffre, Corinne; Layé, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Converging epidemiological studies suggest that dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood and cognitive disorders linked to aging. The question arises as to whether the decreased prevalence of these symptoms in the elderly with high n-3 PUFA consumption is also associated with improved central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in the brain. To answer this, we measured memory performance and emotional behavior as well as cytokine synthesis and PUFA level in the spleen and the cortex of adult and aged mice submitted to a diet with an adequate supply of n-3 PUFA in form of α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) or a n-3 deficient diet. Our results show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, was higher in the spleen and cortex of n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice and this difference was maintained throughout life. Interestingly, high level of brain DHA was associated with a decrease in depressive-like symptoms throughout aging. On the opposite, spatial memory was maintained in adult but not in aged n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice. Furthermore, increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreased IL-10 expression were found in the cortex of aged mice independently of the diets. All together, our results suggest that n-3 PUFA dietary supply in the form of α-LNA is sufficient to protect from deficits in emotional behavior but not from memory disruption and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression linked to age.

  20. Current status of oral PUVA therapy for psoriasis. Eye protection revisions.

    PubMed

    1982-05-01

    Recommendations for the use of oral psoralens and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA) were published in 1979. Since that time advances in optics technology and new knowledge on eye toxicity associated with PUVA therapy have prompted the original compilers to revise the eye protection segments of the PUVA recommendations. It is recommended that during day 1 of PUVA treatment, UVA-blocking plastic wraparound glasses be worn while outdoors from time of ingestion of the drug until bedtime. While indoors or in dim light, either the wraparound glasses or clear UVA-blocking glasses should be worn. During day 2, either the plastic wraparounds or the clear UVA-blocking glasses should be worn the entire day. Shielding of the eyes during day 2 is an absolute requirement, and on day 2 it should be encouraged but is a relative requirement. The revisions were compiled with the view of urging patient compliance. PMID:7096648

  1. Eye Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... requirements” lenses will block at least 99% of UV light. •Polycarbonate (high-index plastic) tinted lenses will filter ... expose you to visible, infrared (IR), and sometimes UV light radiation. Arc welding exposes you to all three ...

  2. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  3. Occupational radiation dose to eyes from interventional radiology procedures in light of the new eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, C; Gallagher, A; Dowling, A; Guiney, M; Ryan, J M; McEniff, N; O'Reilly, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a substantial reduction in the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye, in line with a reduced threshold of absorbed dose for radiation-induced cataracts. This is of particular relevance in interventional radiology (IR) where it is well established that staff doses can be significant, however, there is a lack of data on IR eye doses in terms of Hp(3). Hp(3) is the personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm in soft tissue and is used for measuring lens dose. We aimed to obtain a reliable estimate of eye dose to IR operators. Methods: Lens doses were measured for four interventional radiologists over a 3-month period using dosemeters specifically designed to measure Hp(3). Results: Based on their typical workloads, two of the four interventional radiologists would exceed the new ICRP dose limit with annual estimated doses of 31 and 45 mSv to their left eye. These results are for an “unprotected” eye, and for IR staff who routinely wear lead glasses, the dose beneath the glasses is likely to be significantly lower. Staff eye dose normalized to patient kerma–area product and eye dose per procedure have been included in the analysis. Conclusion: Eye doses to IR operators have been established using a dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. Estimated annual doses have the potential to exceed the new ICRP limit. Advances in knowledge: We have estimated lens dose to interventional radiologists in terms of Hp(3) for the first time in an Irish hospital setting. PMID:25761211

  4. Epigallocatechin gallate eye drops protect against ultraviolet B–induced corneal oxidative damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mu-Hsin; Tsai, Chia-Fang; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight is a known risk factor for human corneal injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on UVB radiation–induced corneal oxidative damage in male imprinting control region (ICR) mice. Methods Corneal oxidative damage was induced by exposure to UVB radiation at 560 μW/cm2. The animals received 0%, 0.1%, and 0.01% EGCG eye drops at a 5 mg/ml dose, twice daily for 8 days. Corneal surface damage was graded according to smoothness and the extent of lissamine green staining. Corneal glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and protein carbonyl levels, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity in the cornea, were measured to monitor corneal injury. Results UVB radiation caused significant damage to the corneas, including apparent corneal ulceration and severe epithelial exfoliation, leading to a decrease in SOD, catalase, GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, and GSH activity in the cornea. However, the corneal TBARS and protein carbonyls increased compared with the control group. Treatment with EGCG eye drops significantly (p<0.05) ameliorated corneal damage, increased SOD, catalase, GSH-Px, GSH-Rd, and GSH activity, and decreased the TBARS and protein carbonyls in the corneas compared with the UVB-treated group. Conclusions EGCG eye drops exhibit potent protective effects on UVB radiation–induced corneal oxidative damage in mice, likely due to the increase in antioxidant defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. PMID:24520184

  5. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses.

    PubMed

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Struelens, L; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that 'wrap around' glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient's skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the Hp(10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the Hp(3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. PMID:24938591

  6. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  7. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk.

  8. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P.; Hennager, Steven G.; Pavuk, Alana A.; Sprino, Phillip J.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Berrier, Randall J.; Salman, Mo D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk. PMID:26904509

  9. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  10. Principles for the design and calibration of radiation protection dosemeters for operational and protection quantities for eye lens dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bordy, J M; Gualdrini, G; Daures, J; Mariotti, F

    2011-03-01

    The work package two of the ORAMED project--Collaborative Project (2008-2011) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme--is devoted to the study of the eye lens dosimetry. A first approach is to implement the use of H(p)(3) by providing new sets of conversion coefficients and well suited calibration and type test procedures. This approach is presented in other papers in the proceedings of this conference. Taking into account that the eye lens is an organ close to the surface of the body, another approach would be to directly estimate the absorbed dose to the eye lens, D(lens,est) through a special calibration procedure although this quantity is not directly measurable. This paper is a methodological paper that tries to identify the critical aspects of a dosimetry in terms of D(lens).

  11. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Supervise children carefully. Teach them how to be safe. Always wear protective eye gear when: Using power tools, hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and dusty ...

  12. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed.

  13. Use of the field-of-view evaluation apparatus (FOVEA) for laser eye protection research: capabilities, limitations, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVilbiss, Carita A.; Schmeisser, Elmar T.; Ercoline, William R.; Cantu, Naomi

    2001-05-01

    While the major technological goal of laser eye protection (LEP) is to attenuate any laser radiation that passes through it, consideration of the physical format in which it is realized must not be overlooked. The best protective material can be rendered essentially useless if it does not cover the appropriate field of regard for the wearer. To map the visual field of regard (FOR) coverage provided by LEP devices, the field of view evaluation apparatus (FOVEA) was used. The FOVEA is a one-meter radius arc perimeter containing computer-controlled light emitting diodes at one-degree intervals. Three different mapppings of the visual field can be obtained with this facility: (a) the monocular baseline FOR; (b) the accessibility the LEP demonstrates against the direct threat (i.e., a laser source entering the eye beyond frame edge); and (c) the accessibility to indirect hazard (i.e., laser energy reflected from the lens backside entering the eye). Comparison of the direct and indirect fields of regard demonstrates the wide coverage variation generated by alternate frame styles and differing head shapes. These results need to be interpreted with respect to FOVEA limitations. First, the full FOR is mapped without regard for the relative importance of the periphery versus the fovea. Second, the coverage from a particular frame style must be measured and specified with an appropriate range of anthropometric face forms to ensure coverage consistency.

  14. Transocular Entry of Seasonal Influenza–Attenuated Virus Aerosols and the Efficacy of N95 Respirators, Surgical Masks, and Eye Protection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Tanya; Russell, Gregory B.; Peters, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of barrier precautions to prevent influenza transmission is unknown. Methods. Twenty-eight participants were exposed to monodispersed live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) particles (4.9 μm) in 6 groups: group 1, no precautions; group 2, ocular exposure only; group 3, surgical mask without eye protection; group 4, surgical mask with eye protection; group 5, fit-tested N95 respirator without eye protection; and group 6, fit-tested N95 respirator with eye protection. Influenza was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture in nasal washes. Exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results. Influenza was detected in 4 of 4 participants in group 1 (95% CI, 0–.60), 3 of 4 in group 2 (95% CI, .006–.806]), 5 of 5 in group 3 (95% CI, 0–.522), 5 of 5 in group 4, (95% CI, 0–.522), 3 of 5 in group 5 (95% CI, .053–.853), and 1 of 5 in group 6 (95% CI, .05–.72). RT-PCR revealed significant differences between group 1 and all other groups except group 3. Conclusions. Transocular transmission of LAIV occured in most participants suggesting the necessity of eye protection. An N95 respirator provided the best guard further enhanced by eye protection. PMID:21673029

  15. Eye injuries in athletics and recreation.

    PubMed

    Napier, S M; Baker, R S; Sanford, D G; Easterbrook, M

    1996-01-01

    Sports-related eye injuries represent a significant eye health hazard worldwide. In the USA, it is estimated that eye injuries from sports account for more than 100,000 physician visits per year at the cost of greater than $175 million. The sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries are baseball, ice hockey, and racquet sports. In the USA there are over 189 million participants in these sports with a disproportionate number (one-third) of injuries involving the pediatric population. The most common injuries are abrasions and contusions, followed by more serious injuries, including hyphema. Substantial reduction in the incidence of eye injuries through prevention has been demonstrated in the sport of hockey which can serve as a model for other sports. Specific criteria for protective eyewear must be developed. Polycarbonate plastic lenses and frames which are sturdy and impact resistant provide optimal protection. Lensless goggles, street wear and spectacle correction glasses do not provide adequate eye protection. The ophthalmologist's role in preventing sports-related eye injuries includes addressing particular sports participants needs, identifying one-eyed athletes, and informing patients of the need for protective eyewear.

  16. Prevention and treatment of common eye injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jorge O; Lavina, Adrian M; Agarwal, Anita

    2003-04-01

    Sports have become increasingly popular and account for numerous eye injuries each year. The sports that most commonly cause eye injuries, in order of decreasing frequency, are basketball, water sports, baseball, and racquet sports. Sports are classified as low risk, high risk, and very high risk. Sports-related eye injuries are blunt, penetrating, and radiation injuries. The use of eye protection has helped to reduce the number and severity of eye injuries. The American Society for Testing and Materials has established performance standards for selected eyewear. Consultation with an eye care professional is recommended for fitting protective eyewear. The functionally one-eyed, or monocular, athlete should take extra precautions. A preparticipation eye examination is helpful in identifying persons who may be at increased risk for eye injury. Sports-related eye injuries should be evaluated on site with an adequate examination of the eye and adnexa. Minor eye injuries may be treated on site. The team physician must know which injuries require immediate referral to an ophthalmologist and the guidelines for returning an athlete to competition.

  17. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov . NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® References AREDS2 Research Group. “Lutein/Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The Age-Related Eye Disease ...

  18. Marek's disease virus infection in the eye: chronological study of the lesions, virus replication, and vaccine-induced protection.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Arun K R; Cortes, Aneg L; Lee, Lucy F; Gimeno, I M

    2008-12-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection in the eye was studied chronologically after inoculating 1-day-old chickens with a very virulent MDV strain, Md5. The ocular lesions could be classified as early lesions (6-11 days postinoculation [dpi]) and late lesions (26 and 56 dpi), based upon the location and severity of the lesions. The early lesions involved iris, ciliary body, and choroid layer, and were characterized by endothelial cell hypertrophy, vasculitis, and infiltration of lymphocytes (mainly CD8+), plasma cells, macrophages, and heterophils. Expression of early MDV-antigen pp38 in the cells infiltrating choroid layer was detected as early as 11 dpi. Late lesions consisted of severe lymphohistiocytic uveitis, keratitis, pectenitis, vitreitis, retinitis, and segmental to diffuse retinal necrosis. Cell infiltration included macrophages, granulocytes, plasma cells, and both CD4+ and CD8+ cells of various sizes. Expression of early MDV-antigen pp38 was readily found within the retina, uveal tract, and corneal epithelium. No expression of late-antigen gB or oncoprotein meq was detected in any of the eyes examined. A second experiment was conducted to study the effect of vaccination on the development of ocular lesions. Both HVT and CVI988 were able to protect against the development of early ocular lesions in chickens infected with very virulent plus strain MDV 648A. However, only CVI988 conferred complete protection against the development of late ocular lesions. HVT conferred partial protection, as it reduced the frequency and severity of the late ocular lesions. These results enhance our understanding of the nature and pattern of MDV infection in the eye.

  19. Radiation protection of the eye lens in medical workers—basis and impact of the ICRP recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Quinlan, Roy A; Bouffler, Simon D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the evidence for the revised European Union basic safety standard (BSS) radiation dose limits to the lens of the eye, in the context of medical occupational radiation exposures. Publications in the open literature have been reviewed in order to draw conclusions on the exposure profiles and doses received by medical radiation workers and to bring together the limited evidence for cataract development in medical occupationally exposed populations. The current status of relevant radiation-protection and monitoring practices and procedures is also considered. In conclusion, medical radiation workers do receive high doses in some circumstances, and thus working practices will be impacted by the new BSS. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that compliance with the new lower dose limits will be possible, although education and training of staff alongside effective use of personal protective equipment will be paramount. A number of suggested actions are given with the aim of assisting medical and associated radiation-protection professionals in understanding the requirements. PMID:26828972

  20. Use of enteric vaccines in protection against chlamydial infections of the genital tract and the eye of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nichols, R L; Murray, E S; Nisson, P E

    1978-12-01

    Guinea pigs in a test group were fed living guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) organisms classified as Chlamydia psittaci in 60% yolk-sac suspensions as enteric vaccines, while animals in a control group received uninfected yolk sac. Seven test animals and 14 control animals were challenged 11 or 22 days later with 1,000 50% infectious doses of GPIC organisms in either the conjunctiva or the vagina. Evidence of protection from mucosal infection in both sites was noted in test animals. Clinically, the disease was less severe, and microbiologically, lower percentages of mucosal cells were infected. The results suggest that enteric vaccination against mucosal infections of the eye and the genital tract with chlamydial agents is possible.

