Science.gov

Sample records for adequate heat removal

  1. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, D.; Tessier, J.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; August, C.; Chawla, T.; Cheung, F.B.; Despe, O.; Haupt, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a naturally circulating air stream to remove shutdown decay heat from a nuclear reactor vessel is a key feature of advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts developed by potential vendors selected by the Department of Energy. General Electric and Rockwell International continue to develop innovative design concepts aimed at improving safety, lowering plant costs, simplifying plant operation, reducing construction times, and most of all, enhancing plant licensability. The reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical support to both organizations. The method of shutdown heat removal proposed employs a totally passive cooling system that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection to air. The system is inherently reliable since it is not subject failure modes associated with active decay cooling systems. The system is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor under abnormal operating conditions associated with loss of heat removal through other heat transport paths.

  2. Heat exchanger with a removable tube section

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.

    1975-07-29

    A heat exchanger is described in which the tube sheet is secured against primary liquid pressure, but which allows for easy removal of the tube section. The tube section is supported by a flange which is secured by a number of shear blocks, each of which extends into a slot which is immovable with respect to the outer shell of the heat exchanger. (auth)

  3. Groundwater removal near heat dissipating waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Manteufel, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    The thermohydrologic environment of heat-dissipating nuclear waste packages in a subsurface repository is affected by ventilation of the facility prior to permanent closure. Heat dissipated by the waste will raise the temperature of host rock and vaporize groundwater. Ventilation will remove some heat and water vapor from the subsurface, creating a desiccated region surrounding the waste packages. The resulting hot, dry environment will tend to favorably extend the containment time of the waste. This work evaluates the transient temperature field near emplacement drifts and predicts the extent of rock dryout and removal of groundwater. For two hypothetical ventilation schemes with 30-yr-old fuel and repository loading of 40 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per acre, about 4 to 5 m of rock surrounding the drifts are predicted to be dried during the preclosure period.

  4. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  5. Condensate removal device for heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trusch, R. B.; Oconnor, E. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A set of perforated tubes disposed at the gas output side of a heat exchanger, in a position not to affect the rate of flow of the air or other gas is described. The tubes are connected to a common manifold which is connected to a sucking device. Where it is necessary to conserve and recirculate the air sucked through the tubes, the output of the manifold is run through a separator to remove the condensate from the gas. The perforations in the slurper tubes are small, lying in the range of 0.010 inch to 0.100 inch. The tubes are disposed in contact with the surfaces of the heat exchanger on which the condensate is precipitated, whether fins or plates, so that the water may be directed to the tube openings by means of surface effects, together with the assistance of the air flow. Only about 5 percent of the air output need be thus diverted, and it effectively removes virtually all of the condensate.

  6. Emergency heat removal system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Dunckel, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat removal system for nuclear reactors serving as a supplement to an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) comprises a plurality of heat pipes having one end in heat transfer relationship with either the reactor pressure vessel, the core support grid structure or other in-core components and the opposite end located in heat transfer relationship with a heat exchanger having heat transfer fluid therein. The heat exchanger is located external to the pressure vessel whereby excessive core heat is transferred from the above reactor components and dissipated within the heat exchanger fluid.

  7. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  8. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  9. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  10. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  11. Reaction heat used in static water removal from fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platner, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Reaction heat is used for removal of water formed at the hydrogen fuel electrode in a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. A portion of the heat inherent in the fuel cell current generation reaction is used to transfer excess water into water vapor and cause it to be exhausted from the cell by a porous vapor transport membrane adjoining a vapor cavity.

  12. Horizontal Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis for Passive Heat Removal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen

    2005-08-29

    This report describes a three-year project to investigate the major factors of horizontal heat exchanger performance in passive containment heat removal from a light water reactor following a design basis accident LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The heat exchanger studied in this work may be used in advanced and innovative reactors, in which passive heat removal systems are adopted to improve safety and reliability The application of horizontal tube-bundle condensers to passive containment heat removal is new. In order to show the feasibility of horizontal heat exchangers for passive containment cooling, the following aspects were investigated: 1. the condensation heat transfer characteristics when the incoming fluid contains noncondensable gases 2. the effectiveness of condensate draining in the horizontal orientation 3. the conditions that may lead to unstable condenser operation or highly degraded performance 4. multi-tube behavior with the associated secondary-side effects This project consisted of two experimental investigations and analytical model development for incorporation into industry safety codes such as TRAC and RELAP. A physical understanding of the flow and heat transfer phenomena was obtained and reflected in the analysis models. Two gradute students (one funded by the program) and seven undergraduate students obtained research experience as a part of this program.

  13. Method and apparatus for heat treating materials to remove contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Miller, D.H.

    1980-05-06

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for heat treating metals to remove contaminants. Contaminated scrap metal is fed into one end of a rotating inclined retort. Heat is applied to the retort as the scrap metal is conveyed therein to remove the contaminant, and the processed metal is discharged from the opposite end of the retort. Combustible waste gases generated through the processing are fed to an afterburner where the combustible gases are burned and are discharged from the afterburner into a stack. A portion of the hot combusted gases are returned from the stack to the discharge end of the retort to thereby minimize oxidation of the scrap metal being treated as well as conserving fuel.

  14. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B. J.; Kudlac, G. A.; Bailey, R. T.

