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Sample records for adequate fluid intake

  1. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  2. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  3. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

  4. [Factors associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

  5. Fluid Intake and Vasopressin: Connecting the Dots.

    PubMed

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Perrier, Erica T; Lemetais, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, cross-sectional and multiple cohort studies have associated total fluid intake or water intake with the risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and even the risk of developing hyperglycemia. Urine biomarkers have also been linked to the risk of CKD and lithiasis, and these biomarkers respond quickly to variations in fluid intake. High circulating copeptin levels, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin, have been associated with metabolic syndrome, renal dysfunction and increased risk for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and death. The aim of this paper was to explore how the various findings on water intake, hydration and health are interconnected, to highlight current gaps in our understanding and to propose a model that links water intake, homeostatic mechanisms to maintain water balance and health outcomes. Since plasma copeptin and vasopressin have been demonstrated to be sensitive to changes in water intake, inversely associated with 24-hour urine volume, and associated with urine biomarkers and fluid intake, vasopressin is proposed as the central player in this theoretical physiological model. PMID:27299303

  6. [Bone and joint diseases in children. Adequate calcium intake and dietary habit especially breakfast in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kodama, Momoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Childhood and adolescence are important periods for body growth. Calcium is one of the critical dietary factors especially for bone growth. Although recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of calcium has been determined higher in Dietary reference intakes for Japanese, 2010, calcium intake of Japanese children and adolescent are not necessarily adequate. Furthermore, breakfast skippers in this period tend to increase. So, it is very important to acquire an adequate dietary habit from childhood and adolescent. PMID:20513944

  7. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  8. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to 100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  9. Fluid Intake and Cognitive Performance: Should Schoolchildren Drink during Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Tanja; Lührmann, Petra; Simpson, Faith; Dohnke, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that an insufficient fluid intake impairs cognitive performance. Drinking policies at schools--especially drinking during lessons--is a point of controversy. To provide a scientific base for this debate, more empirical evidence is needed on which aspects of fluid intake are crucial for cognitive performance. This…

  10. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  11. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  12. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  13. Cultural and environmental barriers to adequate iron intake among northern Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods

  14. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Roces, F

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the techniques of nectar feeding in 11 different ant species, and quantitatively compares fluid intake rates over a wide range of nectar concentrations in four species that largely differ in their feeding habits. Ants were observed to employ two different techniques for liquid food intake, in which the glossa works either as a passive duct-like structure (sucking), or as an up- and downwards moving shovel (licking). The technique employed for collecting fluids at ad libitum food sources was observed to be species-specific and to correlate with the presence or absence of a well-developed crop in the species under scrutiny. Workers of ponerine ants licked fluid food during foraging and transported it as a droplet between their mandibles, whereas workers of species belonging to phylogenetically more advanced subfamilies, with a crop capable of storing liquids, sucked the fluid food, such as formicine ants of the genus Camponotus. In order to evaluate the performance of fluid collection during foraging, intake rates for sucrose solutions of different concentrations were measured in four ant species that differ in their foraging ecology. Scaling functions between fluid intake rates and ant size were first established for the polymorphic species, so as to compare ants of different size across species. Results showed that fluid intake rate depended, as expected and previously reported in the literature, on sugar concentration and the associated fluid viscosity. It also depended on both the species-specific feeding technique and the extent of specialization on foraging on liquid food. For similarly-sized ants, workers of two nectar-feeding ant species, Camponotus rufipes (Formicinae) and Pachycondyla villosa (Ponerinae), collected fluids with the highest intake rates, while workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Myrmicinae) and a predatory ant from the Rhytidoponera impressa-complex (Ponerinae) did so with the lowest rate. Calculating the

  15. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  16. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  17. Amniotic fluid iodine concentrations do not vary in pregnant women with varying iodine intake.

    PubMed

    García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Gallo, Manuel; García, Laureano; Prieto, Stephanie; Alcaide-Torres, Javier; Santiago, Piedad; Velasco, Inés; Soriguer, Federico

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important clinical and public health problem. Its prevention begins with an adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy. International agencies recommend at least 200 microg iodine per d for pregnant women. We assessed whether iodine concentrations in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant women are independent of iodine intake. This cross-sectional, non-interventional study included 365 consecutive women who underwent amniocentesis to determine the fetal karyotype. The amniocentesis was performed with abdominal antisepsis using chlorhexidine. The iodine concentration was measured in urine and amniotic fluid. The study variables were the intake of iodized salt and multivitamin supplements or the prescription of a KI supplement. The mean level of urinary iodine was 139.0 (SD 94.5) microg/l and of amniotic fluid 15.81 (SD 7.09) microg/l. The women who consumed iodized salt and those who took a KI supplement had significantly higher levels of urinary iodine than those who did not (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The urinary iodine levels were not significantly different in the women who took a multivitamin supplement compared with those who did not take this supplement, independently of iodine concentration or multivitamin supplement. The concentrations of iodine in the amniotic fluid were similar, independent of the dietary iodine intake. Urine and amniotic fluid iodine concentrations were weakly correlated, although the amniotic fluid values were no higher in those women taking a KI supplement. KI prescription at recommended doses increases the iodine levels in the mother without influencing the iodine levels in the amniotic fluid.

  18. Fluid intake and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ros, Martine M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, Frederike L; Aben, Katja K H; Kampman, Ellen; Egevad, Lars; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Steffen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Stasinopulou, Georgia; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger T; Chirlaque, Maria D; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina, Esther; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dorronsoro, Miren; Manjer, Jonas; Ehrnström, Roy; Ljungberg, Börje; Allen, Naomi E; Roddam, Andrew W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Michaud, Dominique S; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95%CI 0.86-1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95%CI 0.85-1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95%CI 0.65-1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted.

  19. Optimal fluid intake in daily diet: Avicenna's view.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Tafazoli, Vahid; Daneshfard, Babak; Zare, Manijhe

    2016-07-01

    Adequate daily water consumption is an important factor of keeping regular homeostasis. However, the best quantity of daily water consumption for a healthy individual is not virtually stated in the literature. Despite the dearth of evidence-based recommendations, it is commonly thought that ingesting eight glasses of water a day is good for a healthy person. Avicenna had a unique viewpoint. He believed that daily water intake depended on numerous elements together with age, intercourse, body temperament, season, occupation and various internal and external elements. He also cited a few essential and useful measures regarding proper water consumption, which have additionally been emphasized in Islamic hadiths. PMID:27417170

  20. The deuterium oxide-to-the-mother method documents adequate breast-milk intake among Sri Lankan infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The WHO recommends that exclusive breastfeeding should last up to 6 months. However, human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants has not been quantified scientifically. The objectives of this study were to measure the human milk intake of Sri Lankan infants during the first 6 months of age and to docume...

  1. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  2. Association between fluid intake and kidney function, and survival outcomes analysis: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Sun, Yu-Shan; Yang, Hui-Fang; Wang, Chung-Ching; Lin, Chien-Ming; Tsao, Yu-Tzu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fluid intake, one of the most common daily activities, has not been well studied in chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations, and clinical outcomes are rarely addressed. The aim of this nationwide study is to explore the influence of daily fluid intake on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and its association with renal function. Design Observational cohort study. Participants In all, 2182 participants aged more than 20 years participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Main outcome measures Survival outcomes in patients with or without CKD, using multiple variable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Results In a longitudinal survey with a median follow-up length of 15.4 years, 1080 participants died and 473 cardiovascular deaths were recorded. For all-cause mortality in the CKD group, individuals in the highest quartile of fluid intake (≧3.576 L/day) had better survival outcomes than those in the lowest quartile of fluid intake (≤2.147 L/day) (p=0.029) after adjustment of several pertinent variables. Conclusions Although the interpretation of this observational study was limited by the failure to identify the compositions of ingested fluids, adequate hydration may offer some advantages in patients with CKD. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the responses of normal and injured kidneys to chronic changes in fluid consumption warrant further investigation. PMID:27173809

  3. Adenosine A1 receptors determine effects of caffeine on total fluid intake but not caffeine appetite.

    PubMed

    Rieg, Timo; Schnermann, Jürgen; Vallon, Volker

    2007-01-26

    Adenosine A1 receptor wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice were used to elucidate the role of adenosine A1 receptors in caffeine self-administration in a two-bottle choice test and in the effect of caffeine on total fluid intake and plasma renin concentration. With access to water only, adenosine A1 receptor -/- mice showed greater basal fluid intake and greater plasma renin concentration than +/+ mice. Free access to both water and a caffeinated solution (30 mg/100 ml) for 14 days increased total fluid intake only in adenosine A1 receptor +/+ mice (by 23+/-3%), and both total fluid intake and plasma renin concentration were no longer different between genotypes. Mean intake of water and caffeinated solution was not different between adenosine A1 receptor +/+ and -/- mice. These data reveal that adenosine A1 receptors do not contribute to caffeine consumption, but determine the effects of caffeine on fluid intake and plasma renin concentration. PMID:17126319

  4. Relationship of fluid intake to voluntary micturition and urinary incontinence in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D J; McCracken, P N; Harrison, G M; Gormley, E A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in a group of geriatric inpatients with established incontinence, the relationships among urine loss, voided volumes, frequency of voiding, and fluid intake. The investigated included 128 patients: 76 women and 52 men, with a median age of 79 years. One-half had significant cognitive impairment. Patients underwent 24-hr monitoring of fluid intake, urine loss, and voiding, as well as conventional videourodynamic testing. Diurnal and nocturnal voiding frequencies were significantly but relatively weakly related to fluid intake. Diurnal and nocturnal voided volumes were more closely related, however, to the fluid intake. There was a strong and easily interpretable relationship among nocturnal voided volume, nocturia, cystometric bladder capacity, and evening fluid intake. Sixty of 128 patients had urodynamically proven urge incontinence, and this group was studied separately. They were more cognitively impaired and had significantly greater urine loss and smaller fluid intake than was true of the other incontinent patients. Urine loss was significantly related to fluid intake in this group. Nocturnal urine loss increased by an average of 28 ml/dl of evening fluid intake and decreased by 17 ml/dl voided at night. These results suggest that nocturnal toileting and evening fluid restriction may reduce nocturnal urine loss by a small but useful amount in carefully selected older patients with severe urge incontinence.

  5. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour

    PubMed Central

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. Objectives To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (April 2009). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We identified five studies (3130 women). All studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks. When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, three studies, 2574 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women’s views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the incidence of Mendelson’s syndrome, an extremely rare outcome. Other comparisons

  6. Fluid intake and changes in limb volumes in male ultra-marathoners: does fluid overload lead to peripheral oedema?

    PubMed

    Bracher, Alexia; Knechtle, Beat; Gnädinger, Markus; Bürge, Jolanda; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    An increase in body mass due to oedema has been previously described. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential association between both fluid and electrolyte intake and the formation of peripheral oedemas. Fluid and electrolyte intakes and the changes in limb volumes in 50 male 100-km ultra-marathoners were measured. Pre- and post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na(+)]), serum aldosterone concentration, serum copeptin concentration, serum and urine osmolality and body mass were determined. Fluid intake, renal function parameters and urinary output, as well as the changes of volume in the extremities, were measured. The changes of volume in the limbs were measured using plethysmography. Serum [Na(+)] increased by 1.6%; body mass decreased by 1.9 kg. Serum copeptin and aldosterone concentrations were increased. The change in serum copeptin concentration and the change in serum [Na(+)] correlated positively; the change in serum [Na(+)] and body mass correlated negatively. A mean fluid intake of 0.58 L/h was positively related to running speed and negatively to post-race serum [Na(+)]. Total fluid intake was positively related to the changes in both arm and lower leg volumes. Running speed was positively associated with the changes in arm and lower leg volumes; race time was related to the changes in serum copeptin or aldosterone concentrations. To conclude, fluid intake was related to the changes in limb volumes, where athletes with an increased fluid intake developed an increase in limb volumes. PMID:21720884

  7. Body weight changes and voluntary fluid intakes during training and competition sessions in team sports.

    PubMed

    Broad, E M; Burke, L M; Cox, G R; Heeley, P; Riley, M

    1996-09-01

    Fluid losses (measured by body weight changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were measured in elite basketball, netball, and soccer teams during typical summer and winter exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements and the degree of fluid replacement. Each subject was weighed in minimal clothing before and immediately after training, weights, and competition sessions; fluid intake, duration of exercise, temperature and humidity, and opportunity to drink were recorded. Sweat rates were greatest during competition sessions and significantly lower during weights sessions for all sports. Seasonal variation in dehydration (%DH) was not as great as may have been expected, particularly in sports played indoors. Factors influencing fluid replacement during exercise included provision of an individual water bottle, proximity to water bottles during sessions, encouragement to drink, rules of the game, duration and number of breaks or substitutions, and awareness of personal sweat rates. Guidelines for optimizing fluid intakes in these three sports are provided.

  8. Improving food and fluid intake for older adults living in long-term care: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather; Beck, Anne Marie; Namasivayam, Ashwini

    2015-02-01

    Poor food and fluid intake and malnutrition are endemic among older adults in long-term care (LTC), yet feasible and sustainable interventions that target key determinants and improve person-centered outcomes remain elusive. Without a comprehensive study addressing a range of determinants to identify those that are of greatest importance for targeting with interventions, expert consensus can be used to develop a research agenda. International experts and stakeholders convened for a 2-day meeting to participate in a nominal group process to identify and prioritize determinants of food and fluid intake for persons living in LTC. Top determinants to address with intervention research included social interactions of residents at mealtime; self-feeding ability; the dining environment; the attitudes, knowledge, and skills of staff; adequate time to eat/availability of staff to provide assistance; sensory properties of the food; hospitality and mealtime logistics; choice and variety in the dining experience; and nutrient density of food. Multimodal interventions that could target these prioritized determinants were also suggested. This consensus process has resulted in a prioritized research agenda for the development and testing of interventions to improve food and fluid intake of older adults living in LTC. PMID:25481747

  9. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  10. Influence of fluid intake on soccer performance in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Owen, Julian Andrew; Kehoe, Steven John; Oliver, Samuel James

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to examine the effect of fluid intake and dehydration on soccer-skill and high-intensity, intermittent-running performance after 90-minutes intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test). Thirteen semi-professional, men soccer-players completed, the 90-minute intermittent exercise on three fluid trials: prescribed fluid equal to sweat loss (1.65 ± 0.17 litres: Mean ± s), ad libitum fluid (0.85 ± 0.19 litres) and no fluid. After the intermittent exercise, dehydration was equivalent to 0.3 ± 0.1, 1.1 ± 0.2, 2.5 ± 0.4% body mass loss on the prescribed-fluid, ad libitum-fluid and no-fluid trials, respectively. Soccer-skill and high-intensity, intermittent-running performance, as assessed by the Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, declined after the intermittent exercise compared with assessments made before. The decline in performance was however similar on all fluid trials (P > 0.34 for interactions and effect sizes were trivial or small). These effect sizes suggest larger fluid intakes had limited and inconsistent (both beneficial and detrimental) effects on performance. In conclusion the results suggest that fluid intake during 90-minutes of intermittent exercise and modest dehydration have limited and inconsistent effects on soccer passing and shooting skill or high-intensity, intermittent-running in a temperate environment.

  11. Recording of fluid, beverage and water intakes at the population level in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Joan; Le Bellego, Laurent; König, Jürgen; Piekarz, Ana; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Tennant, David R

    2016-08-01

    The European Food Safety Authority's 2010 scientific opinion on dietary reference values for total water intakes was partly based on observed intakes in population groups. Large variability was observed, and it is unlikely that these differences can be explained by differences in climate, activity level and/or culture. This suggests that there are uncertainties in the methodologies used to assess water intake from food and fluids, including all types of beverages. To determine current methods for recording and reporting total water, beverages and fluid intakes, twenty-one European countries were surveyed using an electronic questionnaire. In total, twelve countries responded and ten completed surveys were summarised. Countries reported that their survey was representative of the population in terms of age and socio-economic status. However, a variety of methods were used - that is, repeated 24-h recalls, estimated food diaries and FFQ. None of the methods were validated to assess water and fluid intakes. The methods used to record liquid foods - for example, soup and diluted drinks - were inconsistent. Clarity and consistency on definitions of categories of beverages to facilitate comparisons between countries are needed. Recommendations for a unified approach to surveying and quantifying intake of water from fluids and foods are proposed. PMID:27326891

  12. Control of fluid intake by estrogens in the female rat: role of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Body fluid homeostasis is maintained by a complex network of central and peripheral systems that regulate blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte excretion, and fluid intake. The behavioral components, which include well regulated water and saline intake, are influenced by a number of hormones and neuropeptides. Since the early 1970s, it has been known that the ovarian estrogens play an important role in regulating fluid intake in females by decreasing water and saline intake under a variety of hypovolemic conditions. Behavioral, electrophysiological, gene and protein expression studies have identified nuclei in the hypothalamus, along with nearby forebrain structures such as the subfornical organ (SFO), as sites of action involved in mediating these effects of estrogens and, importantly, all of these brain areas are rich with estrogen receptors (ERs). This review will discuss the multiple ER subtypes, found both in the cell nucleus and associated with the plasma membrane, that provide diversity in the mechanism through which estrogens can induce behavioral changes in fluid intake. We then focus on the relevant brain structures, hypothesized circuits, and various peptides, such as angiotensin, oxytocin, and vasopressin, implicated in the anti-dipsogenic and anti-natriorexigenic actions of the estrogens.

  13. Fluid deprivation increases isotonic NaCl intake, but not hypertonic salt intake, under normal and heated conditions in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Omouessi, S T; Lemamy, G J; Kiki-Mvouaka, S; Fernette, B; Falconetti, C; Ndeboko, B; Mouecoucou, J; Thornton, S N

    2016-02-01

    In the course of exposure to fluid deprivation and heated environment, mammals regulate their hydromineral balance and body temperature by a number of mechanisms including sweating, water and salt intakes. Here we challenged obese Zucker rats, known to have a predisposition to hypertension, with 0.9%NaCl alone or with 2%NaCl solution + water to drink under fluid deprivation and heated conditions. Food and fluid intakes, body weight, diuresis and natriuresis were measured daily throughout. Serum aldosterone levels and Na(+) concentration were also analyzed. Data showed that obese and lean rats presented similar baseline measurements of food, 0.9%NaCl and fluid intakes, diuresis and fluid balance; whereas hypertonic 2%NaCl consumption was almost absent. Before and during fluid deprivation animals increased isotonic but not hypertonic NaCl intake; the obese showed significant increases in diuresis and Na(+) excretion, whereas, total fluid intake was similar between groups. Heat increased isotonic NaCl intake and doubled natriuresis in obese which were wet on their fur and displayed a paradoxical increase of fluid gain. Fluid deprivation plus heat produced similar negative fluid balance in all groups. Body weight losses, food intake and diuresis reductions were amplified under the combined conditions. Animals exposed to 2%NaCl showed higher circulating levels of aldosterone and obese were lower than leans. In animals which drank 0.9%NaCl, obese showed higher serum levels of Na(+) than leans. We conclude that in spite of their higher sensitivity to high salt and heat obese Zucker rats can control hydromineral balance in response to fluid deprivation and heat by adjusting isotonic NaCl preference with sodium balance and circulating levels of aldosterone. This suggests a key hormonal role in the mechanisms underlying thermoregulation, body fluid homeostasis and sodium intake. PMID:26621332

  14. Fluid deprivation increases isotonic NaCl intake, but not hypertonic salt intake, under normal and heated conditions in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Omouessi, S T; Lemamy, G J; Kiki-Mvouaka, S; Fernette, B; Falconetti, C; Ndeboko, B; Mouecoucou, J; Thornton, S N

    2016-02-01

    In the course of exposure to fluid deprivation and heated environment, mammals regulate their hydromineral balance and body temperature by a number of mechanisms including sweating, water and salt intakes. Here we challenged obese Zucker rats, known to have a predisposition to hypertension, with 0.9%NaCl alone or with 2%NaCl solution + water to drink under fluid deprivation and heated conditions. Food and fluid intakes, body weight, diuresis and natriuresis were measured daily throughout. Serum aldosterone levels and Na(+) concentration were also analyzed. Data showed that obese and lean rats presented similar baseline measurements of food, 0.9%NaCl and fluid intakes, diuresis and fluid balance; whereas hypertonic 2%NaCl consumption was almost absent. Before and during fluid deprivation animals increased isotonic but not hypertonic NaCl intake; the obese showed significant increases in diuresis and Na(+) excretion, whereas, total fluid intake was similar between groups. Heat increased isotonic NaCl intake and doubled natriuresis in obese which were wet on their fur and displayed a paradoxical increase of fluid gain. Fluid deprivation plus heat produced similar negative fluid balance in all groups. Body weight losses, food intake and diuresis reductions were amplified under the combined conditions. Animals exposed to 2%NaCl showed higher circulating levels of aldosterone and obese were lower than leans. In animals which drank 0.9%NaCl, obese showed higher serum levels of Na(+) than leans. We conclude that in spite of their higher sensitivity to high salt and heat obese Zucker rats can control hydromineral balance in response to fluid deprivation and heat by adjusting isotonic NaCl preference with sodium balance and circulating levels of aldosterone. This suggests a key hormonal role in the mechanisms underlying thermoregulation, body fluid homeostasis and sodium intake.

  15. Increasing Daily Water Intake and Fluid Adherence in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    PubMed Central

    Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3–4) and 2 (Weeks 5–6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Conclusions Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children’s intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness. PMID:20439348

  16. [Pre-anesthetic fluid and food intake- current recommendations].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Achim; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2014-11-12

    Preoperative fasting is essential to reduce the risk of a perioperative pulmonary aspiration in patients undergoing anaesthesia for elective surgery. Evidence and expert opinion-based guidelines suggest two, four and six hours of fasting for clear fluids, breast milk and light meals/non-clear fluids respectively to improve anaesthesia safety, patient's comfort and homeostasis. Prolonged fasting is observed in daily clinical routine but should be prevented since there are no benefits. Abnormal gastric emptying has an impact on preoperative fasting times and the choice of the anaesthesia technique. A safe anaesthesia technique is most important since gastric emptying differs in patients and there is no guarantee that the stomach is empty after fasting according to guidelines.

  17. Fluid intake and decreased risk for hospitalization for dengue fever, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Harris, Eva; Pérez, Leonel; Phares, Christina R; Pérez, Maria de los Angeles; Idiaquez, Wendy; Rocha, Julio; Cuadra, Ricardo; Hernandez, Emelina; Campos, Luisa Amanda; Gonzales, Alcides; Amador, Juan Jose; Balmaseda, Angel

    2003-08-01

    In a hospital and health center-based study in Nicaragua, fluid intake during the 24 hours before being seen by a clinician was statistically associated with decreased risk for hospitalization of dengue fever patients. Similar results were obtained for children <15 years of age and older adolescents and adults in independent analyses.

  18. Relationship between bladder cancer and total fluid intake: a meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological findings regarding the association between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk have yielded varying results. Our objective is to examine the possible associations between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk. Methods Databases searched include the EMBASE and PUBMED, from inception to February 2014, with no limits on study language. We also reviewed the reference lists of identified studies. Stratified analyses were performed. A random-effect model was used to summarize the estimates of odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Overall,17 case-control and four cohort studies were included. The overall OR of bladder cancer for the highest versus the lowest fluid intake was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.88-1.27). In the subgroup analyses, the overall ORs for coffee, green, and black tea intake were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66-0.95), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.97), respectively. A significantly decreased risk was observed in Asian people (OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.72). Among smokers, a suggestive inverse association was observed between total fluid intake and overall bladder cancer risk (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.62-1.02). Conclusions Although this meta-analysis suggested that greater consumption of fluid may have a protective effect on bladder cancer in Asian people, there was no convincing evidence on this association because of the limitations of the individual trials. PMID:25033957

  19. The timing of fluid intake during an Olympic distance triathlon.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Robert G; Williams, David K; Battaglini, Claudio L

    2006-12-01

    Seven highly trained male triathletes, aged 18 to 35 years, were tested during two simulated Olympic distance triathlons to determine whether run performance was enhanced when consuming 177 ml of water at 8, 16, 24, and 32 kilometers (Early Trials) compared to consumption at 10, 20, 30, and 40 kilometers (Late Trials), during the cycling segment of the triathlon. Swim times for 1500 m were similar between trials; 40-km cycling times were approximately 10 s faster during the Late Trials; however, 10-km run times were faster during the Early Trials (P < 0.02). No significant differences between run trials were found for the rating of perceived exertion, oxygen uptake, heart rate, and change in urine specific gravity. It was concluded that the consumption of fluids earlier in the cycle phase of the Olympic distance triathlon benefits the run and overall performance time. PMID:17342882

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  1. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  2. Reexamination of Total Fluid Intake and Bladder Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiachen; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (Ptrend = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet. The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period. PMID:22355034

  3. Adequately Diversified Dietary Intake and Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Is Associated with Reduced Occurrence of Symptoms Suggestive of Pre-Eclampsia or Eclampsia in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia (PE or E) accounts for 25% of cases of maternal mortality worldwide. There is some evidence of a link to dietary factors, but few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where the majority of the burden falls. We examined the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E in Indian women. Methods Cross-sectional data from India’s third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-06) was used for this study. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE or E during pregnancy were obtained from 39,657 women aged 15-49 years who had had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between adequately diversified dietary intake, iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and symptoms suggestive of PE or E after adjusting for maternal, health and lifestyle factors, and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother. Results In their most recent pregnancy, 1.2% (n=456) of the study sample experienced symptoms suggestive of PE or E. Mothers who consumed an adequately diversified diet were 34% less likely (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) to report PE or E symptoms than mothers with inadequately diversified dietary intake. The likelihood of reporting PE or E symptoms was also 36% lower (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) among those mothers who consumed iron and folic acid supplementation for at least 90 days during their last pregnancy. As a sensitivity analysis, we stratified our models sequentially by education, wealth, antenatal care visits, birth interval, and parity. Our results remained largely unchanged: both adequately diversified dietary intake and iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were associated with a reduced occurrence of PE or E symptoms. Conclusion Having a adequately diversified dietary

  4. Voluntary fluid intake, hydration status, and aerobic performance of adolescent athletes in the heat.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2010-12-01

    We determined whether beverage flavoring and composition would stimulate voluntary drink intake, prevent dehydration, and maintain exercise performance in heat-acclimated adolescent males running in the heat. Eight adolescent (age, 13.7 ± 1.1 years) runners (peak oxygen uptake, 59.5 ± 4.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) underwent at least four 80-min exercise heat-acclimation sessions before completing 3 experimental sessions. All sessions were performed at 30 °C and 60%-65% relative humidity. Each experimental session consisted of five 15-min treadmill runs at a speed eliciting 65% peak oxygen uptake, with a 5 min rest prior to each run. Ten minutes after the final run, a time to exhaustion test was performed at a speed eliciting 90% peak oxygen uptake. Counterbalanced experimental sessions were identical, except for fluid intake, which consisted of tap water (W), flavored water (FW), and FW with 6% carbohydrate and 18 mmol·L-1 NaCl (CNa) consumed ad libitum. Fluid intake and body weight were monitored to calculate dehydration. Voluntary fluid intake was similar to fluid losses in W (1032 ± 130 vs. 1340 ± 246 g), FW (1086 ± 86 vs. 1451 ± 253 g), and CNa (1259 ± 119 vs. 1358 ± 234 g). As a result, significant dehydration was avoided in all trials (-0.45% ± 0.68% body weight in W, -0.66% ± 0.50% body weight in FW, and -0.13% ± 0.71% body weight in CNa). Core temperature increased by ~1 °C during exercise, but was not different between trials. Time to exhaustion was not different between trials and averaged 8.8 ± 1.7 min. Under exercise conditions more closely reflecting real-life situations, heat-acclimatized adolescent male runners can appropriately gauge fluid intake regardless of the type of beverage made available, resulting in consistency in exercise performance. PMID:21164555

  5. Fluid intake patterns: an epidemiological study among children and adolescents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Energy from liquids is one of the most important factors that could impact on the high prevalence of children and adolescents obesity around the world. There are few data on the liquid consumption in Brazil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the volume and quality of liquids consumed by Brazilian children and adolescents and to determine the proportion of their daily energy intake composed of liquids. Methods A multicenter study was conducted in five Brazilian cities; the study included 831 participants between 3 and 17 years of age. A four-day dietary record specific to fluids was completed for each individual, and the volume of and Kcal from liquid intake were evaluated. The average number of Kcal in each beverage was determined based on label information, and the daily energy intake data from liquids were compared with the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária– ANVISA), the Brazilian food regulation authority, according to each subject’s age. Results As the children aged, the volume of carbonated beverages that they consumed increased significantly, and their milk intake decreased significantly. For children between the ages of 3 and 10, milk and dairy products contributed the greatest daily number of Kcal from liquids. Sugar sweetened beverages which included carbonated beverages, nectars and artificial beverages, accounted for 37% and 45% of the total Kcal from liquid intake in the 3- to 6-year-old and 7- to 10- year-old groups, respectively. Among adolescents (participants 11- to 17- years old), most of the energy intake from liquids came from carbonated beverages, which accounted for an average of 207 kcal/day in this group (42% of their total energy intake from liquids). Health professionals should be attentive to the excessive consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in children and adolescents. The movement toward healthier dietary patterns at the individual and population

  6. Effect of aerobic capacity on sweat rate and fluid intake during outdoor exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Nakai, S; Yorimoto, A; Kawabata, T; Morimoto, T

    1995-01-01

    We measured the aerobic capacity, sweat rate and fluid intake of trained athletes during outdoor exercise and examined the relationship between aerobic capacity and thermoregulatory responses at high ambient temperatures. The maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) of the subjects, nine male baseball players of college age, was determined by maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. The subjects practised baseball regularly without drinking fluids from 1330 to 1530 hours. After 30 min rest, they played a baseball game with free access to a sports drink at 15 degrees C from 1600 to 1830 hours. At a mean ambient temperature of 36.7 (SEM 0.2) degree C, the mean percentage of body mass loss (delta mb) and increase of oral temperature (delta To) from 1330 to 1530 hours was 3.47 (SEM 0.12)% and 0.81 (SEM 0.14) degree C, respectively. The sweat loss from 1330 to 1830 hours was 56.53 (SEM 1.56)ml.kg-1 of body mass (mb) while the mean fluid consumption was 44.78 (SEM 2.39)ml.kg-1 of mb, with recovery of 76.08 (SEM 2.81)% of sweat loss. The VO2max was significantly inversely correlated with delta mb, fluid intake and rehydration amount, but showed no correlation with delta To. These results would suggest that at a given exercise intensity in subjects with a higher aerobic capacity body temperature is maintained with a lower sweating rate than that in subjects with a lower aerobic capacity.