  1. Corneal-Protective Effects of an Artificial Tear Containing Sodium Hyaluronate and Castor Oil on a Porcine Short-Term Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Takashi; AMAKO, Hideki; YAMAMOTO, Takeshi; TAZAWA, Mariko; SAKAMOTO, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear. PMID:24881653

  2. Corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate and castor oil on a porcine short-term dry eye model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Amako, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tazawa, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear.

  3. Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative damage related to skin and eye health.

    PubMed

    Scurachio, R S; Mattiucci, F; Santos, W G; Skibsted, L H; Cardoso, D R

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine metabolites were found to bind riboflavin with dissociation constant in the millimolar region by an exothermic process with positive entropy of reaction, which was found by (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy to occur predominantly by hydrogen bonding with water being released from riboflavin solvation shell upon caffeine metabolite binding to riboflavin. The caffeine metabolites 1-methyl uric acid and 1,7-dimethyl uric acid were shown by transient absorption laser flash photolysis to be efficient as quenchers of triplet riboflavin with second-order rate constant of 1.4 10(8)Lmol(-1)s(-1) and 1.0 10(8)Lmol(-1)s(-1), respectively, in aqueous solution of pH6.4 at 25°C and more efficient than the other caffeine metabolite 1,7-dimethyl xanthine with second-order rate constant of 4.2 10(7)Lmol(-1)s(-1). Caffeine was in contrast found to be non-reactive towards triplet riboflavin. Caffeine metabolites rather than caffeine seem accordingly important for the observed protective effect against cutaneous melanoma identified for drinkers of regular but not of decaffeinated coffee. The caffeine metabolites, but not caffeine, were by time resolved single photon counting found to quench singlet excited riboflavin through exothermic formation of ground-state precursor complexes indicating importance of hydrogen bounding through keto-enol tautomer's for protection of oxidizable substrates and sensitive structures against riboflavin photosensitization.

  4. Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative damage related to skin and eye health.

    PubMed

    Scurachio, R S; Mattiucci, F; Santos, W G; Skibsted, L H; Cardoso, D R

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine metabolites were found to bind riboflavin with dissociation constant in the millimolar region by an exothermic process with positive entropy of reaction, which was found by (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy to occur predominantly by hydrogen bonding with water being released from riboflavin solvation shell upon caffeine metabolite binding to riboflavin. The caffeine metabolites 1-methyl uric acid and 1,7-dimethyl uric acid were shown by transient absorption laser flash photolysis to be efficient as quenchers of triplet riboflavin with second-order rate constant of 1.4 10(8)Lmol(-1)s(-1) and 1.0 10(8)Lmol(-1)s(-1), respectively, in aqueous solution of pH6.4 at 25°C and more efficient than the other caffeine metabolite 1,7-dimethyl xanthine with second-order rate constant of 4.2 10(7)Lmol(-1)s(-1). Caffeine was in contrast found to be non-reactive towards triplet riboflavin. Caffeine metabolites rather than caffeine seem accordingly important for the observed protective effect against cutaneous melanoma identified for drinkers of regular but not of decaffeinated coffee. The caffeine metabolites, but not caffeine, were by time resolved single photon counting found to quench singlet excited riboflavin through exothermic formation of ground-state precursor complexes indicating importance of hydrogen bounding through keto-enol tautomer's for protection of oxidizable substrates and sensitive structures against riboflavin photosensitization. PMID:27611451

  5. An ants-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, M. C.; Bronstein, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar-secreting plants (EFN plants) is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the extrafloral nectar-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5000m2, and workers visit between five and thirty-four extrafloral nectar-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to twenty nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms PMID:23515612

  6. Materials for occupational eye protectors.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    The selection of lens materials for non-prescription personal protective equipment has been a relatively simple process and has its origins in many studies around the 1970s. The viable materials available at that time were tempered glass, hard resin (n = 1.50) and polycarbonate. The modern spectacle non-prescription eye protector of choice is inevitably hard coated polycarbonate, which has exemplary impact resistant properties. In the prescription lens area, there is a bewildering array of materials of various refractive indices with a variety of coatings. The selection of an ophthalmic lens has optical and cosmetic considerations ahead of impact resistance. In complying with the Australian/New Zealand standard on prescription eye protection, adequate impact resistance must rate as the foremost requirement, with optical and cosmetic considerations as important but lesser considerations. In this review, the evidence on impact resistance of the available materials is presented, the standards set for testing impact resistance are detailed and some guidance is provided for the selection of prescription eye protection materials.

  7. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  8. Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis.

  9. Eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  12. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  13. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  16. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  1. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  2. Protective effects of naringenin eye drops on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced photoreceptor cell death in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Li; Wang, Yan-Dong; Ma, Yan; Zhong, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Mei-Rong; Chen, Wen-Pei; Lin, Bao-Qin

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of naringenin eye drops on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced photoreceptor cell death in rats. METHODS Photoreceptor cell death was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (60 mg/kg) in rats. Both eyes of all animals were instilled with one drop of vehicle, 0.5% or 1.0% naringenin eye drops three times per day from 7d before to 17d after MNU injection. Effects of naringenin on MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death were evaluated by electrophysiological and histological analysis. RESULTS Flash electroretinography (FERG) and oscillatory potentials (OPs) recordings showed that the vehicle control group had remarkable reduction of amplitudes and prolongation of latency times. FERG and OPs responses were significantly reversed in MNU-induced rats treated with 0.5% or 1.0% naringenin eye drops compared with the vehicle control. The retinal morphological results showed that naringenin dose-dependently preserved the outer nuclear layer, outer retina and total retina. CONCLUSION These results indicate that topical treatment with naringenin eye drops prevented retinal neurons from MNU-induced structural and functional damages. PMID:24967179

  3. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  4. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  5. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  6. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  8. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    PubMed

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports. PMID:1858609

  9. Prevention of sports-related eye injury.

    PubMed

    Stock, J G; Cornell, F M

    1991-08-01

    Sports-related eye injury is an important cause of vision loss. Many eye injuries can be prevented through the supervision of play, the enforcement of game rules and the use of eye protective devices. State-of-the-art eye protective devices incorporate highly impact-resistant optical material, usually polycarbonate lenses, in a sturdy frame. Protective devices are available for use in racquet sports, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey and other sports.

  10. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  11. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  12. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  13. Tear dynamics and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, K

    1998-10-01

    Tears undergo four processes: production by the lacrimal gland, distribution by blinking, evaporation from the ocular surface and drainage through the nasolacrimal duct. Abnormalities in any of these steps can cause dry eye. There are two kinds of tear production, basic and reflex, which can be distinguished from each other by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation. Reflex tearing is important because it supplies such essential components as EGF and vitamin A, whose deficiency may cause squamous metaplasia. There is no reflex tearing in Sjogren's syndrome because of destruction of the lacrimal gland. In cases of diminished or absent reflex tearing, topical autologous serum is the treatment of choice. Even when there is adequate tear production, insufficient distribution, such as occurs with the decreased blinking associated with the use of video display terminals (VDT), may cause dry eye. Any process or activity that suppresses blinking interferes with tear distribution. Tear evaporation increases under certain conditions and in some diseases. When the exposed ocular surface area is increased, such as in VDT work, tear evaporation increases. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) also causes increased tear evaporation by altering the quality of the oily layer in tears. Tear evaporation can be suppressed by using a warm compresser or a humidifier, narrowing the palpebral fissure, or wearing protective eyeglasses. The tear clearance rate is measured by fluorescein dye dilution in the conjunctiva. When the tear clearance is low, inflammatory cytokines or preservatives accumulate in the conjunctival sac, resulting in ocular surface diseases. Frequent use of artificial tears without preservative is the key treatment. A differential diagnosis of the abnormalities of tear dynamics can give us a proper understanding of the pathogenesis of dry eye. With this knowledge, we can formulate an efficient therapeutic approach.

  14. Human subject protection in India - is it adequate?

    PubMed

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India's experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible.

  15. Human subject protection in India - is it adequate?

    PubMed

    Mahaluxmivala, Narges

    2010-01-01

    India's experience in clinical trials is shorter in time than that of the developed countries but as in everything else in the current globalizing environment, business compulsions characterized by compressed timelines are strong persuaders to catch up. Most global pharmaceutical and biotechnology organizations include India in their strategic plans, Immediate implementation of aspects that attract benefit are an urgent necessity. Technical and ethical issues that remain unresolved constrain India from reaching its deserved potential. To take fullest advantage of the current inflow of clinical trials, India must adopt, without delay, an all-inclusive approach and invest in a widespread and comprehensive GCP-compliance programme taking into account India-related cultural and socioeconomic issues. The initiative should not be allowed to flag. Government, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological research industries, the medical and pharmacy profession including relevant training institutes, the media and the public have a stake in such investment. The programme should involve assessing gaps in current clinical trial compliance measures and possible solutions, set the field for rectification and ensure implementation through mandate and penalty as feasible. PMID:21829776

  16. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect their eyes with hats and sunglasses. UV Light: Good in Moderation for a Good Night's Sleep ... accumulated during the day. Some research suggests that light-sensitive cells in the eye are important to ...

  17. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  19. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  20. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  1. Eye Injuries Can Be Prevented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Eleven thousand eye injuries are suffered annually by 5- to-14-year-old youngsters during sports and recreational activities. Baseball-related accidents result in more eye injuries to youth than any other sport. Protective face gear is discussed and recommended. (MT)

  2. Ophthalmohelioses and peripheral light focusing by the anterior eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroneo, Minas T.

    1994-07-01

    A coincidence of the locations of foci of scattered light in the anterior eye with the usual locations of common sun-related eye conditions has been observed. These phenomena may explain the pathogenesis of pterygium and the initial location of certain cortical lens opacities and eyelid malignancies. Human and bovine eyes were used to demonstrate that the anterior eye acts as a side-on lens system. Light incident at the temporal limbus can be concentrated at the nasal limbus or beyond or at the nasal crystalline lens equator. The main pathways of light are transcameral and this is demonstrated by the use of baffles. Although this phenomenon is obvious with visible light, focusing of light at 308nm can be demonstrated. Computer-assisted optical ray tracing in a standard human anterior segment model showed that the peak intensity at the distal limbus is approximately twenty times that of the incident light intensity. The degree of limbal focusing is determined by corneal shape and anterior chamber depth. Such light focusing may be particularly injurious to corneal and lenticular epithelial stem cells. These observations provide circumstantial evidence that peripheral refraction phenomena are involved in the pathogenesis of the anterior ophthalmohelioses. Adequate lateral protection of the eye from increasing ultraviolet insolation may be prudent.

  3. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  4. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  5. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  6. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  7. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  8. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  9. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  10. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  11. Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

  12. Injury surveillance in construction: eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Welch, L S; Hunting, K L; Mawudeku, A

    2001-07-01

    Occupational eye injuries are both common and preventable. About 20% of occupational eye injuries occur in construction. To investigate the nature of eye injuries among construction workers, we analyzed a large data set of construction worker injuries. In addition, we interviewed 62 workers with eye injuries to further explore circumstances of eye injury and workers' attitudes and behavior toward the use of eye protection. Eleven percent (363 cases) of the 3,390 construction workers in our data set were treated for eye injuries. Welders, plumbers, insulators, painters/glaziers, supervisors, and electricians had a higher proportion of all injuries due to eye injuries than other trades. Nearly half of the diagnoses were abrasions (46%) followed by foreign objects or splash in the eye (29%), conjunctivitis (10%), and burns (5%). In the interviews with 62 workers, we found that employers very frequently required eye protection for all tasks or for high-risk tasks, and workers report wearing eye protection regularly. However, most did not wear eye protection with top and side shields; if we believe the injuries occurred because a particle or liquid passed between the glasses and the workers' faces, increased use of goggles or full shields would have prevented two-thirds of this group of injuries.

  13. Clinical light damage to the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight.

  14. Eye protection in racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, M

    1988-04-01

    This article summarizes the clinical and experimental data leading to the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) certification of six eyeguards for racquet sports in Canada in November 1986. A parallel approach involving the American Standard of Testing and Materials (ASTM) is discussed and eyeguards meeting specifications are illustrated.

  15. Nutrition and the eye.

    PubMed

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

  16. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting worse? What other symptoms do you have? A slit-lamp examination may be done. Blood testing for thyroid disease may be done. Treatments depend on the cause. Artificial tears may be given to lubricate the eye.

  17. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  18. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  19. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  20. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  1. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  2. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  3. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  4. Autologous eye drops for the treatment of dry eye and neurotrophic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Mixon, William; Angelle, Patricea Patsy; Chang, Richard I

    2009-01-01

    Tears-which contain fibronectin, growth facors, and vitamins that support the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium-nourish, protect, and refresh the eye. An inadequate tear film produces a variety of symptoms (ocular irritation, itching, burning, eye strain or fatigue, photophobia, a foreign-body sensation, a sharp stabbing pain, blurred vision) that wax and wane in intensity and are characteristic of disorders such as dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and neurotrophic keratitis. In patients for whom commercially manufactured eye drops fail to provide relief from the symptoms of those conditions, autologous serum eye drops (plasma eye drops, serum eye drops) have proven very effective. In this report, we examine the present case studies that reveal the efects of autologous serum eye drops on the signs and symptoms of both dry eye and neurotrophic keratitis. A procedure for preparing autologous eye drops is included.