    1998-06-01

    The Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) system is a new concept whereby a Teflon ® covered condensing heat exchanger is adapted to remove certain flue gas constituents, both particulate and gaseous, while recovering low level heat. The pollutant removal performance and durability of this device is the subject of a USDOE sponsored program to develop this technology. The program was conducted under contract to the United States Department of Energy's Fossil Energy Technology Center (DOE-FETC) and was supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) within the Ohio Department of Development, the Electric Power Research Institute's Environmental Control Technology Center (EPRI-ECTC) and Babcock and Wilcox - a McDermott Company (B&W). This report covers the results of the first phase of this program. This Phase I project has been a two year effort. Phase I includes two experimental tasks. One task dealt principally with the pollutant removal capabilities of the IFGT at a scale of about 1.2MWt. The other task studied the durability of the Teflon ® covering to withstand the rigors of abrasive wear by fly ash emitted as a result of coal combustion. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The coals tested included high, medium and low-sulfur coals. The flue gas pollutants studied included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was investigated. These test results demonstrated that the IFGT system is an effective device for both acid gas absorption and fine particulate collection. Although soda ash was shown to be the most effective reagent for acid gas absorption, comparative cost analyses suggested that magnesium enhanced lime was the most promising avenue for future study. The durability of the Teflon

  15. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  16. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  17. PANDA asymmetric-configuration passive decay heat removal test results

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, O.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.

    1997-12-01

    PANDA is a large-scale, low-pressure test facility for investigating passive decay heat removal systems for the next generation of LWRs. In the first series of experiments, PANDA was used to examine the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The test objectives include concept demonstration and extension of the database available for qualification of containment codes. Also included is the study of the effects of nonuniform distributions of steam and noncondensable gases in the Dry-well (DW) and in the Suppression Chamber (SC). 3 refs., 9 figs.

  18. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RHR results.

  19. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  20. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) Decay Heat Removal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    K. D. Weaver; L-Y. Cheng; H. Ludewig; J. Jo

    2005-09-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GFR: a helium-cooled, direct power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850ºC at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GFR. These are Euratom (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, Euratom (including the United Kingdom), France, and Japan have active research activities with respect to the GFR. The research includes GFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This report is a compilation of work performed on decay heat removal systems for a 2400 MWt GFR during this fiscal year (FY05).

  1. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the RHR results. A highly statistically significant decreasing trend was observed for the RHR injection mode start-only unreliability. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for RHR shutdown cooling mode start-only unreliability and RHR shutdown cooling model 24-hour unreliability.

  2. The influence of heat treatments on several types of base-metal removable partial denture alloys.

    PubMed

    Morris, H F; Asgar, K; Rowe, A P; Nasjleti, C E

    1979-04-01

    Four removable partial denture alloys, Vitallium (Co-Cr alloy), Dentillium P.D. (Fe-Cr alloy), Durallium L.G. (Co-Cr-Ni alloy), and Ticonium 100 (Ni-Cr alloy), were evaluated in the as-cast condition and after heat treatment for 15 minutes at 1,300 degrees, 1,600 degrees, 1,900 degrees, and 2,200 degrees F followed by quenching in water. The following properties were determined and compared for each alloy at each heat treatment condition: the yield strengths at 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.2% offsets, the ultimate tensile strength, the percent elongation, the modulus of elasticity, and the Knoop microhardness. The results were statistically analyzed. Photomicrographs were examined for each alloy and test condition. The following conclusions were made: 1. The "highest values" were exhibited by the as-cast alloy. 2. Heat treatment of the partial denture alloys tested resulted in reductions in strength, while the elongations varied. This study demonstrates that, in practice, one should avoid (a) prolonged "heat-soaking" while soldering and (b) grinding or polishing of the casting until the alloy is "red hot". 3. Durallium L.G. was the least affected by the various heat treatment conditions. 4. Conventional reporting of the yield strength at 0.2% offset, the ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation are not adequate to completely describe and compare the mechanical behavior of alloys. The reporting of the yield strength at 0.01% offset, in addition to the other reported properties, will provide a more complete description of the behavior of the dental alloys.

  3. Heat removal from bipolar transistor by loop heat pipe with nickel and copper porous structures.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patrik; Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made.

  4. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made. PMID:24959622

  5. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  6. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  7. Grouping of light water reactors for evaluation of decay heat removal capability

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, R.; Fresco, A.; Perkins, K.R.

    1984-06-01

    This grouping report provides a compilation of decay heat removal systems (DHRS) data for operating commercial light water reactors. The reactors have been divided into 12 groups based on similarity of the DHRS and related systems as part of the NRC Task Action Plan on Shutdown Decay Heat Removal Requirements.

  8. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitka, Martin; Kolková, Z.; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, M.

    2014-03-01

    One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP) is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980's. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

  9. THERMAL STUDY OF THE DIII-D MACHINE HEAT REMOVAL CAPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    YIP,H; ADERSON,P.M; HOLTROP,K.L; HARRISON,S

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 With each plasma shot, the DIII-D tokamak dissipates 0.5 to 1.0 GJ of energy. Plasma shots may occur as frequently as every ten minutes, and the energy is removed in the form of heat by a cooling water system. to remove heat from the machine, cooling water circulates through each major heat source. These sources include the power supplies, motor/generator, rf current drives, neutral beam power supplies, magnetic field coils, and vacuum vessel. The cooling water system consists of isolated primary and secondary cooling loops separated by intermediate heat exchangers. As future DIII-D plans include operation during summer months and longer pulse duration, the cooling system's overall heat removal capability and performance efficiency must be assessed. Temperature and flow data from around the DIII-D facility are collected by a programmable logic controller (PLC); the data are used to analyze the heat generating sources, the heat transfer rate to intermediate heat exchangers, and the ultimate heat rejection to the environment via the cooling towers. A comparison of the original DIII-D machine design versus the actual performance determines the margin of heat removal capacity. projections of the heat removal rate for various longer plasma shots are made. Improvements in design and/or operational procedure will be necessary to attain the desired pulse duration.