  7. The void in using urine concentration to assess population fluid intake adequacy or hydration status.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kenefick, Robert W

    2016-09-01

    Urine concentration can be used to assess fluid intake adequacy or to diagnose dehydration. However, too often urine concentration is used inappropriately to draw dubious conclusions that could have harmful health and economic consequences. Inappropriate uses of urine concentration relate primarily to convenience sampling (timing) and problems related to convenience sampling (misapplication of thresholds), but a conceptual problem also exists with using urine concentration in isolation. The purpose of this Perspective article is to briefly explain the problematic nature of current practices and to offer a possible solution to improve practice with minimal added complication. When urine is used exclusively to assess fluid intake adequacy and hydration status in adults, we propose that only when urine concentration is high (>850 mmol/kg) and urine excretion rate is low (<850 mL/24 h) should suspicion of inadequate drinking or impending dehydration be considered. Prospective tests of the 850 × 850 thresholds will provide supporting evidence and/or help refine the best thresholds for men and women, young and old. PMID:27465376

  8. Drinking water, fluid intake, and bladder cancer in western New York.

    PubMed

    Vena, J E; Graham, S; Freudenheim, J; Marshall, J; Zielezny, M; Swanson, M; Sufrin, G

    1993-01-01

    Fluid intake and consumption of specific beverages were investigated in a study of 351 white male cases for whom transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder had been confirmed histologically during the time period from 1979 to 1985. A total of 855 white male controls was selected from Erie, Niagara, and Monroe counties of western New York state. Total fluid consumption was composed of alcoholic beverages, bottled beverages, soda, milk, coffee, tea, all juices, and glasses of tap water. Tap water included coffee, tea, juices, and glasses of water taken directly from the tap. Total fluid consumption was found to be a strong risk factor for bladder cancer when a number of potential confounding risk factors were controlled for. Risks were higher among those who were less than 65 y of age (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3, 95% C.I. = 2.8-14.0). The OR was 3.4 (95% C.I. = 1.8-6.2) for the highest quartile of fluid consumption among those 65 y of age and older. The tap water component was associated with increased risk in both age categories, and there was a clear dose-response relationship. Risks associated with tap water consumption were higher among those who never smoked cigarettes. Both biological and nonbiological explanations for these results are evaluated. The findings suggest implications for public health, but the limitations of the present investigation preclude definitive conclusions and stress the urgency for replication.

  9. Sodium Replacement and Plasma Sodium Drop During Exercise in the Heat When Fluid Intake Matches Fluid Loss

    PubMed Central

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Kavouras, Stavros A; Arnaoutis, Giannis; Gioxari, Aristea; Kollia, Maria; Botoula, Efthimia; Sidossis, Labros S

    2009-01-01

    Context: Sodium replacement during prolonged exercise in the heat may be critically important to maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and muscle contractility. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of sodium-containing sports drinks in preventing hyponatremia and muscle cramping during prolonged exercise in the heat. Design: Randomized crossover study. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen active men. Intervention(s): Participants completed 4 trials of an exercise protocol in the heat (30°C) consisting of 3 hours of exercise (alternating 30 minutes of walking and cycling at a heart rate of 130 and 140 beats per minute, respectively); a set of standing calf raises (8 sets of 30 repetitions); and 45 minutes of steep, brisk walking (5.5 km⋅h−1 on a 12% grade). During exercise, participants consumed fluids to match body mass loss. A different drink was consumed for each trial: carbohydrate-electrolyte drink containing 36.2 mmol/L sodium (HNa), carbohydrate-electrolyte drink containing 19.9 mmol/L sodium (LNa), mineral water (W), and colored and flavored distilled water (PL). Main Outcome Measure(s): Serum sodium, plasma osmolality, plasma volume changes, and muscle cramping frequency. Results: During both HNa and LNa trials, serum sodium remained relatively constant (serum sodium concentration at the end of the protocol was 137.3 mmol/L and 136.7 mmol/L, respectively). However, a clear decrease was observed in W (134.5 ± 0.8 mmol/L) and PL (134.4 ± 0.8 mmol/L) trials compared with HNa and LNa trials (P < .05). The same trends were observed for plasma osmolality (P < .05). Albeit not significant, plasma volume was preserved during the HNa and LNa trials, but a reduction of 2.5% was observed in the W and PL trials. None of the volunteers experienced cramping. Conclusions: The data suggest that sodium intake during prolonged exercise in the heat plays a significant role in preventing sodium losses that may lead to hyponatremia when fluid intake matches

  10. The effects of restricted energy and fluid intake on simulated amateur boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Dyson, R; Hale, T; Hamilton, M; Kelly, J; Wellington, P

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the effects of serial reductions in energy and fluid intake on two simulated boxing performances separated by 2 days recovery. Eight amateur boxers (age: 23.6 +/- 3.2 years; height 175 +/- 5 cm; body mass [BM] 73.3 +/- 8.3 kg [Mean +/- SD]) performed two simulated boxing bouts (BB) under normal (N-trial) and restricted (R-trial) diets in a counterbalanced design over 5 days. The trials were separated by a 9-day period of normal dietary behavior (X-trial). BM was recorded on days 1, 3, and 5 of each trial. Simulated bouts of three, 3-min rounds with 1-min recovery were completed on days 3 (BB1) and 5 (BB2) of each 5-day trial. Punching force (N) was recorded from 8 sets of 7 punches by a purpose-built boxing ergometer. Heart rate (fC) was monitored continuously (PE3000 Polar Sports Tester, Kempele, Finland), and blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BG) were determined 4-min post-performance (2300 StaPlus, YSI, Ohio). Energy and fluid intakes were significantly lower in the R-trial (p < .05). Body mass was maintained during the N-trial but fell 3% (p < .05) during the R-trial. There were no significant differences in end-of-bout fC or post-bout BG, but BLa was higher in the N- than the R-trial (p < .05). R-trial punching forces were 3.2% and 4.6% lower, respectively, compared to the corresponding N-trial bouts, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that energy and fluid restrictions in weight-governed sports do not always lead to a significant decrease in performance, but because of the small sample size and big variations in individual performances, these findings should be interpreted with care.

  11. Maintained serum sodium in male ultra-marathoners--the role of fluid intake, vasopressin, and aldosterone in fluid and electrolyte regulation.

    PubMed

    Bürge, J; Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Gnädinger, M; Rüst, C A; Rüst, A C; Rosemann, T

    2011-08-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is a well know electrolyte disorder in endurance athletes. Although fluid overload is the most like etiology, recent studies, however, argued whether EAH is a disorder of vasopressin secretion. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-marathoners and (ii) whether fluid intake, aldosterone or vasopressin, as measured by copeptin, were associated with post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]). In 50 male ultra-marathoners in a 100 km ultra-marathon, serum [Na+], aldosterone, copeptin, serum and urine osmolality, and body mass were measured pre- and post-race. Fluid intake, renal function parameters and urine excretion were measured. No athlete developed EAH. Copeptin and aldosterone increased; a significant correlation was found between the change in copeptin and the change in serum [Na+], no correlation was found between aldosterone and serum [Na+]. Serum [Na+] increased by 1.6%; body mass decreased by 1.9 kg. The change in serum [Na+] and body mass correlated significantly and negatively. The fluid intake of ~ 0.58 l/h was positively related to the change in body mass and negatively to both post-race serum [Na+] and the change in serum [Na+]. We conclude that serum [Na+] was maintained by both the mechanisms of fluid intake and the hormonal regulation of vasopressin. PMID:21823061

  12. Maintained serum sodium in male ultra-marathoners--the role of fluid intake, vasopressin, and aldosterone in fluid and electrolyte regulation.

    PubMed

    Bürge, J; Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Gnädinger, M; Rüst, C A; Rüst, A C; Rosemann, T

    2011-08-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is a well know electrolyte disorder in endurance athletes. Although fluid overload is the most like etiology, recent studies, however, argued whether EAH is a disorder of vasopressin secretion. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-marathoners and (ii) whether fluid intake, aldosterone or vasopressin, as measured by copeptin, were associated with post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]). In 50 male ultra-marathoners in a 100 km ultra-marathon, serum [Na+], aldosterone, copeptin, serum and urine osmolality, and body mass were measured pre- and post-race. Fluid intake, renal function parameters and urine excretion were measured. No athlete developed EAH. Copeptin and aldosterone increased; a significant correlation was found between the change in copeptin and the change in serum [Na+], no correlation was found between aldosterone and serum [Na+]. Serum [Na+] increased by 1.6%; body mass decreased by 1.9 kg. The change in serum [Na+] and body mass correlated significantly and negatively. The fluid intake of ~ 0.58 l/h was positively related to the change in body mass and negatively to both post-race serum [Na+] and the change in serum [Na+]. We conclude that serum [Na+] was maintained by both the mechanisms of fluid intake and the hormonal regulation of vasopressin.

  13. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009–2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public. PMID:27754402

  14. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  15. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  16. Lithium clearance in man: effects of dietary salt intake, acute changes in extracellular fluid volume, amiloride and frusemide.

    PubMed

    Atherton, J C; Green, R; Hughes, S; McFall, V; Sharples, J A; Solomon, L R; Wilson, L

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of amiloride and frusemide on lithium clearance were studied during changes in dietary sodium chloride intake and during infusion of 0.9% NaCl in normal human volunteers. 2. Lithium and fractional lithium clearances were less on the low than on the high salt diet. Values for the medium salt diet were intermediate. Acute extracellular fluid volume expansion with 0.9% NaCl infusion and extracellular fluid volume contraction 3-4 h after intravenous frusemide caused lithium and fractional lithium clearances to increase and decrease respectively. 3. Amiloride caused small changes in lithium and fractional lithium clearances on a low salt diet, but was without effect when salt intake was medium or high. 4. Increases in lithium clearance occurred immediately after frusemide irrespective of dietary salt intake and in subjects infused with 0.9% NaCl. Only in salt-depleted subjects did frusemide cause a substantial increase in fractional lithium clearance. Changes induced under other circumstances were small. 5. It is concluded that the lithium clearance method for assessment of proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption can be used with some degree of confidence in certain circumstances (medium and high salt intake as well as in acute volume expansion) but may not be reliable when dietary salt intake is low. PMID:3690979

  17. An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume. Methods In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography. Results Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028). Conclusions An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake. PMID:22472466

  18. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  19. Self-selecting fluid intake while maintaining high carbohydrate availability does not impair half-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J C; Hammond, K M; Vasdev, A; Poole, K L; Impey, S G; Close, G L; Morton, J P

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high exogenous CHO availability (60 g/h) does not compromise half-marathon performance. 15 participants completed 3 half-marathons while drinking a 6% CHO solution to guidelines (DRINK) or a non-caloric solution in self-selected volumes when consuming 3×glucose (20 g) gels (G-GEL) or glucose-fructose (13 g glucose+7 g fructose) gels (GF-GEL) per hour. Fluid intake (DRINK: 1 557±182, G-GEL: 473±234, GF-GEL: 404±144 ml) and percent body mass loss (DRINK: - 0.8±0.9, G-GEL: - 2.0±0.6, GF-GEL: -2.3±1.1) were different (P<0.05) between conditions, though race time did not differ (DRINK: 110.6±14.4, G-GEL: 110.3±14.6, GF-GEL: 113.7±12.8 min). In G-GEL, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between body mass loss and race time. Plasma glucose was lower (P<0.05) in GF-GEL compared with other conditions, and total CHO oxidation (DRINK: 3.2±0.5, G-GEL: 3.0±0.4, GF-GEL: 2.6±0.4 g/min) was lower (P=0.06) in this trial. Self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high CHO availability does not impair half-marathon performance. Additionally, consuming glucose-fructose mixtures in sub-optimal amounts reduces plasma glucose and total rates of CHO oxidation.

  20. The relation of soy intake and isoflavone levels in nipple aspirate fluid.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Hebshi, Sandra; Custer, Laurie; Franke, Adrian A

    2008-02-01

    Given the possible breast cancer preventive effects of isoflavones, substances with an estrogen-like structure occurring in soybeans, it is of interest to assess levels directly in the breast. The objective of this pilot study was to measure isoflavones in nipple aspirate fluid. In a pilot study with 11 women, nipple aspirate fluid and urine samples were collected at baseline and after 1 month of consuming two servings of soymilk per day. In a parallel investigation, one woman donated nipple aspirate fluid, blood, and urine on the same day after consuming different amounts of soy for 9 days. Nipple aspirate fluid was collected with an aspirator, diluted 1 : 11, and stored at -20 degrees C. Isoflavonoids in nipple aspirate fluid, serum, and urine were liquid-liquid extracted after enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis using triply C labeled internal isoflavonoid standards. After the 30-day soy intervention, median nipple aspirate fluid yield changed very little (P=0.47), whereas urinary isoflavonoid excretion (P=0.04) and isoflavonoid levels in nipple aspirate fluid (P=0.12) increased substantially. For the nine samples collected in one participant, isoflavonoids measured in nipple aspirate fluid, plasma, and urine were highly correlated with the number of daily soy servings and with each other. This pilot study indicates that isoflavonoids in nipple aspirate fluid are 10 times lower than in plasma and are closely related to levels of isoflavonoids in urine and plasma. These findings show that isoflavonoids are present in breast fluid and may act directly on breast tissue.

  1. Recovery after exercise in the heat--factors influencing fluid intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The restoration of body fluid balance following dehydration induced by exercise will occur through regulatory responses which stimulate ingestion of water and sodium ions. A number of different afferent signalling systems are necessary to generate appropriate thirst or sodium appetite. The primary sensory information of naturally occurring thirst is derived from receptors sensing cell volume and the volume of the extracellular fluid compartment. Sensory information from the oropharyngeal region is also an important determinant of thirst. The interaction of these various afferent signalling systems within the central nervous system determines the extent of fluid replacement following dehydration.

  2. Growth and metabolism of fetal and maternal muscles of adolescent sheep on adequate or high feed intake: possible role of protein kinase C-alpha in fetal muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R M; Thompson, M G; Meallet, C; Thom, A; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    1998-04-01

    From days 4-104 of pregnancy, adolescent sheep, weighing 43.7 (SE 0.87) kg were offered a complete diet at two different intakes (approximately 5 or 15 kg/week) designed to meet slightly, or well above, maternal maintenance requirements. The fetal and maternal muscles were taken on day 104 of pregnancy and analysed for total DNA, RNA and protein. Ewes offered a high intake to promote rapid maternal weight gain, weighed more (76.5 (SE 4.5) v 50.0 (SE 1.7) kg) and had muscles with a greater fresh weight, whilst their fetuses had smaller muscles, than those fed at a lower intake. Plantaris muscle of the ewes fed at the high intake contained more RNA and protein; again the opposite situation was found in the fetal muscle. On the higher maternal intakes, the DNA, RNA and protein contents of the fetal plantaris muscle were less than in fetuses of ewes fed at the lower intake. To investigate the possible mechanisms involved in this decrease in fetal muscle mass, cytosolic and membrane-associated muscle proteins were subjected to Western immunoblotting with antibodies to nine isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), a family of enzymes known to play an important role in cell growth. Five PKC isoforms (alpha, epsilon, theta, mu, zeta) were identified in fetal muscle. One of these, PKC-alpha was located predominantly in the cytosolic compartment in the smaller fetuses of the ewes fed at a high plane of nutrition, but was present to a greater extent in the membranes of the more rapidly growing fetuses of the ewes fed at the lower intake. This was the only isoform to demonstrate nutritionally related changes in it subcellular compartmentation suggesting that it may mediate some aspects of the change in fetal growth rate.

  3. Divergent effects of ERα and ERβ on fluid intake by female rats are not dependent on concomitant changes in AT1R expression or body weight.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Marshall, Anikó; Curtis, Kathleen S; Speth, Robert C; Clark, Stewart D; Daniels, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Estradiol (E2) decreases both water and saline intakes by female rats. The ERα and ERβ subtypes are expressed in areas of the brain that control fluid intake; however, the role that these receptors play in E2's antidipsogenic and antinatriorexigenic effects have not been examined. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that activation of ERα and ERβ decreases water and saline intakes by female rats. We found a divergence in E2's inhibitory effect on intake: activation of ERα decreased water intake, whereas activation of ERβ decreased saline intake. E2 decreases expression of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), a receptor with known relevance to water and salt intakes, in multiple areas of the brain where ERα and ERβ are differentially expressed. Therefore, we tested for agonist-induced changes in AT1R mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by analyzing receptor binding to test the hypothesis that the divergent effects of these ER subtypes are mediated by region-specific changes in AT1R expression. Although we found no changes in AT1R mRNA or binding in areas of the brain known to control fluid intake associated with agonist treatment, the experimental results replicate and extend previous findings that body weight changes mediate alterations in AT1R expression in distinct brain regions. Together, the results reveal selective effects of ER subtypes on ingestive behaviors, advancing our understanding of E2's inhibitory role in the controls of fluid intake by female rats.

  4. Divergent effects of ERα and ERβ on fluid intake by female rats are not dependent on concomitant changes in AT1R expression or body weight.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Marshall, Anikó; Curtis, Kathleen S; Speth, Robert C; Clark, Stewart D; Daniels, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Estradiol (E2) decreases both water and saline intakes by female rats. The ERα and ERβ subtypes are expressed in areas of the brain that control fluid intake; however, the role that these receptors play in E2's antidipsogenic and antinatriorexigenic effects have not been examined. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that activation of ERα and ERβ decreases water and saline intakes by female rats. We found a divergence in E2's inhibitory effect on intake: activation of ERα decreased water intake, whereas activation of ERβ decreased saline intake. E2 decreases expression of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), a receptor with known relevance to water and salt intakes, in multiple areas of the brain where ERα and ERβ are differentially expressed. Therefore, we tested for agonist-induced changes in AT1R mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by analyzing receptor binding to test the hypothesis that the divergent effects of these ER subtypes are mediated by region-specific changes in AT1R expression. Although we found no changes in AT1R mRNA or binding in areas of the brain known to control fluid intake associated with agonist treatment, the experimental results replicate and extend previous findings that body weight changes mediate alterations in AT1R expression in distinct brain regions. Together, the results reveal selective effects of ER subtypes on ingestive behaviors, advancing our understanding of E2's inhibitory role in the controls of fluid intake by female rats. PMID:27122368

  5. The acute effects of fluid intake on urine specific gravity and fluid retention in a mildly dehydrated state.

    PubMed

    Logan-Sprenger, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2013-04-01

    Many athletes arrive at training sessions and competitions in a mildly hypohydrated (HYPO) state and are instructed to drink fluids before exercise to reach a euhydrated (HYD) state. Ten recreational athletes (6 women, 4 men; 71.9 ± 4.6 kg, 25.2 ± 0.9 years) participated in the studies to examine (a) the day-to-day variability of morning urine specific gravity (USG), (b) the effects of consuming 600 ml of water on the hydration status of HYD and HYPO (USG > 1.020) subjects, and (c) the effects of consuming water (W), salt-water (SW, 40 mM Na), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with 3% or light carbohydrate (CES-L, 20 mM Na) or a CES with 6% carbohydrate (CES, 20 mM Na) on the hydration status of HYPO subjects. The hydration status was assessed with USG and body mass measures and urine volume collections. The day-to-day variability in morning USG (coefficient of variation = 0.2 ± 0.1%) was low and the responses to 600 ml of W ingestion were repeatable. Pretrial USG was 1.022 ± 0.001 in the HYPO trial and decreased <1.020 by 45 minutes (1.013 ± 0.003). In the CES study, HYPO subjects reached HYD status at 45 minutes in all conditions (W 1.013 ± 0.003, SW 1.013 ± 0.003, CES-L 1.011 ± 0.003, CES 1.017 ± 0.004) because salt or CES ingestion did not affect fluid retention (W 68%, SW 72%, CES-L 68%, CES 76%). This study demonstrated that mildly HYPO subjects could reach euhydration within 45 minutes of the ingestion of 600 ml of W or a combination of salt and CES solutions. Following this practice will minimize the incidence of starting a practice or competition hypohydrated.

  6. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  7. Preexercise urine specific gravity and fluid intake during one-hour running in a thermoneutral environment - a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael P; Mündel, Toby; Altoé, Janaína L; Saldanha, Mônica R; Ferreira, Fabrícia G; Marins, João C B

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity is often used to assess hydration status. Athletes who are hypohydrated prior to exercise tend to ingest more fluid during the exercise, possibly to compensate for their pre exercise fluid deficit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional fluid intake on fluid balance and gastrointestinal tract comfort during 1h running in a thermoneutral environment when athletes followed their habitual fluid and dietary regimes. Sixteen men and sixteen women ingested a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution immediately prior to exercise and then every 15 minutes during two runs, with a consumption rate of 2 mL.kg(-1) (LV, lower volume) or 3 mL.kg(-1) (HV, higher volume) body mass. Urine specific gravity and body mass changes were determined before and after the tests to estimate hydration status. During exercise subjects verbally responded to surveys inquiring about gastrointestinal symptoms, sensation of thirst and ratings of perceived exertion. Plasma glucose, heart rate and blood pressure were also evaluated. Men had higher preexercise urine specific gravity than women (1.025 vs. 1.016 g·mL(-1) HV; and 1.024 vs. 1.017 g·mL(-1) LV) and greater sweat loss (1.21 ± 0.27 L vs. 0.83 ± 0.21 L HV; and 1.18 ± 0.23 L vs. 0.77 ± 0.17 LV). Prevalence of gastrointestinal discomfort increased after 45 min. No significant differences on heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, blood pressure or glycemia was observed with the additional fluid intake. From these results it appears that additional fluid intake reduces body mass loss and thirst sensation. When compared to the men, however, preexercise euhydration was more common in women and an increased fluid intake increases the risk of body mass gain and gastrointestinal discomfort. Key pointsThere seems to be a wide variability in pre-exercise hydration status between male and female and efforts aimed at educating athletes about the importance of pregame hydration must be emphasized

  8. Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on water intake and vasopressin and oxytocin secretion induced by fluid deprivation.

    PubMed

    Coletti, R; Almeida-Pereira, G; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2015-01-01

    During dehydration, responses of endocrine and autonomic control systems are triggered by central and peripheral osmoreceptors and peripheral baroreceptors to stimulate thirst and sodium appetite. Specifically, it is already clear that endocrine system acts by secreting vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT) and angiotensin II (ANG II), and that gaseous molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), play an important role in modulating the neurohypophyseal secretion as well as ANG II production and thirst. More recently, another gas-hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-has been studied as a neuronal modulator, which is involved in hypothalamic control of blood pressure, heart frequency and temperature. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether H2S and its interaction with NO system could participate in the modulatory responses of thirst and hormonal secretion induced by fluid deprivation. For this purpose, Wistar male rats were deprived of water for 12 and 24h, and the activity of sulfide-generating enzymes was measured. Surprisingly, 24-h water deprivation increased the activity of sulfide-generating enzymes in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). Furthermore, the icv injection of sodium sulfide (Na2S, 260nmol), a H2S donor, reduced water intake, increased AVP, OT and CORT plasma concentrations and decreased MBH nitrate/nitrite (NOX) content of 24-h water-deprived animals compared to controls. We thus suggest that H2S system has an important role in the modulation of hormonal and behavioral responses induced by 24-h fluid deprivation.