  5. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  6. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  7. Effectiveness of Existing Eye Safety Legislation in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaspy, Roy Eugene

    This study was designed to ascertain the current practices of eye safety in Arizona high school industrial education laboratories, including the enforcement of eye safety legislation, use of eye protection devices, how the eye ware meets the American National Standards Institute specifications, and the teachers' interpretations of the existing eye…

  8. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  9. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  10. Googly Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  11. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  12. Identification of QTL for UV-Protective Eye Area Pigmentation in Cattle by Progeny Phenotyping and Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pausch, Hubert; Wang, Xiaolong; Jung, Simone; Krogmeier, Dieter; Edel, Christian; Emmerling, Reiner; Götz, Kay-Uwe; Fries, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation patterns allow for the differentiation of cattle breeds. A dominantly inherited white head is characteristic for animals of the Fleckvieh (FV) breed. However, a minority of the FV animals exhibits peculiar pigmentation surrounding the eyes (ambilateral circumocular pigmentation, ACOP). In areas where animals are exposed to increased solar ultraviolet radiation, ACOP is associated with a reduced susceptibility to bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (BOSCC, eye cancer). Eye cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumour affecting cattle. Selection for animals with ACOP rapidly reduces the incidence of BOSCC. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying ACOP, we performed a genome-wide association study using 658,385 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study population consisted of 3579 bulls of the FV breed with a total of 320,186 progeny with phenotypes for ACOP. The proportion of progeny with ACOP was used as a quantitative trait with high heritability (h2 = 0.79). A variance component based approach to account for population stratification uncovered twelve QTL regions on seven chromosomes. The identified QTL point to MCM6, PAX3, ERBB3, KITLG, LEF1, DKK2, KIT, CRIM1, ATRN, GSDMC, MITF and NBEAL2 as underlying genes for eye area pigmentation in cattle. The twelve QTL regions explain 44.96% of the phenotypic variance of the proportion of daughters with ACOP. The chromosomes harbouring significantly associated SNPs account for 54.13% of the phenotypic variance, while another 19.51% of the phenotypic variance is attributable to chromosomes without identified QTL. Thus, the missing heritability amounts to 7% only. Our results support a polygenic inheritance pattern of ACOP in cattle and provide the basis for efficient genomic selection of animals that are less susceptible to serious eye diseases. PMID:22567150

  13. Sports eye injuries a preventable disease.

    PubMed

    Vinger, P F

    1981-02-01

    Each year, sports are responsible for over 100.000 preventable eye injuries. A face-protector standard was developed for hockey. Certified protectors effectively eliminated eye and face injuries to 1,200,000 players averting a projected 70,000 injuries and saving over $10,000,000 in medical expenses annually. The principle of absorbing energy in a protective device before the eye is injured is applied to other sports (racket sports, baseball, basketball). Recommendations are made on eye protection for athletes. Better data collection and standards for sports and children's eyewear are encouraged.

  14. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  15. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  16. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  17. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  18. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  19. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  20. 17β-Estradiol eye drops protect the retinal ganglion cell layer and preserve visual function in an in vivo model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatrai, Katalin Prokai; Xin, Hua; Nguyen, Vien; Szarka, Szabolcs; Blazics, Balazs; Prokai, Laszlo; Koulen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotection in glaucoma as a curative strategy complementary to current therapies to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) is highly desirable. This study was designed to investigate neuroprotection by 17β-estradiol (E2) to prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in a glaucoma model of surgically elevated IOP in rats. We found that daily treatment with E2 containing eye drops resulted in significant E2 concentration in the retina with concomitant profound neuroprotective therapeutic benefits, even in the presence of continually elevated IOP. The number of apoptotic cells in the RGC layer was significantly decreased in the E2-treated group, when compared to the vehicle-treated controls. Deterioration in visual acuity in these animals was also markedly prevented. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, beneficial changes in the expression of several proteins implicated in the maintenance of retinal health were also found in the retina of E2-treated animals. On the other hand, systemic side-effects could not be avoided with the eye drops, as confirmed by the measured high circulating estrogen levels and through the assessment of the uterus representing a typical hormone-sensitive peripheral organ. Collectively, the demonstrated significant neuroprotective effect of topical E2 in the selected animal model of glaucoma provides a clear rationale for further studies aiming at targeting E2 into the eye while avoiding systemic E2 exposure to diminish undesirable off target side-effects. PMID:23841874

  1. 17β-estradiol eye drops protect the retinal ganglion cell layer and preserve visual function in an in vivo model of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Xin, Hua; Nguyen, Vien; Szarka, Szabolcs; Blazics, Balazs; Prokai, Laszlo; Koulen, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Neuroprotection in glaucoma as a curative strategy complementary to current therapies to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) is highly desirable. This study was designed to investigate neuroprotection by 17β-estradiol (E2) to prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in a glaucoma model of surgically elevated IOP in rats. We found that daily treatment with E2-containing eye drops resulted in significant E2 concentration in the retina with concomitant profound neuroprotective therapeutic benefits, even in the presence of continually elevated IOP. The number of apoptotic cells in the RGC layer was significantly decreased in the E2-treated group, when compared to the vehicle-treated controls. Deterioration in visual acuity in these animals was also markedly prevented. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, beneficial changes in the expression of several proteins implicated in the maintenance of retinal health were also found in the retina of E2-treated animals. On the other hand, systemic side effects could not be avoided with the eye drops, as confirmed by the measured high circulating estrogen levels and through the assessment of the uterus representing a typical hormone-sensitive peripheral organ. Collectively, the demonstrated significant neuroprotective effect of topical E2 in the selected animal model of glaucoma provides a clear rationale for further studies aiming at targeting E2 into the eye while avoiding systemic E2 exposure to diminish undesirable off-target side effects. PMID:23841874

  2. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence.

  3. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence. PMID:21267658

  4. Solar radiation and the eye: a review of knowledge relevant to eye care.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, S

    1986-08-01

    Solar radiation has been implicated, with a variety of evidence, as a causative agent in photokeratoconjunctivitis, pinguecula and pterygium, nodular band keratopathies, epidermoid carcinoma, cataract, solar retinopathy, and macular degeneration. Much of the support for claims relating to chronic conditions having serious consequences and significant prevalence in the United States rests on investigations using animals and short-time exposures at high intensities. The direct applicability of these studies to humans in natural environments is uncertain, but they have been relied on because one cannot deliberately induce significant trauma in humans. The use of animal data is made difficult by the need to convert animal thresholds to human equivalents, to equate laboratory cycles and magnitudes of exposure to those in the natural environment, and to quantify the impact of avoidance and protective mechanisms. Risk can be assessed adequately only by epidemiological studies, but their potential has been only partially realized because of poorly controlled confounding variables. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that corneal trauma from ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a risk of prolonged exposure in regions containing much ultraviolet (UV) or in highly reflective environments. The impact of UV-B on cataractogenesis has been investigated inadequately and no evidence exists for retinal trauma arising from routine exposure in even the brightest surroundings. However, there can be no question that enough solar energy reaches the earth to harm the eye if unattenuated. Damage to vision as a result of direct solar viewing demonstrates that unequivocally. The lack of clear evidence of radiation damage occurring other than in regions of high reflectivity and/or low horizons suggests that in normal surroundings there is little or no risk to the eye, although more careful epidemiological investigation is required before all concern can be ruled out completely. The major improvement

  5. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit.

  6. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

  7. Billie's eyes.

    PubMed

    Dunning, S E

    1993-03-01

    The author, a nurse, is personally opposed to abortion; however, her earlier encounter with a victim of an illegal abortion has prevented her from joining campaigns to reinstate bans on abortion rights. The woman, "Billie," presented to an inner-city Chicago hospital in 1970 with hemorrhaging. She had delayed going for treatment because she feared being imprisoned for having obtained an abortion. She rapidly entered septic shock, with hypotension, confusion, and hallucinations. Physicians removed her infected uterus and ovaries. Subsequent kidney failure necessitated the transfer of this young woman to another hospital where she could receive dialysis. The author was unable to obtain follow-up information on whether Billie survived. She remains haunted by the memory of Billie's wide, frightened eyes as she was placed in the ambulance. It is this memory, and the knowledge that desperate women like Billie will find someone, somewhere to perform an illegal abortion, that is behind the author's reluctant support for the right to choose.

  8. Finding an Eye Care Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information > Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific ...

  9. [Diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of diabetic eye control].

    PubMed

    Radda, Stephan; Bolz, Matthias; Egger, Stefan; Gasser-Steiner, Vanessa; Kralinger, Martina; Mennel, Stefan; Scholda, Christoph; Stolba, Ulrike; Wedrich, Andreas; Krepler, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus can cause diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, optic neuropathy, cataract or dysfunction of the eye muscles. The incidence of these defects correlates with disease duration and quality of metabolic control. Recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for diagnosis, therapeutic procedures and requirements for adequate follow up depending on stage of diabetic eye disease are summarized. PMID:27052229

  10. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision science and eye health fun with videos, optical illusions, and more. View the site Request for ... español NEI FAQs Eye Health Resources Studies, print materials and more. National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) ...

  11. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  12. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  13. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  14. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  15. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  16. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  17. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  18. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  19. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  20. Indications for eye removal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Koylu, Mehmet T.; Gokce, Gokcen; Uysal, Yusuf; Ceylan, Osman M.; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Gunal, Armagan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the indications and types of eye removals at a military tertiary care hospital in Turkey. Methods: The medical records (age, gender, affected eye, type of surgical procedure, indications of surgery) of 123 patients who underwent evisceration and enucleation in the course of a 15-year period (January 2000 to December 2014) at Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was 35.61±18.52 (range 3-80 years). The number of male in the patient group was 92 (74.8%) and female was 31 (25.2%). Patients who underwent evisceration were 95 (77.2%), whereas 28 (22.8%) of them underwent enucleation. The mean age of the eviscerated patients was 30.63±13.08, whereas the mean age of the enucleated patients was 52.50±23.92 (p<0.001). The leading indications for eye amputations were trauma (n=62, 50.4%), malignancy (n=20, 16.3%), painful blind eye and absolute glaucoma (n=20, 16.3%), endophthalmitis (n=12, 9.7%), and phthisis bulbi, and cosmetic reasons (n=9, 7.3%). Conclusion: Trauma was the most common etiology for evisceration, and malignancy was the most common etiology for enucleation. Using protective eyewear and early detection of intraocular malignancy and glaucoma through routine ophthalmic examinations are essential for providing non-invasive treatment modalities instead of eye removal. PMID:26446332

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  3. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  4. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  5. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  6. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  7. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  8. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  13. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  14. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  15. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  16. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  17. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  18. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  19. Differential diagnosis of dry eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Pflugfelder, S C

    1996-04-01

    The pre-ocular tear film is a complex biochemical structure produced by the lacrimal glands and epithelial cells on the ocular surface. Clinical syndromes of ocular irritation may result from deficiencies in one or more of these layers. At a recent dry eye workshop at the National Eye Institute, dry eye conditions were classified into those with adequate aqueous tear production and those with aqueous tear deficiency. The majority of patients with aqueous adequate dry eye suffer from meibomian gland dysfunction that results in lipid tear deficiency. Aqueous tear deficiency can be subclassified into non-Sjögren's syndrome and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) groups. Patients with non-Sjögren's aqueous tear deficiency have less-severe symptoms and ocular surface disease than those with SS. The etiology of non-Sjögren's aqueous tear deficiency has not been established, but it appears to be multifactorial. In SS, immune-mediated destruction of the lacrimal gland results in severe aqueous tear deficiency. Aqueous tear deficiencies lead to ocular surface disease, termed keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). KCS results from abnormal terminal differentiation of the ocular surface epithelia and is associated with marked reduction in mucin production by these cells. Clinical features helpful in differentiating the various dry eye syndromes are reviewed.

  20. Serious eye injury in badminton players.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, S. P.

    1987-01-01

    Serious eye injury can occur in badminton players and may become more frequent. The causes and nature of such injuries in this sport in six patients are discussed. All were playing competitive doubles matches. Penetrating eye injury due to a shattered glass spectacle lens occurred. Players should be advised not to wear spectacles with glass lenses. Ocular protection in this sport is desirable, and the forward player should hold the racket in front of the face. PMID:3676143

  1. Serious eye injury in badminton players.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S P

    1987-10-01

    Serious eye injury can occur in badminton players and may become more frequent. The causes and nature of such injuries in this sport in six patients are discussed. All were playing competitive doubles matches. Penetrating eye injury due to a shattered glass spectacle lens occurred. Players should be advised not to wear spectacles with glass lenses. Ocular protection in this sport is desirable, and the forward player should hold the racket in front of the face.

  2. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  3. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - care ... until the problem is very bad. Your health care provider can catch problems early if you get ... doctor (ophthalmologist). Choose an eye doctor who takes care of people with diabetes. Your eye exam may ...

  4. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema: blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  5. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ...

  8. Effects of PUVA on the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome.

  9. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  10. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... to gently flush it out with water or eye drops. If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab to the object to remove it. If the object is on the white of the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water or ...