  10. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  11. RCS pressure under reduced inventory conditions following a loss of residual heat removal

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Hughes, E.D.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1992-08-01

    The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-reactor coolant system to loss of residual heat removal (RHR) cooling is investigated. The processes examined include: core coolant boiling and steam generator reflux condensation, pressure increase on the primary side, heat transfer mechanisms on the steam generator primary and secondary sides, and effects of noncondensible gas on heat transfer processes.

  12. RCS pressure under reduced inventory conditions following a loss of residual heat removal

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Hughes, E.D.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-reactor coolant system to loss of residual heat removal (RHR) cooling is investigated. The processes examined include: core coolant boiling and steam generator reflux condensation, pressure increase on the primary side, heat transfer mechanisms on the steam generator primary and secondary sides, and effects of noncondensible gas on heat transfer processes.

  13. Methodology for characterizing heat removal mechanism in human skin during cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Pikkula, Brian M; Tunnell, James W; Anvari, Bahman

    2003-05-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) reduces epidermal damage during laser treatment of various dermatoses. The goal of this study was to determine the heat removal mechanism in skin and quantify the amount in response to CSC. Thermocouples were imbedded in four model substrates with a range of thermal diffusivities, greater than three orders of magnitude in difference, to measure the temperature profiles in response to CSC and sapphire contact cooling, which removes heat completely by conduction. An algorithm solving an inverse heat conduction problem was subsequently used to quantify the amount of heat removal from the substrates using the measured temperatures. The interface thermal conductance and internal temperatures within the substrates were computed by a finite difference algorithm that solved the heat conduction equation. Results verify a marked increase in heat removal and interface thermal conductance with increasing thermal diffusivity. By estimation from the model substrate results, heat removal and interface thermal conductance values for skin were obtained. Data demonstrate that during CSC, evaporation is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in materials with higher thermal diffusivities; however, conductive cooling dominates in substrates with lower thermal diffusivities such as skin.

  14. Decay heat removal from a Particle Bed Reactor Nuclear Thermal Rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Eric

    1993-06-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rockets used in propulsion systems for planetary exploration will generate significant amounts of heat following normal engine shutdown due to the buildup of and decay of radioactive fission products. The amount of energy that is generated as decay heat is approximately 2-5 percent of the energy released during nominal operation. Various schemes are possible for removing this heat, including using primary coolant (hydrogen) to cool the reactor. Depending on the amount of coolant required, this may result in a large weight penalty for the mission. This paper quantifies the amount of decay heat that must be removed from the engine, shows the resulting impact on the vehicle design for particular missions, and examines possible approaches for reducing the amount of coolant required for decay heat removal. The costs and benefits of these schemes will be shown for several different missions. The missions that will be considered include both manned Mars missions and unmanned planetary exploration missions.

  15. Predictable Therma-fil removal technique using the system-B heat source.

    PubMed

    Guess, Garrett M

    2004-01-01

    A clinical tip is suggested to assist in the removal of Therma-fil obturators during conventional endodontic retreatment. Using a heat source such as the System-B, the plastic carriers that are normally an obstacle to retreatment can be efficiently removed using the technique described.

  16. Cryogenic Heat-Exchanger Design for Freeze-out Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Landfill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Chung, Myung Jin; Park, Seong Bum

    A cryogenic heat exchanger to remove carbon dioxide from landfill gas (LFG) is proposed and designed for applications to LNG production in distributed-scale. Since the major components of LFG are methane and carbon dioxide, CO2 removal is a significant pre-process in the liquefaction systems. A new and simple approach is proposed to directly remove carbon dioxide as frost on the surface wall along the cooling passage in a liquefying heat exchanger and to install two identical heat exchangers in parallel for alternative switching. As a first step of feasibility study, combined heat and mass transfer analysis is performed on the freeze-out process of CO2 in a counterflow heat exchanger, where CH4-CO2 mixture is cooled below its frost temperature in thermal contact with cold refrigerant. Engineering correlations for the analogy of heat and mass transfer are incorporated into numerical heat exchanger analysis with detailed fluid properties. The developed analytical model is used to estimate the distribution of CO2 accumulation and the required heat exchanger size with latent thermal load for the cryogenic CO2 removal in various operating conditions.

  17. Device for the removal of heat from waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kalberer, F.

    1983-12-27

    Waste water is led into a container (1) through a inlet (4) at the top. A connection (20) between the inlet (4) and an outlet (21) having a check valve (22) comprises adjacent to the inlet (4) two inverted frusto-conical hollow bodies (24, 25) which are directly connected to each other. The connecting surface between the two hollow bodies (24, 25) is formed as a coarse screen (26). A round fine screen (30), which diverges downwardly, surrounds the hollow bodies (24,25). Heat exchangers (31) are located in the space between the fine screen (30) and the wall (2) of the container (1). An outlet (5) terminates at the bottom of the container and connects with a riser (6) and via a bend (7) with the sewerage conduit (8). Through the coarse screen (26) the waste water reaches the container, and the heat can reach the heat exchangers (31) through the fine screen (30), so that practically uncontaminated water is present at the heat exchangers, and the need for cleansing is substantially diminished.