  9. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  10. Drink temperature influences fluid intake and endurance capacity in men during exercise in a hot, dry environment.

    PubMed

    Mündel, Toby; King, Jenny; Collacott, Esther; Jones, David A

    2006-09-01

    The effect of different drink temperatures on the perception of exertion and exercise endurance has not been extensively investigated. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of drink temperature on fluid intake and endurance during cycling in the heat. Eight healthy, non-acclimated males (26 +/- 7 years; maximum oxygen uptake, 54 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1); mean +/- S.D.) cycled to exhaustion at 34 degrees C and at 65% of their peak aerobic power, consuming a drink at either 19 degrees C (CON) or 4 degrees C (COLD). Six of the eight subjects cycled for longer during COLD, with exhaustion occurring at 62 +/- 4 min, compared to 55 +/- 4 min for CON (P < 0.05; mean +/- S.E.M.). Subjects consumed significantly more fluid during COLD compared to CON (1.3 +/- 0.3 l h(-1) compared to 1.0 +/- 0.2 l h(-1); P < 0.05). Heart rate tended to be lower by approximately 5 beats min(-1) during COLD, and rectal temperature during the second half of the exercise period was approximately 0.25 degrees C lower during the COLD trial; however, these trends were not significant (P = 0.08 and P = 0.07, respectively). No differences were observed between trials for ventilation, concentrations of prolactin, glucose and lactate or perceived exertion. It is concluded that a drink at 4 degrees C during exercise in the heat enhances fluid consumption and improves endurance by acting as a heat sink, attenuating the rise in body temperature and therefore reducing the effects of heat stress.

  11. Exercise-associated hyponatremic encephalopathy and exertional heatstroke in a soldier: High rates of fluid intake during exercise caused rather than prevented a fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Noakes, Timothy D; Duvenage, Cornelia S J

    2015-02-01

    Athletes are often advised to drink in order to "fully replace bodyweight losses" in order to prevent exertional heatstroke (EHS) during exercise in the heat. There is little evidence that "dehydration" in the range experienced by athletes adversely affects thermoregulation or is the exclusive cause of EHS. In contrast it is established that excess fluid intake can cause exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) sometimes associated with encephalopathy (EAHE). As part of a series of experiments to determine optimal fluid replacement during exercise in the heat, we studied a group of exceptionally well-conditioned and heat-adapted members of the South African National Defence Force. A 20 year old male started a time restricted 50 km route-march in a dry bulb temperature that reached 37.5°C (WBGT of 33.6°C, relative humidity of 85%). Pre-march plasma osmolality, serum [Na(+)] and total body water measures indicated euhydration. Fluid was available ad libitum and isotonic sports drinks at 5 km intervals. Fluid intake and core body temperature (Tc) were recorded throughout while he was tracked by a global positioning system measuring distance travelled, position and speed. Comparing the total fluid intake of the soldier (12930 mL) to the rest of the participants (mean intake of 9 038 mL) up to 40 km, it is evident that his intake was 3892 mL (approximately 300 mL h(-1)) more than the mean for group. At approximately 17h14 the soldier was found lying by himself at the side of the route, 2.24 km from the finish point. He passed away the next day in a medical care facility. This tragic event provides the valuable opportunity to present data on the pacing, temperature regulation and fluid consumption of an exceptional athlete during the development of a fatal case of combined EAHE and EHS. Pacing, fluid intake, Tc and environmental condition data are presented for 5 km intervals throughout the march. We propose a novel hypothesis on the possible contribution of EAHE to the

  12. The effects of sports drink osmolality on fluid intake and immunoendocrine responses to cycling in hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Oh, Taewoong; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Mitsuda, Hiromichi; Peake, Jonathan M; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Muraoka, Isao; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two carbohydrate-based sports drinks on fluid intake and immunoendocrine responses to cycling. Six well-trained male cyclists completed trials on three separate days that involved cycling at 60% VO(2peak) for 90 min in hot conditions (28.1 ± 1.5ºC and 52.6 ± 3.1% relative humidity). During each trial, the subjects consumed ad libitum (1) an isotonic sports drink (osmolality 317 mOsm/kg), (2) a hypotonic sports drink (osmolality 193 mOsm/kg) or (3) plain water. The cyclists consumed significantly (p<0.05) more of the isotonic drink (1.23 ± 0.35 L) and hypotonic drink (1.44 ± 0.55 L) compared with water (0.73 ± 0.26 L). Compared with water (-0.96 ± 0.26 kg), body mass decreased significantly less after consuming the hypotonic drink (-0.50 ± 0.38 kg) but not the isotonic drink (-0.51 ± 0.41 kg). Blood glucose concentration was significantly higher at the end of the isotonic and hypotonic drink trials compared with the water trial. Neutrophil count and the plasma concentrations of catecholamines, interleukin 6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase, calprotectin and myoglobin increased significantly during all three trials. IL-6 and calprotectin were significantly lower following the hypotonic drink trial compared with the water trial. In conclusion, hypotonic sports drinks are appealing for athletes to drink during exercise, and may help to offset fluid losses and attenuate some inflammatory responses to exercise.

  13. Activity of protein kinase C-α within the subfornical organ is necessary for fluid intake in response to brain angiotensin.

    PubMed

    Coble, Jeffrey P; Johnson, Ralph F; Cassell, Martin D; Johnson, Alan Kim; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-07-01

    Angiotensin-II production in the subfornical organ acting through angiotensin-II type-1 receptors is necessary for polydipsia, resulting from elevated renin-angiotensin system activity. Protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways have been shown to mediate effects of angiotensin-II in the brain. We investigated mechanisms that mediate brain angiotensin-II-induced polydipsia. We used double-transgenic sRA mice, consisting of human renin controlled by the neuron-specific synapsin promoter crossed with human angiotensinogen controlled by its endogenous promoter, which results in brain-specific overexpression of angiotensin-II, particularly in the subfornical organ. We also used the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of hypertension, which exhibits polydipsia. Inhibition of protein kinase C, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases, protein kinase A, or vasopressin V₁A and V₂ receptors, corrected the elevated water intake of sRA mice. Using an isoform selective inhibitor and an adenovirus expressing dominant negative protein kinase C-α revealed that protein kinase C-α in the subfornical organ was necessary to mediate elevated fluid and sodium intake in sRA mice. Inhibition of protein kinase C activity also attenuated polydipsia in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model. We provide evidence that inducing protein kinase C activity centrally is sufficient to induce water intake in water-replete wild-type mice, and that cell surface localization of protein kinase C-α can be induced in cultured cells from the subfornical organ. These experimental findings demonstrate a role for central protein kinase C activity in fluid balance, and further mechanistically demonstrate the importance of protein kinase C-α signaling in the subfornical organ in fluid intake stimulated by angiotensin-II in the brain.

  14. Effects of Ramadan upon fluid and food intake, fatigue, and physical, mental, and social activities: a comparison between the UK and Libya.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim; Alkib, Lotfia; Reilly, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Two studies were performed during Ramadan, one in the UK (N=31) and the other in Libya (N=33). The aims were to assess some changes to lifestyle that are produced by fasting as well as effects due to culture. Subjects were studied on eight separate occasions: four control days (two before and two after Ramadan) and four days during the four weeks of Ramadan itself. A questionnaire was answered that asked about naps and fluid and food intake. The questions elicited if an individual had slept, drank, or eaten, plus the reasons for doing or not doing so. Also, subjects were asked to describe their physical, mental, and social activities, their fatigue, and their perceived abilities to perform physical or mental work. The questionnaire was answered five times per day: at sunrise, at 10:00 h, at 14:00 h, at sunset, and on retiring to sleep at night. Urine samples were collected at sunset and measured for osmolality. Differences between control and Ramadan days, as well as between subjects studied in UK and Libya, were assessed by analysis of variance. Correlations between fatigue and physical, mental, and social activities were also assessed, as were differences in urine osmolality. Fasting during Ramadan resulted in fewer activities and increased fatigue and frequency of napping during daytime. Changes in fluid and food intake indicated some degree of preparation for fasting before sunrise and a marked "recuperation" from fasting after sunset. The reasons given for napping in the daytime, for drinking or not drinking, and for eating or not eating, changed during Ramadan compared with control days; as a result, links between fatigue and activities, and fatigue and fluid and food intake, were all altered during Ramadan, particularly after sunset. Subjects become dehydrated during the daytime, but this was not reduced when females who were menstruating drank during this time. Several differences between the two studies were found. There was a greater frequency of napping

  15. Effects of Ramadan upon fluid and food intake, fatigue, and physical, mental, and social activities: a comparison between the UK and Libya.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim; Alkib, Lotfia; Reilly, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Two studies were performed during Ramadan, one in the UK (N=31) and the other in Libya (N=33). The aims were to assess some changes to lifestyle that are produced by fasting as well as effects due to culture. Subjects were studied on eight separate occasions: four control days (two before and two after Ramadan) and four days during the four weeks of Ramadan itself. A questionnaire was answered that asked about naps and fluid and food intake. The questions elicited if an individual had slept, drank, or eaten, plus the reasons for doing or not doing so. Also, subjects were asked to describe their physical, mental, and social activities, their fatigue, and their perceived abilities to perform physical or mental work. The questionnaire was answered five times per day: at sunrise, at 10:00 h, at 14:00 h, at sunset, and on retiring to sleep at night. Urine samples were collected at sunset and measured for osmolality. Differences between control and Ramadan days, as well as between subjects studied in UK and Libya, were assessed by analysis of variance. Correlations between fatigue and physical, mental, and social activities were also assessed, as were differences in urine osmolality. Fasting during Ramadan resulted in fewer activities and increased fatigue and frequency of napping during daytime. Changes in fluid and food intake indicated some degree of preparation for fasting before sunrise and a marked "recuperation" from fasting after sunset. The reasons given for napping in the daytime, for drinking or not drinking, and for eating or not eating, changed during Ramadan compared with control days; as a result, links between fatigue and activities, and fatigue and fluid and food intake, were all altered during Ramadan, particularly after sunset. Subjects become dehydrated during the daytime, but this was not reduced when females who were menstruating drank during this time. Several differences between the two studies were found. There was a greater frequency of napping

  16. Polymorphisms in genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and renal cell cancer risk: interplay with hypertension and intakes of sodium, potassium and fluid.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Ivette A; van den Brandt, Piet A; van Engeland, Manon; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Godschalk, Roger W; Keszei, András P; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-03-01

    Hypertension is an established risk factor for renal cell cancer (RCC). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates blood pressure and is closely linked to hypertension. RAAS additionally influences homeostasis of electrolytes (e.g. sodium and potassium) and fluid. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RAAS and their interactions with hypertension and intakes of sodium, potassium and fluid regarding RCC risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), which was initiated in 1986 and included 120,852 participants aged 55 to 69 years. Diet and lifestyle were assessed by questionnaires and toenail clippings were collected. Genotyping of toenail DNA was performed using the SEQUENOM® MassARRAY® platform for a literature-based selection of 13 candidate SNPs in seven key RAAS genes. After 20.3 years of follow-up, Cox regression analyses were conducted using a case-cohort approach including 3,583 subcohort members and 503 RCC cases. Two SNPs in AGTR1 were associated with RCC risk. AGTR1_rs1492078 (AA vs. GG) decreased RCC risk [hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.70(0.49-1.00)], whereas AGTR1_rs5186 (CC vs. AA) increased RCC risk [HR(95%CI): 1.49(1.08-2.05)]. Associations were stronger in participants with hypertension. The RCC risk for AGT_rs3889728 (AG + AA vs. GG) was modified by hypertension (p interaction = 0.039). SNP-diet interactions were not significant, although HRs suggested interaction between SNPs in ACE and sodium intake. SNPs in AGTR1 and AGT influenced RCC susceptibility, and their effects were modified by hypertension. Sodium intake was differentially associated with RCC risk across genotypes of several SNPs, yet some analyses had probably inadequate power to show significant interaction. Results suggest that RAAS may be a candidate pathway in RCC etiology.

  17. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno; Barros, Renata; Padrão, Patricia; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.

  18. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  19. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  20. Paternal preconception ethanol exposure blunts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity and stress-induced excessive fluid intake in male mice.

    PubMed

    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of environmental insults have been shown to induce epigenetic effects that persist across generations. For instance, paternal preconception exposures to ethanol or stress have independently been shown to exert such intergenerational effects. Since ethanol exposure is a physiological stressor that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that paternal ethanol exposure would impact stress responsivity of offspring. Adult male mice were exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol or control conditions for 5 weeks before being mated with ethanol-naïve females to produce ethanol (E)- and control (C)-sired offspring. Adult male and female offspring were tested for plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels following acute restraint stress and the male offspring were further examined for stress-evoked 2-bottle choice ethanol-drinking. Paternal ethanol exposure blunted plasma CORT levels following acute restraint stress selectively in male offspring; females were unaffected. In a stress-evoked ethanol-drinking assay, there was no effect of stress on ethanol consumption. However, C-sired males exhibited increased total fluid intake (polydipsia) in response to stress while E-sired males were resistant to this stress-induced phenotype. Taken together, these data suggest that paternal ethanol exposure imparts stress hyporesponsivity to male offspring.

  1. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  2. Effects of a modified through-mask drinking system (MDS) on fluid intake during exercise in chemical protective gear. Report for January-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Szlyk, P.C.; Sils, I.V.; Tharion, W.J.; Francesconi, R.P.; Mahnke, R.B.

    1989-10-12

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a modified through-mask drinking system (MDS) on voluntary fluid consumption. Eighteen male volunteers walked on a treadmill (4.02 km/hr, 0 deg. grade, 50 min/hr for 6 hr) in a climatic chamber (dry bulb=32.6 deg C, wet bulb=17.5 deg C, 20.4% relative humidity, and windspeed=8.05 km/hr, producing a WBGT of 22.1 deg C). Subjects wore chemical protective gear (trousers, jacket, boots, gloves, and M17A1 protective mask) and were randomly assigned one of two through-mask and were randomly assigned one of two through-mask drinking systems: CS (n=9), the current gravity fed system or MDS (n=9), a prototype hand-pump drinking system. Because decontamination of the mask and drinking connections was performed prior to drinking, the overall use of the CS was rated significantly more difficult during both work and rest than the MDS. Failure to decontaminate connections prior to drinking was noted early in the trial in 2 soldiers using the CS suggesting an increase risk of accidental contamination associated with this system. Drinking with the MDS had no measurable adverse effect on hydration status of the test subjects: water intake rate, 0.36 L/hr (CS) and 0.42 L/hr (MDS); sweat rate, 0.63 L/hr (CS) and 0.67 L/hr (MDS); body weight loss, 0.32 %/hr (CS) and 0.31 %/hr (MDS).

  3. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  4. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  5. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  6. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  8. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  9. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  10. Formulas providing adequate pantothenic acid, vitamin D, manganese, iron and vitamin A for infants fed with mother's milk (aged 6-11 months) according to the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes prepared by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2005 edition).

    PubMed

    Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Aki; Takagi, Arisa; Seguti, Harumiti; Inatome, Tetsuya

    2010-04-01

    Weaning formulas served in hospitals and care facilities in Japan should conform to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). We examined whether the DRI for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months can be satisfied in dietary practice, with a particular focus on the fulfilment rates for vitamins, minerals, trace elements and electrolytes in weaning formulas containing energy and protein at levels either greater than or equal to the DRIs, as well as on the dietary profiles of weaning formulas to achieve the DRI for every nutrient. The results showed that no weaning formulas examined in this study fulfilled the DRI for pantothenic acid (5 mg), vitamin D (4 microg), manganese (1.2 mg) or iron (5.5 mg). Furthermore, their vitamin A content exceeded the DRI (350 microg RE). The discrepancy between the guidelines and actual dietary practice is probably because of the fact that the estimated reference values poorly reflect the actual dietary intake in the target population; for example, the pantothenic acid and manganese DRIs for breastfed infants aged 6-11 months were set based on the breast milk intake of younger infants (0-5 months) in combination with the breast milk contents. Our results suggest that dietary guidance for infants should include information to promote proper intakes of vitamins A and D, and iron by reducing the amount of vitamin A-rich foods and utilizing dietary vitamin D and iron supplements including government-approved specified health foods.

  11. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone.

  12. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  13. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  14. Analysis of the fluid-pressure responses of the Rustler Formation at H-16 to the construction of the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, J.D.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1990-03-01

    The construction of the air-intake shaft (AIS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in 1987 and 1988 initiated fluid-pressure responses which were used to estimate the hydrologic properties of the Culebra Dolomite, Magenta Dolomite, and Forty-niner Members of the Rustler Formation. Fluid-pressure responses were monitored with downhole transducers. The AIS pilot hole,remained open and draining to the underground facility for about three months. The pilot hole was then upreamed from the underground facility to land surface. The pilot hole was drilled and reamed using a bentonite-mud-based brine as a drilling fluid. The well-test simulator GTFM was used to analyze the fluid-pressure responses of the Culebra and Magenta dolomites and the Forty-niner claystone. A cement-invasion skin was used in simulating the Culebra dolomite's drilling/reaming period. A mud-filter-cake skin was used to create reduced wellbore pressures in simulating the pilot-hole drilling/reaming periods of the Magenta dolomite and Forty-niner claystone. 26 refs., 70 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Reduced sweet and fatty fluid intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats is dependent on experience without change in stimulus motivational potency

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Clare M.; Bohnenkamp, Ryan A.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2015-01-01

    Here we assessed how intake reductions induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) occur within and across access periods by examining drinking microstructure. After training, RYGB (n = 8–10) or sham-operated (SHAM, n = 12) rats were given 60-min access first to 0.3 M sucrose, then to 5% Intralipid, and finally to milk-chocolate Ensure Plus across 5 days each. Initially, total licks taken during the first meal of sucrose and Intralipid by RYGB and SHAM rats did not differ, but, across subsequent test periods, RYGB rats licked less than SHAM rats. First Ensure meal size also did not differ between RYGB and SHAM rats, but SHAM rats increased licking across test periods while the behavior of RYGB rats remained stable. The intake differences between the surgical groups, when they occurred, were most often due to smaller burst sizes in RYGB rats. Importantly, the surgical-group difference in sucrose and Intralipid intakes could not be explained by altered palatability of these solutions because, throughout testing, both groups had similar early meal licking behavior thought to represent the motivational potency of stimulus orosensory features. Although, overall, RYGB rats displayed lower early meal licking of Ensure relative to the SHAM rats, this appeared to be driven primarily by increases in the latter group across test periods; the RYGB group stayed relatively stable. Collectively, these results suggest that some level of postoral experience with these stimuli and/or their components is necessary before intake differences emerge between surgical groups, and, even when differences occur, often immediate taste-motivated ingestive behavior remains unaltered. PMID:26290100

  16. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  17. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  18. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  19. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  20. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  1. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  2. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  3. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  4. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  5. Gastric Bypass in Rats Does Not Decrease Appetitive Behavior Towards Sweet or Fatty Fluids Despite Blunting Preferential Intake of Sugar and Fat

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Clare M.; Bohnenkamp, Ryan A.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Letourneau, Chanel; Corteville, Caroline; Bueter, Marco; Lutz, Thomas A.; le Roux, Carel W.; Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), patients report consuming fewer fatty and dessert-like foods, and rats display blunted sugar and fat preferences. Here we used a progressive ratio task (PR) in our rat model to explicitly test whether RYGB decreases the willingness of rats to work for very small amounts of preferred sugar- and/or fat-containing fluids. In each of two studies, two groups of rats - one maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) and standard chow (CHOW) and one given CHOW alone - were trained while water-deprived to work for water or either Ensure or 1.0 M sucrose on increasingly difficult operant schedules. When tested before surgery while nondeprived, HFD rats had lower PR breakpoints (number of operant responses in the last reinforced ratio) for sucrose, but not for Ensure, than CHOW rats. After surgery, at no time did rats given RYGB show lower breakpoints than SHAM rats for Ensure, sucrose, or when 5% Intralipid served postoperatively as the reinforcer. Nevertheless, RYGB rats showed blunted preferences for these caloric fluids versus water in 2-bottle preference tests. Importantly, although the Intralipid and sucrose preferences of RYGB rats decreased further over time, subsequent breakpoints for them were not significantly impacted. Collectively, these data suggest that the observed lower preferences for normally palatable fluids after RYGB in rats may reflect a learned adjustment to altered postingestive feedback rather than a dampening of the reinforcing taste characteristics of such stimuli as measured by the PR task in which postingestive stimulation is negligible. PMID:25660341

  6. Gastric bypass in rats does not decrease appetitive behavior towards sweet or fatty fluids despite blunting preferential intake of sugar and fat.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Bohnenkamp, Ryan A; Blonde, Ginger D; Letourneau, Chanel; Corteville, Caroline; Bueter, Marco; Lutz, Thomas A; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2015-04-01

    After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, patients report consuming fewer fatty and dessert-like foods, and rats display blunted sugar and fat preferences. Here we used a progressive ratio (PR) task in our rat model to explicitly test whether RYGB decreases the willingness of rats to work for very small amounts of preferred sugar- and/or fat-containing fluids. In each of two studies, two groups of rats - one maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) and standard chow (CHOW) and one given CHOW alone - were trained while water-deprived to work for water or either Ensure or 1.0M sucrose on increasingly difficult operant schedules. When tested before surgery while nondeprived, HFD rats had lower PR breakpoints (number of operant responses in the last reinforced ratio) for sucrose, but not for Ensure, than CHOW rats. After surgery, at no time did rats given RYGB show lower breakpoints than SHAM rats for Ensure, sucrose, or when 5% Intralipid served postoperatively as the reinforcer. Nevertheless, RYGB rats showed blunted preferences for these caloric fluids versus water in 2-bottle preference tests. Importantly, although the Intralipid and sucrose preferences of RYGB rats decreased further over time, subsequent breakpoints for them were not significantly impacted. Collectively, these data suggest that the observed lower preferences for normally palatable fluids after RYGB in rats may reflect a learned adjustment to altered postingestive feedback rather than a dampening of the reinforcing taste characteristics of such stimuli as measured by the PR task in which postingestive stimulation is negligible. PMID:25660341

  7. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    PubMed

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p < .05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/hr of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p < .05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.

  8. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  9. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  10. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  11. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  12. NOVEL INSIGHTS ON INTAKE OF MEAT AND PREVENTION OF SARCOPENIA: ALL REASONS FOR AN ADEQUATE CONSUMPTION.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Infantino, Vittoria; Pozzi, Raffaella

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la sarcopenia se define como un síndrome caracterizado por la pérdida progresiva y generalizada de la masa muscular y de la fuerza. La principal causa de la sarcopenia es la alteración del metabolismo de las proteínas, en la que los procesos proteolíticos no van acompañados de una síntesis de proteínas y células musculares adecuadas, con lo que se pierde progresivamente la sensibilidad al estímulo anabólico. El enfoque más racional para retrasar la progresión de la sarcopenia y contrarrestar la resistencia anabólica es una nutrición adecuada. La carne contiene compuestos biológicamente activos, tales como creatina, carnitina y ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana. Métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura narrativa para evaluar la evidencia hasta ahora, en relación con: 1. ingesta adecuada de carne en ancianos como prevención de la sarcopenia; 2. la ingesta correcta de compuestos biológicamente activos que contiene la carne, que tienen impactos significativos sobre el metabolismo de la proteína humana y para así obtener efectos beneficiosos en la prevención de la sarcopenia. Esta revisión incluyó 62 estudios elegibles. Resultados: los resultados demostraron que en personas de edad avanzada la terapia óptima con dieta para la prevención y tratamiento de la sarcopenia, que debe apuntar al logro de los objetivos metabólicos específicos, debe recomendar el consumo de 113 g de carne (220 kcal; 30 g de proteínas) cinco veces a la semana. Conclusión: en una dieta variada y equilibrada, para prevenir la sarcopenia, se recomienda consumir la carne 4-5 veces a la semana (carne blanca 2 veces por semana, carne roja magra menos de 2 veces por semana, carne procesada menos de 1 vez por semana), como se sugiere en la pirámide de la dieta para personas mayores.

  13. Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I

    2006-02-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used for assessing and planning diets of individuals and groups. Assessing individual intakes is complicated by the fact that neither the individual's usual nutrient intake nor their individual requirement is known. However, the degree of confidence that intakes are adequate or excessive can be estimated. Assessing diets of groups requires information on the group's usual nutrient intake distribution, which can be obtained by statistically adjusting 1 d intake distributions to remove within-person variability. For most nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the group prevalence of inadequate intakes can be approximated by the percent whose usual intakes are less than the EAR. However, the prevalence of inadequacy cannot be determined for nutrients with an Adequate Intake (AI). The goals of planning are a low risk (for individuals) or low prevalence (for groups) of inadequate or excessive nutrient intakes. For individuals, these goals are met by planning intakes that meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or AI, are below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), and fall within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs). For groups, planning involves estimating a "target" usual intake distribution with an acceptably low prevalence less than the EAR and greater than the UL, planning menus to achieve the target distribution, and assessing the results.

  14. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, P<0·001), a biomarker of arginine vasopressin, but could not account fully for the augmented NFB in M compared with CE and W. These data suggest that a metered approach to fluid ingestion acts in synergy with the nutrient composition of M in the restoration of NFB following exercise and thermal dehydration. PMID:27477047

  15. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, P<0·001), a biomarker of arginine vasopressin, but could not account fully for the augmented NFB in M compared with CE and W. These data suggest that a metered approach to fluid ingestion acts in synergy with the nutrient composition of M in the restoration of NFB following exercise and thermal dehydration.