  11. Peripheral light focusing by the anterior eye and the ophthalmohelioses.

    PubMed

    Coroneo, M T; Müller-Stolzenburg, N W; Ho, A

    1991-12-01

    Peripheral focusing of light by the anterior eye may provide a unifying concept to explain the location and etiology of sun-related eye conditions (ophthalmohelioses). Using a bovine eye model, along with computer-assisted ray-tracing techniques to model limbal focusing, we demonstrated a correlation between the locations of the foci of scattered incident light (resulting in a 20-fold concentration of light at the limbus) and the usual locations of pterygium and cortical cataract. These findings suggest the need for improved ocular protective devices, particularly ones that provide lateral protection of the eye against the increased ultraviolet insolation resulting from thinning of the ozone layer.

  12. Heat Shock Proteins in the Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Urbak, Lærke; Vorum, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are believed to primarily protect and maintain cell viability under stressful conditions such as those occurring during thermal and oxidative challenges chiefly by refolding and stabilizing proteins. Hsps are found throughout the various tissues of the eye where they are thought to confer protection from disease states such as cataract, glaucoma, and cancer. This minireview summarizes the placement, properties, and roles of Hsps in the eye and aims to provide a better comprehension of their function and involvement in ocular disease pathogenesis. PMID:22084677

  13. 46 CFR 153.527 - Toxic vapor protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency escape breathing apparatus does not protect the eyes from vapors, a set of goggles that either: (1) Meet the specifications of ANSI Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,...

  14. 46 CFR 153.527 - Toxic vapor protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency escape breathing apparatus does not protect the eyes from vapors, a set of goggles that either: (1) Meet the specifications of ANSI Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,...

  15. 46 CFR 153.932 - Goggles and protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or tight-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if that person is...-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if the person is: (1) In the...

  16. 46 CFR 153.527 - Toxic vapor protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency escape breathing apparatus does not protect the eyes from vapors, a set of goggles that either: (1) Meet the specifications of ANSI Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,...

  17. 46 CFR 153.932 - Goggles and protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or tight-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if that person is...-fitting goggles for eye protection against splashing or spraying liquids if the person is: (1) In the...

  18. [Diagnosis, therapy and follow up of diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Stur, Michael; Egger, Stefan; Haas, Anton; Kieselbach, Gerhard; Mennel, Stefan; Michl, Reinhard; Roden, Michael; Stolba, Ulrike; Wedrich, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus causes diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, optic neuropathy, cataract or dysfunction of the eye muscles. The incidence of these defects correlates with disease duration and quality of the metabolic control. The recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the diagnosis, the therapeutic procedures and requirements for adequate follow up depending on the stages of the different forms of diabetic eye disease are summarized.

  19. The modern office environment desiccates the eyes?

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, P; Nøjgaard, J K; Franck, C; Skov, P

    2006-08-01

    Eye irritation is a common complaint in the office environment. The purpose of this overview is to merge knowledge within indoor air science, ophthalmology, and occupational health to promote understanding eye irritation symptomatology, the cause of which is still partly unknown. High periocular relative humidity appears to protect the pre-corneal tear film against desiccation and sensory irritating pollutants and reduces the development of eye irritation symptoms. This is particularly relevant for intensive computer work, where the pre-corneal tear film is altered resulting in dry spot formation and eye dryness, in addition to enhanced susceptibility towards sensory irritating pollutants. The workplace, thermal conditions, and work schedule (including breaks) should be planned in such a way to help maintain a normal eye blink frequency to minimize alterations of the pre-corneal tear film. The role of relative humidity on eye irritation symptoms should not be underestimated. Multiple short breaks are justified by the beneficial effect on the pre-corneal tear film. In addition, longer breaks in tasks, which require demanding visual work, should be considered. In addition, air temperature as well as certain alkene oxidation products by ozone may worsen eye irritation symptoms, but the latter factor may be smaller at higher relative humidity.

  20. Dry Eye Disease and Microbial Keratitis: Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Srihari; Redfern, Rachel L.; Miller, William L.; Nichols, Kelly K.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms operate to protect the dry eye from invading pathogens. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology of ocular surface infection in dry eye patients and laboratory-based studies on innate immune mechanisms operating at the ocular surface and their alterations in human dry eye and animal models. The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae. PMID:23583043

  1. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  2. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  3. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  4. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  5. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  7. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  8. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  9. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  10. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  11. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  12. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  13. Eye injuries in childhood.

    PubMed

    Grin, T R; Nelson, L B; Jeffers, J B

    1987-07-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted of all children with eye injuries admitted to Wills Eye Hospital to determine demographic, etiologic, and prophylactic factors. There were 278 cases, representing 22% of all ocular injuries in children requiring admission. The frequency of childhood ocular injuries is high, often resulting in serious visual impairment. Many of these injuries are preventable. The causes of pediatric eye injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  14. LASIK and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery.

  15. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  16. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  17. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  18. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  19. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  20. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  1. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Sports and Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — ... health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Fireworks Eye Safety Jun 10, 2016 Top 10 Tips ...

  2. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2009-03-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  3. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe; Yepes, Pablo

    2009-03-10

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy.

  4. 75 FR 74022 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... November 15, 2010 (75 FR 69648). The corrected text of the recommendation approved by the Board is below... or telephone number (202) 694-7000. Correction: In the Federal Register of November 15, 2010 (75 FR... the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory that represented a significant departure...

  5. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Administration (NNSA) approved a DSA for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory that... 2009-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium ] Facility Seismic Safety. The Board followed up its... Plutonium Facility in December 2008 demonstrates that, despite DOE's stated expectations, it is not...

  6. Contemporary Proton Therapy Systems Adequately Protect Patients from Exposure to Stray Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Taddei, Phillip J.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Giebeler, Annelise; Zhang, Rui; Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Stovall, Marilyn; Yepes, Pablo; Woo, Shiao; Mohan, Radhe

    2010-01-01

    Proton beam therapy has provided safe and effective treatments for a variety of adult cancers. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in utilizing proton therapy for pediatric cancers because it allows better sparing of healthy tissues. Minimizing exposures of normal tissues is especially important in children because they are highly susceptible to consequential late effects, including the development of a radiogenic second cancer, which may occur years or even decades after treatment of the first cancer. While the dosimetric advantage of therapeutic proton beams is well understood, relatively little attention has been paid to the whole-body exposure to stray neutron radiation that is inherent in proton therapy. In this report, we review the physical processes that lead to neutron exposures, discuss the potential for mitigating these exposures using advanced proton beam delivery systems, and present a comparative analysis of predicted second cancer incidence following various external beam therapies. In addition, we discuss uncertainties in the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for carcinogenesis and the impact that these uncertainties have on second-cancer risk predictions for survivors of adult and childhood cancer who receive proton therapy. PMID:20844607

  7. Eye injuries in Canadian sports and recreational activities.

    PubMed

    Pashby, T J

    1992-08-01

    Over 4000 eye injuries, including 449 blind eyes, have been reported in sports and recreational activities in Canada over the past 20 years. This is not only a great personal loss but also a financial loss, both to the injured person and to the community. Statistics should be tabulated on catastrophic injuries that leave the person with a physical or mental deficit, such as a blind eye, and efforts should be directed toward preventing such injuries. Changing and enforcing game rules and providing proper eye protection has proved very beneficial in Canadian hockey, racket sports and war games. Educational programs supported by the media and government that alert players to the need for eye protection are required. Such measures may lead to the prevention of up to 90% of injuries in sports and recreational activities in Canada.

  8. Advocacy for eye care

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

  9. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  10. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  11. Eye-wall resection.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Miller, T; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 11 to 86 years). Tumors involved the iris alone in 17 cases, the iris-ciliary body in 53, the ciliary body alone in 16, and the choroid (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid) in 46 cases. A total of 114 eyes harbored melanomas; tumors located more posteriorly were more likely to have epithelioid cells (P < .05). Mean follow-up was 6 years. Mean number of clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumors was 3.5. In tumors that involved the choroid, the mean largest diameter was 12.6 mm and the mean thickness was 8.2 mm. Ninety-three (70%) of 132 eyes were retained. Histologic assessment of surgical margins did not correlate with either evidence of tumor in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of tumors located more anteriorly were more likely to be clear on histologic evaluation (P < .05). Approximately 56% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better; visual results were significantly better in tumors located more anteriorly (P < .05). All retained eyes with iris tumors had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In tumors that involved the choroid, 8 of 25 retained eyes kept visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Metastases developed in 8 patients; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumors that involved the choroid, and 7 of 8 were mixed cell melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent of eyes were retained, and 56% of these had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Only 7% of patients

  12. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  13. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... For clear vision, the eye's cornea and lens must bend (refract) light rays properly. This allows images to be focused on ...

  14. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  15. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  16. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... Once you have eye disease caused by diabetes, you need to see an ophthalmologist. ... feel stinging when the drops are first placed. You may have a ... using a bright light. The doctor can then see areas that may ...

  17. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  18. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  19. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  20. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  1. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  2. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. ... exam Diagnostic staining of the cornea and tear film Measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) ...

  3. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  4. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  5. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Principi, S; Delgado Soler, C; Ginjaume, M; Beltran Vilagrasa, M; Rovira Escutia, J J; Duch, M A

    2015-07-01

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y(-1), averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y(-1). This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y(-1). Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y(-1). It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. PMID:25809107

  6. Los Alamos Laser Eye Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Odom, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    A student working in a laser laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory sustained a serious retinal injury to her left eye when she attempted to view suspended particles in a partially evacuated target chamber. The principle investigator was using the white light from the flash lamp of a Class 4 Nd:YAG laser to illuminate the particles. Since the Q-switch was thought to be disabled at the time of the accident, the principal investigator assumed it would be safe to view the particles without wearing laser eye protection. The Laboratory Director appointed a team to investigate the accident and to report back to him the events and conditions leading up to the accident, equipment malfunctions, safety management causal factors, supervisory and management action/inaction, adequacy of institutional processes and procedures, emergency and notification response, effectiveness of corrective actions and lessons learned from previous similar events, and recommendations for human and institutional safety improvements. The team interviewed personnel, reviewed documents, and characterized systems and conditions in the laser laboratory during an intense six week investigation. The team determined that the direct and primary failures leading to this accident were, respectively, the principle investigator's unsafe work practices and the institution's inadequate monitoring of worker performance. This paper describes the details of the investigation, the human and institutional failures, and the recommendations for improving the laser safety program.

  7. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  8. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  9. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  10. Holographic Laser-Protective Eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, James M.

    1988-04-01

    Holographic filters in spectacle lenses, helmet visors and other types of substrates have been proposed for eye protection against visible lasers. Dyes and filter glasses, commonly used as laser protection at visible wavelengths, typically suffer from poor visual transmittance. Holographic filters offer potentially high visual transmittance due to a narrow spectral notch, but the angular dependence of the spectral notch position dictates a tradeoff between eye protection and visual transmittance. The relative merits of various exposure and substrate configurations for laser-protective eyewear are compared. Emphasis is placed on single-beam exposure, surface-conformal fringe structures in which the local Bragg angle is determined by the fringe spacing as opposed to the fringe tilt. This type of hologram is readily made free from flare or multiple images in transmission. Performance is evaluated in terms of visual transmittance versus eye protection, including retinal area and eye rotation. The relationship between angular and spectral response of holographic laser filters determines the exposure source for optimum performance to be roughly coincident with the center of eye rotation, regardless of the substrate geometry. Performance may be improved by locating the filters a greater distance from the eye. A more dramatic improvement in performance may be achieved by increasing the curvature of the substrate so that it is concentric with the eye.

  11. COMPU-EYE: a high resolution computational compound eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Jang, Hwanchol; Park, Sangjun; Song, Young Min; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-02-01

    In nature, the compound eyes of arthropods have evolved towards a wide field of view (FOV), infinite depth of field and fast motion detection. However, compound eyes have inferior resolution when compared with the camera-type eyes of vertebrates, owing to inherent structural constraints such as the optical performance and the number of ommatidia. For resolution improvements, in this paper, we propose COMPUtational compound EYE (COMPU-EYE), a new design that increases acceptance angles and uses a modern digital signal processing (DSP) technique. We demonstrate that the proposed COMPU-EYE provides at least a four-fold improvement in resolution.

  12. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... harmful gases while on flight deck duty; (2) That equipment must include— (i) Masks covering the eyes... eyes; and (3) That equipment must supply protective oxygen of 10 minutes duration per crewmember at...

  13. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  14. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  15. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  16. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  17. 46 CFR 197.555 - Personal protective clothing and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.555 Personal protective clothing and..., tight-fitting eye goggles to limit dermal exposure to, and prevent eye contact with, liquid benzene....

  18. Penetrating eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B C

    1989-01-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable. PMID:2705791

  19. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with adequately prepared oysters.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J W; McMillan, J H

    1995-08-01

    Over Christmas 1993, an outbreak of food poisoning occurred among guests in a hotel in South West Scotland. Evidence from a cohort study strongly suggested that raw oysters were the vehicle for infection, probably due to a Small Round Structured Virus (SRSV). Detailed enquiry about the source and preparation of the oysters revealed no evidence of any unsafe handling at any stage in the food chain, nor any evidence of bacterial contamination. It is suggested that the present standards of preparation and monitoring are inadequate to protect the consumer, and that bacteriophage monitoring may be a useful method of screening for viral contamination in future.

  20. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  1. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  2. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  3. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  4. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  5. Eye-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

  6. Eye Movements and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Kenneth

    An explanation of visual perception is presented using physiological facts, analogies to digital computers, and analogies to the structure of written languages. According to the explanation, visual input is discontinuous, with the discontinuities mediated by and correlated with the jumps of the eye. This is analogous to the gated and buffer-stored…

  7. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  8. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  9. Dynamic Eye Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Instructions (with diagrams and parts list) are provided for constructing an eye model with a pliable lens made from a plastic bottle which can vary its convexity to accommodate changing positions of an object being viewed. Also discusses concepts which the model can assist in developing. (Author/SK)

  10. [Eye and the pregnacy].