  18. The use of ferrofluids for heat removal: Advantage or disadvantage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauzina, Marina T.; Bozhko, Aleksandra A.; Krauzin, Pavel V.; Suslov, Sergey A.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown experimentally that, depending on the relative orientation of the gravity and the thermal gradient and on the pre-history of experiment, the application of a uniform external vertical magnetic field to a spherical cavity filled with magnetic ferrofluid can either enhance or suppress a convective heat transfer.

  19. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  20. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  1. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford (top), with the Aft Engine shop, along with another worker, removes a heat shield on one of Columbia's engines. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  2. High Heat Flux Surface Coke Deposition and Removal Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    deposited over the course of multiple missions. Therefore, there is a need for a method to survey coke layer thicknesses and locations in the cooling...thin coke layers makes this a difficult and challenging problem. Reaction Systems, Inc. has developed a low temperature oxidation method that can...rapidly remove the coke layers in the cooling channels and at the same time map their location. We demonstrated this technique in a recent SBIR Phase II

  3. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forseberg, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  4. Preliminary numerical studies of an experimental facility for heat removal in natural circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Caramello, M.; Falcone, N.; Bersano, A.; Panella, B.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years particular attention has been dedicated to passive safety systems for heat removal in nuclear power plants. Passive safety systems can achieve a high level of safety, as they carry out their mission relying solely on physical principles like natural circulation, without any need of operators or energy sources. To qualify these systems and components experimental activities are necessary to study and to understand the governing physical phenomena. The present paper shows the design of an experimental facility to be installed in the laboratories of the Energy Department of Politecnico di Torino. The facility is inspired by the decay heat removal system for ALFRED reactor and comprehends a heated bayonet tube and a heat sink for the heat removal (a heat exchanger inside a pool). The thermal power is in the order of 1 kW. A RELAP5-3D model of the facility has been developed and sensitivity analyses were performed to highlight the geometry of the heat exchanger, the final heat sink, and the mass of water inside the loop. The results of this phase serve to understand the physical limits of the facility, to demonstrate a preliminary feasibility and to optimize the geometry for the desired operating conditions.

  5. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  6. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  7. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  8. Effects of droplet velocity, diameter, and film height on heat removal during cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Pikkula, Brian M; Tunnell, James W; Chang, David W; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-08-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective method to reduce or eliminate epidermal damage during laser treatment of various dermatoses. This study sought to determine the effects of specific cryogen properties on heat removal. Heat removal was quantified using an algorithm that solved an inverse heat conduction problem from internal temperature measurements made within a skin phantom. A nondimensional parameter, the Weber number, characterized the combined effects of droplet velocity, diameter, and surface tension. CSC experiments with laser irradiation were conducted on ex vivo human skin samples to assess the effect of Weber number on epidermal protection. An empirical relationship between heat removal and the difference in droplet temperature and the substrate, droplet velocity, and diameter was obtained. Histological sections of irradiated ex vivo human skin demonstrated that sprays with higher Weber numbers increased epidermal protection. Results indicate that the cryogen film acts as an impediment to heat transfer between the impinging droplets and the substrate. This study offers the importance of Weber number in heat removal and epidermal protection.

  9. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants - while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of a addressing the emission of SO{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase I and Phase II requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variable than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides the Final Test Plan for the first coal tested in the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  10. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from the coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps the withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet jump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  11. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    SciTech Connect

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  12. Transient testing of the FFTF for decay-heat removal by natural convection

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, T R; Johnson, H G; Stover, R L

    1982-06-01

    This paper reports on the series of transient tests performed in the FFTF as a major part of the pre-operations testing program. The structure of the transient test program was designed to verify the capability of the FFTF to safely remove decay heat by natural convection. The series culminated in a scram from full power to complete natural convection in the plant, simulating a loss of all electrical power. Test results and acceptance criteria related to the verification of safe decay heat removal are presented.

  13. Emergency Decay Heat Removal in a GEN-IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Ludewig, Hans; Jo, Jae

    2006-07-01

    A series of transient analyses using the system code RELAP5-3d has been performed to confirm the efficacy of a proposed hybrid active/passive combination approach to the decay heat removal for an advanced 2400 MWt GEN-IV gas-cooled fast reactor. The accident sequence of interest is a station blackout simultaneous with a small break (10 sq.inch/0.645 m{sup 2}) in the reactor vessel. The analyses cover the three phases of decay heat removal in a depressurization accident: (1) forced flow cooling by the power conversion unit (PCU) coast down, (2) active forced flow cooling by a battery powered blower, and (3) passive cooling by natural circulation. The blower is part of an emergency cooling system (ECS) that by design is to sustain passive decay heat removal via natural circulation cooling 24 hours after shutdown. The RELAP5 model includes the helium-cooled reactor, the ECS (primary and secondary side), the PCU with all the rotating machinery (turbine and compressors) and the heat transfer components (recuperator, pre-cooler and inter-cooler), and the guard containment that surrounds the reactor and the PCU. The transient analysis has demonstrated the effectiveness of passive decay heat removal by natural circulation cooling when the guard containment pressure is maintained at or above 800 kPa. (authors)

  14. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Jr., Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2014-04-15

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  15. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2015-11-24

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  16. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 3, Long term testing at the ECTC

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate long term operation of a condensing heat exchanger for coal-fired conditions. A small condensing heat exchanger will be installed at the Environmental Control Technology Center in Barker, New York. It will be installed downstream of the flue gas particulate removal system. The test will determine the amount of wear, if any, on the Teflon{trademark} covered internals of the heat exchanger. Visual inspection and measurements will be obtained for the Teflon{trademark} covered tubes during the test. The material wear study will conducted over a one year calendar period, and the CHX equipment will be operated to the fullest extent allowable.