  16. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  17. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  18. Using an interactive water bottle to target fluid adherence in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Kristin A; Scholl, Penny; Kidwell, Kelley M; Hmiel, S Paul

    2015-02-01

    Hydration is important post-renal transplant to maintain adequate renal perfusion and graft function. Adherence to fluid recommendations is challenging given barriers to staying hydrated. There are no studies of adherence to fluid intake recommendations following pediatric renal transplant. Through this pilot study, we sought to determine whether the use of a commercially available interactive water bottle would lead to better adherence to recommended fluid intake and improved kidney functioning post-transplant relative to standard of care. Participants included 32 youth ages 7-19 ≥1 month post-kidney transplant randomized to the intervention (HydraCoach(®) water bottle) or standard education control group. Laboratory records were reviewed for serum chemistries (Na, BUN, creatinine) at baseline and one-month follow-up, and participants recorded daily fluid intake for 28 days. Those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to meet or exceed their fluid target, but this did not translate into better kidney functioning. Participants in the intervention group largely reported satisfaction with the water bottle and were likely to continue its use. While an interactive water bottle providing real-time feedback may be a promising intervention to help pediatric kidney transplant patients meet fluid goals, it did not appear to impact kidney function. PMID:25388882

  19. Hydration biomarkers in free-living adults with different levels of habitual fluid consumption.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Erica; Vergne, Sébastien; Klein, Alexis; Poupin, Marie; Rondeau, Pascale; Le Bellego, Laurent; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Lang, Florian; Stookey, Jodi; Tack, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the impact of habitual fluid intake on physiology. Specifically, biomarkers of hydration status and body water regulation have not been adequately explored in adults who consume different fluid volumes in everyday conditions, without prolonged exercise or environmental exposure. The purpose of the present study was to compare adults with habitually different fluid intakes with respect to biomarkers implicated in the assessment of hydration status, the regulation of total body water and the risk of kidney pathologies. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-one adults (thirty-two men, thirty-nine women, age 25–40 years) were classified according to daily fluid intake: thirty-nine low drinkers (LD; ≤ 1·2 litres/d) and thirty-two high drinkers (HD; 2–4 litres/d). During four consecutive days, urinary parameters (first morning urine (FMU) on day 1 and subsequent 24 h urine (24hU) collections), blood parameters, and food and beverage intake were assessed. ANOVA and non-parametric comparisons revealed significant differences between the LD and HD groups in 24hU volume (1·0 (se 0·1) v. 2·4 (se 0·1) litres), specific gravity (median 1·023 v. 1·010), osmolality (767 (se 27) v. 371 (se 33) mOsm/kg) and colour (3·1 (se 0·2) v. 1·8 (se 0·2)). Similarly, in the FMU, the LD group produced a smaller amount of more concentrated urine. Plasma cortisol, creatinine and arginine vasopressin concentrations were significantly higher among the LD. Plasma osmolality was similar between the groups, suggesting physiological adaptations to preserve plasma osmolality despite low fluid intake. The long-term impact of adaptations to preserve plasma osmolality must be examined, particularly in the context of renal health. PMID:22935250

  20. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:27533410

  1. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

  2. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  3. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid imbalance; Hypernatremia - fluid imbalance; Hypokalemia - fluid imbalance; Hyperkalemia - fluid imbalance ... of sodium or potassium is present as well. Medicines can also affect fluid balance. The most common ...

  4. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  5. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  6. Fluid balance in team sports. Guidelines for optimal practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Hawley, J A

    1997-07-01

    Team sports require players to perform multiple work bouts at near maximal effort, punctuated with intervals of low intensity exercise or rest for the duration of a game. Such activity patterns are associated with a significant loss of body water which has a negative impact on physical and mental performance, as well as temperature regulation. There are a number of ways in which sweat losses incurred during team sports differ from those measured during prolonged, continuous exercise. Firstly, the work rate in team sports is intermittent, largely unpredictable and random in nature. Second, analyses of various team sports reveal that such games are characterised by a high degree of inter and intra-individual variability in work rates between players from the same sport. Finally, team players are less able to anticipate sweat losses than athletes competing in events which involve prolonged, continuous, moderate intensity exercise. Yet, compared with most endurance events, many team sports offer frequent opportunities to ingest adequate volumes of fluid and thus prevent exercise-induced hypohydration. The present review details the findings of modern studies which have determined body water losses and fluid intake practices of athletes from a variety of team sports. Special considerations which influence sweat loss and fluid intake that are unique to team sports are discussed, and guidelines for sound hydration strategies during training and competition are provided.

  7. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Arnault, Nathalie; González, Rebeca; Buscail, Camille; Galan, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI) only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04)) using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5) (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6) for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5) for women). The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4); and with EI (r = 0.2), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations. PMID:27727164

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  10. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  12. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  13. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  14. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  15. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  16. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  17. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  20. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  5. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  11. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  12. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  13. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  14. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  15. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  16. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  17. Nutritional intake and anthropometric changes of professional road cyclists during a 4-day competition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muñoz, C; Zabala, M; Muros, J J

    2016-07-01

    Appropriate nutrition through adequate dietary intake of total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients is an essential component of optimizing the performance of all elite athletes. The aim of this study was to describe the food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of professional cyclists during the Tour of Andalusia, a four-stage race covering a total distance of 647.6 km. Nutritional data were collected by trained investigators who weighed all of the food and fluid ingested by the cyclists. The nutritional intake of the cyclists was as follows: CHO, 12.8 ± 1.7 g/kg of body weight (BW; 62.3%); fat, 2.1 ± 0.2 g/kg BW (23.2%); proteins, 3.0 ± 0.3 g/kg BW (14.5%); total kcal was 5644.3 ± 593.1. Intake of all micronutrients, except for folate and potassium [which were 93.7% and 91.3% of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)] exceeded the RDA/I. Percentage of body fat and fat weight significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while weight of muscle mass remained unchanged after the Tour. Concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, myoglobin, and high-density lipoproteins significantly increased (P < 0.05) after the Tour. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe both nutritional intake and the body and biochemical composition of a sample of professional road cyclists during a top-class cycling race.

  18. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  19. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  20. [Bone and Nutrition. Vitamin D intake and bone].

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is one of the risk factors of osteoporosis. To know the vitamin D intake for the prevention of bone loss and fracture, it is necessary to evaluate the appropriate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) concentration for bone health, and the vitamin D intake to maintain its concentration. Although vitamin D intake 15 and 20 μg/d have been set as RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) in USA/Canada DRIs (Dietary reference intakes), 5.5 μg/d has been set as AI (adequate intake) in Japanese DRIs (2015). While reference values in Japan and USA/Canada were quite different, both DRIs are common in that it aim to maintain the serum 25-D concentration to more than 50 nmol/L. In the present review, vitamin D intakes and bone health, vitamin D status in Japanese people, DRIs for vitamin D and improvement of vitamin D insufficiency are reviewed. PMID:26119309

  1. Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs).

    PubMed

    Paik, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    For more than 40 years, Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans (KRDA) were used as references for nutrient intake. In 2002, the Korean Nutrition Society organized a committee to revise the KRDA, which were transformed into the new Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) in 2005. KDRIs include Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Intake (RI), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for protein, essential amino acids and micronutrients, Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for energy and Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for macronutrients. Evidence-based methods were used to determine the reference value (s) and the levels of nutrient intake for each nutrient. The KDRIs expanded significantly the number of nutrients and the basic concepts of nutrient recommendations compared to the previously used KRDA. In addition, a new food guide, depicted as Food Tower for Koreans, was developed and appended to the KDRIs publication. Continued efforts are needed to facilitate the application of KDRIs as well as to improve the understanding of the concepts. Additional modifications will be made as more scientific data become available.

  2. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds.

  3. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids.

  4. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat.

  5. Mineral intake and blood levels in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T

    1986-02-01

    Concern has been raised that a long-term high-fiber diet may lead to mineral deficiencies. In this study, mineral intake and blood levels were investigated in 92 ovolacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores. The intake of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium was adequate in both groups. The intake of iron and magnesium was significantly higher in the vegetarians. Mean blood levels of iron, iron binding capacity, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, zinc and magnesium were within normal limits in both groups. Serum magnesium levels were significantly higher in male vegetarians. Iron binding capacity was significantly lower in vegetarians of both sexes. It is concluded that a long-term ovolacto vegetarian diet does not lead to mineral deficiencies.

  6. Simulation model accurately estimates total dietary iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2009-07-01

    One problem with estimating iodine intake is the lack of detailed data about the discretionary use of iodized kitchen salt and iodization of industrially processed foods. To be able to take into account these uncertainties in estimating iodine intake, a simulation model combining deterministic and probabilistic techniques was developed. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997-1998) and an update of the Food Composition database were used to simulate 3 different scenarios: Dutch iodine legislation until July 2008, Dutch iodine legislation after July 2008, and a potential future situation. Results from studies measuring iodine excretion during the former legislation are comparable with the iodine intakes estimated with our model. For both former and current legislation, iodine intake was adequate for a large part of the Dutch population, but some young children (<5%) were at risk of intakes that were too low. In the scenario of a potential future situation using lower salt iodine levels, the percentage of the Dutch population with intakes that were too low increased (almost 10% of young children). To keep iodine intakes adequate, salt iodine levels should not be decreased, unless many more foods will contain iodized salt. Our model should be useful in predicting the effects of food reformulation or fortification on habitual nutrient intakes.

  7. Voluntary drinking behaviour, fluid balance and psychological affect when ingesting water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of drink composition on voluntary intake, hydration status, selected physiological responses and affective states during simulated gymnasium-based exercise. In a randomised counterbalanced design, 12 physically active adults performed three 20-min intervals of cardiovascular exercise at 75% heart rate maximum, one 20-min period of resistance exercise and 20 min of recovery with ad libitum access to water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) or with no access to fluids (NF). Fluid intake was greater with CES than W (1706±157 vs. 1171±152 mL; P<0.01) and more adequate hydration was achieved in CES trials (NF vs. W vs. CES: -1668±73 vs. -700±99 vs. -273±78 g; P<0.01). Plasma glucose concentrations were highest with CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 4.26±0.12 vs. 4.06±0.08 vs. 3.97±0.10 mmol/L; P<0.05). Pleasure ratings were better maintained with ad libitum intake of CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 2.72±0.23 vs. 1.09±0.20 vs. 1.74±0.33; P<0.01). Under conditions of voluntary drinking, CES resulted in more adequate hydration and a better maintenance of affective states than W or NF during gymnasium-based exercise.

  8. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  9. Factors influencing the restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance after exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B; Shirreffs, S M

    1997-09-01

    Maintenance of fluid balance is a major concern for all athletes competing in events held in hot climates. This paper reviews recent work relating to optimisation of fluid replacement after sweat loss induced by exercising in the heat. Data are taken from studies undertaken in our laboratory. Issues investigated were drink composition, volume consumed, effects of consuming food with a drink, effects of alcohol in rehydration effectiveness, voluntary intake of fluid, and considerations for women related to the menstrual cycle. The results are presented as a series of summaries of experiments, followed by a discussion of the implications. The focus of this review is urine output after ingestion of a drink; fluid excreted in urine counteracts rehydration. Also included are data on the restoration of plasma volume losses. Ingestion of large volumes of plain water will inhibit thirst and will also promote a diuretic response. If effective rehydration is to be maintained for some hours after fluid ingestion, drinks should contain moderately high levels of sodium (perhaps as much as 50-60 mmol/l) and possibly also some potassium to replace losses in the sweat. To surmount ongoing obligatory urine losses, the volume consumed should be greater than the volume of sweat lost. Palatability of drinks is important in stimulating intake and ensuring adequate volume replacement. Where opportunities allow, the electrolytes required may be ingested as solid food consumed with a drink. There are no special concerns for women related to changes in hormone levels associated with the menstrual cycle. Ingestion of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks in the post-exercise period restores exercise capacity more effectively than plain water. The effects on performance of an uncorrected fluid deficit should persuade all athletes to attempt to remain fully hydrated at all times, and the aim should be to start each bout of exercise in a fluid replete state. This will only be achieved if a volume of

  10. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  11. Glycerol reduces food intake in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Brief, D J; Davis, J D

    1982-10-01

    Streptozotocin diabetic rats received four daily subcutaneous injections of glycerol or a glycerol solution in place of water for a seven day period. Both night and total food intake in the subcutaneous glycerol group were significantly suppressed below untreated diabetic controls. The oral glycerol group showed a nonsignificant decrease in night foot intake and a significant reduction in day and total food intake. Consumption of additional fluid calories by the oral glycerol group contributed to the suppression of food intake in this group, but suppression in the subcutaneous group was unrelated to calculated calories obtained from glycerol. The oral glycerol group also consumed more of the glycerol solution than the other diabetic groups did of water. Results of this study support previous findings that subcutaneous and oral glycerol suppress food intake in normal rats although suppression with oral glycerol may have related to caloric intake, and suggest that low plasma concentrations of insulin do not interfere with the effects obtained with glycerol in normal animals.

  12. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    values. No subject exceeded the ADI of aspartame or saccharin on any day of the study. For cyclamate, the mean daily intake over the 7-day period exceeded the ADI in 4 subjects. The results indicate that at the time of the study the then valid German sweetener regulation protected the consumer adequately, and that the sweetener intake was in 99.8% of all examined persons within recommended limits.

  13. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  14. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  19. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  20. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  1. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  2. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  3. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  4. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  5. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  6. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  7. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  8. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  9. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake in a variety of natriorexigenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Daniels, Derek

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions with the following five stimuli that increase hypertonic saline intake: central angiotensin II administration; 24 h fluid deprivation; water deprivation followed by partial rehydration; dietary sodium deficiency; and polyethylene glycol administration combined with dietary sodium deficiency. We found that ghrelin attenuated saline intake stimulated by angiotensin II, by water deprivation followed by partial rehydration and by dietary sodium deficiency. We did not detect an effect of ghrelin on saline intake after 24 h fluid deprivation without partial rehydration or after the combination of polyethylene glycol and dietary sodium deficiency. The finding that ghrelin reduced hypertonic saline intake in some, but not all, natriorexigenic conditions mirrors the previously published findings that in one-bottle tests of drinking, ghrelin reduces water intake in only some conditions. The results provide evidence for a new role for ghrelin in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis.

  10. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  11. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  12. Cylinder To Cylinder Balancing Using Intake Valve Actuation

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Kilkenny, Jonathan P.

    2005-01-18

    A method and apparatus for balancing a combustion phasing between a plurality of cylinders located in an engine. The method and apparatus includes a determining a combustion timing in each cylinder, establishing a baseline parameter for a desired combustion timing, and varying actuation of at least one of a plurality of intake valves, each intake valve being in fluid communication with a corresponding cylinder, such that the combustion timing in each cylinder is substantially equal to the desired combustion timing.

  13. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  14. Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

  15. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  16. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  17. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  18. Multiple intake poppet valve array for a single port

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, C.W.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes a multiple poppet valve array for use with a single intake duct in a four cycle internal combustion engine. It comprises: three or more poppet valves; an engine cylinder; a cylinder head having at least one intake duct in fluid communication with the combustion chamber. The intake duct having three or more apertures opening into the engine cylinder. The apertures including poppet valve seats about their perimeter for seating the three or more poppet valves; and means for opening and closing each of the poppet valves in communication with the poppet valves.

  19. The beverage intake questionnaire: determining initial validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-08-01

    Consuming energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) that estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed across 19 beverage categories. Participants (N=105; aged 39+/-2 years) underwent assessments of height, weight, body mass index, and dietary intake using 4-day food intake records from June 2008 to June 2009. The BEVQ was completed at two additional visits (BEVQ1, BEVQ2). Urine samples were collected to objectively determine total fluid intake and encourage accurate self-reporting. Validity was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 with food intake record results; reliability was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 and BEVQ2. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, paired samples t tests, and independent samples t tests. Self-reported water and total beverage intake (in grams) were not different between the BEVQ1 and food intake records (mean difference 129+/-77 g [P=0.096] and 61+/-106 g [P=0.567], respectively). Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage energy intake were significantly different, although mean differences were small (63 and 44 kcal, respectively). Daily consumption (in grams) of water (r=0.53), total beverages (r=0.46), and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.49) determined by the BEVQ1 were correlated with reported intake determined by the food intake record, as was energy from total beverages (r=0.61) and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.59) (all P values <0.001). Reliability was demonstrated, with correlations (P<0.001) detected between BEVQ1 and BEVQ2 results. The BEVQ is a valid, reliable, and rapid self-administered dietary assessment tool.

  20. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  1. Fluid management in pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Schoeman, Leann K

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous fluid given to women with pre-eclampsia may be a necessary form of treatment; however, intravenous fluid therapy can also cause iatrogenic pulmonary oedema. The indications for the use of intravenous fluids, the titration of the amount of fluid given and the use of invasive monitoring have not been subject to adequate examination in randomised studies. Clinical experience, combined with available evidence and a reasoned approach are the basis for a suggested management algorithm. PMID:27708700

  2. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  3. Neuropeptide Y fails to normalize food intake in zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P S; Browning, J D; Sullivan, M J; O'Dell, B L; Macdonald, R S

    2002-02-01

    Zinc deprivation results in decreased and cyclic food intake in rats. We determined the response of zinc-deprived rats to neuropeptide Y (NPY). In a preliminary experiment, rats were fed a low (-Zn; <1 mg/kg) or adequate zinc diet (+Zn; 100 mg/kg) for 4 days. NPY (5 or 10 microg) was then administered via an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula and food intake measured for 4 h. NPY stimulated food intake in all rats, but the difference in food intake due to zinc deprivation persisted. In a subsequent experiment, rats were fed the low zinc and adequate zinc diets for 4, 5 or 6 days. Food intake was suppressed in rats fed the low zinc compared to the adequate zinc diet on all of these days. When NPY (10 microg) was administered at the onset of the light cycle, the food intake was approximately 2.5-fold greater regardless of dietary zinc status, but the amount of food consumed by rats fed low zinc was approximately one-half the quantity consumed by NPY-stimulated zinc-adequate rats. NPY administered at the onset of dark failed to stimulate food intake in either dietary group although the total intake difference due to zinc status persisted. ICV administration of 5 nmol of zinc prior to NPY injection failed to correct the food intake response of the zinc-deficient rats. We conclude that the basis of the reduced food intake of zinc-deficient rats does not relate to NPY quantity or release, or to impairment of its signal transduction. There appears to be another undefined factor that limits food intake in zinc deficiency.

  4. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) for Research; Obtaining Adequate Sample Yield

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrea M.; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G.; Wright, Angela D.; Wright, Adam K. A.; Fullerton, Duncan G.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques. PMID:24686157

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for research; obtaining adequate sample yield.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrea M; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G; Wright, Angela D; Wright, Adam K A; Fullerton, Duncan G; Gordon, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques.

  6. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K

    2011-07-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research. PMID:22022052

  7. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K

    2011-07-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  8. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K.; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research. PMID:22022052

  9. Influence of estrous and circadian cycles on calcium intake of the rat.

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Tordoff, Michael G

    2013-03-15

    The food, water and sodium intake of laboratory rats fluctuates over the circadian and estrous cycles. Blood calcium and calcium-regulating hormones also wax and wane in response to these cycles, raising the possibility that the same might be true of calcium intake. To investigate this, we monitored the fluid intakes of female Long-Evans rats given a choice between water and 10mM CaCl2 solution for two consecutive estrous cycles. We found that calcium solution intake changed over the circadian cycle in a similar manner to water intake; the preference scores for CaCl2 solution remained stable. We did not detect any changes in calcium solution intake or preference scores during the estrous cycle despite a decrease in fluid intake at estrus. Thus, fluctuations in intake of calcium solution during the circadian cycle appear to be nonspecific and probably the result of changes in fluid balance. Estrous changes either do not influence calcium intake or their effects are masked by other factors, resulting in stable levels of calcium intake.

  10. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  11. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  12. Impact of dining room environment on nutritional intake of Alzheimer's residents: a case study.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, J H; Hunt, A; Hackes, B; Pope, J F

    2001-01-01

    This case study, in a Veterans Affairs Alzheimer's unit, was conducted to evaluate noise and lighting conditions at mealtimes and to assess the food intake of ambulatory dementia residents. The case study compared the noise, lighting, and nutritional intake of 16 Alzheimer's residents eating the same cycle menu in the extended-care (EC) dining room and the Alzheimer's unit (AU) dining room five weeks later. Noise was significantly lower in the EC (p < or = .02). Lighting was significantly higher in the EC (p < or = .001). Intake of calories and protein was slightly higher, with some days significantly higher, in the AU. Total five-day fluid intake at breakfast was significantly higher in the AU (p < or = .02). Although residents' total food and fluid intake was higher in the AU, the project identified a need to decrease noise and increase lighting in the AU. Lighting enhancement and noise reduction may further improve intake, which, in turn, may promote improved nutritional status.

  13. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction. PMID:24528344

  14. Obesity coexists with malnutrition? Adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Correia Horvath, Jaqueline Driemeyer; Dias de Castro, Mariana Laitano; Kops, Natália; Kruger Malinoski, Natasha; Friedman, Rogério

    2014-02-01

    To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview), socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria) and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel). A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6%) were female. Mean age was 44.48 ± 12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%), binge eating disorder (47.4%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%), sleep apnea (30.3%) and dyslipidemia (18.4%). Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. Bcomplex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects), but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E) intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.

  15. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  16. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  17. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  18. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  19. Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces drinking behavior and is differentially engaged by water and food intakes in rats.

    PubMed

    McKay, Naomi J; Galante, Daniela L; Daniels, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the ileum and the nucleus of the solitary tract. It is well known that GLP-1 controls food intake, but there is a growing literature indicating that GLP-1 also is involved in fluid intake. It is not known, however, if the observed effects are pharmacological or if endogenous GLP-1 and its receptor contribute to physiological fluid intake control. Accordingly, we blocked endogenous GLP-1 by application of a receptor antagonist and measured subsequent drinking. Furthermore, we measured changes in GLP-1-associated gene expression after water intake, and compared the effects of fluid intake to those caused by food intake. Rats injected with the antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) drank more fluid in response to either subcutaneous hypertonic saline or water deprivation with partial rehydration than did vehicle-treated rats. Analysis of licking behavior showed that Ex-9 increased fluid intake by increasing the number of licking bursts, without having an effect on the number of licks per burst, suggesting that endogenous GLP-1 suppresses fluid intake by influencing satiety. Subsequent experiments showed that water intake had a selective effect on central GLP-1-related gene expression, unlike food intake, which affected both central and peripheral GLP-1. Although water and food intakes both affected central GLP-1-relevant gene expression, there were notable differences in the timing of the effect. These results show a novel role of the endogenous GLP-1 system in fluid intake, and indicate that elements of the GLP-1 system can be engaged separately by different forms of ingestive behavior.

  20. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  1. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  2. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Dodd, Kevin W; Goldman, Joseph A; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Sempos, Christopher T; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged >or=1 y using NHANES 2003-2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005-2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual nutrient intake from dietary sources. The mean daily nutrient intake from supplemental sources was added to the adjusted dietary intake estimates to produce total usual nutrient intakes for calcium and vitamin D. A total of 53% of the U.S. population reported using any dietary supplement (2003-2006), 43% used calcium (2003-2006), and 37% used vitamin D (2005-2006). For users, dietary supplements provided the adequate intake (AI) recommendation for calcium intake for approximately 12% of those >or=71 y. Males and females aged 1-3 y had the highest prevalence of meeting the AI from dietary and total calcium intakes. For total vitamin D intake, males and females >or=71, and females 14-18 y had the lowest prevalence of meeting the AI. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Monitoring usual total nutrient intake is necessary to adequately characterize and evaluate the population's nutritional status and adherence to recommendations for nutrient intake. PMID:20181782

  3. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  4. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  5. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  6. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  7. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe. PMID:26423357

  8. Dietary intake and food sources of choline in European populations.

    PubMed

    Vennemann, Francy B C; Ioannidou, Sofia; Valsta, Liisa M; Dumas, Céline; Ocké, Marga C; Mensink, Gert B M; Lindtner, Oliver; Virtanen, Suvi M; Tlustos, Christina; D'Addezio, Laura; Mattison, Irene; Dubuisson, Carine; Siksna, Inese; Héraud, Fanny

    2015-12-28

    Choline is an important nutrient for humans. Choline intake of the European population was assessed considering the European Food Safety Authority European Comprehensive Food Consumption Database and the United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. Average choline intake ranges were 151-210 mg/d among toddlers (1 to ≤3 years old), 177-304 mg/d among other children (3 to ≤10 years old), 244-373 mg/d among adolescents (10 to ≤18 years old), 291-468 mg/d among adults (18 to ≤65 years old), 284-450 mg/d among elderly people (65 to ≤75 years old) and 269-444 mg/d among very elderly people (≥75 years old). The intakes were higher among males compared with females, mainly due to larger quantities of food consumed per day. In most of the population groups considered, the average choline intake was below the adequate intake (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine in the USA. The main food groups contributing to choline intake were meat, milk, grain, egg and their derived products, composite dishes and fish. The main limitations of this study are related to the absence of choline composition data of foods consumed by the European population and the subsequent assumption made to assess their intake levels. Given the definition of AI, no conclusion on the adequacy of choline intake can be drawn for most European population groups. Such results improve the knowledge on choline intake in Europe that could be further refined by the collection of choline composition data for foods as consumed in Europe.

  9. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sarah M M; Garrioch, Colin F; Holub, Bruce J

    2009-03-01

    Estimates of essential fatty acid intakes, including (n-3) PUFA, are available in pediatric populations based on limited indirect approaches. Furthermore, recommended intakes for short- and long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA have emerged for this population. This study provides direct quantification of fatty acid intakes in children aged 4-8 y. Identical portions of all food and natural health products consumed over 3 d were collected. Duplicate samples were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, and fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by high performance capillary GLC. The results for 41 children [25 females, 16 males; 5.8 +/- 0.2 y (mean age +/- SEM)] showed daily energy intakes of 5879 +/- 211 kJ (mean +/- SEM) and (n-3) PUFA intakes in mg/d as follows: ALA, 1161 +/- 108; EPA, 38.4 +/- 9.3; DPA, 26.3 +/- 3.9; and DHA, 54.1 +/- 11.4. Based on the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Institute of Medicine, 61% of the children met the adequate intake for ALA and 22% met the suggested adequate intake for DHA+EPA (10% of the adequate intake for ALA). These intakes were also compared with the recent Australia/New Zealand recommendations for children, where only 51% met the recommended intake for EPA+DPA+DHA. These results demonstrate a moderate shortfall in ALA intake in Canadian children and a nutrient gap for the LC (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, when comparing intakes for this population to suggested and recommended intakes.