    PubMed

    Dima, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist.

  11. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  12. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  13. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  14. An eye for inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  15. The Eyes Have It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards of working with the visual display systems of computers, in particular the eye problems associated with long-term use of video display terminals. Excerpts from and ordering information for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health report on such hazards are included. (JJD)

  16. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  17. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and seek medical attention. In case of a chemical burn to the eye: Immediately flush the eye ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  18. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials ...

  19. Optical radiation and the eyes with special emphasis on children.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Per G

    2011-12-01

    The Sun is the most abundant source of optical radiation for the child eye. New hand-held visible lasers are a threat to the child eye. Some scientific data suggest that near infrared radiation may cause cumulative damage in the ocular lens. The child eye usually is exposed to ambient solar radiation, gazing at the horizon. Ambient Sun ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to the child is complex due to atmospheric scattering and strong dependence on background reflection. Solar exposure causes biological damage, only by photochemical mechanisms. UVR exposure to a child eye is mainly a threat to the anterior segment of the eye, but also age dependently to the retina. Above threshold exposure to UVR, for short delay onset of damage, causes a toxic reaction on the surface of the eye, snow blindness, and cataract. Sub-threshold daily exposure to UVR over decades is associated with several ocular surface pathologies and eye lid cancer. Visible radiation is a threat to the retina. A single above threshold exposure, for short delay onset of damage to the retina causes immediate photochemical Type II retinal damage, Sun blindness. A single exposure of the retina to a very high intensity laser beam may cause thermal or thermo-mechanical damage in the retina. In environments with high irradiance of optical radiation, the child eye should be protected. Legislation and public information is required for avoidance of damage from high intensity laser systems. More research is urgently needed to exclude the potential hazard of near infrared radiation.

  20. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  1. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  2. ADAPTIVE EYE MODEL - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskiy, Sergey O.; Kudryashov, Alexey V.

    2008-01-01

    We propose experimental adaptive eye model based on flexible 18-electrode bimorph mirror reproducing human eye aberrations up to 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials at frequency of 10Hz. The accuracy of aberrations reproduction in most cases is better than λ/10 RMS. The model is introduced to aberrometer for human eye aberrations compensation to improve visual acuity test.

  3. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  4. Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria.

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, D; Wittbrodt, J

    2001-01-01

    The shared roles of Pax6 and Six homologues in the eye development of various bilaterians suggest that Urbilateria, the common ancestors of all Bilateria, already possessed some simple form of eyes. Here, we re-address the homology of bilaterian cerebral eyes at the level of eye anatomy, of eye-constituting cell types and of phototransductory molecules. The most widespread eye type found in Bilateria are the larval pigment-cup eyes located to the left and right of the apical organ in primary, ciliary larvae of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. They can be as simple as comprising a single pigment cell and a single photoreceptor cell in inverse orientation. Another more elaborate type of cerebral pigment-cup eyes with an everse arrangement of photoreceptor cells is found in adult Protostomia. Both inverse larval and everse adult eyes employ rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and thus differ from the chordate cerebral eyes with ciliary photoreceptors. This is highly significant because on the molecular level we find that for phototransduction rhabdomeric versus ciliary photoreceptor cells employ divergent rhodopsins and non-orthologous G-proteins, rhodopsin kinases and arrestins. Our comparison supports homology of cerebral eyes in Protostomia; it challenges, however, homology of chordate and non-chordate cerebral eyes that employ photoreceptor cells with non-orthologous phototransductory cascades. PMID:11604122

  5. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  6. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  7. [STD in the eye].

    PubMed

    Usui, Masahiko; Minoda, Hirosi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STD) involving the eye. Recently conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis in children and adults is increasing, and that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to multiple antibiotics has attracted special attention in our country. Syphilis has many ocular manifestations such as keratitis, iridocyclitis, retinochorioiditis, and neuritis, etc. Ocular complications related to HIV infection, including HIV retinopathy, cytomegalovirus retinitis, zoster ophthalmics, and Kaposi s sarcoma in conjunctiva are increasing in Japan. Phthirus pubis infection of the eye lid, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated uveitis are occasionally reported. Furthermore conjunctival tumor associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, acute retinal necrosis(ARN) due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), as well as hepatitis B virus (HVB) and hepatitis C virus (HVC) retinopathy are also mentioned in this review. PMID:19177759

  8. Eye movements during transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Tebēcis, A K

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic changes in eye movements occurred during meditation with closed eyes in a proportion of subjects experienced in TM. The most common changes were an increase in slow, large-amplitude, 'rolling' eye movements and a concomitant decrease in rapid, low-amplitude, 'jerky' eye movements. Much variation occurred between individuals, however, some subjects showing no differences between TM and non-meditation. Any changes that occurred were not necessarily constant for the whole recording period nor consistent between sessions. The physiological effects of TM are far more variable than previously publicized. In general, the main changes in eye movements during TM are similar to those during passive hypnosis.

  9. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease.

  10. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease. PMID:25275793

  11. Dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr

    2011-07-01

    Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  12. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  13. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.

  14. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  15. Pediatric Eye Screening Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.

    2001-11-01

    Computational evaluations are presented for binocular eye screening using the off-axis digital retinascope. The retinascope, such as the iScreen digital screening system, has been employed to perform pediatric binocular screening using a flash lamp and single-shot camera recording. The digital images are transferred electronically to a reading center for analysis. The method has been shown to detect refractive error, amblyopia, anisocoria, and ptosis. This computational work improves the performance of the system and forms the basis for automated data analysis. For this purpose, variouis published eye models are evaluated with simulated retinascope images. Two to ten million rays are traced in each image calculation. The poster will present the simulation results for a range of eye conditions of refractive error of -20 to +20 diopters with 0.5- to-1 diopter resolution, pupil size of 3 to 8 mm diameter (1-mm increment), and staring angle of 2 to 12 degree (2-degree increment). The variation of the results with the system conditions such as the off-axis distance of light source and the shutter size of camera are also evaluated. The quantitative analysis for each eye’s and system’s condition is then performed to obtain parameters for automatic reading. The summary of the system performance is given and performance-enhancement design modifications are presented.

  16. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  17. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  18. Pioneers of eye movement research.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined.

  19. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  20. Dry eye, blepharitis and chronic eye irritation: divide and conquer.

    PubMed

    Gilbard, J P

    1999-01-01

    Dry eye and posterior blepharitis are the two most common causes for chronic eye irritation. Dry eye is caused by loss of water from the tear film resulting from either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. The resultant increase in tear film osmolarity causes the changes on the eye surface responsible for the symptoms of dry eye. Posterior blepharitis causes eye irritation from inflammation, and leads to the development of meibomian gland dysfunction. The patient history is a powerful tool in narrowing the differential diagnosis of chronic eye irritation or even establishing the diagnosis. The exam adds power to the history, and sorts out the mechanisms causing dry eye symptoms. The primary goal of dry eye treatment is to lower elevated tear film osmolarity. This can be achieved with TheraTears treatment, either with or without punctal plugs. The primary goal of meibomitis treatment is to reduce inflammation. This can be achieved by hot compresses and lid massage and, when necessary, systemic treatment with low dose doxycycline. By determining the cause or causes of chronic eye irritation, effective treatments can be employed.

  1. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  2. Saccadic eye movements and eye-head coordination in children.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J; Anderson, M E

    1977-04-01

    The eye and head movements of nine children, ages 6 through 10, were measured in order to establish quantitative characteristics of eye movements and eye-head corrdination patterns of children with normal vision and reading levels. The relationship between saccade amplitude and duration was linear, but the slope of this relationship indicated that saccades in children may have higher velocities than they do in adults. One of three temporal patterns of head and saccadic eye movement occurred during shifts of gaze to visual targets, depending on the temporal and spatial predictability of the target. It is suggested that quantitative measurements such as these could be used to examine developmental characteristics of eye and eye-head movement control.

  3. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  4. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  5. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  6. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  7. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  9. [A correct understanding of preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuguo; Huang, Caihong

    2015-09-01

    Eye drops are the most commonly used preparations in ophthalmology. Preservatives are usually added in order to protect eye drops against pathogenic organisms and increase the solubility of the drugs in multi-dose containers. Ophthalmologists have paid a lot of attention to the preservatives in eye drops because they remain one of the main reasons for ocular surface damage, and even may lead to serious visual impairment in patients with inappropriate use of eye drops. However, it should be noted that the dangers of preservatives become overstated nowadays. It is necessary to completely evaluate the effects of preservatives in ophthalmic preparations, so that ophthalmologists can guide patients to correctly select eye drops containing preservatives and avoid dangerous side effects, according to their eye disease situation, state of tear function and ocular surface changes, cultural background and financial income, cost and benefit and convenience of the use of drugs, and other factors. The direction of the future development in this field is to establish the clinical guideline for use of eye drops containing preservatives, carry out continuing education courses on preservatives and develop ideal preservatives.

  10. What Can We Do to Bring the Sparkle Back into This Child's Eyes? Child Rights/Community Development Principles: Key Elements for a Strengths-Based Child Protection Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…

  11. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  12. Analysis on sports and recreation activity-related eye injuries presenting to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungbae; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Bae; Seo, Kang Suk; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Yoo, In Sool; Cho, Jin Seong; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Jeong, Tae Oh; Yeom, Seok Ran; Kim, Young Taek; Hong, Sung Ok

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence and general characteristics of sports-related eye injuries in patients visiting the Emergency Department. METHODS A cross-sectional, multi-center, observational study. Patients with an injured eye who visited the Emergency Department at one of nine hospitals in Korea were enrolled. All data were prospectively collected between March and September 2010 using a questionnaire. Eye injuries that occurred during risky sports were examined by gender and age. Additionally, the rate of open globe injuries that occurred with and without protective eyewear was examined for each activity. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 446 patients had sports-related eye injuries. Teenagers (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old) had the most eye injuries. Eye injuries accounted for 0.2% of Emergency Department patients. Baseball was the most common cause of sports-related eye injuries, followed by soccer and hiking. Protective gear was worn by 9.4% of all patients. Patients that were 30-39 years of age had the highest rate of protective gear use, followed by patients that were 40-49 years of age. The proportion of sports-related eye injuries that were open-globe injuries was highest for soccer and hiking. CONCLUSION Although injuries were most common in patients below the age of 10 years, these patients had the lowest rate of protective eyewear use. Injuries in adults over 40 years of age most commonly occurred during hiking, but the rate of protective eyewear use was low. Young athletes should be educated on and provided with protective eyewear and policies protective gear use should be established. For older adults, eye protection should be encouraged, especially during hiking. PMID:27803871

  13. Eye color as a risk factor for acquired sensorineural hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Mota, Mario A; Schermbrucker, Jonah; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-02-01

    Eye color may be an indicator of inner ear melanin content and has been associated with hearing loss. There is controversy as to whether eye color has an effect on acquired causes of sensorineural hearing loss. This review was conducted to analyze the literature evaluating the relationship between eye color and causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Six databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Included articles were independently assessed for quality by two authors. Eighteen articles were eligible for review. Eye color was not found to have an effect in the non-exposed population or in presbycusis. In noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss, light-eyed patients had more significant loss following noise exposure, although the variability reported due to eye color was modest (r(2) = 0.01-0.14). Two out of three studies reported that dark eye color is associated with cisplatin ototoxicity. In one study, green-eyed patients were found to be at higher risk of radiation-induced hearing loss. Eye color does not appear to play a role in hearing loss in non-exposed individuals or presbycusis. It is possible that dark-eyed individuals, with greater inner ear melanin content, are better protected against noise-induced hearing loss. Evidence suggests that melanin can be protective against radiation-induced sensorineural hearing loss, but may predispose individuals to cisplatin ototoxicity. Future studies are required to support these conclusions.

  14. Optics of arthropod compound eye.

    PubMed

    Shaw, S R

    1969-07-01

    The extent to which light can escape from one ommatidium into its neighbors in the compound eye has been examined by recording from single receptors during stimulation of single facets. In the "apposition" eye of the drone honeybee and locust, optical interaction is extremely small. In the "superposition" eye of the crayfish, more than half the light captured by the average cell gets in through neighboring facets, even when screening pigments are in the fully lightadapted position.

  15. Automatic dry eye detection.

    PubMed

    Yedidya, Tamir; Hartley, Richard; Guillon, Jean-Pierre; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2007-01-01

    Dry Eye Syndrome is a common disease in the western world, with effects from uncomfortable itchiness to permanent damage to the ocular surface. Nevertheless, there is still no objective test that provides reliable results. We have developed a new method for the automated detection of dry areas in videos taken after instilling fluorescein in the tear film. The method consists of a multi-step algorithm to first locate the iris in each image, then align the images and finally analyze the aligned sequence in order to find the regions of interest. Since the fluorescein spreads on the ocular surface of the eye the edges of the iris are fuzzy making the detection of the iris challenging. We use RANSAC to first detect the upper and lower eyelids and then the iris. Then we align the images by finding differences in intensities at different scales and using a least squares optimization method (Levenberg-Marquardt), to overcome the movement of the iris and the camera. The method has been tested on videos taken from different patients. It is demonstrated to find the dry areas accurately and to provide a measure of the extent of the disease. PMID:18051131

  16. Laser eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  17. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a springloaded plexiglass "flapper." The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  18. Eye Surgery Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    During eye surgery, the surgeon uses an illuminating instrument called an opthalmoscope for close examination of the retina or the interior of the eye. Ordinarily, electric power for the head-mounted light is supplied through a cord from an overhead swivel arm or a floor pedestal. Within limits of cord length and swivel arm movement, the surgeon has considerable freedom of motion. But when more than one opthalmoscope is involved, tangling and interference of the power cords becomes a problem. St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio asked Lewis Research Center for assistance in finding a solution. Lewis responded with a battery-powered system that totally frees the surgeon of attached cords and swivels. Borrowing from space technology, Lewis used small, lightweight nickel-cadmium batteries that can deliver high intensity light for an hour and can be recharged overnight. The Opthalmoscope Powerpack consists of eight batteries in three containers affixed to a webbed belt, and a novel on-off switch equipped with a spring-loaded plexiglass 'flapper.' The belt pack is worn underneath the surgical gown and the flapper permits the doctor to activate the switch by elbow pressure. Lewis built five units and they have been in service at St. Luke's Hospital for a year. Used for routine examinations as well as for surgery, they have demonstrated excellent reliability.