  17. Modeling of heat transfer in a rotary kiln thermal desorder for removal of petroleum from soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Hsien-Tsung; Krasnoperov, L.V.; Bozzelli, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    A continuous feed rotary kiln thermal desorber was designed and constructed to study the heat transfer in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A mathematical model of heat transfer that correlates temperatures of gas, soil, and kiln wall will purge gas flow, soil feed rate, kiln rotation speed and soil residence time in the kiln desorber is developed. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to numerically integrate the heat transfer process along the kiln length and to calculate the temperature profiles. Comparison of predicted and measured gas and soil temperature profile is presented.

  18. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smitka, Martin E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk Nemec, Patrik E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk Malcho, Milan E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk

    2014-08-06

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)

  19. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitka, Martin; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

  20. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO(sub 2) and Heat Removal/Rejection in a Martian PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Bowers, Chad; Straub-Lopez, Katie; Anderson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber; Paul, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Two of the fundamental problems facing the development of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use on Mars, are (i) heat rejection (because traditional technologies use sublimation of water, which wastes a scarce resource and contaminates the premises), and (ii) rejection of CO2 in an environment with a ppCO2 of 0.4-0.9 kPa. Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed to address both these challenges. The technology utilizes an adsorbent that when cooled with liquid CO2 to near sublimation temperatures (195K) removes metabolically-produced CO2 in the vent loop. Once fully loaded, the adsorbent is then warmed externally by the vent loop (approx. 300K), rejecting the captured CO2 to Mars ambient. Two beds are used to effect a continuous cycle of CO2 removal/rejection as well as facilitate heat exchange out of the vent loop. Any cryogenic fluid can be used in the application; however, since CO2 is readily available at Mars and can be easily produced and stored on the Martian surface, the solution is rather elegant and less complicated when employing liquid CO2. As some metabolic heat will need to be rejected anyway, finding a practical use for metabolic heat is also an overall benefit to the PLSS. To investigate the feasibility of the technology, a series of experiments was conducted which lead to the selection and partial characterization of an appropriate adsorbent. The adsorbent NaX successfully removed CO2 from a simulated vent loop at the prescribed temperature swing anticipated during PLSS operating conditions on Mars using a cryogenic fluid. Thermal conductivity of the adsorbent was also measured to eventually aid in a demonstrator design of the technology. These results provide no show stoppers to the development of MTSA technology and allow its development to focus on other design challenges as listed in the conclusions.

  1. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area, heat removal storage casks. Plan, section, and details. Ralph M. Parsons 1480-7 ANP/GE-3-720-S-1. Date: November 1958. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0720-60-693-107459 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice under sequenced infrared radiation heating and cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice drying with infrared (IR) radiation has been investigated during recent years and showed promising potential with improved quality and energy efficiency. The objective of this study was to further investigate the moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice heated by IR and cooled ...

  3. Optimization of cryogenic and heat removal system of space borne magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musicki, Z.; Hilal, M. A.; McIntosh, G. E.

    Space-based superconducting magnets require a refrigerator system to maintain operating temperature at the design value. The magnets use helium gas cooled shields and multilayer insulation. Refrigerator power is determined based on the heat leak to the shields and to the magnet winding, as well as current leads and charging losses. Electric power is supplied by a power source such as an SP-100-type reactor or solar panels. Cryogenic and heat removal system masses included in the optimization are: the insulation and shields, the refrigerator, the power supply and the heat removal panel. The system is optimized to determine the optimum radiator temperature, superinsulation thickness, helium mass flow rate and helium inlet temperature to the shields.

  4. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  5. GEOMETRY, HEAT REMOVAL AND KINETICS SCOPING MODELS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    It is recognized that detailed models of proposed hydrogen storage systems are essential to gain insight into the complex processes occurring during the charging and discharging processes. Such insight is an invaluable asset for both assessing the viability of a particular system and/or for improving its design. The detailed models, however, require time to develop and run. Clearly, it is much more efficient to begin a modeling effort with a good system design and to progress from that point. To facilitate this approach, it is useful to have simplified models that can quickly estimate optimal loading and discharge kinetics, effective hydrogen capacities, system dimensions and heat removal requirements. Parameters obtained from these models can then be input to the detailed models to obtain an accurate assessment of system performance that includes more complete integration of the physical processes. This report describes three scoping models that assess preliminary system design prior to invoking a more detailed finite element analysis. The three models address the kinetics, the scaling and heat removal parameters of the system, respectively. The kinetics model is used to evaluate the effect of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the loading and discharge kinetics. As part of the kinetics calculations, the model also determines the mass of stored hydrogen per mass of hydride (in a particular reference form). As such, the model can determine the optimal loading and discharge rates for a particular hydride and the maximum achievable loading (over an infinite period of time). The kinetics model developed with the Mathcad{reg_sign} solver, runs in a mater of seconds and can quickly be used to identify the optimal temperature and pressure for either the loading or discharge processes. The geometry scoping model is used to calculate the size of the system, the optimal placement of heat transfer elements, and the gravimetric and volumetric capacities for a particular