  10. Cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Googin, J.M.; Napier, B. Jr.

    1982-01-28

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and a boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  11. Food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Explanations for the phenomenal success of East African distance runners include unique dietary practices. The aim of the present study was to assess the food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners during a period of high intensity exercise training at altitude and prior to major competition. Methods The dietary intake of 10 highly-trained Ethiopian long distance runners, living and training at high altitude (approximately 2400 m above sea level) was assessed during a 7 day period of intense training prior to competition using the standard weighed intake method. Training was also assessed using an activity/training diary. Results Body mass was stable (i.e., was well maintained) over the assessment period (pre: 56.7 ± 4.3 kg vs. post: 56.6 ± 4.2 kg, P = 0.54; mean ± SD). The diet comprised of 13375 ± 1378 kJ and was high in carbohydrate (64.3 ± 2.6%, 545 ± 49 g, 9.7 ± 0.9 g/kg). Fat and protein intake was 23.3 ± 2.1% (83 ± 14 g) and 12.4 ± 0.6% (99 ± 13 g, 1.8 ± 0.2 g/kg), respectively. Fluid intake comprised mainly of water (1751 ± 583 mL), while no fluids were consumed before or during training with only modest amounts being consumed following training. Conclusions Similar to previous studies in elite Kenyan distance runners, the diet of these elite Ethiopian distance runners met most recommendations of endurance athletes for macronutrient intake but not for fluid intake. PMID:21595961

  12. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Armstrong, L E; Coyle, E F; Mack, G W; Sawka, M N; Senay, L C; Sherman, W M

    1996-01-01

    It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity. This position statement is based on a comprehensive review and interpretation of scientific literature concerning the influence of fluid replacement on exercise performance and the risk of thermal injury associated with dehydration and hyperthermia. Based on available evidence, the American College of Sports Medicine makes the following general recommendations on the amount and composition of fluid that should be ingested in preparation for, during, and after exercise or athletic competition: 1) It is recommended that individuals consume a nutritionally balanced diet and drink adequate fluids during the 24-hr period before an event, especially during the period that includes the meal prior to exercise, to promote proper hydration before exercise or competition. 2) It is recommended that individuals drink about 500 ml (about 17 ounces) of fluid about 2 h before exercise to promote adequate hydration and allow time for excretion of excess ingested water. 3) During exercise, athletes should start drinking early and at regular intervals in an attempt to consume fluids at a rate sufficient to replace all the water lost through sweating (i.e., body weight loss), or consume the maximal amount that can be tolerated. 4) It is recommended that ingested fluids be cooler than ambient temperature [between 15 degrees and 22 degrees C (59 degrees and 72 degrees F])] and flavored to enhance palatability and promote fluid replacement. Fluids should be readily available and served in containers that allow adequate volumes to be ingested with ease and with minimal interruption of exercise. 5) Addition of proper amounts of carbohydrates and/or electrolytes to a fluid replacement solution is recommended for exercise events of duration

  13. Estimates of food and macronutrient intake in a random sample of Northern Ireland adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; Robson, P J; Livingstone, M B; Primrose, E D; Savage, J M; Cran, G W; Boreham, C A

    1994-09-01

    Mg intakes were adequate for both sexes. Based on these results, some concern about the dietary habits and related health consequences in Northern Ireland adolescents appears justified.

  14. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population.

  15. Evaluation of older Chinese people's macronutrient intake status: results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J

    2015-01-14

    Little is known about the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people. The present study evaluated the macronutrient intake status of older Chinese people (aged ≥ 60 years), investigated whether they had intake levels that met the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and explored the associations between macronutrient intakes and age groups, sex, education levels, work status, BMI groups, urbanicity levels and four socio-economic regions of China (Northeast, East Coast, Central and Western). Dietary intake data of 2746 older Chinese with complete dietary intake data in the Longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (2009 wave) carried out across four diverse regions were analysed. Dietary intake data were obtained by interviews using 24 h recalls over three consecutive days. The MUFA:SFA ratios were calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition Table. Less than one-third of the older Chinese people included in the present study had intake levels meeting the adequate intake for carbohydrate-energy and fat-energy; less than one-fifth had intake levels meeting the recommended nutrient intake for protein-energy; and more than half of the older people had fat-energy intakes higher than the DRI. There were strong associations between the proportions of energy from the three macronutrients and education levels, urbanicity levels and the four socio-economic regions of China, with older people living in the East Coast region having different patterns of macronutrient-energy intakes when compared with those living in the other three regions. Macronutrient intakes across different urbanicity levels in the four regions revealed considerable geographical variations in dietary patterns, which will affect the risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Clinical interventions and public health policies should recognise these regional differences in dietary patterns.

  16. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Following the comprehensive systematic review of domestic and overseas scientific evidence, the "Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J)" was published in April, 2005. The DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs. The energy recommendation is provided as an estimated energy requirement (EER), while five indices were used for nutrients: Estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UL), and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related [chronic non-communicable] diseases (DG). Whilst the first four indices are same as the ones used in other countries, DG is unique index in Japan, which was set as a reference value for preventing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular (including hypertension), major types of cancer and osteoporosis. This report (DRI-J) is the first dietary guidance in Japan, which applied evidence-based approach utilizing a systematic review process. Only a few articles from within Japan and other Asian countries could be used for its establishment. The project to establish the DRI-J revealed a severe lack of researchers and publications focused upon establishing DRIs for Japanese. Further review is therefore required in preparation for the next revision scheduled in 2010.

  17. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT.

  18. Measuring population sodium intake: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake.

  19. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT. PMID:27383354

  20. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  1. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Eliene F; Da Costa, Teresa H M; Nogueira, Julia A D; Vivaldi, Lúcio J

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents aged 11-14 years (n 326), belonging to organized sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil were interviewed. Subjects (n 107) provided four non-consecutive days of food consumption and 219 subjects provided two non-consecutive days of intake. The objective was to assess their nutrient and water intake according to dietary reference intake values and their energy and macronutrient intake by sex and sports groups they were engaged in: endurance, strength-skill or mixed, according to the guidelines established by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Dietary data were corrected for intra-individual variation. Total energy expenditure was higher among endurance athletes (P < 0.001) following their higher training time (P < 0.001) when compared to adolescents engaged in strength-skill or mixed sports. Total energy intake was only significantly higher among endurance-engaged females (P = 0.05). Protein intake of males was above the guidelines established by the ACSM for all sports groups. All male sport groups fulfilled the intake levels of carbohydrate per kg body weight but only females engaged in endurance sports fulfilled carbohydrate guidelines. Intakes of micronutrients with low prevalence of adequate intake were: vitamins B1, E and folate, magnesium and phosphorus. Few adolescents ( < 5 %) presented adequate intake for calcium, fibre, drinking water and beverages. For micronutrients, prevalence of adequacies were lower for females than males, except for liquids and water. Nutrition guidance is needed to help adolescents fulfil specific guidelines of macronutrient intake for their sports and to improve their intake of micronutrients and water. Special attention should be given to female adolescent athletes.

  2. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  3. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  4. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist administration suppresses both water and saline intake in rats.

    PubMed

    McKay, N J; Daniels, D

    2013-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Injections of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists suppress food intake, and endogenous GLP-1 is released when nutrients enter the gut. There is also growing evidence that the GLP-1 system is involved in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. GLP-1R agonists suppress water intake independent of their effects on food intake. It is unknown, however, whether this suppressive effect of GLP-1R agonists extends to saline intake. Accordingly, we tested the effect of the GLP-1R agonists liraglutide (0.05 μg) and exendin-4 (0.05 μg) on water and saline intake, as stimulated either by angiotensin II (AngII) or by water deprivation with partial rehydration (WD-PR). Each agonist suppressed AngII-induced water intake; however, only exendin-4 suppressed saline intake. WD-PR-induced water and saline intakes were both attenuated by each agonist. Analysis of drinking microstructure after WD-PR found a reliable effect of the agonists on burst number. Furthermore, exendin-4 conditioned a robust taste avoidance to saccharine; however, there was no similar effect of liraglutide. To evaluate the relevance of the conditioned taste avoidance, we tested whether inducing visceral malaise by injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) suppressed fluid intake. Injection of LiCl did not suppress water or saline intakes. Overall, these results indicate that the fluid intake suppression by GLP-1R activation is not selective to water intake, is a function of post-ingestive feedback, and is not secondary to visceral malaise.

  6. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  7. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  8. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    PubMed

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  9. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP. PMID:27579963

  10. Fluid replacement requirements in soccer.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1994-01-01

    Soccer is an endurance sport that consists of moderate activity levels interspersed with intermittent high-intensity bursts, leading to high rates of metabolic heat production. Even when the weather is cold, significant sweat loss will occur, leading to a degree of dehydration which impairs exercise performance. Fluid intake before and during the game will provide water to reduce the degree of dehydration and can also supply carbohydrate to supplement the body's limited carbohydrate stores. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are most effective for rehydration. The optimum formulation will vary between individuals and will also depend on climatic conditions. Players should be encouraged to experiment with fluid intake during training to identify the type of drink and the amount and frequency of drinks that best meet their needs.

  11. Estimation of dietary folic acid intake in three generations of females in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Palacin, A; Lopez, M; Lorenzo, M L; Olea-Serrano, F

    2013-08-01

    An adequate folic acid intake has been related to female fertility. The recommended intake of this vitamin was recently increased to 400μg/day, with an additional 200μg/day during pregnancy. The Mediterranean Diet includes sources of folate such as pulses, green-leaf vegetables, fruit, cereals, and dried fruits; other foods of interest are liver and blue fish. The objectives were to determine the foods that contribute most to folate intake and analyze the factors that influence their consumption by three generations in a female population (n=898; age, 10-75yrs) from Southern Spain: 230 adolescents (10-16yrs), 296 healthy pregnant women (19-45yrs), and 372 menopausal women (>45yrs). Participants completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Over 90% of their folate intake was supplied by cereals, fruit, natural juice, pulses, and cooked and raw vegetables. The mean (SD) daily intake of folate was 288.27(63.64) μg. A higher Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was significantly related to a greater folate intake. The daily folate intake was not significantly influenced by educational level, number of children, or place of residence (rural vs. urban). In logistic regression analysis, the factors related to an adequate folate intake (>2/3 of recommendations) were higher age, higher MDS, and lower BMI.

  12. Nutrient intake of children with intractable epilepsy compared with healthy children.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella L; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2007-06-01

    Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.0 to 3.9 and 4.0 to 8.9 years, to correspond with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Forty-three children with intractable epilepsy, mean age=4.7+/-2.2 years, had significantly lower intakes (P<0.05) of total energy; protein; carbohydrate; fat; dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, B-6, and B-12; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; zinc; copper; and selenium compared with healthy children. Thirty percent or more of the children with intractable epilepsy in both age groups had intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins D, E, and K; folate; calcium; linoleic acid; and alpha-linolenic acid. Health care professionals caring for children with intractable epilepsy should be aware of this pattern of decreased nutrient intake and educate families to provide an adequate diet and/or consider vitamin/mineral supplementation. PMID:17524723

  13. Safe use of high intakes of folic acid: research challenges and paths forward.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Abee L; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Thayer, Kristina A; Coates, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Adequate folic acid intake is an effective dietary-based prevention tool for reducing the risk of neural tube defects. Achieving adequate intake for the prevention of neural tube defects frequently requires the consumption of foods fortified with folic acid and/or the use of folic acid-containing dietary supplements. To date, research on the potential for adverse effects of high intakes of folic acid has been limited. Without such research, it is difficult to define a value for high intake. In May 2015, an expert panel was tasked with examining the available scientific literature and making research recommendations within 4 general categories of potential folate-related adverse health effects: cancer, cognition in conjunction with vitamin B12 deficiency, hypersensitivity-related outcomes, and thyroid and diabetes-related disorders. This article summarizes the expert panel's conclusions, outlines the challenges faced when reviewing the literature, and examines some of the panel's recommendations for research.

  14. The Beverage Intake Questionnaire: Initial Validity and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily-administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ), which estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed (g, kcals) across 19 beverage categories. Participants (n=105; aged 39±2 yrs) underwent assessments of height, weight, body mass index, and dietary intake using 4-day food intake records (FIR) from June, 2008-June, 2009. The BEVQ was completed at two additional visits (BEVQ1, BEVQ2). Urine samples were collected to objectively determine total fluid intake and encourage accurate self-reporting. Validity was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 with FIR results; reliability was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 and BEVQ2. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, paired samples t-tests, and independent samples t-tests. Self-reported water and total beverage intake (g) were not different between the BEVQ1 and FIR (mean difference: 129±77g [P=0.096] and 61±106g [P=0.567], respectively). Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) energy intake were significantly different, although mean differences were small (63 and 44 kcal, respectively). Daily consumption (g) of water (r=0.53), total beverages (r=0.46), and SSB (r=0.49) determined by the BEVQ1 were correlated with reported intake determined by the FIR, as was energy from total beverages (r=0.61) and SSB (r=0.59) (all P<0.001). Reliability was demonstrated, with correlations (P<0.001) detected between BEVQ1 and BEVQ2 results. The BEVQ is a valid, reliable, and rapid self-administered dietary assessment tool. PMID:20656099

  15. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  16. Calcium intake and its relationship with risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Peres, Luciana Natal Lopes; Berbel, Marina Nogueira; Heigasi, Máircia Braz; Ribeiro, Josy Maria Cabral; Suzuki, Karina; Josué, Liene Mílcia Aparecida; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Adolescents' eating habits are determined by social, psychological, economic, political, and educational influences. They tend to prefer foods with inadequate nutritional value and high fat and carbohydrate content which leads to excessive weight gain and for many, calcium intake is restricted. According to some authors, low calcium intake is linked to increased adiposity. The objective was to evaluate adolescent calcium intake and investigate a possible relationship between calcium intake and nutritional state. As part of their first consultation at Botucatu Adolescent Outpatient Clinic-UNESP, 107 adolescents were nutritionally classified by BMI, according to age, gender, and bands proposed by CDC and AAP. Diet was evaluated by a 3 day 24h food recall, adopting 1300 mg/day calcium intake as recommended by Dietary Reference Intakes. Median calcium intake for the whole sample was 546.6 mg/day, with 91.30% female and 86.84% male presenting lower than adequate daily recommended ingestion levels (DRI). There was significant difference between calcium densities (Ca mg/1000 kcal) in eutrophic and overweight/obesity in males. Male adolescents showed an inverse relationship between calcium intake and adiposity (r = -0.488 and p = 0.0173), which corroborates the hypothesis that low calcium intake is linked to fatty tissue gain. Only 8.70% of female and 13.16% of male adolescents reached their daily recommended calcium intake levels. It must therefore be stressed that nutritional education is an important protection factor for children and adolescents in later life.

  17. Nutritional status, protein intake and progression of renal failure in children.

    PubMed

    Sahpazova, Emilija; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Todorovska, Lidija; Bogdanovska, Angelina

    2006-12-01

    Nutritional status and progression of renal failure in 35 children (22 males and 13 females; mean age: 8.85+/-4.13 years) with moderate renal failure were followed for 2 years. All children were on an "ad libidum" diet. Protein intake was determined by a minimum of two dietary diaries kept by the parents and the appearance of urea nitrogen. The children were divided into two groups according to their protein intake: Group 1 - sub-optimal intake (46% of the children, all with significantly lower protein intake); Group 2 - adequate protein intake. The mean protein intake (expressed as a percentage of the WHO recommendations) based on the diets of the patients was 94.79% in Group 1 children and 175.45% in Group 2 children (p<0.05). All patients had a calorie intake of at least 80% of the WHO recommendations. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometric measurements expressed as a standard deviation score. There was no significant anthropometric or biochemical evidence of malnutrition in children with moderate chronic renal failure (CRF). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with a sub-optimal intake of protein was -5.41+/-2.87 ml/2 year versus-9.53+/-8.61 ml/2 year in the normal protein intake group. There was no correlation between protein intake, nutritional status and progression of renal failure in children with moderate CRF within the 2-year study period.

  18. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  19. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  20. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  1. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  2. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  3. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  4. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  5. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  6. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  7. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  8. Nutritional intake of various groups of Flemish vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most recent national nutritional survey (2004) indicates that 1.2% of the Flemish population follows a vegetarian diet. Information on nutritional intake in vegetarians in this population is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study is to describe the nutritional intake and dietary adequacy of various groups of Flemish vegetarians. Materials and methods Nutritional intake was assessed in various vegetarian groups from different study designs: young children (aged 1 to 10 y; n = 27) (Group 1), adolescents and adults (aged 11 to 32 y; n = 50) (Group 2), college students (aged 18 to 24 y; n= 24) (Group 3), life-long vegetarians (aged 14 to 71 y; n = 36) (Group 4) and adults (aged 20 to 98; n= 106) (Group 5). Additionally, blood samples were collected and analysed in groups 3 and 4. Comparisons were made with standard references or with omnivores (Group 3). Results Nutritional intake was found to be close to the Belgian RDA. However, all groups showed a number of outliers with an intake of some nutrients above or below the RDAs. Blood biochemistry showed low cholesterol, iron and vitamin B12 levels in vegetarians when comparing respectively with omnivores pairs (Group 3) and with reference values (Group 4). Conclusions Data collected in Flemish vegetarians indicate that a vegetarian diet may be adequate. However, the outliers in all groups show that proper dietary planning is advisable.

  9. Validation of a FFQ for estimating whole-grain cereal food intake.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Pineau, Nicolas; Kochhar, Sunil; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Beaumont, Maurice; Decarli, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Estimation of whole-grain (WG) food intake in epidemiological and nutritional studies is normally based on general diet FFQ, which are not designed to specifically capture WG intake. To estimate WG cereal intake, we developed a forty-three-item FFQ focused on cereal product intake over the past month. We validated this questionnaire against a 3-d-weighed food record (3DWFR) in thirty-one subjects living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (nineteen female and twelve male). Subjects completed the FFQ on day 1 (FFQ1), the 3DWFR between days 2 and 13 and the FFQ again on day 14 (FFQ2). The subjects provided a fasting blood sample within 1 week of FFQ2. Total cereal intake, total WG intake, intake of individual cereals, intake of different groups of cereal products and alkylresorcinol (AR) intake were calculated from both FFQ and the 3DWFR. Plasma AR, possible biomarkers for WG wheat and rye intake were also analysed. The total WG intake for the 3DWFR, FFQ1, FFQ2 was 26 (sd 22), 28 (sd 25) and 21 (sd 16) g/d, respectively. Mean plasma AR concentration was 55.8 (sd 26.8) nmol/l. FFQ1, FFQ2 and plasma AR were correlated with the 3DWFR (r 0.72, 0.81 and 0.57, respectively). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI and total energy intake did not affect the results. This FFQ appears to give a rapid and adequate estimate of WG cereal intake in free-living subjects.

  10. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (<10.0 μmol/L) and optimal prevention of birth defects. Because the closure of the neural tube occurs in the first 8 weeks after conception, women with low prepregnancy folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as <20% of young women (i.e., in Germany) supplement with the vitamin. Recommending adequate food folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population.

  11. Fluid intake in Mexican adults; a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Homero

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Un adecuada hidratación resulta fundamental para el buen funcionamiento de diversas funciones orgánicas, incluyendo la regulación de la temperatura corporal, la eliminación de metabolitos por los riñones, y el funcionamiento adecuado de diversas funciones físicas y cognitivas. Algunas instituciones han establecido recomendaciones para una ingesta adecuada de agua y otros líquidos, pero estas recomendaciones varían ampliamente. Objetivo: Estimar el consumo diario usual de líquidos (incluyendo agua otras bebidas), en una muestra seleccionada de adultos mexicanos. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 1.492 hombres y mujeres adultas con edades entre 18-65 años, reclutados en 16 ciudades distribuidas a lo largo de todo el país. Se recolectó información auto-reportada sobre la ingesta de líquidos a lo largo de un período consecutivo de 7 días, registrando el consumo de agua, leche y derivados, bebidas calientes, bebidas azucaradas, bebidas alcohólicas, y otras bebidas. Resultados: Encontramos que el 87,5% de los hombres y el 65,4% de las mujeres registraron una ingesta de líquidos por debajo de la recomendación vigente para estos grupos, que es de 3 L/día para hombres y 2 L/día para mujeres. Además, en el 80% de la población participante la ingestión de bebidas azucaradas, no incluyendo la leche y derivados ni las bebidas calientes, fue mayor que la de agua simple. El 65% de los hombres y el 66% de las mujeres consumieron más de la recomendación del 10% de energía correspondiente a su requerimiento calórico estimado a partir de bebidas. La ingestión de líquidos no mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas de acuerdo al género, pero mostró una tendencia significativa a declinar con la edad. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados tiene importancia para orientar políticas publicas como parte de recomendaciones integrales que promuevan la adopción de estilos saludables de vida, particularmente en lo que concierne a fomentar el consumo de agua simple y a desaconsejar el consumo exagerado de bebidas con contenido calórico.

  12. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  13. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  14. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake.

  15. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  16. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  17. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  18. Monoamines and protein intake: are control mechanisms designed to monitor a threshold intake or a set point?

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, J D; Fernstrom, M H

    2001-08-01

    The concentration of TYR in brain changes directly with dietary protein content in the 0-10% PE range, but not higher. The effect is large: TYR concentrations rise as much as two- to threefold between 0% and 10% dietary protein content. This increase produces a clear stimulation of the rate of catecholamine synthesis, observed both for DA and NE, and notably in the hypothalamus, a brain area involved in appetite regulation. A similar relationship to chronic dietary protein intake may also exist for tryptophan and its neurotransmitter product, 5HT. Because the natural diet of rats, the animal model most commonly used in such studies, typically contains between 6% and 14% protein, and may contain less under unfavorable environmental circumstances, rats in the wild may frequently operate on the portion of the protein intake curve producing maximal changes in brain TYR (and perhaps TRP) concentrations. If so, then the production of catecholamines and 5HT may be similarly affected. By such a scenario, the brain might receive information regarding the animal's success in acquiring adequate amounts of protein in its diet. A similar argument can also be made for monkeys in the wild, based on their dietary habits, and thus possibly for humans. From this perspective, animals are hypothesized to monitor/regulate their intake of protein based on a threshold, rather than a set-point model. This notion is not new or unique to amino acids. For example, one current notion of leptin action is that it serves as a signal for energy intake important during periods of deficiency, but not excess. More generally, given the primacy in nature of the need to acquire adequate amounts of food in order to survive and reproduce, and the difficulty in achieving this nutritional goal, it may be that appetite control mechanisms have evolved in nature to center more on attaining and exceeding adequacy than on maintaining intake around a set-point well in excess of adequacy.

  19. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Suzana; Chee, Kan Yin; Wan Chik, Wan Chak Pa'

    2002-01-01

    Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA) for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p < 0.05 for all values). Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness. PMID:12165100

  20. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  1. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby is born), or gestational diabetes . Too little amniotic fluid is known as oligohydramnios. This condition may occur with late pregnancies, ruptured membranes, placental dysfunction , or fetal abnormalities. Abnormal amounts of ...

  2. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  3. Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather C.; Muglia, Louis J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to review the use of high-dimensional biology techniques, specifically transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in amniotic fluid to elucidate the mechanisms behind preterm birth or assessment of fetal development. We performed a comprehensive MEDLINE literature search on the use of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies for amniotic fluid analysis. All abstracts were reviewed for pertinence to preterm birth or fetal maturation in human subjects. Nineteen articles qualified for inclusion. Most articles described the discovery of biomarker candidates, but few larger, multicenter replication or validation studies have been done. We conclude that the use of high-dimensional systems biology techniques to analyze amniotic fluid has significant potential to elucidate the mechanisms of preterm birth and fetal maturation. However, further multicenter collaborative efforts are needed to replicate and validate candidate biomarkers before they can become useful tools for clinical practice. Ideally, amniotic fluid biomarkers should be translated to a noninvasive test performed in maternal serum or urine. PMID:23599373

  4. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  5. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  6. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  7. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  8. Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey.

    PubMed

    Thane, C.W.; Bates, C.J.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intakes and nutrient status were compared in meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. METHODS: Children (n = 1351) were categorized as 'omnivores' or 'vegetarians', according to whether they consumed meat or meat products during a 4-day dietary record. Blood samples were also obtained for analysis of haematological and biochemical nutrient status. RESULTS: Three per cent of children were 'vegetarian'. They consumed higher proportions of milk and milk products, although this was significant only in older children (P = 0.007), owing to high consumption by the high proportion of Asian children. In vegetarians, energy intakes tended to be lower in both age groups. Percentage energy from protein and fat were lower, while that from carbohydrate was higher compared with omnivores. Cholesterol intakes were lower, significantly so for younger children (P < 0.001). Intakes of micronutrients were either higher (vitamins C and E, potassium) or lower (niacin and sodium) in younger vegetarians compared with omnivores. Energy-adjusted intakes of iron and zinc did not differ significantly from those of omnivores, although both intakes were low in many children (6-20% < LRNI), particularly in the younger group. Haematological and biochemical nutrient status indices showed few differences. Serum ferritin was lower in vegetarians, significantly so in younger children (P = 0.002). Antioxidant vitamin (A, C and E) status tended to be higher in vegetarians, while vitamin B12 intakes and status were more than adequate. Apart from poorer vitamin D intake and status in older Asian vegetarians, very few ethnic differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intakes and status were generally adequate in preschool children who did not eat meat. Although serum ferritin levels were inferior (particularly in vegetarians under 3 years old), the lower intakes of fat, cholesterol and sodium, and higher

  9. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002.

    PubMed

    Barba, Corazon V C; Cabrera, Ma Isabel Z

    2008-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), as in the past, led the review and revision of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Filipinos, a vital and essential tool recognized in the nutrition and health community as the source of information on recommended energy and nutrient intakes for the maintenance of good health. This set of dietary standards is periodically evaluated and updated to keep pace with new knowledge on energy and nutrient requirements and metabolism. The set of updated standards is now called Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENIs), defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrients which, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of good health and well-being of nearly all healthy Filipinos. As in the 1989 edition, intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A, C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pyridoxine, water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) are recommended in this new edition. The desirable proportions of protein, fats, carbohydrates as well as fiber are also provided, in addition to information on recommended intake levels for selenium, magnesium, manganese, fluoride, cobalamin, and vitamin K. These recommendations were derived from a review of current evidences, principally the UN-FAO/WHO's 2002 human vitamin and mineral requirements and the US-Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB)'s series of Dietary Reference Intakes, taking into consideration applicability in and achievability among specific population groups. PMID:18460438

  10. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  11. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane; Davey, Kristina; Ahwong, Ellen; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:27537910

  12. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ≥ Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  13. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  14. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  15. Dietary intake and anthropometric reference values in population studies.

    PubMed

    Arija, Victoria; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Martínez de Vitoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Luis; Ribas, Lourdes; Aranceta, Javier

    2015-02-26

    In nutritional epidemiology it is essential to have reference values for nutrition and anthropometry in order to compare individual and population data. With respect to reference nutritional intake, the new concept of Dietary Reference Intakes is generated based more on the prevention of chronic diseases than on covering nutritional deficiencies, as would occur in the early Recommendations. As such, the more relevant international organizations incorporated new concepts in their tables, such as the Adequate Intake levels or the Tolerable Upper Intake levels. Currently, the EURRECA recommendations (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) are generating reference values for Europe in a transparent, systematic and scientific manner. Using the DRI, health-care authorities formulated nutritional objectives for countries or territories and Dietary Guides to disseminate the dietary advice to the population. Anthropometric assessment continues to be one of the most-used methods for evaluating and monitoring health status, nutritional state and growth in children, not only individuals but also communities. Different organizations have established anthropometric reference patterns of body mass index (BMI) with cut-off points to define overweight and obesity. In children, growth curves have been revised and adapted to the characteristics of healthy children in order to obtain anthropometric reference standards that better reflect optimum growth in children. The Growth Standards for children below 5 years of age of the WHO are a response to these principles, and are widely accepted and used worldwide.