  19. Aging and dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A

    2012-07-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD.

  20. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  1. Management of the Eye in Facial Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Chi, John J

    2016-02-01

    The preoperative assessment of the eye in facial paralysis is a critical component of surgical management. The degree of facial nerve paralysis, lacrimal secretion, corneal sensation, and lower eyelid position must be assessed accurately. Upper eyelid loading procedures are standard management of lagophthalmos. Lower eyelid tightening repositions the lower eyelid and helps maintain the aqueous tear film. Eyelid reanimation allows an aesthetic symmetry with blinking and restores protective functions vital to ocular preservation. Patients often have multiple nervous deficits, including corneal anesthesia. Other procedures include tarsorrhaphy, spring implantation, and temporalis muscle transposition; associated complications have rendered them nearly obsolete.

  2. Preventing Eye Damage from the Sun's Ultraviolet Light: What Health Educators Should Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memmer, Mary Kelly

    1989-01-01

    Health educators are in an ideal position to teach individuals about dangers from the sun's ultraviolet light and how to prevent damage to eyes. Ultraviolet light is described, eye pathology which can be caused by it is outlined, and protective eyewear is discussed. (IAH)

  3. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  4. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  5. [Gunshot into the eye].

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Schyma, P

    1996-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was found dead sitting at his work-bench. A pistol Parabellum 1908 (9 mm Luger) was disassembled on the work-table. A pack of 9 mm Luger full metal jacket ammunition was opened. The left side of his glasses and the left eye were injured. The autopsy proved the death from air embolism. Radiography of the head revealed metallic fragments along the bullet path. The bullet had lost the jacket and the core was fragmented. Gunshot residues on the hands of the deceased and on the left side of the face indicated that the lethal injury was self inflicted. The function of the pistol "08" explicated that a shot could be fired from the isolated barrel which formed a unit with the bolt. The bullet showed traces of manipulation. In the house there were found other self-made dumdum-bullets. Death could be explained as an accident while cleaning the pistol.

  6. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  7. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes.

  8. [Eye and sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Weber, M

    1999-11-15

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, of unknown cause, characterised by non-caseating granulomas. The most common organs involved are the lung, thoracic lymph nodes, skin and eyes. Ophthalmic involvement occurred in approximately 30% of the patients and could be the first manifestation of the disease and preceding pulmonary involvement for many years. If anterior uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation, the posterior segment involvement (intermediate uveitis, vasculitis, choroidal granuloma, macular oedema...) is less common but more visually disabling. The non specific ocular manifestations of the disease make it as a difficult diagnosis. The "suspected sarcoidosis" diagnosis is made with regards to clinical, radiological and (or) biological criteria and the "definitive diagnosis" require the demonstration of a non-caseating, granulomatous, non-infectious inflammation process on biopsy.

  9. Pregnancy and the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yenerel, Nursal Melda; Küçümen, Raciha Beril

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant changes in all systems of the body. Although most of them are physiological, they may also lead to pathological consequences. The resulting pathological changes may occur for the first time or existing diseases affected by pregnancy can become more serious or change course. Diseases specific only to pregnancy may arise. Like all systems of the body, the visual system is also affected by pregnancy, developing a wide range of physiological and pathological changes. Knowing the ocular physiological changes and diagnosing eye diseases that may develop during pregnancy, and preventing and treating these diseases is crucial to ensure the baby’s healthy development. Therefore, we have reviewed the conditions that an ophthalmologist should recognize, follow-up, and pay attention to during treatment and summarized them under the topic “pregnancy and the eye”. PMID:27800235

  10. The Colossal Cosmic Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

  11. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  12. Photographic Screening for Eye Defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Images of retinas examined for characteristic patterns. Color photographs of retinas taken. Proper alinement of eye obtained by asking subject to gaze at light-emitting diode. "Red-eye" patterns in resulting color photographs examined by trained observers for signs of ocular defects. System used to check power of contact lenses and eyeglasses by taking photographs with these items in place.

  13. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  14. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  15. Evaluation of different projectiles in matched experimental eye impact simulations.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Kennedy, Eric A; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-03-01

    impacts and further validate the eye model's ability to predict globe rupture. Results of this study are relevant to the design and regulation of safety systems and equipment to protect against eye injury.

  16. Evaluation of different projectiles in matched experimental eye impact simulations.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Kennedy, Eric A; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-03-01

    impacts and further validate the eye model's ability to predict globe rupture. Results of this study are relevant to the design and regulation of safety systems and equipment to protect against eye injury. PMID:21303178

  17. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cap, be sure to protect exposed areas with sunscreen. Wear sunglasses. They protect your child’s eyes from ... both UVA and UVB rays as possible. Apply sunscreen. Use sunscreen with at least SPF 15 and ...

  18. Evaluation of the Painful Eye.

    PubMed

    Pflipsen, Matthew; Massaquoi, Mariama; Wolf, Suzanne

    2016-06-15

    Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, and herpetic keratitis. The history should focus on vision changes, foreign body sensation, photophobia, and associated symptoms, such as headache. The physical examination includes an assessment of visual acuity and systematic evaluation of the conjunctiva, eyelids, sclera, cornea, pupil, anterior chamber, and anterior uvea. Further examination with fluorescein staining and tonometry is often necessary. Because eye pain can be the first sign of an ophthalmologic emergency, the physician should determine if referral is warranted. Specific conditions that require ophthalmology consultation include acute angle-closure glaucoma, optic neuritis, orbital cellulitis, scleritis, anterior uveitis, and infectious keratitis. PMID:27304768

  19. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fish-eye disease , also called partial LCAT deficiency, is ...

  20. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  1. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  2. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  3. Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.

    PubMed

    Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are.

  4. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  5. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  6. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  9. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  10. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  11. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  12. A method to reduce patient's eye lens dose in neuro-interventional radiology procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Kadir, K. A. A.; Sani, F. M.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-08-01

    Complex and prolonged neuro-interventional radiology procedures using the biplane angiography system increase the patient's risk of radiation-induced cataract. Physical collimation is the most effective way of reducing the radiation dose to the patient's eye lens, but in instances where collimation is not possible, an attenuator may be useful in protecting the eyes. In this study, an eye lens protector was designed and fabricated to reduce the radiation dose to the patients' eye lens during neuro-interventional procedures. The eye protector was characterised before being tested on its effectiveness in a simulated aneurysm procedure on an anthropomorphic phantom. Effects on the automatic dose rate control (ADRC) and image quality are also evaluated. The eye protector reduced the radiation dose by up to 62.1% at the eye lens. The eye protector is faintly visible in the fluoroscopy images and increased the tube current by a maximum of 3.7%. It is completely invisible in the acquisition mode and does not interfere with the clinical procedure. The eye protector placed within the radiation field of view was able to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens by direct radiation beam of the lateral x-ray tube with minimal effect on the ADRC system.

  13. The eyes of LITENING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  14. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  15. A comparison of visual function tests in eyes with maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Fish, G E; Birch, D G; Fuller, D G; Straach, R

    1986-09-01

    Several recently developed tests of visual function, including the Potential Acuity Meter (PAM), laser interferometer (LI), white-light interferometer (WLI), blue field entoptic phenomenon, and focal electroretinogram (ERG) were compared in 81 eyes with clear media and known macular disease. The results indicate that the PAM, the LI, and the WLI overread relative to Snellen acuity. Laser interferometric acuity values differed from Snellen acuity by at least 1.5 octaves in approximately 40% of all eyes, regardless of stimulus size (2, 5, or 8 degrees). Similar results were obtained with the WLI. Agreement with Snellen acuity was better for the PAM, with 91% of eyes falling within 1.5 octaves of Snellen acuity. Blue field and focal ERG results were categorized as normal or abnormal. While not producing Snellen equivalents, abnormal results from the blue field and focal ERG corresponded with poor Snellen acuity (less than 20/40) in 65% and 91% of eyes, respectively. Assuming that media opacities do not prevent adequate retinal stimulation, the present results suggest that the PAM and focal ERG are the most reliable for evaluating macular function when maculopathy is present.

  16. Eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel: dosemeters, calibration and practical aspects of H p (3) monitoring. A 2015 review.

    PubMed

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ferrari, Paolo; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj; Gingaume, Merce; Merce, Marta Sans; O'Connor, Una

    2015-09-01

    A thorough literature review about the current situation on the implementation of eye lens monitoring has been performed in order to provide recommendations regarding dosemeter types, calibration procedures and practical aspects of eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel. Most relevant data and recommendations from about 100 papers have been analysed and classified in the following topics: challenges of today in eye lens monitoring; conversion coefficients, phantoms and calibration procedures for eye lens dose evaluation; correction factors and dosemeters for eye lens dose measurements; dosemeter position and influence of protective devices. The major findings of the review can be summarised as follows: the recommended operational quantity for the eye lens monitoring is H p (3). At present, several dosemeters are available for eye lens monitoring and calibration procedures are being developed. However, in practice, very often, alternative methods are used to assess the dose to the eye lens. A summary of correction factors found in the literature for the assessment of the eye lens dose is provided. These factors can give an estimation of the eye lens dose when alternative methods, such as the use of a whole body dosemeter, are used. A wide range of values is found, thus indicating the large uncertainty associated with these simplified methods. Reduction factors from most common protective devices obtained experimentally and using Monte Carlo calculations are presented. The paper concludes that the use of a dosemeter placed at collar level outside the lead apron can provide a useful first estimate of the eye lens exposure. However, for workplaces with estimated annual equivalent dose to the eye lens close to the dose limit, specific eye lens monitoring should be performed. Finally, training of the involved medical staff on the risks of ionising radiation for the eye lens and on the correct use of protective systems is strongly recommended. PMID

  17. [Progress on the degeneration mechanism of cave fishes' eyes].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xian; Ning, Tiao; Xiao, Heng

    2012-08-01

    Attempts to understand the degeneration of the eyes in cave fish has largely been explained by either various extents of gradual degeneration, ranging from partial to total loss, observed in various species or by acceleration of loss caused by dark environments. However, neither the theory of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin nor the neutral theory of molecular evolution formulated by Kimura Motoo adequately explains these phenomena. Recent trends in utilizing multidisciplinary research, however, have yielded better results, helping reveal a more complex picture of the mechanisms of degeneration. Here, we summarize the current progress of the research via morphology and anatomy, development biology, animal behavior science and molecular genetics, and offer some perspectives on the ongoing research into the development and degeneration of eyes in cave fish.

  18. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  19. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The importance of vision screening There are many eye conditions and diseases ... child’s vision. Focus and alignment disorders that affect vision If any of the following conditions is suspected, ...

  20. Genetic Testing and Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a History of Eye Disease, Do You Need Genetic Testing? Mar. 23, 2012 Thanks to news coverage, ... of breast or ovarian cancer. Physicians now use genetic tests to decide on treatment for some types ...

  1. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  2. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) ... can be very serious. Symptoms and Causes of Conjunctivitis in Newborns Newborns with conjunctivitis develop drainage from ...

  3. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  4. Head and eye Echoencephalogram (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to test for abnormalities in the eye. The ultrasound helps evaluate the farthest part of the eyeball when there are cataracts. The test may help diagnose retinal detachment or other disorders and evaluate orbital lesions and intraocular lesions.

  5. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  6. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  7. [Some characteristics and aspects of a pediatric eye service].

    PubMed

    Vatchenko, A A; Strogal', A S; Riabykin, N G; Khomich, S T; Kukhtiak, B I

    1990-01-01

    The authors share experience of organization of work in the children ophthalmological service in Krivoy Rog and adjacent countryside. The work in the Center of Eye Protection in Children is analysed, and the structure of Children Ophthalmological Service in a big industrial town is subjoined. Attention is drawn to a primary link of Children Ophthalmological Service--an eye room of a territory hospital, a central district hospital, divisional pediatric, preschool and school networks. Arguments are presented concerning essential influence of correct organization of work of this link on effectiveness of dispensarization of children with eye pathology. A question is raised about the necessity to consolidate the primary link of Children Ophthalmological Service, the lacking of which cannot make the whole system of children ophthalmological aid to be of full value.