  6. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, October 1995--July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.; Kudlac, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    The Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) system is a new concept whereby a Teflon{reg_sign} covered condensing heat exchanger is adapted to remove certain flue gas constitutents, both particulate and gaseous, while recovering low level heat. Phase 1 includes two experimental tasks. One task dealt principally with the pollutant removal capabilities of the IFGT at a scale of about 1.2MW{sub t}. The other task studied the durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covering to withstand the rigors of abrasive wear by fly ash emitted as a result of coal combustion. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The coals tested included high, medium and low-sulfur coals. The flue gas pollutants studied included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was investigated. These test results demonstrated that the IFGT system is an effective device for both acid gas absorption and fine particulate collection. The durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covered heat exchanger tubes was studied on a pilot-scale single-stage condensing heat exchanger (CHX{reg_sign}). Data from the test indicate that virtually no decrease in Teflon{reg_sign} thickness was observed for the coating on the first two rows of heat exchanger tubes, even at high inlet particulate loadings. Evidence of wear was present only at the microscopic level, and even then was very minor in severity.

  7. Resistively-Heated Microlith-based Adsorber for Carbon Dioxide and Trace Contaminant Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, S.; Walsh, D.; Perry, J.

    2005-01-01

    An integrated sorber-based Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) prototype was designed, fabricated and tested. It corresponds to a 7-person load. Performance over several adsorption/regeneration cycles was examined. Vacuum regenerations at effective time/temperature conditions, and estimated power requirements were experimentally verified for the combined CO2/trace contaminant removal prototype. The current paper details the design and performance of this prototype during initial testing at CO2 and trace contaminant concentrations in the existing CDRA, downstream of the drier. Additional long-term performance characterization is planned at NASA. Potential system design options permitting associated weight, volume savings and logistic benefits, especially as relevant for long-duration space flight, are reviewed. The technology consisted of a sorption bed with sorbent- coated metal meshes, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). By contrast the current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs pellet beds. Preliminary bench scale performance data (without direct resistive heating) for simultaneous CO2 and trace contaminant removal was reviewed in SAE 2004-01-2442. In the prototype, the meshes were directly electrically heated for rapid response and accurate temperature control. This allowed regeneration via resistive heating with the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. A novel flow arrangement, for removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed, was demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit was eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the current disposable charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration.

  8. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  9. Cyclic process for producing methane in a tubular reactor with effective heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-Lee

    1986-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  10. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  11. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2 and Heat Removal/Rejection in a Martian PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Bower, Chad; Straub-Lopez, Kathrine; Anderson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber; Paul, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    Two of the fundamental problems facing the development of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use on Mars, are (i) heat rejection (because traditional technologies use sublimation of water, which wastes a scarce resource and contaminates the premises), and (ii) rejection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in an environment with a CO2 partial pressure (ppCO2) of 0.4-0.9 kPa. Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed to address both these challenges. The technology utilizes an adsorbent that when cooled with liquid CO2 to near sublimation temperatures (195K) removes metabolically-produced CO2 in the ventilation loop. Once fully loaded, the adsorbent is then warmed externally by the ventilation loop (300K), rejecting the captured CO2 to Mars ambient. Two beds are used to provide a continuous cycle of CO2 removal/rejection as well as facilitate heat exchange out of the ventilation loop. Any cryogenic fluid can be used in the application; however, since CO2 is readily available on Mars and can be easily produced and stored on the Martian surface, the solution is rather elegant and less complicated when employing liquid CO2. As some metabolic heat will need to be rejected anyway, finding a practical use for metabolic heat is also an overall benefit to the PLSS. To investigate the feasibility of the technology, a series of experiments were conducted which lead to the selection and partial characterization of an appropriate adsorbent. The Molsiv Adsorbents 13X 8x12 (also known as NaX zeolite) successfully removed CO2 from a simulated ventilation loop at the prescribed temperature swing anticipated during PLSS operating conditions on Mars using a cryogenic fluid. Thermal conductivity of the adsorbent was also measured to eventually aid in a demonstrator design of the technology. These results provide no show stoppers to the development of MTSA technology and allow its development to focus on other design

  12. Heat removal (wetting, heat transfer, T/H, secondary circuit, code validation etc.)

    SciTech Connect

    Dury, T.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1996-06-01

    This working group provided a comprehensive list of feasibility and uncertainty issues. Most of the issues seem to fall into the `needed but can be worked out` category. They feel these can be worked out as the project develops. A few issues can be considered critical or feasibility issues (that must be proven to be feasible). Those include: (1) Thermal shock and its mitigation (>1 MW); how to inject the He bubbles (if used) - back pressure into He lines - mercury traces in He lines; how to maintain proper bubble distribution and size (static and dynamic; if used); vibrations and fatigue (dynamic); possibility of cavitation from thermal shock. (2) Wetting and/or non-wetting of mercury on containment walls with or without gases and its effect on heat transfer (and materials). (3) Prediction capabilities in the CFD code; bubbles behavior in mercury (if used) - cross stream turbulence (ESS only) - wetting/non-wetting effects. (4) Cooling of beam `windows`; concentration of local heat deposition at center, especially if beam is of parabolic profile.