  16. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after acute tritiated water intakes in humans.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, A; Galeriu, D; Richardson, R B

    1997-10-01

    Urine samples from eight male radiation workers who had an unplanned acute tritiated water intake were measured for tritium-in-urine up to 300 d post-exposure. During the first month or so post-exposure, these individuals increased their fluid intakes to accelerate the turnover rate of tritium in the body for dose mitigation. Their daily fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the latter period of the study. A non-linear regressional analysis of the tritium-in-urine data showed that the average biological half-life of tritium in body water, with standard deviation, was 6.3 +/- 1.0 d (range, 5.0-8.1 d) and 8.4 +/- 2.0 d (range, 6.2-12.8 d) during the respective periods of increased fluid intake and the later period of normal fluid intake. A longer term component of tritium excretion was also observed with average biological half-life of 74 +/- 18 d (range, 58-104 d), indicating the incorporation of tritium, and its retention, in the organic fractions of the body. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium on the basis of the kinetics of tritium-in-urine. The model accounts for a change in the rates of urinary excretion caused by variable fluid intakes. The average dose to the body, for the eight male workers, due to the metabolized organically bound tritium was estimated to be 6.2 +/- 1.3% (range, 3.5% to 8.9%) of the committed effective dose due to tritium in the body water. This value for the dose increase from organically bound tritium is in the range of the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, i.e., organically bound tritium incorporated into the body contributes about 10% of the dose to the body water following tritiated water intakes.

  17. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  18. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance.

    PubMed

    Syafwan, S; Wermink, G J D; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

    2012-03-01

    Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choice-fed birds could choose between the control diet, a high-protein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity.

  19. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  20. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P < 0.0001) irrespective of whether carbohydrate (F = 0, P = 0.7) or fat (F = 0, P = 0.5) were the diluents of protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks.

  1. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  2. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  3. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  4. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  5. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  6. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  8. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  9. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  10. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  11. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  12. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  13. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  14. Reliability and validity of a brief questionnaire to assess calcium intake in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kenneth D; Hunt, Kami Mays; Berg, Melanie Burstyne; Slawson, Deborah A; Vukadinovich, Christopher M; McClanahan, Barbara S; Clemens, Linda H

    2004-04-01

    Calcium intake often is inadequate in female collegiate athletes, increasing the risk for training injuries and future osteoporosis. Thus, a brief and accurate assessment tool to quickly measure calcium intake in athletes is needed. We evaluated the reliability and validity, compared to 6 days of diet records (DRs), of the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), a self-administered calcium checklist. Seventy-six female collegiate athletes (mean age = 18.8 yrs, range= 17- 21; 97 % Caucasian) were recruited from basketball, cross-country, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball teams. Athletes completed a RAM at the start of the training season to assess calcium intake during the past week. Two weeks later, a second RAM was completed to assess reliability, and athletes began 6 days of diet records (DRs) collection. At completion of DRs, athletes completed a final RAM, corresponding to the same time period as DRs, to assess agreement between the 2 instruments. The RAM demonstrated adequate test-retest reliability over 2 weeks (n= 56; Intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and adequate agreement with DRs (n = 34; ICC = 0.41, p = 0.0067). Calcium intake was below recommended levels, and mean estimates did not differ significantly on the RAM (823 +/- 387 mg/d) and DRs (822 +/- 330 mg/d; p = 0.988). Adequacy of calcium intake from both DRs and the RAM was classified as "inadequate" (<1000 mg/d) and "adequate" (> or = 1000 mg/d). Agreement between the RAM and DRs for adequacy classification was fair (ICC= 0.30, p = 0.042), with the RAM identifying 84% of athletes judged to have inadequate calcium intake based on DRs. The RAM briefly and accurately estimates calcium intake in female collegiate athletes compared to DRs.

  15. Opioidergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic manipulations and rats' intake of a sweetened alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, C L; Marglin, S H; Spitalnic, S J; Abelson, M L; Wild, K D; Reid, L D

    1991-01-01

    Groups of rats were maintained on a daily regimen of 22 h of water deprivation followed by a 2-h opportunity to take either water or a sweetened ethanol solution (ES). In one experiment, it was shown that previous morphine (M) dependence had no effect on initial daily intakes of fluids. After stable ES intakes were achieved, a variety of pharmacological manipulations were assessed for their effects on intake of the ES. Nalmefene, an opioid antagonist, dose-relatedly decreased intakes of ES, and was effective across days of injections. Fluoxetine (FX), a serotonergic reuptake inhibitor, also reduced ES intakes dose relatedly, and across days of injections, but the reduction was not as great as that seen with opioid antagonists. A small dose of M increased ES intakes when given in combination with an ineffective dose of FX, just as it does by itself. However, M had no effect on ES intakes in combination with an effective dose of FX. Pimozide (PIM), a dopaminergic antagonist, dose-relatedly decreased intakes of ES and water, and responding for positively reinforcing intracranial stimulation (ICS). When given in combination, M blunted PIM's reduction of ES intake, but had no effect on PIM's ability to decrease either intake of water or responding for ICS. Amphetamine did not reliably affect rats' intakes of ES across a range of doses. The data, in addition to previous work, lead to the idea that endogenous opioid systems are more salient, with respect to intake of alcoholic beverages, than the other tested neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, the collective data suggest that a long-lasting opioid antagonist may be an effective pharmacological adjunct to other treatments for alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  16. The effect of level of feed intake on the pharmacokinetic disposition of oxfendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1995-01-01

    Oxfendazole (OFZ) containing a trace of [14C]-OFZ was administered intraruminally and intravenously to sheep fitted with rumen and abomasal cannulae and which were being fed 800 and 400 g of 50:50 lucerne:wheaten chaff daily. The [14C] was extensively associated with rumen particulate digesta, the shorter residence time of digesta in sheep on high compared to low feed intake reduced the duration of OFZ absorption. Abomasal fluid flow was greater in sheep on high than low intake and was attributed to increased gastric secretions. At high intake a greater proportion of the [14C] dose flowed from the abomasum in digesta fluid, but its residence time in the abomasum was of shorter duration compared with low intake. The more rapid passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract in the former sheep reduced the duration for drug desorption from particulate material and absorption into the bloodstream. In these high intake sheep and availability of [14C]-compounds in plasma was lower and more rapidly cleared than in sheep on low feed intake. Concomitant with the reduced absorption a greater proportion of the dose was excreted in faeces, and a lower proportion in the urine of sheep on high compared with low feed intake. The extensive association of OFZ and its metabolites with rumen digesta, is a principal determinant of OFZ kinetics.

  17. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  18. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-01

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  19. No fluid overload in male ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the change in body composition and hydration status in 27 male ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run. The athletes drank fluids ad libitum during the run; intake of calories, fluids, and electrolytes during performance were determined. Body mass decreased by 1.9 kg, haematocrit decreased, plasma [Na(+)] remained unchanged, and urinary specific gravity and plasma volume increased. Fluid intake was 0.52 (0.18) L/h and was related to running speed (r = 0.50; p = 0.0081). Δ body mass was associated with total fluid intake during the race (r = 0.49, p = 0.0095). Sodium intake amounted to 425 (478) mg/h and potassium intake to 140 (179) mg/h. Sodium and potassium intake were not related to either postrace concentration or change in plasma concentration. Sodium intake, however, was related to Δ urinary sodium concentration (r = 0.45, p = 0.0227). The increase in plasma volume was significantly and negatively related to both postrace plasma [Na(+)] (r = - 0.42, p = 0.0278) and the postrace potassium-to-sodium ratio in urine (r = - 0.44, p = 0.0218). To conclude, we found no fluid overload in these ultra-runners, the increase in plasma volume was most probably due to a stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) since sodium intake was not related to both the change in plasma [Na(+)] or postrace plasma [Na(+)]. PMID:21253973

  20. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  1. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency.

  2. [Bone and Nutrition. The association of vitamin K intake and bone health].

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The association of vitamin K with bone mineral density has been reported in some previous cohort studies and intervention studies. In cohort studies, higher vitamin K1 intake was associated with lower fracture incidence. Some intervention studies have described that vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4 : MK-4) supplementation were modestly efficacious in preventing fracture, but not in preserving bone mass. Although dietary reference intake (adequate intake : AI) for vitamin K was increased from previous value, current AI was determined as the dose sufficient to maintain normal blood coagulation with little mentioning to bone. Vitamin K intake greater than the current AI would be required for the bone health. PMID:26119310

  3. Peak bone strength is influenced by calcium intake in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Viguet-Carrin, S; Hoppler, M; Membrez Scalfo, F; Vuichoud, J; Vigo, M; Offord, E A; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of supplementing the diet of the growing male rat with different levels of calcium (from low to higher than recommended intakes at constant Ca/P ratio), on multiple factors (bone mass, strength, size, geometry, material properties, turnover) influencing bone strength during the bone accrual period. Rats, age 28days were supplemented for 4weeks with high Ca (1.2%), adequate Ca (0.5%) or low Ca level (0.2%). Bone metabolism and structural parameters were measured. No changes in body weight or food intake were observed among the groups. As anticipated, compared to the adequate Ca intake, low-Ca intake had a detrimental impact on bone growth (33.63 vs. 33.68mm), bone strength (-19.7% for failure load), bone architecture (-58% for BV/TV) and peak bone mass accrual (-29% for BMD) due to the hormonal disruption implied in Ca metabolism. In contrast, novel, surprising results were observed in that higher than adequate Ca intake resulted in improved peak bone strength (106 vs. 184N/mm for the stiffness and 61 vs. 89N for the failure load) and bone material properties (467 vs. 514mPa for tissue hardness) but these effects were not accompanied by changes in bone mass, size, microarchitecture or bone turnover. Hormonal factors, IGF-I and bone modeling were also evaluated. Compared to the adequate level of Ca, IGF-I level was significantly lower in the low-Ca intake group and significantly higher in the high-Ca intake group. No detrimental effects of high Ca were observed on bone modeling (assessed by histomorphometry and bone markers), at least in this short-term intervention. In conclusion, the decrease in failure load in the low calcium group can be explained by the change in bone geometry and bone mass parameters. Thus, improvements in mechanical properties can be explained by the improved quality of intrinsic bone tissue as shown by nanoindentation. These results suggest that supplemental Ca may be beneficial for the attainment of

  4. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  5. Hourly analysis of cerebrospinal fluid glucose shows large diurnal fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Marcel M; Leen, Wilhelmina G; Willemsen, Michèl A; Slats, Diane; Claassen, Jurgen A

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis is important in the diagnostics of many neurological disorders. Since the influence of food intake on the cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio is largely unknown, we studied fluctuations in these parameters in healthy adult volunteers during a period of 36 h. Our observations show large physiological fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid glucose and the cerebrospinal fluid/plasma glucose ratio, and their relation to food intake. These findings provide novel insights into the physiology of cerebral processes dependent on glucose levels such as energy formation (e.g. glycolysis), enzymatic reactions (e.g. glycosylation), and non-enzymatic reactions (e.g. advanced endproduct glycation).

  6. Salt intake and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Boero, Roberto; Pignataro, Angelo; Quarello, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    We have reviewed the role of salt intake in kidney diseases, particularly in relation to renal hemodynamics, renal excretion of proteins, renal morphological changes and progression of chronic renal failure. High salt intake may have detrimental effects on glomerular hemodynamics, inducing hyperfiltration and increasing the filtration fraction and glomerular pressure. This may be particularly important in elderly, obese, diabetic or black patients, who have a high prevalence of salt-sensitivity. Changes in salt intake may influence urinary excretion of proteins in patients with essential hypertension, or diabetic and non diabetic nephropathies. Moreover, high sodium intake may blunt the antiproteinuric effect of various drugs, including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists. Experimental studies show a direct tissue effect of salt on the kidney, independent of its ability to increase blood pressure, inducing hypertrophy, fibrosis and a decrease in glomerular basement membrane anionic sites. However, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the relationship between salt consumption and progression of chronic renal failure, because most information comes from conflicting, small, retrospective, observational studies. In conclusion, it would appear that restriction of sodium intake is an important preventive and therapeutic measure in patients with chronic renal diseases of various origin, or at risk of renal damage, such as hypertensive or diabetic patients.

  7. Modification of the diuretic and natriuretic effects of a dopamine infusion by fluid loading in preoperative cardiac surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Bryan, A G; Bolsin, S N; Vianna, P T; Haloush, H

    1995-04-01

    An intravenous infusion of dopamine at 2.5 microgram/kg/min was administered for 40 minutes to anesthetized cardiac surgical patients, and their renal function was measured. Five patients had the usual preoperative regimen of reduced fluid intake for the night and morning before surgery (nonhydrated), and five patients received normal saline, 2 mL/kg/hr intravenously, for 6 hours before anesthesia (hydrated). Renal function (measured by urine output, sodium excretion, free water clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium) was similar immediately before starting the dopamine infusion. All four variables were significantly higher in the hydrated group after 10 minutes; this difference becoming maximal after 40 minutes. Twenty minutes after stopping the dopamine infusion, renal function was similar in the two groups. This study indicates that preoperatively fluid-restricted patients demonstrate powerful salt and water conservation with reduced natriuretic and diuretic responses to a low-dose dopamine infusion when compared with hydrated patients. Patients with adequate fluid loading and intravascular volume will demonstrate a marked natriuresis and diuresis in response to low-dose dopamine infusion.

  8. Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Lefevre, Michael; Toner, Cheryl D; Colombo, John; Cunnane, Stephen C; Holden, Joanne M; Klurfeld, David M; Morris, Martha Clare; Whelan, Jay

    2009-04-01

    There is considerable interest in the impact of (n-3) long-chain PUFA in mitigating the morbidity and mortality caused by chronic diseases. In 2002, the Institute of Medicine concluded that insufficient data were available to define Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), noting only that EPA and DHA could contribute up to 10% toward meeting the Adequate Intake for alpha-linolenic acid. Since then, substantial new evidence has emerged supporting the need to reassess this recommendation. Therefore, the Technical Committee on Dietary Lipids of the International Life Sciences Institute North America sponsored a workshop on 4-5 June 2008 to consider whether the body of evidence specific to the major chronic diseases in the United States--coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer, and cognitive decline--had evolved sufficiently to justify reconsideration of DRI for EPA+DHA. The workshop participants arrived at these conclusions: 1) consistent evidence from multiple research paradigms demonstrates a clear, inverse relation between EPA+DHA intake and risk of fatal (and possibly nonfatal) CHD, providing evidence that supports a nutritionally achievable DRI for EPA+DHA between 250 and 500 mg/d; 2) because of the demonstrated low conversion from dietary ALA, protective tissue levels of EPA+DHA can be achieved only through direct consumption of these fatty acids; 3) evidence of beneficial effects of EPA+DHA on cognitive decline are emerging but are not yet sufficient to support an intake level different from that needed to achieve CHD risk reduction; 4) EPA+DHA do not appear to reduce risk for cancer; and 5) there is no evidence that intakes of EPA+DHA in these recommended ranges are harmful.

  9. Dietary Micronutrient Intake in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Relationship with Nutrition and Inflammation Status

    PubMed Central

    Martín-del-Campo, Fabiola; Batis–Ruvalcaba, Carolina; González–Espinoza, Liliana; Rojas–Campos, Enrique; Ángel, Juan R.; Ruiz, Norma; González, Juana; Pazarín, Leonardo; Cueto–Manzano, Alfonso M.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Objective: To compare dietary intake of micronutrients by peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients according to their nutrition and inflammatory statuses. ♦ Design: This cross-sectional study evaluated 73 patients using subjective global assessment, 24-hour dietary recall, and markers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6]. ♦ Results: Half the patients had an inadequate micronutrient intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes, malnourished patients had lower intakes of iron (11 mg) and of vitamins C (45 mg) and B6 (0.8 mg). Malnourished and well-nourished patients both had lower intakes of sodium (366 mg, 524 mg respectively), potassium (1555 mg, 1963 mg), zinc (5 mg, 7 mg), calcium (645 mg, 710 mg), magnesium (161 mg, 172 mg), niacin (8 mg, 9 mg), folic acid (0.14 mg, 0.19 mg), and vitamin A (365 μg, 404 μg). Markers of inflammation were higher in malnourished than in well-nourished subjects. Compared with patients in lower quartiles, patients in the highest CRP quartile had lower intakes (p < 0.05) of sodium (241 mg vs 404 mg), calcium (453 mg vs 702 mg), vitamin B2 (0.88 mg vs 1.20 mg), and particularly vitamin A (207 μg vs 522 μg). ♦ Conclusions: Among PD patients, half had inadequate dietary intakes of iron, zinc, calcium and vitamins A, B6, C, niacin, and folic acid. Lower micronutrient intakes were associated with malnutrition and inflammation. Patients with inflammation had lower intakes of sodium, calcium, and vitamins A and B2. Micronutrient intake must be investigated in various populations so as to tailor adequate supplementation. PMID:21804135

  10. US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael

    2008-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR).

  11. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD.

  12. Inadequate intake of nutrients essential for neurodevelopment in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9 years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrient intakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5 years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794

  13. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  14. Ultraendurance cycling in a hot environment: thirst, fluid consumption, and water balance.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this field investigation was to identify and clarify factors that may be used by strength and conditioning professionals to help athletes drink adequately but not excessively during endurance exercise. A universal method to accomplish this goal does not exist because the components of water balance (i.e., sweat rate, fluid consumed) are different for each athlete and endurance events differ greatly. Twenty-six male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 41 ± 8 years; height, 177 ± 7 cm; body mass, 81.85 ± 8.95 kg) completed a summer 164-km road cycling event in 7.0 ± 2.1 hours (range, 4.5-10.4 hours). Thirst ratings, fluid consumed, indices of hydration status, and body water balance (ingested fluid volume - [urine excreted + sweat loss]) were the primary outcome variables. Measurements were taken before the event, at designated aid stations on the course (52, 97, and 136 km), and at the finish line. Body water balance during exercise was not significantly correlated with exercise time on the course, height, body mass, or body mass index. Thirst ratings were not significantly correlated with any variable. We also observed a wide range of total sweat losses (4.9-12.7 L) and total fluid intakes (2.1-10.5 L) during this ultraendurance event. Therefore, we recommend that strength and conditioning professionals develop an individualized drinking plan for each athlete, by calculating sweat rate (milliliter per hour) on the basis of body mass change (in kilograms), during field simulations of competition. PMID:25559907

  15. Ultraendurance cycling in a hot environment: thirst, fluid consumption, and water balance.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this field investigation was to identify and clarify factors that may be used by strength and conditioning professionals to help athletes drink adequately but not excessively during endurance exercise. A universal method to accomplish this goal does not exist because the components of water balance (i.e., sweat rate, fluid consumed) are different for each athlete and endurance events differ greatly. Twenty-six male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 41 ± 8 years; height, 177 ± 7 cm; body mass, 81.85 ± 8.95 kg) completed a summer 164-km road cycling event in 7.0 ± 2.1 hours (range, 4.5-10.4 hours). Thirst ratings, fluid consumed, indices of hydration status, and body water balance (ingested fluid volume - [urine excreted + sweat loss]) were the primary outcome variables. Measurements were taken before the event, at designated aid stations on the course (52, 97, and 136 km), and at the finish line. Body water balance during exercise was not significantly correlated with exercise time on the course, height, body mass, or body mass index. Thirst ratings were not significantly correlated with any variable. We also observed a wide range of total sweat losses (4.9-12.7 L) and total fluid intakes (2.1-10.5 L) during this ultraendurance event. Therefore, we recommend that strength and conditioning professionals develop an individualized drinking plan for each athlete, by calculating sweat rate (milliliter per hour) on the basis of body mass change (in kilograms), during field simulations of competition.

  16. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements?

    PubMed

    Draper, A; Lewis, J; Malhotra, N; Wheeler, E

    1993-01-01

    Vegetarians of three types were studied in Greater London: thirty-four meat-avoiders, fifty-two lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and thirty-eight vegans. Weighed dietary intake measures were made over 3 d. Cereals were the mainstay of the diet, supplemented by dairy products (demi-vegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians), vegetables and fruit, and soya-bean products (vegans). Many vegans progressed by stages to complete avoidance of animal foods; some had retreated, but most were highly committed. Demi-vegetarians were the least involved in a 'vegetarian lifestyle'. All groups had mean energy intakes close to the current dietary reference values (DRV), with adequate protein intakes. Only vegans had fat intakes close to current recommendations; all groups had high dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratios. Mean intakes of all micronutrients studied for demi- and lacto-ovo-vegetarians met the UK DRV. Intakes of iodine, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 for vegans were below DRV; more than half considered their diets supplied all necessary vitamins. About 25% took some type of dietary supplement during the survey. The impact of low I intakes should be further studied, and it is recommended that 'new' vegetarians and vegans should use appropriate dietary supplements.

  17. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  18. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  19. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

  20. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  1. The Need for Domestic Violence Laws with Adequate Legal and Social Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmons, Willa M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for comprehensive domestic violence programs that include medical, legal, economic, psychological, and child care services. Although most states have family violence legislation, more work is needed to adequately implement these programs. (Author/JAC)

  2. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans.

  3. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans. PMID:25004078

  4. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. Study Design 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an eight year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. Results During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk [RR] (95% CI; P, trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 – 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P, trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 – 1.12; 0.07). Further, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P = 0.007). Conclusions Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk. PMID:18226626

  5. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  6. 75 FR 3182 - Intake Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...

  7. Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

    2013-02-01

    Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was <50% for iron, calcium, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. For women, mean or median adequacy was <50% for all nutrients except vitamin B-6 and niacin and was <1% for calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. The mean PA (MPA) was correlated with energy intake and dietary diversity, and multivariate models including these variables explained 71-76% of the variance in MPA. The degree of micronutrient inadequacy among young children and women in rural Bangladesh is alarming and is primarily explained by diets low in energy and little diversity of foods.

  8. Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

    2013-02-01

    Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was <50% for iron, calcium, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. For women, mean or median adequacy was <50% for all nutrients except vitamin B-6 and niacin and was <1% for calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. The mean PA (MPA) was correlated with energy intake and dietary diversity, and multivariate models including these variables explained 71-76% of the variance in MPA. The degree of micronutrient inadequacy among young children and women in rural Bangladesh is alarming and is primarily explained by diets low in energy and little diversity of foods. PMID:23256144

  9. Improving the estimation of flavonoid intake for study of health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

    2015-01-01

    Imprecision in estimating intakes of non-nutrient bioactive compounds such as flavonoids is a challenge in epidemiologic studies of health outcomes. The sources of this imprecision, using flavonoids as an example, include the variability of bioactive compounds in foods due to differences in growing conditions and processing, the challenges in laboratory quantification of flavonoids in foods, the incompleteness of flavonoid food composition tables, and the lack of adequate dietary assessment instruments. Steps to improve databases of bioactive compounds and to increase the accuracy and precision of the estimation of bioactive compound intakes in studies of health benefits and outcomes are suggested. PMID:26084477

  10. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  11. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid ...

  12. The Radioimmunoassay of Fluid and Electrolyte Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of the paper will be the assay of fluid/electrolyte hormones. ADH (antidiuretic hormone also referred to as vasopressin) reduces fluid loss by increasing water reabsorption by the kidney. The stimuli for its release from the pituitary are loss of blood, dehydration, or increased salt intake. Angiotensin II is the next hormone of interest. It is "generated" from a blood protein by the release of renin from the kidney. One of its functions is to stimulate the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Release of renin is also stimulated by volume and sodium loss.

  13. Fluid Consumption by Mexican Women during Pregnancy and First Semester of Lactation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe daily fluid consumption in a sample of pregnant or lactating adult women. Women between 18 and 45 years of age, residents of Mexico City, stratified by socioeconomic status were asked to register their total fluid intake during 7 consecutive days. A total of 153 pregnant and 155 lactating women were recruited. On average, they drank 2.62 L/day and 2.75 L/day, respectively. Forty-one percent of pregnant women drank less than the recommended 2.3 L fluids/day, and 54% of women drank less than the recommended intake of 2.7 L/day during the first semester of lactation. Plain water contributed to 33% of total fluid intake, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contributed to 38% of total fluid intake. Up to 50% of pregnant and lactating women drank more than 1 L/day of SSB, which contributed to 632 kcal/day (27.5% of recommended dietary intake) and to 700 kcal/day (28% of recommended dietary intake), respectively. The high rates of overweight and obesity found in Mexican population, particularly among women, should alert us to the consumption of SSB during pregnancy and lactation, as excessive intake of these beverages may increase the risks of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other chronic disorders. PMID:24672791

  14. Patient acceptance of adequately filled breast implants using the tilt test.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, J B

    2000-07-01

    Adequate fill of any breast implant, regardless of shell characteristics, shape, or filler material, is important to prevent implant shell wrinkling, folding, or collapse that could potentially decrease the life of the implant. Implant shell life is a major factor that affects reoperation rates. The greater the necessity of reoperations, regardless of implant type, the greater the rate of local complications, necessitating additional surgery with additional risks and costs to patients. Palpable shell folding, visible wrinkling or rippling, palpable shifts of filler material, sloshing, and compromised aesthetic results can result from an under-filled implant. Any of these complications can necessitate reoperations with increased risks and costs to patients. This is a study of 609 consecutive patients from January of 1993 to December of 1998 who were given detailed preoperative informed consent and a choice of implant shape and type and who chose the increased firmness associated with an implant that is adequately filled to pass the tilt test. This study addresses two questions: (1) Will patients accept the increased firmness of an implant that is filled to pass the tilt test? and (2) Is adequate fill by the tilt test useful clinically to help reduce the incidence of postoperative rippling, wrinkling, and spontaneous deflation in saline implants? Patients were followed by postoperative examinations and questionnaires. No patient requested implant replacement to a softer implant postoperatively, and no reoperations were performed for visible rippling or wrinkling. The spontaneous deflation rate over this 6-year period was 9 of 1218 implants, or 0.739 percent. If patients will accept more firmness with an adequately filled implant, regardless of the filler material, surgeons might worry less about recommending an adequately filled implant to patients, and manufacturers might feel more comfortable producing adequately filled implants and redefining fill volumes for

  15. Contributors of water intake in US children and adolescents: associations with dietary and meal characteristics—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006123

    PubMed Central

    Graubard, Barry I

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the association of contributors of total water intake with dietary characteristics in US children. Objective: We examined intakes of total water and its contributors and their associations with diet and meal reporting in children and adolescents. Design: Dietary data for children 2–19 y of age (n = 3978) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 were used to compute usual intake of total water. The association of total water and its contributors with sociodemographic characteristics and dietary and meal attributes was examined by using multiple regression analysis. Results: The adjusted mean intakes of total water in Americans aged 2–5, 6–11, and 12–19 y were 1.4, 1.6, and 2.4 L, respectively. The mean usual intake of total water was generally less than the Adequate Intake; overall, more boys reported intakes of at least the Adequate Intake. The percentage of total water intake from plain water increased with age. Plain water intake was inversely associated with the intake of beverage moisture and the energy density of foods; conversely, beverage moisture was positively associated with dietary energy, fat, and the energy density of foods. Associations of water contributors with meal patterns (number of eating occasions, reporting of breakfast or snack) were inconsistent across age groups. Nearly 80% of food moisture, >66% of beverage moisture, and ≈30% of plain water were reported with main meals. Conclusions: Intake of total water over 24 h from different contributors varied by age. Qualitative differences in dietary intake in association with the amount of plain water and beverage moisture in the recalls were observed. American children and adolescents consumed more than two-thirds of their daily beverages with main meals. PMID:20685949

  16. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem(R)) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat.As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30-60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15-30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5-59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed in

  17. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem®) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat. As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30–60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15–30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5–59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed

  18. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. PMID:27421794

  19. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  20. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  1. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-01-01

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted. PMID:27240399

  2. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  3. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Hip Fracture Incidence in Older Men and Women: The CHANCES Project.