  8. Eye Movements in Risky Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We asked participants to make simple risky choices while we recorded their eye movements. We built a complete statistical model of the eye movements and found very little systematic variation in eye movements over the time course of a choice or across the different choices. The only exceptions were finding more (of the same) eye movements when choice options were similar, and an emerging gaze bias in which people looked more at the gamble they ultimately chose. These findings are inconsistent with prospect theory, the priority heuristic, or decision field theory. However, the eye movements made during a choice have a large relationship with the final choice, and this is mostly independent from the contribution of the actual attribute values in the choice options. That is, eye movements tell us not just about the processing of attribute values but also are independently associated with choice. The pattern is simple—people choose the gamble they look at more often, independently of the actual numbers they see—and this pattern is simpler than predicted by decision field theory, decision by sampling, and the parallel constraint satisfaction model. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27522985

  9. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  10. Operation Dominic Christmas and Fish Bowl series. Project Officers report. Project 4. 1. Production of chorioretinal burns by nuclear detonations and tests of protective devices and phototropic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    The two primary objectives of this project were: (1) to test and improve methods for predicting the threshold distances at which chorioretinal burns will be produced by nuclear detonations, and (2) to test the response of and protection afforded by various protective devices. Rabbits and primates were used to achieve the first objective. They were exposed, at different altitudes and various distances from ground zero, to the radiant energy from four high-altitude nuclear detonations and eight low-altitude detonations. The animals were then examined for chorioretinal lesions. To achieve the second objective, the devices to be tested were exposed at the same distances and altitudes as the animals. Thermal data were obtained which appear adequate to specify: (1) the thermal stimuli responsible for the retinal burns; (2) the performance of the eye-protective devices; and (3) atmospheric transmission factors.

  11. Prevalence of congenital eye anomalies in a paediatric clinic in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ilechie, A A; Essuman, V A; Enyionam, S

    2014-01-09

    There is little information about the epidemiology of congenital eye anomalies in Ghana. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 485 admissions to the paediatric eye centre of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana (2004-2009) and 263 were diagnosed with at least one anomaly. Visual acuity was quantitatively assessed in 209 patients and 130 had some visual impairment; 49 with bilateral and 64 with unilateral blindness. The most frequent congenital anomaly overall was cataract (n = 44). In infants, cataract was the most frequent finding (28/121). Toddlers most frequently presented with retinoblastoma (10/65). Glaucoma was the most frequent anomaly in preschool (9/39) and school (10/38) children. We conclude that avoidable causes of childhood blindness caused most congenital eye anomalies. Intensification of community-based health promotion and preventive eye care, early detection and provision of adequate resources for effective therapy could reverse these trends.

  12. 14 CFR 67.103 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eye. 67.103 Section 67.103 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.103 Eye. Eye standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/20 or better in each eye separately,...

  13. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  14. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  19. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  20. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  1. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  2. Effects of eye color on frisbee toss.

    PubMed

    Beer, J; Fleming, P

    1988-04-01

    Light-eyed individuals generally perform better at self-paced activities while dark-eyed individuals perform better at reactive activities. Using multiple regression it was found that dark-eyed students hit a target with a frisbee more times than did light-eyed students.

  3. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald

    2002-11-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics with basic principles of physics (mechanics) and mathematics (geometry). In chapter 2 we investigate the degree to which mechanical and neural non-linearities contribute to the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. On the basis of the velocity profiles of centrifugal and centripetal saccades we calculate the forces and muscle innervations during these eye movements. This was done using an inverted model of the eye plant. Our results indicate that the non-linear force-velocity relationship (i.e. muscle viscosity) of the muscles is probably the cause of the kinematic differences between centrifugal and centripetal saccades. In chapter 3 we calculate the adjustment of the saccadic command that is necessary to compensate for the eye plant non-linearities. These calculations show that the agonist and antagonist muscles require different net saccade signal gain changes. In order to better understand how this gain change is accomplished we use the inverted model of the eye plant (chapter 2) to calculate the muscle innervation profiles of saccades with different starting orientations. Based on these calculations we conclude that the saccade signal gain changes are accomplished primarily by changes in the magnitude of the saccade signal. In chapter 4 we examine the requirements that the oculomotor system must meet for the eye to be able to make desired gaze changes and fixate at various eye orientations. We first determine how the axes of action (i.e. unit moment vectors) of the muscles are related to eye orientation and the location of the effective muscle origin (i.e. the muscle pulleys). Next we show how this relation constrains

  4. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  5. Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Seet, M B; Ang, C L

    1997-01-01

    With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50-80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and injuries associated with intraocular foreign bodies pose special diagnostic and management problems. Injuries are bilateral in 15-25% of cases. Injuries associated with chemical, nuclear, and laser weapons have distinct characteristics and epidemiology. Enucleation was commonly performed at the turn of the century, but incidence has declined with better understanding of the pathophysiology of ocular trauma, improved surgical techniques and sepsis control with antibiotics. Sympathetic ophthalmia appears to be uncommon and earlier fears of this complication seem to have been exaggerated. Timely evacuation to a surgical facility is important for a good visual prognosis and preservation of the globe. However, prevention of injuries with eye armor is ultimately the best management, and the need for a comprehensive eye protection program in the military cannot be overemphasized, especially since eye injuries pose important socioeconomic, as well as medical, problems. PMID:9220567

  6. Radiation dose to physicians’ eye lens during interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahruddin, N. A.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.; Bakar, K. A.

    2016-03-01

    The demand of interventional radiology has increased, leading to significant risk of radiation where eye lens dose assessment becomes a major concern. In this study, we investigate physicians' eye lens doses during interventional procedures. Measurement were made using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) dosimeters and was recorded in equivalent dose at a depth of 0.07 mm, Hp(0.07). Annual Hp(0.07) and annual effective dose were estimated using workload estimation for a year and Von Boetticher algorithm. Our results showed the mean Hp(0.07) dose of 0.33 mSv and 0.20 mSv for left and right eye lens respectively. The highest estimated annual eye lens dose was 29.33 mSv per year, recorded on left eye lens during fistulogram procedure. Five physicians had exceeded 20 mSv dose limit as recommended by international commission of radiological protection (ICRP). It is suggested that frequent training and education on occupational radiation exposure are necessary to increase knowledge and awareness of the physicians’ thus reducing dose during the interventional procedure.

  7. Systane lubricant eye drops in the management of ocular dryness.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of dry eye disease has advanced recently through increasing recognition that the etiology of the condition involves both tear evaporation and insufficient tear production, and that tear film instability and inflammation play roles in the various stages of the disease. Of significance, it has been recognized that lipid layer thickness correlates with tear film stability. The management of dry eye involves various strategies and therapeutic approaches that address one or more etiopathological components of the disease. The purpose of this review is to outline the characteristics and clinical utility of the Systane(®) ocular lubricants that contain hydroxypropyl-guar and one or both of the demulcents, ie, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol. Clinically, these products are safe and are indicated for the temporary relief of burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye. In particular, this review describes the formulations, mechanisms of action, and clinical utility of the newest additions to this topical ocular lubricant family, Systane Ultra(®) and Systane Balance(®). Both of these ocular products are formulated with an intelligent delivery system and both provide symptomatic relief to patients with dry eye. However, Systane Balance is a novel formulation that contains both polymer and lipid components designed to protect the ocular surface and replenish tear film lipids simultaneously, a factor that is of particular relevance to patients who have dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction.

  8. Insects have hairy eyes that reduce particle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, G. J.; Durand, F.; Mao, W.; Pusulri, S.; Takahashi, H.; Nguyen, V.-T.; Shimoyama, I.; Alexeev, A.; Hu, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    An insect's eyes may make up to 40% of its body's surface, and are in danger of being coated by foreign particles such as dust and pollen. To protect them, several insect species possess an array of ocular hairs evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Although these hairs have been observed for over 50 years, their purpose remains a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the function of ocular hairs using a combination of experiments, numerical simulation and micro-fabrication. We measure the eyes of 18 species of insects and find that the length of their ocular hairs is equal to their spacing. We conduct wind tunnel experiments using both an insect eye mimic and an at-scale fabricated micro-pillar array of the same dimensions as the insect eye. Our experiments and simulations show that ocular hairs reduce airflow at the eye surface by up to 90%. We conclude that ocular hairs act similarly to mammalian eyelashes: as insects fly, ocular hairs deflect incoming air and create a zone of stagnant air. Airflow and particle deposition are reduced dramatically, while light is only minimally occluded. Micro-scale ocular hairs may find application in the deployment of sensors outdoors, for which accumulation of airborne dust and pollen has no current solution.

  9. The Need for Domestic Violence Laws with Adequate Legal and Social Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmons, Willa M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for comprehensive domestic violence programs that include medical, legal, economic, psychological, and child care services. Although most states have family violence legislation, more work is needed to adequately implement these programs. (Author/JAC)

  10. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  11. [Incidence of sports-related eye injuries].

    PubMed

    Pikkel, J; Gelfand, Y; Miller, B

    1995-10-01

    The incidence of sports-related eye injuries was analyzed retrospectively for 1991-1993. It was fairly steady at about 2% of all eye casualties annually. 21% of those with sports-related eye injuries required hospitalization. The commonest pathological findings were corneal erosion (32%), eye lid injuries (27%), hyphema (19%) and macular edema (3%). Most eyes were injured during soccer (37%) and basketball (27%) games, the most popular sports in Israel.

  12. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-12-12

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement.

  13. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns. PMID:9112193

  14. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns.

  15. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  16. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  17. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J.; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A.; Kolar, Grant R.; Gleave, Martin E.; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Wilson, Mark R.; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye. PMID:26402857

  18. Eye dose to staff involved in interventional and procedural fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, D.; Hadaya, D.; Tse, J.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) lowered the occupational eye dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv/yr [1]. While international jurisdictions are in a process of adopting these substantial changes, medical physicists at the clinical level have been advising medical colleagues on specific situations based on dose measurements. Commissioned and calibrated TLDs mounted in commercially available holders designed to simulate the measurement of Hp(3), were applied to staff involved in x-ray procedures for a one month period. During this period clinical procedure data was concurrently collected and subject to audit. The use or not of eye personal protective equipment (PPE) was noted for all staff. Audits were conducted in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, the interventional angiography rooms and the procedural room where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures are performed. Significant levels of occupational dose were recorded in the cardiac and interventional procedures, with maximum reading exceeding the new limit for some interventional radiologists. No significant eye doses were measured for staff performing ERCP procedures. One outcome of the studies was increased use of eye PPE for operators of interventional equipment with increased availability also to nursing staff, when standing in close proximity to the patient during procedures.

  19. [Assessment of systane in severe dry eye].

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen; Bărăscu, Doina; Bîrjovanu, Flori; Mănescu, Rodica; Iliuşi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    The study proposes the evaluation of the Systane effect on people that have severe dry eye sensation, with cornea or conjunctive complications. In order to do this, a study protocol has been adopted which meant comparing the values of lacrimal film break-up time, before and after Systane treatment, comparing cornea and conjunctive staining, comparing the crystallization test before and after treatment, comparing the conjunctival impression before and after treatment, and the general acceptability of Systane. The study results have shown that in severe dry eye cases, Systane increases lacrimal film break-up time by 2-3 seconds than the initial value, as well as considerable reduction in cornea/conjunctival staining and in conjunctival hyperemia in Sicca keratoconjunctivitis. After treatment, conjunctival impression have shown the proliferation of conjunctival and goblet cells, with normal morphologic aspect of the new-formed cells. In every case, the regenerating effect on epithelia of Systane was obvious, which is determined by the direct action of the HP-guar, forming a protective layer with lubrication effect, helpful to the initiation of tissue repairing processes. PMID:18714500

  20. [Assessment of systane in severe dry eye].

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen; Bărăscu, Doina; Bîrjovanu, Flori; Mănescu, Rodica; Iliuşi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    The study proposes the evaluation of the Systane effect on people that have severe dry eye sensation, with cornea or conjunctive complications. In order to do this, a study protocol has been adopted which meant comparing the values of lacrimal film break-up time, before and after Systane treatment, comparing cornea and conjunctive staining, comparing the crystallization test before and after treatment, comparing the conjunctival impression before and after treatment, and the general acceptability of Systane. The study results have shown that in severe dry eye cases, Systane increases lacrimal film break-up time by 2-3 seconds than the initial value, as well as considerable reduction in cornea/conjunctival staining and in conjunctival hyperemia in Sicca keratoconjunctivitis. After treatment, conjunctival impression have shown the proliferation of conjunctival and goblet cells, with normal morphologic aspect of the new-formed cells. In every case, the regenerating effect on epithelia of Systane was obvious, which is determined by the direct action of the HP-guar, forming a protective layer with lubrication effect, helpful to the initiation of tissue repairing processes.

  1. Eye injuries from laser exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Hudson, S J

    1998-05-01

    Lasers pose a significant threat to vision in modern military operations. Anti-personnel lasers have been designed that can cause intentional blindness in large numbers of personnel. Although the use of blinding laser weapons during combat has been prohibited by international legislation, research and development of these weapons have not been prohibited, and significant controversy remains. Unintentional blinding can also result from other types of lasers used on the battlefield, such as range-finders and anti-material lasers. Lasers that are capable of producing blindness operate within specific wavelength parameters and include visible and near infrared lasers. Patients who suffer from laser eye injuries usually complain of flash blindness, followed by transient or permanent visual loss. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints in an operational setting. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited, and prevention is essential. Improved protective eyeware and other countermeasures to laser eye injury are necessary as long as the threat remains.

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.7 - Personal protective equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment. 50-204.7 Section 50-204.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.7 Personal protective equipment. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective...

  3. Eye shape illusions induced by eyebrow positions.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Mitsuzane, Saya; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the position of the eyebrows influences the perceived shape of the eyes by employing psychophysical measurements. Experiment 1 used arched and straight eyebrows at five different inclinations as stimuli and measured the perceived inclination of the eyes. The results demonstrated that the eyes are perceived to be somewhat inclined in the same direction as the eyebrows. Experiment 2 measured the perceived eye size by manipulating the distance between the eyes and the eyebrows and the curvature of the eyebrows across three levels. The results showed that the lower eyebrows (ie closer to eyes) made the eyes appear larger and the higher eyebrows made the eyes appear smaller, while eyebrow curvature had no effect on perceived eye size. Experiment 3 examined the role of the eye-eyebrow distance in the eye inclination illusion shown in experiment 1. The eye inclination illusion was unaffected by the eye-eyebrow distance, suggesting that the eye inclination illusion and the eye size illusion may involve different kinds of assimilation. These illusions are discussed in terms of face perception and possible practical applications.