  13. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth Cooled Natural Circulated Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Takaaki Sakai; Yasuhiro Enuma; Takashi Iwasaki; Kazuhiro Ohyama

    2002-07-01

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth cooled natural circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 100 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled natural circulation reactor designed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. PRACS (Primary Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System) is prepared for the JNC's concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 sec after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 Centigrade, because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporary reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system and the out let temperature decreases successfully. (authors)

  14. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Natural-Circulation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Takashi

    2004-03-15

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multidimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural-circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 300-MW(thermal) lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400-MW(electric) lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactor designed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. The primary reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) is prepared for the JNC concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 s after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 deg. C because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporarily reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system, and the outlet temperature decreases successfully.

  15. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  16. NOM removal by adsorption and membrane filtration using heated aluminum oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenxiao; Kim, Jaeshin; Benjamin, Mark M

    2008-01-15

    Heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs) are a newly synthesized adsorbent with attractive properties for use in hybrid adsorption/membrane filtration systems. This study compared removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from water by adsorption onto HAOPs with that by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) or coagulation with alum or ferric chloride (FeCl3); explored the overlap between the NOM molecules that preferentially adsorb to HAOPs and those that are removed by the more conventional approaches; and evaluated NOM removal and fouling in hybrid adsorbent/membrane systems. For equivalent molar doses of the trivalent metals, HAOPs remove more NOM, and NOM with higher SUVA254, than alum or FeCl3. Most of the HAOPs-nonadsorbable fraction of the NOM can be adsorbed by PAC; in fact, that fraction appears to be preferentially adsorbed compared to the average NOM in untreated water. Predeposition of the adsorbents on a microfiltration membrane improves system performance. For the water tested, at a flux of 100 L/m2-hr, predeposition of 11 mg/L PAC and 5 mg/L HAOPs (as Al3+) allowed the system to operate 5 times as long before the transmembrane pressure increased by 1 psi and to remove 10-20 times as much NOM as when no adsorbents were added.

  17. Removal of silver nanoparticles using live and heat shock Aspergillus niger cultures.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ola M

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are extensively used in many industrial and medical applications; however, the impact of their release in the environment is still considered an understudied field. In the present work, SNPs present in aqueous lab waste water (average size of 30 nm) were used to determine their impact on microflora if released in soil rhizosphere and sewage waste water. The results showed that 24 h incubation with different SNP concentrations resulted in a 2.6-fold decrease for soil rhizosphere microflora and 7.45-fold decrease for sewage waste water microflora, both at 24 ppm. Live and heat shock (50 and 70 °C) Aspergillus niger cultures were used to remove SNP waste, the results show 76.6, 81.74 and 90.8 % SNP removal, respectively after 3 h incubation. There was an increase in the log total bacterial count again after SNP removal by A. niger in the following order: live A. niger < 50 °C heat shock A. niger < 70 °C heat shock A. niger. The pH value decreased from 5.8 to 3.8 in the same order suggesting the production of an acid in the culture media. Scanning electron microscopy images showed agglomeration and/or complexation of SNP particles, in a micron size, in between the fungal mycelia, hence settling on and in between the mycelial network. The results suggest that silver was reduced again and agglomerated and/or chelated together in its oxidized form by an acid in A. niger media. More studies are recommended to determine the acid and the heat shock proteins to confirm the exact mode of action.

  18. PKL experiments on loss of residual heat removal under shutdown conditions in PWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Umminger, Klaus; Schoen, Bernhard; Mull, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    When a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is shutdown for refueling, the main coolant inventory is reduced so that the level is at mid-loop elevation. Removal of the decay heat from the core is maintained by the residual heat removal system (RHRS), which under these conditions represents the only heat sink. Loss of RHRS under shutdown conditions has occurred several times worldwide and still plays an important role in risk studies for PWRs. The experimental investigation on loss of RHRS is one mayor topic in the current PKL test program which is included in an international project set up by the OECD. PKL is an integral test facility simulating a typical western-type 1300 MW PWR and is used to investigate the thermal-hydraulic system behavior of PWRs under accident situations. The PKL test facility is operated in the Technical Center of Framatome ANP in Erlangen, Germany. The tests on loss of RHRS have been performed with borated water and special measurement techniques for the determination of the boron concentration (online measurements). The PKL tests demonstrate that, as long as the primary circuit is closed, a failure of the residual heat removal system can be compensated by one or more steam generators, which remain filled with water on the secondary side and stay ready for use during refueling and other outages. However, the tests showed also that accumulations of large condensate inventories (with low boron concentration) can occur in the cold leg piping during mid-loop operation after loss of the RHRS. This paper summarizes the most important results of a PKL experiment dealing with loss of RHRS during mid-loop operation with closed primary circuit. Issues still open and needs for further investigations are also discussed. (authors)