    PubMed

    Benetou, Vassiliki; Orfanos, Philippos; Feskanich, Diane; Michaëlsson, Karl; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Francine; Wolk, Alicja; Bellavia, Andrea; Ahmed, Luai A; Boffeta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    The role of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to fracture prevention during adulthood and beyond is not adequately understood. We investigated the potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and hip fracture incidence in a large sample of older adults from Europe and the United States. A total of 142,018 individuals (116,509 women) aged ≥60 years, from five cohorts, were followed up prospectively for 1,911,482 person-years, accumulating 5552 hip fractures. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Ηip fractures were ascertained through national patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) derived by Cox proportional hazards regression were estimated for each cohort and subsequently pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Intake of ≤1 serving/day of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with 39% higher hip fracture risk (pooled adjusted HR, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.58) in comparison with moderate intake (>3 and ≤5 servings/day) (pfor heterogeneity  = 0.505), whereas higher intakes (>5 servings/day) were not associated with lower risk in comparison with the same reference. Associations were more evident among women. We concluded that a daily intake of 1 or <1 servings of fruits and vegetables was associated with increased hip fracture risk in relation to moderate daily intakes. Older adults with such low fruit and vegetable consumption may benefit from raising their intakes to moderate amounts in order to reduce their hip fracture risk. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:27061845

  5. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  6. The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ≥ 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.

  7. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Szamosujvári, Pál; Dombai, Péter; Csóré, Katalin; Mikófalvi, Kinga; Steindl, Tímea; Streicher, Ildikó; Tarsoly, Júlia; Zajzon, Gergely; Somogyi, Péter; Szamosújvári, Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years) (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665 ± 7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.045), whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P = 0.041), but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558 ± 6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21)) daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r = 0.024, P = 0.049), but not with femur BMD (r = 0.021, P = 0.107). The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients. PMID:23737777

  8. Adequate dietary vitamin D and calcium are both required to reduce bone turnover and increased bone mineral volume.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice M C; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Moore, Alison J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Clinical studies indicate that the combination of vitamin D and dietary calcium supplementation is more effective for reducing fracture risk than either supplement alone. Our previous dietary studies demonstrated that an adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) of 80nmol/L or more reduces bone RANKL expression, osteoclastogenesis and maintains the optimal levels of trabecular bone volume (BV/TV%) in young rats. The important clinical question of the interaction between vitamin D status, dietary calcium intake and age remains unclear. Hence, 9 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5-6/group) were pair-fed a semi-synthetic diet containing varying levels of vitamin D (0, 2, 12 or 20IU/day) and dietary calcium (0.1% or 1%) for 6 months. At 15 months of age, animals were killed, for biochemical and skeletal analyses. While changes to serum 25D were determined by both dietary vitamin D and calcium levels, changes to serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) were consistently raised in animals fed 0.1% Ca regardless of dietary vitamin D or vitamin D status. Importantly, serum cross-laps levels were significantly increased in animals fed 0.1% Ca only when combined with 0 or 2 IUD/day of vitamin D, suggesting a contribution of both dietary calcium and vitamin D in determining bone resorption activity. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were positively correlated with both femoral mid-diaphyseal cortical bone volume (R(2)=0.24, P<0.01) and metaphyseal BV/TV% (R(2)=0.23, P<0.01, data not shown). In multiple linear regressions, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were a negative determinant of CBV (R(2)=0.24, P<0.01) and were not a determinant of metaphyseal BV/TV% levels. These data support clinical data that reduced bone resorption and increased bone volume can only be achieved with adequate 25D levels in combination with high dietary calcium and low serum 1,25D levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24309068

  9. Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Kotsonis, F N

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the postmarketing surveillance of consumption levels for a food additive, using the widely used food additive aspartame (APM, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) as an example. The safety implications of the ADI and consumption levels are also discussed. Aspartame has been assigned an ADI of 40 mg/kg/day by the World Health Organization and regulatory authorities in Europe and Canada, and of 50 mg/kg/day by the US Food and Drug Administration. A number of different methods have been used to measure consumption levels of food additives. Consumption estimations for aspartame from one such method, the food intake survey, have been done in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Finland. APM consumption in all age groups and selected subpopulations, even at the 90th percentile, is approximately 2-10 mg/kg/day and is thus well below the ADI.

  10. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  11. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  12. The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2004-01-01

    Circadian and diurnal rhythms affect food intake, and earlier research has suggested that meal sizes increase, whereas the after-meal intervals and satiety ratios decrease over the day. We hypothesized that the time of day of food intake would be related to total intake such that intake early in the day would tend to reduce overall intake, whereas intake later in the day would tend to increase intake over the entire day. The intakes of 375 male and 492 female free-living individuals, previously obtained via 7-d diet diaries, were reanalyzed. The total and meal intakes of food energy, the amounts of the macronutrients ingested and the density of intake occurring during five 4-h periods (0600-0959, 1000-1359, 1400-1759, 1800-2159 and 2200-0159 h) were identified and related to overall and meal intakes during the entire day. The proportion of intake in the morning was negatively correlated with overall intake (r=-0.13, P<0.01), whereas the proportion ingested late in the evening was positively correlated with overall intake (r=0.14, P<0.01). The energy densities of intake during all periods of the day were positively related to overall intake (range, r=0.13-0.23, P<0.01). The results suggest that low energy density intake during any portion of the day can reduce overall intake, that intake in the morning is particularly satiating and can reduce the total amount ingested for the day, and that intake in the late night lacks satiating value and can result in greater overall daily intake.

  13. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  14. Gyroelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  15. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  16. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  17. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  18. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.

  19. An intake prior for the Bayesian analysis of plutonium and uranium exposures in an epidemiology study.

    PubMed

    Puncher, M; Birchall, A; Bull, R K

    2014-12-01

    In Bayesian inference, the initial knowledge regarding the value of a parameter, before additional data are considered, is represented as a prior probability distribution. This paper describes the derivation of a prior distribution of intake that was used for the Bayesian analysis of plutonium and uranium worker doses in a recent epidemiology study. The chosen distribution is log-normal with a geometric standard deviation of 6 and a median value that is derived for each worker based on the duration of the work history and the number of reported acute intakes. The median value is a function of the work history and a constant related to activity in air concentration, M, which is derived separately for uranium and plutonium. The value of M is based primarily on measurements of plutonium and uranium in air derived from historical personal air sampler (PAS) data. However, there is significant uncertainty on the value of M that results from paucity of PAS data and from extrapolating these measurements to actual intakes. This paper compares posterior and prior distributions of intake and investigates the sensitivity of the Bayesian analyses to the assumed value of M. It is found that varying M by a factor of 10 results in a much smaller factor of 2 variation in mean intake and lung dose for both plutonium and uranium. It is concluded that if a log-normal distribution is considered to adequately represent worker intakes, then the Bayesian posterior distribution of dose is relatively insensitive to the value assumed of M.

  20. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun

    2016-01-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517

  1. A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie

    2010-10-01

    Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.

  2. Vitamin D intake and cardiovascular mortality in the NHANES I epidemiological follow-up study cohort.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunpeng; Nieto, F Javier; Bautista, Leonelo E; Fine, Jason P

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether vitamin D intake is associated with CVD mortality in a general population sample. The association between vitamin D intake and CVD mortality (ICD-9 code 410-414) rates was investigated using data from the the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) Epidemiological Follow-up Study (NHEFS) 1971-1992. Overall, higher vitamin D intake was associated with lower CVD mortality. After adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD, vitamin D intake showed mild but nonstatistically significant protective effects against CVD mortality with a hazard ratio for adequate as compared to low intake (with 95% confidence intervals) of 0.90 (0.74, 1.08). Hazard ratios were 0.95, 0.83, 0.88, and 1.02, in males, females, Whites, and Blacks, respectively (with 95% confidence intervals overlapping 1.0 in all cases). Thus, we did not find a statistically significant association between vitamin D intake and CVD mortality, although our findings are compatible with a mild protective effect, especially among females and Whites. PMID:22607643

  3. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  4. Stages of changes for fruit and vegetable intake and their relation to the nutritional status of undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Lígia Cardoso; Correia, Ingrid Chaves; Mizutani, Edna Shibuya

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the nutritional and dietetic profile of freshman Nutrition undergraduate students, and its association with stages of changes (Transtheoretical Model) for fruit and vegetable intake. Methods: Demographic (age and gender), anthropometric (body mass index and waist circumference) and nutritional (pattern of fruit and vegetable intake) data were obtained. The Transtheoretical Model was used to identify the stages of change for fruit and vegetable intake. Food consumption was assessed with a questionnaire developed by the Ministry of Health. The significance level considered for all statistical tests was 0.05 (p<0.05). Results: From 433 eligible students, anthropometric measurements were taken from 219 (50.6%), and 299 (69%) underwent food intake evaluation. The sample included undergraduate students with a low frequency of adequate fruit and vegetables intake (29.8%), being the majority (64.9%) of them classified as at the preparation stage to increase the intake of these food groups. Prevalence of adequate fruit and vegetables intake was higher among students at the action/maintenance stages (83.3%) compared to those at the precontemplation/contemplation (18.3%) and at the preparation stages (32.0%). Students at the preparation stage presented the highest medians for body mass index (p=0.004) and waist circumference (p=0.039) compared to those at the precontemplation/contemplation stages. There was no association between fruit and vegetables intake and the presence of overweight or abdominal obesity (p=0.373). Conclusion: This instrument is effective to predict the food intake and, even among aware individuals and ready to change their food behavior, the prevalence of nutritional risk is high. PMID:24728246

  5. REM sleep predicts subsequent food intake.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J M

    1975-10-01

    REM sleep time in a 12 hr period was found to predict accurately food intake in the subsequent 12 hr period in undisturbed cats fed ad lib. In all but one of the cats, the correlation between REM sleep and subsequent food intake was negative. REM sleep was a better predictor of food intake than either waking, slow wave sleep or previous food intake. Cats were then fed only during the 12 hr day period. It was found that REM sleep at night, during which no food was available, no longer predicted food intake.

  6. Fluid manipulation among individuals with lower urinary tract symptoms: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Elstad, Emily A; Maserejian, Nancy N; McKinlay, John B; Tennstedt, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Aims and objective To determine, qualitatively and quantitatively, how individuals use fluid manipulation to self-manage the urinary symptoms of daytime frequency, urgency and urine leakage and the underlying rationale for this behaviour. Background Lower urinary tract symptoms are prevalent and burdensome, and little is known about how individuals with lower urinary tract symptoms manipulate their fluid intake. Design A mixed methods design included statistical analysis of data from a population-based survey of urologic symptoms and qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews. Method Quantitative data came from 5503 participants of the baseline Boston Area Community Health Survey, a population-based, random sample epidemiologic survey of urologic symptoms. Qualitative data came from in-depth interviews with a random subsample from Boston Area Community Health of 152 black, white and Hispanic men and women with LUTS. Results Qualitative data showed that some respondents restricted fluid intake while others increased it, in both cases with the expectation of improved symptoms. Quantitative data showed that fluid intake was greater in men and women reporting frequency (p < 0·001). Women with frequency drank significantly more water (p < 0·001), while women with urgency drank significantly less water (p = 0·047). Conclusions This study found divergent expectations of the role of fluids in alleviating symptoms, leading some individuals to restrict and others to increase fluid intake. Individuals with lower urinary tract symptoms may need guidance in fluid management. Relevance to clinical practice Nurses should be aware that patients may self-manage lower urinary tract symptoms by restricting fluid intake, putting them at risk for dehydration, constipation and urinary tract infection, but also that they may be increasing their fluid intake, which could worsen symptoms. This study pinpoints a specific area of need among patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and

  7. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  8. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  9. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph...

  10. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  11. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  12. Evaluating the Reliability of Selected School-Based Indices of Adequate Reading Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the stability (i.e., 4-month and 12-month test-retest reliability) of six selected school-based indices of adequate reading progress. The total sampling frame included between 3970 and 5655 schools depending on the index and research question. Each school had at least 40 second-grade students that had complete Oral…

  13. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  14. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  15. Performance Effects of Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    As the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law moves through the reauthorization process, it is important to understand the basic performance impacts of its central structure of accountability. In this paper, I examine the effects of failure to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under NCLB on subsequent student math and reading performance at the school…

  16. Determining Adequate Yearly Progress in a State Performance or Proficiency Index Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview regarding how several states use a performance or proficiency index in their determination of adequate yearly progress (AYP) under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Typically, indexes are based on one of two weighting schemes: (1) either they weight academic performance levels--also…

  17. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  18. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  19. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  20. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  1. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  2. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  3. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  4. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  5. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  6. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  7. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  8. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  9. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  10. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  11. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  12. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  14. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  16. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  17. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  18. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  19. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  20. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  3. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  4. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  5. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  6. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  7. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  9. Body composition and nutrient intakes of college men and women basketball players.

    PubMed

    Nowak, R K; Knudsen, K S; Schulz, L O

    1988-05-01

    Computer analysis of diet records was used to compare adequacy of nutrient intake for 16 male and 10 female intercollegiate basketball players. Significant differences (p less than .05) between men and women were observed for the provision of nutrients from food alone; mean percent RDAs of all nutrients except vitamins A and D was greater for men. This was due primarily to caloric intakes by the men, which averaged twice those of the women. Nutrient supplements had a significant effect on the women's total intake. With the exceptions of energy, protein, and vitamin C, differences between men and women in percent RDAs were eliminated when the contribution of nutrient supplements was included. The data made apparent the need for dietitians familiar with sports nutrition to counsel female athletes on means of obtaining nutrients via an adequate diet.

  10. Usual Intake of Key Minerals among Children in the Second Year of Life, NHANES 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Hamner, Heather C.; Perrine, Cria G.; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2016-01-01

    Iron, calcium, and zinc are important nutrients for the young, developing child. This study describes the usual intake of iron, calcium, and zinc among US children in the second year of life using two days of dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2012. Estimates were calculated using PC-SIDE to account for within and between person variation. Mean usual iron, calcium, and zinc intakes were 9.5 mg/day, 1046 mg/day, and 7.1 mg/day, respectively. Over a quarter of children had usual iron intakes less than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (26.1%). Eleven percent of children had usual calcium intakes below the RDA and over half of children had usual intakes of zinc that exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Two percent or less had usual intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for iron, calcium, and zinc. Our findings suggest that during 2003–2012, one in four children and one in ten children had usual intakes below the RDA for iron and calcium, respectively. Children who are not meeting their nutrient requirements could be at increased risk for developing deficiencies such as iron deficiency or could lead to a shortage in adequate nutrients required for growth and development. One in every two children is exceeding the UL for zinc, but the interpretation of these estimates should be done with caution given the limited data on adverse health outcomes. Continued monitoring of zinc intake and further assessment for the potential of adverse health outcomes associated with high zinc intakes may be needed. PMID:27483313

  11. Usual Intake of Key Minerals among Children in the Second Year of Life, NHANES 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Heather C; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-01-01

    Iron, calcium, and zinc are important nutrients for the young, developing child. This study describes the usual intake of iron, calcium, and zinc among US children in the second year of life using two days of dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Estimates were calculated using PC-SIDE to account for within and between person variation. Mean usual iron, calcium, and zinc intakes were 9.5 mg/day, 1046 mg/day, and 7.1 mg/day, respectively. Over a quarter of children had usual iron intakes less than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (26.1%). Eleven percent of children had usual calcium intakes below the RDA and over half of children had usual intakes of zinc that exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL). Two percent or less had usual intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for iron, calcium, and zinc. Our findings suggest that during 2003-2012, one in four children and one in ten children had usual intakes below the RDA for iron and calcium, respectively. Children who are not meeting their nutrient requirements could be at increased risk for developing deficiencies such as iron deficiency or could lead to a shortage in adequate nutrients required for growth and development. One in every two children is exceeding the UL for zinc, but the interpretation of these estimates should be done with caution given the limited data on adverse health outcomes. Continued monitoring of zinc intake and further assessment for the potential of adverse health outcomes associated with high zinc intakes may be needed. PMID:27483313

  12. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Sengers, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle.

  13. Super-strong magneto-rheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    2001-03-01

    A typical MR fluid is a suspension of magnetic particles of micrometer size in a liquid. Upon application of a strong magnetic field, the fluid turns into a solid. This process is reversible and the response time is of milliseconds. MR fluids presently have a yield shear stress around 80 kPa, which is adequate for applications in shock absorbers and vibration dampers, but is inadequate for automobile clutch etc. Efforts in searching for new materials in the past decades came with limited results. Thus we have developed a new approach to change the microstructure of MR fluids and make them super-strong. It is well known that under a strong magnetic field, the ideal structure of MR fluids is a body-centered tetragonal (bct) lattice. The mechanical strength of MR fluids strongly depends on the microstructure. A bct-lattice based thick column has a much higher yield stress than a single-chain structure. When a magnetic field is applied to a MR fluid, the particles first form chains. With time, the chains may aggregate into columns. However, the unassisted aggregation is not very useful, as it is slow and produces columns with a limited thickness. Our method is based on assisted aggregations. Immediately after a magnetic field is applied, we compress the MR fluid in the field direction before a shear force is applied. The compression pushes the induced chains together to form thick columns. This microstructure change greatly enhances the yield stress. The experiment on an iron-based MR fluid finds 800 kPa for the yield stress, ten times stronger than that without the compression. When the magnetic field is removed, the MR fluid still returns to the liquid state quickly. The upper limit of this structure-enhanced yield stress seems well above 800 kPa. The super-strong MR fluids are suitable for many industrial applications. *Supported by NSF Grant 0196022

  14. Challenges of linking chronic dehydration and fluid consumption to health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the effects of chronic mild dehydration and fluid consumption on specific health outcomes including obesity. The electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant literature published from the time of their inception to 2011, with results restricted to studies performed on human subjects and reports in the English language. Key words included the following: dehydration, hypohydration, water intake, fluid intake, disease, and the names of specific disease states. Strength of evidence categories were described for 1) medical conditions associated with chronic dehydration or low daily water intake, and 2) randomized-controlled trials regarding the effects of increased water consumption on caloric intake, weight gain, and satiety. This process determined that urolithiasis is the only disorder that has been consistently associated (i.e., 11 of 13 publications) with chronic low daily water intake. Regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes, evidence suggests that increased water intake may reduce caloric intake for some individuals. Recommendations for future investigations include measuring total fluid intake (water + beverages + water in solid food), conducting randomized-controlled experiments, identifying novel hydration biomarkers, and delineating hydration categories.

  15. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  16. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  17. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  18. Controlling the Intake of Calories With the Intake of Food

    PubMed Central

    Broomes, E. L. C.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a dietary program for weight reduction based not on the substitution of a low calorie meal for a high calorie meal, but on the pre-meal ingestion of low calorie bulk beverages that are pleasant to taste and space filling, thereby compromising the capacity of the stomach to accommodate much of the higher calorie foods of the regular meals. This method makes any form of fasting unnecessary, as the intake of calories is already limited. Because of this method, few changes need to be made in food selection for regular meals. PMID:3508220

  19. Changes in nutrient intake of hypertensives during a behavioral weight-control program.

    PubMed

    Nowalk, M P; Wing, R R

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional adequacy of the diets selected by hypertensive patients participating in a behavioral weight-control program, 26 patients were asked to complete 3-day food records at the start and end of the 8-week program. These records were analyzed using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Handbook 456 data base. Patients decreased their overall caloric intake by 39% during the course of the program and decreased consumption of all nutrients, but only calcium intake decreased to unacceptable levels. There was, however, a significant increase in the number of individuals consuming less than two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for thiamin, niacin, calcium, and iron, and a significant increase in the number of patients who were deficient in three or more nutrients. Thus, although average intake in the behavioral weight-control program was adequate, there was a sizeable number of individuals who were consuming poor diets. Inadequate intake occurred primarily in patients eating less than 1000 calories a day. The simple behavior change of adding a cup of skim milk to the unstructured calorie-counting diet would help restore calcium, thiamin, and niacin to adequate levels. PMID:4091068

  20. Should bioactive trace elements not recognized as essential, but with beneficial health effects, have intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    Today, most nutritionists do not consider a trace element essential unless it has a defined biochemical function in higher animals or humans. As a result, even though it has been found that trace elements such as boron and silicon have beneficial bioactivity in higher animals and humans, they generally receive limited attention or mention when dietary guidelines or intake recommendations are formulated. Recently, the possibility of providing dietary intake recommendations such as an adequate intake (AI) for some bioactive food components (e.g., flavonoids) has been discussed. Boron, chromium, nickel, and silicon are bioactive food components that provide beneficial health effects by plausible mechanisms of action in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts, and thus should be included in the discussions. Although the science base may not be considered adequate for establishing AIs, a significant number of findings suggest that statements about these trace elements should be included when dietary intake guidance is formulated. An appropriate recommendation may be that diets should include foods that would provide trace elements not currently recognized as essential in amounts shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease and/or promote health and well-being.

  1. Maintaining adequate nutrition, not probiotic administration, prevents growth stunting and maintains skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in a piglet model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Harding, Scott V; Adegoke, Olasunkanmi A J; Fraser, Keely G; Marliss, Errol B; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S; Wykes, Linda J

    2010-03-01

    Malnutrition and cytokine-induced catabolism are pervasive in children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, the benefits of aggressive nutrition support or of probiotics on nutrient and functional deficiencies and growth remain unclear. Piglets with dextran sulfate (DS)-induced colitis consuming a 50% macronutrient restricted diet (C-MR) were compared with those receiving probiotics (C-MRP) or adequate nutrition (C-WN) and with healthy well-nourished controls (REF). C-WN versus REF had reduced growth (-34% chest circumference and -22% snout-to-rump length gain) and a tendency toward lesser weight gain, but no differences in skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) or initiation of translation via the mTOR pathway were observed. Compared with C-WN, the C-MR and C-MRP piglets had lower weight gain, growth, and skeletal muscle FSR, and lower phosphorylated p70S6K1 with higher eIF4E*4E-BP1, indicative of reduced initiation of protein translation. Finally, plasma leucine concentrations were positively correlated with weight and phosphorylated p70S6K1, whereas negatively correlated with eIF4E*4E-BP1. In conclusion, reductions in weight gain, growth, protein turnover, skeletal muscle FSR, and initiation of protein translation with moderate macronutrient restriction in colitis are not ameliorated by probiotic supplementation. However, maintaining adequate nutrient intake during colitis preserves whole body protein metabolism, but growth remains compromised.

  2. Puffing Topography and Nicotine Intake of Electronic Cigarette Users

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Rachel Z.; Hua, My; Talbot, Prue

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior electronic cigarette (EC) topography data are based on two video analyses with limited parameters. Alternate methods for measuring topography are needed to understand EC use and nicotine intake. Objectives This study evaluated EC topography with a CReSS Pocket device and quantified nicotine intake. Methods Validation tests on pressure drop, flow rate, and volume confirmed reliable performance of the CReSS Pocket device. Twenty participants used Blu Cigs and V2 Cigs for 10 minute intervals with a 10–15 minute break between brands. Brand order was reversed and repeated within 7 days Data were analyzed to determine puff duration, puff count, volume, flow rate, peak flow, and inter-puff interval. Nicotine intake was estimated from cartomizer fluid consumption and topography data. Results Nine patterns of EC use were identified. The average puff count and inter-puff interval were 32 puffs and 17.9 seconds. All participants, except one, took more than 20 puffs/10 minutes. The averages for puff duration (2.65 seconds/puff), volume/puff (51ml/puff), total puff volume (1,579 ml), EC fluid consumption (79.6 mg), flow rate (20 ml/s), and peak flow rate (27 ml/s) were determined for 10-minute sessions. All parameters except total puff count were significantly different for Blu versus V2 EC. Total volume for Blu versus V2 was four-times higher than for conventional cigarettes. Average nicotine intake for Blu and V2 across both sessions was 1.2 ± 0.5 mg and 1.4 ± 0.7 mg, respectively, which is similar to conventional smokers. Conclusions EC puffing topography was variable among participants in the study, but often similar within an individual between brands or days. Puff duration, inter-puff interval, and puff volume varied from conventional cigarette standards. Data on total puff volume and nicotine intake are consistent with compensatory usage of EC. These data can contribute to the development of a standard protocol for laboratory testing of EC products

  3. Nectar intake rate is modulated by changes in sucking pump activity according to colony starvation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2008-05-01

    Dynamics of fluid feeding has been deeply studied in insects. However, the ability to vary the nectar-intake rate depending only on the carbohydrate deprivation has been clearly demonstrated only in Camponotus mus ants. When insect morphometry and fluid properties remain constant, changes in intake rate could only be attributed to variations in sucking pump activity. Previous records of the electrical activity generated during feeding in C. mus have revealed two different signal patterns: the regular (RP, frequencies: 2-5 Hz) and the irregular (IP, frequencies: 7-12 Hz). This work studies the mechanism underlying food intake-rate modulation in ants by analysing whether these patterns are involved. Behaviour and electrical activity generated by ants at different starvation levels were analysed during feeding on sucrose solutions. Ants were able to modulate the intake rate for a variety of sucrose concentrations (10, 40 and 60%w/w). The IP only occurred for 60% of solutions and its presence did not affect the intake rate. However, during the RP generated under the starved state, we found frequencies up to 7.5 Hz. RP frequencies positively correlated with the intake-rate for all sucrose concentrations. Hence, intake-rate modulation according to sugar deprivation is mainly achieved by the ant's ability to vary the pumping frequency. PMID:18320196

  4. Nectar intake rate is modulated by changes in sucking pump activity according to colony starvation in carpenter ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Josens, Roxana

    2008-05-01

    Dynamics of fluid feeding has been deeply studied in insects. However, the ability to vary the nectar-intake rate depending only on the carbohydrate deprivation has been clearly demonstrated only in Camponotus mus ants. When insect morphometry and fluid properties remain constant, changes in intake rate could only be attributed to variations in sucking pump activity. Previous records of the electrical activity generated during feeding in C. mus have revealed two different signal patterns: the regular (RP, frequencies: 2-5 Hz) and the irregular (IP, frequencies: 7-12 Hz). This work studies the mechanism underlying food intake-rate modulation in ants by analysing whether these patterns are involved. Behaviour and electrical activity generated by ants at different starvation levels were analysed during feeding on sucrose solutions. Ants were able to modulate the intake rate for a variety of sucrose concentrations (10, 40 and 60%w/w). The IP only occurred for 60% of solutions and its presence did not affect the intake rate. However, during the RP generated under the starved state, we found frequencies up to 7.5 Hz. RP frequencies positively correlated with the intake-rate for all sucrose concentrations. Hence, intake-rate modulation according to sugar deprivation is mainly achieved by the ant's ability to vary the pumping frequency.