  4. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  5. Flexible protective gloves: The emperor's new clothes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, C.A.; Mettler, F.A. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is estimated for interventional radiologists who do and do not wear thin, flexible protective leaded gloves. The use of these gloves is extremely expensive in terms of dollars per potential cancer prevented. Good radiographic practice without the use of flexible protective gloves provides adequate protection.

  6. Secondary reconstruction of severe contracted eye socket using modified ocular conformer-drainage tube system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Lin, Ming; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2012-07-01

    Eye socket reconstruction has been previously reported; however, few reports address reconstruction in cases of socket contracture after graft failure. This is a retrospective observational case study of 42 patients who had previously undergone eye socket reconstruction after posttraumatic enucleation owing to severe thermal or chemical injury, and each of whom presented with a severe contracted eye socket. Patients underwent free skin grafts and the placement of a modified ocular conformer-drainage tube system. Eye sockets of adequate size were created in the 42 patients. Three patients presented with gradual extrusion of the eye prosthesis due to recurrent contraction of the inferior fornix after treatment. These patients agreed to further operative procedures 6 months after secondary reconstruction surgery, which resulted in mild upward tilting of the eye prosthesis without extrusion. The prosthetic eyes fit well in all of the secondary reconstructed sockets using this technique. Our studies suggest that the modified ocular conformer-drainage tube system can efficiently control infection after secondary reconstruction of the posttraumatic contracted socket and may result in less shrinkage of skin grafts.

  7. Eye movements in vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, A; Colpak, A I; Zee, D S

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts). The neural circuitry that controls vestibular eye movements is intertwined with a larger network within the brainstem and cerebellum that also controls other types of conjugate eye movements. These include saccades and pursuit as well as the mechanisms that enable steady fixation, both straight ahead and in eccentric gaze positions. Navigating through this complex network requires a thorough knowledge about all classes of eye movements to help localize lesions causing a vestibular disorder. Here we review the different classes of eye movements and how to examine them, and then describe common ocular motor findings associated with central vestibular lesions from both a topographic and functional perspective. PMID:27638066

  8. Infrared eye: an operational prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrette, Paul C.; Fortin, Jean; St-Germain, Daniel; Delisle, Jean

    1998-09-01

    A new concept of surveillance system called Wide Area Coverage Infrared Surveillance System (WACISS), based on the human vision, was developed and a first laboratory prototype was demonstrated recently. A second prototype, more operational, is named the Infrared Eye is being built and will be tested in cooperation with the NRCC Flight Research Laboratory. The Infrared Eye will use the new pixel-less quantum well infrared photodetector sensors, coupled to light emitting diodes (QWIP/LED), currently being developed at NRCC Institute for Microstructural Science under DREV sponsorship. The multiple advantages of the pixel-less QWIP/LED over conventional sensors will considerably simplify the design of the system. As the WACISS, the IR Eye will integrate two cameras: the first, with a wide field-of- view, will be used for detection while the second camera, with a narrower field with higher resolution for identification, will be mobile within the WFOV and slaved to the operator's line-of-sight by means of an eye-tracking system. The images from both cameras will be fused and shown simultaneously on a standard high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye-tracking unit. The basic concepts pertaining to the project and the design constraints of this second prototype are presented.

  9. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  10. Best practice eye care models

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

    2012-01-01

    Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

  11. Training room management of eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas S

    2005-07-01

    The number of preventable sports eye injuries resulting in permanent vision loss remains unacceptably high. Convincing athletes to use protective eyewear for sports is challenging, but worth the effort. Regardless, injuries still occur, and they must be diagnosed and treated promptly. Maintaining the skills necessary to perform a good fundoscopic examination will help to methodically work through the differential diagnoses. Cultivating a working relationship with an ophthalmologist and feeling comfortable consulting with him is always beneficial when an obvious cause of vision loss is not apparent. Although the majority of ophthalmologic issues in athletes can be managed well in the training room setting, always maintain a high level of vigilance for rarer and more serious ophthalmologic pathologies.

  12. Eye-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... new patient comes in because they scratched their eye while working in the yard, or they think ...

  13. Tracking with the mind's eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  14. Red eyes in renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen-Broekema, N; van Bijsterveld, O P

    1992-01-01

    Of 57 patients with chronic renal failure who all had deposition of calcium salts in the conjunctival and corneal tissue two developed a brief episode of painful irritation and redness of the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva. This hyperaemia was adjacent to erosions of the corneal epithelium of the eye as a consequence of exfoliation of calcium concretions from the superficial corneal epithelium. Eight patients showed inflammatory reactions of the conjunctivae that were clinically identical to inflamed pingueculae. Three patients showed an inflammatory reaction of the eye that was characterised by a waxy red, more or less diffuse, episcleral and conjunctival hyperaemia extending beyond the palpebral fissure. The average value of the serum calcium concentration in these patients was particularly high and statistically significantly higher than in patients with calcification but without inflammatory signs and also higher than in patients who showed pingueculitis. We propose to reserve the term 'red eye of renal failure' for the latter group of patients. Images PMID:1390507

  15. Moving Ahead With Eye Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's collaborated with LC Technologies, Inc., to improve LCT's Eyegaze Communication System, an eye tracker that enables people with severe cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, strokes, brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate and control their environment using their eye movements. To operate the system, the user sits in front of the computer monitor while the camera focuses on one eye. By looking at control keys on the monitor for a fraction of a second, the user can 'talk' with speech synthesis, type, operate a telephone, access the Internet and e-mail, and run computer software. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body, and the improved size and portability allow the system to be mounted on a wheelchair. LCT and JPL are working on several other areas of improvement that have commercial add-on potential.

  16. Aspectual coercion in eye movements.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David J

    2013-06-01

    Comprehension includes interpreting sentences in terms of aspectual categories such as processes (Harry climbed) and culminations (Harry reached the top). Adding a verbal modifier such as for many years to a culmination coerces its interpretation from one to many culminations. Previous studies have found that coercion increases lexical decision and meaning judgment time, but not eye fixation time. This study recorded eye movements as participants read sentences in which a coercive adverb increased the interpretation of multiple events. Adverbs appeared at the end of a clause and line; the post-adverb region appeared at the beginning of the next line; follow-up questions occasionally asked about aspectual meaning; and clause type varied systematically. Coercive adverbs increased eye fixation time in the post-adverb region and in the adverb and post-adverb regions combined. Factors that influence the appearance of aspectual coercion may include world knowledge, follow-up questions, and the location and ambiguity of adverbs.

  17. Patient acceptance of adequately filled breast implants using the tilt test.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, J B

    2000-07-01

    Adequate fill of any breast implant, regardless of shell characteristics, shape, or filler material, is important to prevent implant shell wrinkling, folding, or collapse that could potentially decrease the life of the implant. Implant shell life is a major factor that affects reoperation rates. The greater the necessity of reoperations, regardless of implant type, the greater the rate of local complications, necessitating additional surgery with additional risks and costs to patients. Palpable shell folding, visible wrinkling or rippling, palpable shifts of filler material, sloshing, and compromised aesthetic results can result from an under-filled implant. Any of these complications can necessitate reoperations with increased risks and costs to patients. This is a study of 609 consecutive patients from January of 1993 to December of 1998 who were given detailed preoperative informed consent and a choice of implant shape and type and who chose the increased firmness associated with an implant that is adequately filled to pass the tilt test. This study addresses two questions: (1) Will patients accept the increased firmness of an implant that is filled to pass the tilt test? and (2) Is adequate fill by the tilt test useful clinically to help reduce the incidence of postoperative rippling, wrinkling, and spontaneous deflation in saline implants? Patients were followed by postoperative examinations and questionnaires. No patient requested implant replacement to a softer implant postoperatively, and no reoperations were performed for visible rippling or wrinkling. The spontaneous deflation rate over this 6-year period was 9 of 1218 implants, or 0.739 percent. If patients will accept more firmness with an adequately filled implant, regardless of the filler material, surgeons might worry less about recommending an adequately filled implant to patients, and manufacturers might feel more comfortable producing adequately filled implants and redefining fill volumes for

  18. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  19. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function. PMID:26980695

  20. Monitoring the eye lens: how do the international organisations react?

    PubMed

    Behrens, R

    2015-04-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended to lower the limit of the dose to the eye lens for occupationally exposed persons to a mean value of 20 mSv y(-1) (averaged over 5 y, with a maximum of 50 mSv y(-1)); already in the autumn of 2011, both the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA) took over this reduction in their respective draft basic safety standards. Even prior to this (and since then, increasingly so), several international activities were started (among other things, the following ones): (1) the ICRP adopted a stylised model of the eye to calculate dose conversion coefficients for its report ICRP 116; (2) the European Commission has funded the ORAMED project dealing with radiation protection in medicine; (3) in its standard IEC 62387 on passive dosimetry systems, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has laid down requirements for Hp(3) eye dosemeters; (4) the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the IAEA provide a range of practical advice in the standard ISO 15382 (still a draft) and in a technical document IAEA TecDoc on both radiation protection and on dosimetry; (5) for most cases, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends both phantoms (the slab and the cylinder). In short: most national procedures can orientate themselves on international ones; some questions, however, remain open.

  1. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    PubMed

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory. PMID:12929791

  2. 49 CFR 214.117 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www... or optical defects is prohibited. (d) Railroad bridge workers whose vision requires the use...

  3. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to UV radiation from daily activities, including reflections off of snow, pavement, and other surfaces, can ... by a day at the beach without sunglasses; reflections off of snow, water, or concrete; or exposure ...

  4. Combatant eye protection: an introduction to the blue light hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimore, Morris R.

    2016-05-01

    Emerging evidence of metabolic vulnerability to visible blue light is vitally important, as it is indicative of a scalable threshold effect. Added stressors (e.g., increased altitude or contact lens wear) could shift the wavelength effects toward a more damaging clinical picture. Recent reports have indicated rod photo-pigment damage resulting from solar blue-light exposures, adversely affecting unaided night vision, a militarily important performance decrement. The activation wavelength for the daily synchronous setting of the Circadian Clock, which regulates the synchronization of all hormonal and organ systems throughout the body, falls within this blue light perceptual range.

  5. Determination of eye position in fast jet flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveash, Jacqueline P.; Belyavin, A. J.; Bigmore, Dave J.; Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.; McCarthy, G. W.; Rumbold, D. A.; Stott, J. R.

    1994-06-01

    The way in which a pilot's attention is distributed between various operational tasks during tactical flight is of prime importance when designing new cockpit displays. The point of regard, and by inference, the pilot's focus of attention, can be determined by measuring head and eye position. The measurement of head position using an electromagnetic coil technique is well proven in flight. However, most techniques currently available for determining eye position are too bulky and complex, compromise ejection safety and cannot, as yet, be used in the fast jet cockpit. This paper reports a feasibility study into the use of the electro-oculogram (EOG) to determine eye position during flight in a fast jet aircraft. EOG amplifiers have been designed for airborne use and three flight trials have been conducted in a Jaguar combat aircraft. Laboratory calibration studies have shown good linearity of the horizontal EOG, but some nonlinearity of the vertical EOG which is better described using a second order polynomial. In addition, there is an interaction between the horizonal and vertical components. These studies indicated that for an individual subject, an adequate calibration in both the horizontal and vertical planes could be achieved with a minimum of nine calibration points, but that the accuracy of the measurement was limited by the drift of the EOG signal. Results of the flight trials to validate this method will be presented.

  6. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  7. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  8. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. PMID:25620292

  9. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications.

  10. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  11. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  12. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  13. OPTICAL EYE MODEL: Human eye aberrations: 2. Development of a dynamic model of the human eye based on measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu; Kudryashov, A. V.

    2008-11-01

    A human eye model based on a flexible semipassive bimorph mirror is proposed and experimentally realised. The model can be used for the real-time reproduction of human eye aberrations and their fluctuations. The accuracy of the reproduction of individual Zernike polynomials and of total eye aberrations of inspected patients is discussed.

  14. FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159648.html FDA Approves Eye Implant for Aging Boomers Tiny lens reshapes cornea to improve focus ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An implant that helps the aging eye focus on small print and nearby objects ...

  15. Eye injuries in canadian racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Pashby, T J; Bishop, P J; Easterbrook, W M

    1982-05-01

    Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the injured players required hospitalization and surgery was frequent; some players had permanent vision loss. These findings led to assessment of available eye protectors. Open-type protectors can be penetrated by balls and some closed-type protectors are not sufficiently sturdy. Steps are underway to write a Canadian standard for racquet sports eye protectors. Meanwhile the public must be informed of the danger of racquet sports eye injuries and the importance of wearing closed-type protectors.

  16. The Trajectories of Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahill, A. Terry; Stark, Lawrence

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the trajectories of saccadic eye movements, the control signals of the eye, and nature of the mechanisms that generate them, using the techniques of bioengineering in collecting the data. (GA)

  17. MedlinePlus: Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Here Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery (Federal Trade Commission) Also in Spanish Is LASIK for Me? ... American Optometric Association) Find a Refractive (Eye) Surgeon (International Society of Refractive Surgery of the American Academy ...

  18. Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Children Having Eye Surgery En Español Read in Chinese What kinds of anesthesia are available for children ...

  19. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  20. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...