  5. Effects of intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate and sodium chloride on silage intake by lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Forbes, J M; Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H

    1992-12-01

    Lactating dairy cows prepared with rumen fistulas were fed on grass silage and concentrates and used in two experiments to compare the effects of sodium acetate and sodium chloride infused over 3 h into the rumen on the voluntary intake of silage. Silage intake was depressed in an approximately linear manner by increasing amounts (6-15 mol) of sodium acetate (NaOAc) and 15 mol NaCl had an effect similar to that of 12 mol NaOAc. Sodium in rumen fluid was significantly correlated with intake as was osmolality. 5.5, 7.4 or 9.1 mol of NaOAc significantly depressed silage intake, while 7.4 and 9.1 mol NaCl had significant effects. There were significant negative relationships between intake and the level of NaOAc or NaCl. It is concluded that the major effect of either salt was via the elevation of osmolality of rumen fluid and the relevance to normal control of feeding is discussed.

  6. Anthropometry and Dietary Intake before and during a Competition in Mountain Runners

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Mountain running is a non-Olympic sport consisting of uphill or up- and downhill races at moderate-to-high altitude. Special nutritional requirements are anticipated, but no nutritional data of mountain runners are available. In three studies, physique of elite and recreational athletes (N = 62), maximum oxygen uptake (N = 3), and prerace and race day dietary intake (N = 6) were measured (mean ± SD). Mean oxygen uptake was 68.7 ± 5.2 mL/kg/min. Energy and carbohydrate intake before a race (29 ± 15 km, 1596 ± 556 m HD) was 3199 ± 701 kcal/d (13.4 ± 2.9 MJ/d) and 497 ± 128 g/d (8.3 ± 1.8 g/kg/d) in German national team members. Fluid intake was calculated as 2783 ± 1543 mL/d. During the race, athletes consumed 336 ± 364 kcal and 927 ± 705 mL of fluids. Substrate intake per hour was calculated as 23 ± 22 g of carbohydrates and 4.0 ± 3.2 g of proteins. In conclusion, anthropometric and oxygen uptake characteristics of mountain runners were similar to those reported for elite distance runners. Carbohydrate intake before and during the race was below recommendations for endurance athletes. This is of concern when considering the increased reliance on carbohydrates at altitude. PMID:25177498

  7. Ciliary fluid transport enhanced by viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Motile cilia encounter complex, non-Newtonian fluids as they beat to gain self-propulsion of cells, transport fluids, and mix particles. Recently there have been many studies on swimming in complex fluids, both experimentally and theoretically. However the role of the non-Newtonian fluid in the ciliary transport system remains largely unknown. Here we use a one-way-coupled immersed boundary method to evaluate the impacts of viscoelastic fluid (Oldroyd-B fluid) on the fluid transport generated by an array of rabbit tracheal cilia beating in a channel at low Reynolds number. Our results show that the viscoelasticity could enhance the fluid transport generated by the rabbit tracheal cilia beating pattern and the flow is sensitive to the Deborah number in the range we investigate.

  8. Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe Short Bowel Syndrome Living in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (≈ 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed

  9. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  10. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  11. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  12. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  13. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  14. Restricted versus Standard Maintenance Fluid Volume in Management of Transient Tachypnea of Newborn: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashtian, Masoud; Aramesh, Mohammad-Reza; Melekian, Arash; Aletayeb, Mohammad-Hasan; Ghaemmaghami, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of Transient Tachypnea of Newborn (TTN) is higher in infants born by cesarean section than with  vaginal delivery. Treatment of transient tachypnea of newborn is supportive. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of restricted fluid volume intake on the course of respiratory distress in patients with TTN. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental clinical trial of 83 neonates diagnosed with TTN admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in south west Iran. In this study the effect of restriction of maintenance fluid volume in the course of respiratory distress in newborns with transient tachypnea was assessed. Findings: In the standard fluid volume intake group 18 (42.8%) cases needed nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and one (2.38%) case mechanical ventilation, and in restricted fluid volume intake group 13 (32.5%) cases needed NCPAP and two (5%) cases mechanical ventilation. 54.82% of cases were supported with oxyhood in the standard fluid volume and 62.5% in the restricted fluid volume intake group. Differences in duration of the needed NCPAP and oxygen hood between the two groups were significant. Fluid restriction had no adverse effect on the urine specific gravity or weight loss of the studied newborns. Conclusion: Limited fluid administered to newborns with transient tachypnea of newborn is safe and resulted in shorter duration of respiratory support. PMID:25793064

  15. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  16. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  17. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  18. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-08-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme-under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness-as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  19. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  20. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  1. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  2. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  3. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation. PMID:25495101

  4. Bioelement effects on thyroid gland in children living in iodine-adequate territory.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Anatoly L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Koubassov, Roman V

    2007-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a primary pathology of thyroid gland and critical medico social problem in many countries. A dominant cause of endemic goitre is iodine deficiency. However, besides primary iodine deficiency, the goitre may probably develop due to effects of other bioelement imbalances, essential to thyroid function maintenance. Here we studied 44 cases of endemic goitre in prepubertal children (7-10 y.o.) living in iodine-adequate territory. Thyroid volume was estimated by ultrasonometry. Main bioelements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, Si, Zn) were determined in hair samples by ICP-OES/ICP-MS method. Relationships between hair content of bioelements and thyroid gland size were estimated by multiple regressions. The regression model revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Cr, Si, Mn contents. However, the actual factor of thyroid gland increase was only Si excess in organism. Significant negative relations of thyroid volume were revealed with I, Mg, Zn, Se, Co and Cd. In spite of this, the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increasing were I, Co, Mg and Se deficiency. Total bioelement contribution in thyroid impairment was estimated as 24%. Thus, it was suggested that endemic goitre in iodine-adequate territory can be formed by bioelement imbalances, namely Si excess and Co, Mg, Se shortage as well as endogenous I deficiency in spite of iodine-adequate environment.

  5. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  6. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  7. An adequate Fe nutritional status of maize suppresses infection and biotrophic growth of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanghua; Albarouki, Emad; Lingam, Brahmasivasenkar; Deising, Holger B; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant pathogens as well as for their host plants. As Fe plays a central role in pathogen virulence, most plants have evolved Fe-withholding strategies to reduce Fe availability to pathogens. On the other hand, plants need Fe for an oxidative burst in their basal defense response against pathogens. To investigate how the plant Fe nutritional status affects plant tolerance to a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, we employed the maize-Colletotrichum graminicola pathosystem. Fungal infection progressed rapidly via biotrophic to necrotrophic growth in Fe-deficient leaves, while an adequate Fe nutritional status suppressed the formation of infection structures of C. graminicola already during the early biotrophic growth phase. As indicated by Prussian blue and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining, the retarding effect of an adequate Fe nutritional status on fungal development coincided temporally and spatially with the recruitment of Fe to infection sites and a local production of H2 O2 . A similar coincidence between local Fe and H2 O2 accumulation was found in a parallel approach employing C. graminicola mutants affected in Fe acquisition and differing in virulence. These results indicate that an adequate Fe nutritional status delays and partially suppresses the fungal infection process and the biotrophic growth phase of C. graminicola, most likely via the recruitment of free Fe to the fungal infection site for a timely oxidative burst.

  8. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  9. Estimating salivary flow and ruminal water balance of intake, diet, feeding pattern, and slaframine.

    PubMed

    Jacques, K; Harmon, D L; Croom, W J; Hagler, W M

    1989-02-01

    Three experiments with ruminally fistulated cattle fed 12 times daily were conducted to study the role of saliva secretion in ruminal water balance when intake, diet, and feeding pattern were altered. Water balance data were determined from continuously infused Co-EDTA and pulse-dosed Cr-EDTA with saliva flow estimated by difference between water intake and ruminal outflow. Any net transruminal water flux would be included in the estimate of salivary flow. When the concentration of bluestem hay in the diet was increased from 50 to 90%, ruminal fluid volume, saliva secretion, water intake, dilution rate, and total ruminal outflow increased. At equal intake, the higher forage diet increased ruminal liquid volume, outflow, and saliva secretion but had no effect on dilution rate. Intake, but not forage concentration, affected ruminal pH when 50 and 90% hay diets were fed. Increasing feeding frequency of forage in a 65% bluestem hay diet from 4 to 12 times daily (the grain portion was fed 12 times daily) increased dilution and ruminal outflow; however, the latter was only significant with data from Cr-EDTA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids were not altered by feeding frequency of forage. Nycterohemeral patterns were seen in water intake, ruminal dilution rate, outflow, and salivary flow in both studies. Slaframine increased saliva flow by 29% and was accompanied by increased ruminal liquid volume, dilution rate, and outflow.

  10. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine.

  11. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  12. Protein intake in renal disease.

    PubMed

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S; Zhu, F Y; Warnant, M; Caterson, R J; Waugh, D A; Mahony, J F

    1997-05-01

    The dietary protein intake (DPI) of 766 patients (aged 7 to 88 yr) was determined from 24-h urinary urea and protein excretion by urea kinetic modelling. Five hundred sixty-five patients had a normal serum creatinine concentration, and of these 565, 385 patients had no dietary modification advised and 180 were advised to follow a low-protein diet. The remaining 201 patients had an increased serum creatinine concentration; 148 of these 201 patients had been advised to restrict their DPI. Patients with a normal serum creatinine concentration who had no dietary restriction had a significantly higher DPI than those advised to restrict their protein intake (1.08 +/- 0.01 versus 0.96 +/- 0.02 g/kg per day (mean +/- SEM), P < 0.01). Similarly, patients with abnormal renal function who were advised to follow a low-protein diet had a reduced DPI (0.93 +/- 0.01 versus 0.87 +/- 0.02 g/kg per day; P < 0.05). A lower DPI correlated with level of renal dysfunction, independent of dietary advice (P < 0.0001). In the overall population, DPI correlated with body mass index (BMI; P < 0.0001) and serum albumin (P < 0.0001), and inverse correlations were evident between age (P < 0.0001), blood glucose level (P < 0.01), serum cholesterol level (P < 0.0001), and triglyceride levels (P < 0.0001) independently of renal function. Fifty-two patients were assessed within the 3 months before the commencement of dialysis, and 47 were reassessed within 3 months after the commencement of dialysis. Despite advice regarding an increase in dietary protein after the commencement of dialysis, this increase failed to occur within the 3 months of commencement of dialytic therapy (0.79 +/- 0.04 versus 0.82 +/- 0.03 g/kg per day); P = 0.64). However, 6 to 9 months after the commencement of dialysis, a significant increase in protein intake was evident (1.04 +/- 0.04 g/kg per day; P < 0.005 versus both prior measurements). Hence a low DPI in renal impairment occurs independently of dietary advice, but

  13. Fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy

    2012-04-01

    This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given

  14. Effects of protein intake on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Trudy; Vitezova, Anna; Bramer, Wichor M; Ars, Charlotte L; Bautista, Paula K; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Felix, Janine F; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Sajjad, Ayesha; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Tharner, Anne; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-14

    High protein intake in early childhood is associated with obesity, suggesting possible adverse effects on other cardiometabolic outcomes. However, studies in adults have suggested beneficial effects of protein intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Whether dietary protein intake is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the evidence on the associations of protein intake with BP, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and PubMed for interventional and observational studies in healthy children up to the age of 18 years, in which associations of total, animal and/or vegetable protein intake with one or more of the following outcomes were reported: BP; measures of insulin sensitivity; cholesterol levels; or TAG levels. In the search, we identified 6636 abstracts, of which fifty-six studies met all selection criteria. In general, the quality of the included studies was low. Most studies were cross-sectional, and many did not control for potential confounders. No overall associations were observed between protein intake and insulin sensitivity or blood lipids. A few studies suggested an inverse association between dietary protein intake and BP, but evidence was inconclusive. Only four studies examined the effects of vegetable or animal protein intake, but with inconsistent results. In conclusion, the literature, to date provides insufficient evidence for effects of protein intake on BP, insulin sensitivity or blood lipids in children. Future studies could be improved by adequately adjusting for key confounders such as energy intake and obesity.

  15. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  16. Sodium chloride intake: is lower always better?

    PubMed

    Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers; Ritz, Eberhard

    2012-07-01

    Current treatment of kidney disease is not completely satisfactory, particularly when initiated in the late stages of renal progression. There is an urgent need for additional interventions, especially reduction of salt intake, which is rather high in the Western world. In this commentary we provide a critical assessment of post hoc analyses of recent interventional and observational studies on the effect of salt intake on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. To evaluate the mechanisms and safety of reduced salt intake, studies specifically designed to assess salt intake as an endpoint are needed. This approach will have implications for health care policies and labeling of the salt content of purchased foods.

  17. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations.

  18. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  19. Relationship between dietary copper intake and indices of copper status in men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, P.; Reiser, S.; Canary, J. )

    1989-02-09

    Dietary copper (Cu) intake, red blood cell superoxide dismutase (SOD), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and plasma Cu were determined in 18 men, 18 premenopausal (PRE) and 18 postmenopausal (POST) women. Follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone were measured to verify menopausal status in women. SOD levels were significantly different in men, PRE and POST women and were used to divide subjects into adequate (350-700 U/mI) and inadequate (<350 U/ml) Cu status. Dietary Cu intake including supplements was highest for men (2.53 mg/day) as compared to PRE (1.35 mg/day) and POST (1.86 mg/day) women. There was an inverse correlation between dietary Cu intake and SOD levels. Plasma Cu levels were significantly higher in women (102.8 {mu}g/dl PRE, 108.95 POST {mu}g/dl) compared to men (88.34 {mu}g/dl). Cp levels showed a positive correlation with plasma Cu but did not show a sex effect. The present Cu intake levels were calculated from diet records using a food Cu data base. These results are in the process of being verified by direct analysis of Cu level in a 3 day food composite. The results indicate that Cu intake alone is not a good predictor of Cu status as determine by SOD levels.

  20. Vegetarian diets across the lifecycle: impact on zinc intake and status.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Optimal zinc status is an important consideration when evaluating the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets. In the absence of animal tissue sources of zinc and with increased intake of inhibitors of zinc absorption, phytic acid in particular, the bioavailability of zinc is thought to be lower from vegetarian as compared to omnivorous diets. The aim of this chapter is to review the research that examines the effects of vegetarian compared to omnivorous diets on zinc intake and zinc status in the elderly, adults, children, pregnancy, and lactation. A narrative review of the published literature was undertaken, focusing on observational studies in humans that reported zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status at various stages of the life cycle. Compared to their respective nonvegetarian control groups, adult male and female vegetarians have lower dietary zinc intakes and serum zinc concentrations. However in the elderly, children, and in women during pregnancy and lactation, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether zinc intake and status are lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores. Inconsistencies in study findings reflect variations inherent in the definition of vegetarian diets, and in many instances compromised statistical power due to a small sample size. Improved methods for the assessment of zinc status are required to determine whether homeostatic responses are sufficient to maintain an adequate zinc status in vegetarians, particularly during times of increased requirement. Appropriate dietary advice to increase the zinc content and bioavailability of vegetarian diets throughout the life cycle is prudent. PMID:25624036

  1. Vegetarian diets across the lifecycle: impact on zinc intake and status.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Optimal zinc status is an important consideration when evaluating the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets. In the absence of animal tissue sources of zinc and with increased intake of inhibitors of zinc absorption, phytic acid in particular, the bioavailability of zinc is thought to be lower from vegetarian as compared to omnivorous diets. The aim of this chapter is to review the research that examines the effects of vegetarian compared to omnivorous diets on zinc intake and zinc status in the elderly, adults, children, pregnancy, and lactation. A narrative review of the published literature was undertaken, focusing on observational studies in humans that reported zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status at various stages of the life cycle. Compared to their respective nonvegetarian control groups, adult male and female vegetarians have lower dietary zinc intakes and serum zinc concentrations. However in the elderly, children, and in women during pregnancy and lactation, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether zinc intake and status are lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores. Inconsistencies in study findings reflect variations inherent in the definition of vegetarian diets, and in many instances compromised statistical power due to a small sample size. Improved methods for the assessment of zinc status are required to determine whether homeostatic responses are sufficient to maintain an adequate zinc status in vegetarians, particularly during times of increased requirement. Appropriate dietary advice to increase the zinc content and bioavailability of vegetarian diets throughout the life cycle is prudent.

  2. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  3. Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Julie K; Severi, Gianluca; Hodge, Allison M; Baglietto, Laura; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G

    2013-01-01

    B vitamins are involved in 1-carbon metabolism, which is necessary for DNA replication, DNA repair, and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies suggest inverse associations between folate and vitamin B6 intakes and colorectal cancer risk but associations with other B vitamins and methionine have not been widely studied. After following 14,645 men and 22,467 women for 15 yr on average, we ascertained 910 incident colorectal cancers. Dietary intakes were estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox regression. We found some evidence of a U-shaped relationship between colon cancer risk and vitamin B6 and an inverse U-shaped relationship between rectal cancer risk and B12 (test for the quadratic trend, P = 0.005 and P = 0.0005 respectively). For colon cancer, we observed a reduced risk associated with low methionine/high folate, HR = 0.63 (0.49, 0.80) and an increased risk associated with high methionine/high folate, HR = 1.36 (1.06, 1.74) (P interaction < 0.0001). Our study suggests a U-shaped association between colon cancer risk and vitamin B6 intake and an inverse U-shaped association between rectal cancer risk and vitamin B12. Adequate folate intake might protect against colon cancer risk in those with low methionine intake.

  4. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions.

  5. Jodina rhombifolia leaves lyophilized aqueous extract decreases ethanol intake and preference in adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Roberto Teves, Mauricio; Wendel, Graciela Haydée; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) are utilized as anti-alcoholic in Argentine folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-alcohol properties in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 29; 83-105 g of weight). We utilized the "self-administration model", which ethanol was offered in the standard home-cage through two-bottle free-choice regimen between an ethanolic solution (20% in tap water, v/v) and tap water with unlimited access for 24h per day for 10 consecutive days. The results obtained show that repeated administration of J. rhombifolia lyophilized extract, markedly reduced ethanol voluntary intake on dose dependent bases. The magnitude in reduction of daily ethanol intake was approximately 29%, 44% and 68%, for the rat groups treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of extract, respectively. Ethanol preference (proportion of ethanol intake versus total fluid intake) was significantly reduced: 21.37% ± 0.79 (0 mg/kg); 15.83% ± 0.93 (62.5 mg/kg); 15.22% ± 1.30 (125 mg/kg) and 9.38% ± 0.57 (250 mg/kg). Daily food intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the group treated with 250 mg/kg of JRLE in comparison with vehicle-dose group; the reduction in ethanol intake was associated with a compensatory increase in food intake, probably because in the control group animals a part of the total caloric intake was supplied by ethanol. Treatment was very well tolerated by all animals and without apparent side-effects. These results contribute to the scientific validation of the antialcoholic indication of this botanic species in Argentine folk medicine. PMID:26253580

  6. Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Macronutrient intake, height, weight, and body composition of 60 adolescent sprint athletes were estimated every 6 months over 3 years. Seven-day food records were analysed based on the Belgian and Dutch food databanks. The age of participants at the start of the 3-year study was 14.8 ± 1.6 years for female athletes and 14.7 ± 1.9 years for male athletes. Girls and boys gained height (3.4 ± 4.6 cm and 5.9 ± 6.6 cm respectively) and weight (5.6 ± 3.5 kg and 8.7 ± 5.5 kg respectively), whereas percent body fat remained unchanged in both girls and boys (around 17.0% and 8.5% respectively). Mean protein intake of around 1.5 g · kg⁻¹ body weight was within recommendations on each occasion for both sexes. Carbohydrate intakes between 5 and 7 g · kg⁻¹ body weight support a training programme of moderate intensity. Total and saturated fat intakes were high at the start of the study (girls: 31.8 ± 3.5% and 12.2 ± 2.0% of energy intake; boys: 30.3 ± 4.6% and 12.0 ± 1.9% of energy intake) and it appeared to be difficult to achieve and maintain lower intakes. Consistent low fluid intakes around 40 ml · kg⁻¹ body weight were observed. General non-stringent advice for improvement of the diet resulted in significant favourable changes only for the consumption of wholegrain bread, vegetables, and soft drinks. Dietary habits of adolescent sprint athletes are not always according to guidelines and are relatively stable but repeated advice can induce moderate improvements. PMID:21086211

  7. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  8. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry Ann; Galanko, Joseph; Sha, Wei; Stephenson, Brigitte; Vick, Julie; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is essential for infant nutrition, and breast milk is a rich source of this nutrient. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) change dietary requirements for choline intake. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether total choline intake and/or SNPs influence concentrations of choline and its metabolites in human breast milk and plasma. Design: We gave a total of 103 pregnant women supplemental choline or a placebo from 18 wk gestation to 45 d postpartum and genotyped the women for 370 common SNPs. At 45 d postpartum, we measured choline metabolite concentrations in breast milk and plasma and assessed the dietary intake of choline by using a 3-d food record. Results: On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d). Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations. We identified 5 SNPs in MTHFR that altered the slope of the intake–metabolite concentration relations, and we identified 2 SNPs in PEMT that shifted these curves upward. Individuals who shared sets of common SNPs were outliers in plots of intake–metabolite concentration curves; we suggest that these SNPs should be further investigated to determine how they alter choline metabolism. Conclusion: Total intake of choline and genotype can influence the concentrations of choline and its metabolites in the breast milk and blood of lactating women and thereby affect the amount of choline available to the developing infant. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00678925. PMID:20534746

  9. A pilot intervention to increase calcium intake in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S; Ward, Kenneth D; Klesges, Robert C; Vukadinovich, Christopher M

    2004-02-01

    Calcium intake in adolescent and young adult female athletes often is inadequate to optimize peak bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis risk. The purpose of this study was to determine if calcium supplementation in eumenorrheic female collegiate athletes increases intake to recommended levels and promotes increases in bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-eight eumenorrheic female athletes from several college teams (15 soccer, 7 cross-country, 8 indoor track, and 18 basketball) were randomized at the beginning of a competitive season to receive either an oral calcium supplement (1000 mg calcium citrate/400 I.U. Vitamin D) or placebo daily throughout the training season (16 weeks). Self-reported daily pill intake was obtained every 2 weeks to assess adherence. Calcium intake was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment Method, and total body and leg BMD was measured at pre-, mid-, and postseason using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Hologic QDR-2000). Pre-season calcium intake was lower than national recommendations for this age group (12), averaging 842 mg/d (SD = 719) and was lower in the placebo group compared to the supplemented group (649 +/- 268 vs. 1071 +/- 986 mg/d, respectively; p = .064). Adherence to supplementation was good, averaging 70% across the training season. Supplementation boosted total calcium intake to a mean of 1397 +/- 411 mg/d, which is consistent with recommended levels for this group (37). Supplementation did not influence BMD change during this 16-week intervention. Across teams, a small increase of 0.8% was observed in leg BMD. Change in total body BMD was modified by team, with a significant increase of 1.5% observed in basketball players. These results indicate that providing calcium supplements of 1000 mg/d is adequate to boost total intake to recommended levels during athletic training. Longer intervention trials are required to determine whether calcium supplementation has a positive effect on BMD.

  10. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  11. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.

  12. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  13. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Wiens, Kristin P.; Erdman, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437) in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483) in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5); 2.4 (1.6–3.4) in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9); 2.0 (1.4–2.6) in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4); 2.0 (1.5–2.4) in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2); 1.7 (1.3–2.0) in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112), folate 89% (61–114) and calcium 84% (48–106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  14. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  15. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  16. Performance of statistical methods to correct food intake distribution: comparison between observed and estimated usual intake.

    PubMed

    Verly-Jr, Eliseu; Oliveira, Dayan C R S; Fisberg, Regina M; Marchioni, Dirce Maria L

    2016-09-01

    There are statistical methods that remove the within-person random error and estimate the usual intake when there is a second 24-h recall (24HR) for at least a subsample of the study population. We aimed to compare the distribution of usual food intake estimated by statistical models with the distribution of observed usual intake. A total of 302 individuals from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) answered twenty, non-consecutive 24HR; the average length of follow-up was 3 months. The usual food intake was considered as the average of the 20 collection days of food intake. Using data sets with a pair of 2 collection days, usual percentiles of intake of the selected foods using two methods were estimated (National Cancer Institute (NCI) method and Multiple Source Method (MSM)). These estimates were compared with the percentiles of the observed usual intake. Selected foods comprised a range of parameter distributions: skewness, percentage of zero intakes and within- and between-person intakes. Both methods performed well but failed in some situations. In most cases, NCI and MSM produced similar percentiles between each other and values very close to the true intake, and they better represented the usual intake compared with 2-d mean. The smallest precision was observed in the upper tail of the distribution. In spite of the underestimation and overestimation of percentiles of intake, from a public health standpoint, these biases appear not to be of major concern. PMID:27523187

  17. Thrombography reveals thrombin generation potential continues to deteriorate following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery despite adequate hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond K; Sleep, Joseph R; Visner, Allison J; Raasch, David J; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Torloni, Antonio S; Arabia, Francisco A

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways of the hemostatic system converge when prothrombin is converted to thrombin. The ability to generate an adequate thrombin burst is the most central aspect of the coagulation cascade. The thrombin-generating potential in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be indicative of their hemostatic status. In this report, thrombography, a unique technique for directly measuring the potential of patients' blood samples to generate adequate thrombin bursts, is used to characterize the coagulopathic profile in post-CPB patients. Post-CPB hemostasis is typically achieved with protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation and occasionally supplemented with blood product component transfusions. In this pilot study, platelet poor plasma samples were derived from 11 primary cardiac surgery patients at five time points: prior to CPB, immediately post-protamine, upon arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU), 3 hours post-ICU admission, and 24 hours after ICU arrival. Thrombography revealed that the Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) was not different between [Baseline] and [PostProtamine] but proceeded to deteriorate in the immediate postoperative period. At the [3HourPostICU] time point, the ETP was significantly lower than the [Baseline] values, 1233 +/- 591 versus 595 +/- 379 nM.min (mean +/- SD; n=9, p < .005), despite continued adequacy of hemostasis. ETPs returned to baseline values the day after surgery. Transfusions received, conventional blood coagulation testing results, and blood loss volumes are also presented. Despite adequate hemostasis, thrombography reveals an underlying coagulopathic process that could put some cardiac surgical patients at risk for postoperative bleeding. Thrombography is a novel technique that could be developed into a useful tool for perfusionists and physicians to identify coagulopathies and optimize blood management following CPB. PMID:21449230

  18. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  19. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  20. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.