  19. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, November 1995--May 1997. Addendum 1: Task 2 topical report -- Pollutant removal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) uses two Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHXs{reg_sign}) in series to recover waste heat from the flue gas and remove a variety of pollutants from the flue gas. The Teflon{reg_sign}-covered internals of the condensing heat exchanger permit heat recovery at temperatures below the acid dew-point of the flue gas. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions in a pilot Integrated Flue Gas Treatment System rated at 1.2 MW{sub t} (4 million Btu/hr) using a wide range of coals. The coals tested included a high-sulfur coal, a medium-sulfur coal and a low-sulfur coal. The flue gas pollutants investigated included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was also investigated. Soda ash, lime and magnesium-lime scrubbing reagents were investigated. The test results show that the IFGT system can remove greater than 95% removal of acid gases with a liquid-to-gas ratio less than 1.34 l/m{sup 3} (10 gal/1,000 ft{sup 3}), and that lime reagents show promise as a substitute for soda ash. Particulate and ammonia gas removal was also very high. Ionic mercury removal averaged 80%, while elemental mercury removal was very low. Trace metals were found to be concentrated in the fine particulate with removal efficiencies in the range of 50% to 80%. The data measured in this task provides the basis for predictions of the performance of an IFGT system for both utility and industrial applications.

  20. A feasible way to remove the heat during adsorptive methane storage.

    PubMed

    Gütlein, Stefan; Burkard, Christoph; Zeilinger, Johannes; Niedermaier, Matthias; Klumpp, Michael; Kolb, Veronika; Jess, Andreas; Etzold, Bastian J M

    2015-01-06

    Methane originating from biogas or natural gas is an attractive and environmentally friendly alternative to gasoline. Adsorption is seen as promising storage technology, but the heat released limits fast filling of these systems. Here a lab scale adsorptive methane storage tank, capable to study the temperature increase during fast filling, was realized. A variation of the filling time from 1 h to 31 s, showed a decrease of the storage capacity of 14% and temperature increase of 39.6 °C. The experimental data could be described in good accordance with a finite element simulation solving the transient mass, energy, and impulse balance. The simulation was further used to extrapolate temperature development in real sized car tanks and for different heat pipe scenarios, resulting in temperature rises of approximately 110 °C. It could be clearly shown, that with heat conductivity as solei mechanism the heat cannot be removed in acceptable time. By adding an outlet to the tank a feed flow cooling with methane as heat carrier was realized. This setup was proofed in simulation and lab scale experiments to be a promising technique for fast adsorbent cooling and can be crucial to leverage the full potential of adsorptive methane gas storage.

  1. Steady Heat Removal Test by BWR Drywell Cooler under Accident Management Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, Seiichi; Tobimatsu, Toshimi; Akinaga, Makoto; Fukasawa, Masanori; Nagasaka, Hideo

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with the heat removal performance of the BWR drywell local cooler (DWC) applied as a Japanese phase-II accident management. Separated effect tests were conducted using a single DWC unit of a typical BWR plant under severe accident (SA) condition. It was demonstrated that noncondensable gas mixture with nitrogen and helium was constantly vented from the DWC casing and the favorable steam condensation rate was maintained even under the highest assumed gas condition. The DWC was found to be promising even under wide range of SA conditions. (authors)

  2. Removal of histological sections from glass for electron microscopy - Use of Quetol 651 resin and heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Joyce, K.; Dantoni Damelio, E.

    1983-01-01

    A number of approaches have been used to separate stained conventional histological sections from glass slides in preparation for a study with the electron microscope. However, in each reported case some problems were encountered with respect to the separation process. The present investigation is concerned with the use of the epoxy resin Quetol 651 as an embedding medium for this procedure, taking into account the simple application of heat (62-64 C) for performing the separation step. After the tissue has been removed from the glass by the considered technique, it is thin sectioned, and stained with uranyl acetate-lead citrate.

  3. Cooling system for removing metabolic heat from an hermetically sealed spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Vykukal, H. C.; Williams, B. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved cooling and ventilating system is described for removing metabolic heat, waste gases and water vapor generated by a wearer of an hermetically sealed spacesuit. The cooling system was characterized by a body suit, having a first circuit for simultaneously establishing a cooling flow of water through the thorax and head sections of the body suit. Circulation patches were included mounted in the thorax section and head section of the body suit. A second circuit for discharing a flow of gas throughout the spacesuit and a disconnect unit for coupling the circuits with a life support system externally related to the spacesuit were provided.

  4. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    GRENARD, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  5. Passive decay heat removal by natural air convection after severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, F.J.; Neitzel, H.J.; Cheng, X.

    1995-09-01

    The composite containment proposed by the Research Center Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe is to cope with severe accidents. It pursues the goal to restrict the consequences of core meltdown accidents to the reactor plant. One essential of this new containment concept is its potential to remove the decay heat by natural air convection and thermal radiation in a passive way. To investigate the coolability of such a passive cooling system and the physical phenomena involved, experimental investigations are carried out at the PASCO test facility. Additionally, numerical calculations are performed by using different codes. A satisfying agreement between experimental data and numerical results is obtained.

  6. Influence of noncondensible gas on heat removal from the primary of a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Umminger, K.; Mandl, R.; Schoen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Under loss-of-coolant accident conditions, there is a possibility that noncondensible gas (i.e., nitrogen, hydrogen, or fission gas) will enter the primary system, which can adversely affect the capability to remove decay heat. Small- and medium-sized breaks cause depressurization and lead to release of N{sub 2} dissolved in the primary coolant and accumulator inventories. Failure to close of an accumulator isolation valve after the accumulator content has emptied into the primary can result in significant amounts of propellant gas entering the primary system. In the event of a total loss of on- and off-site power, the feedwater is also lost. With the main steam isolation valves close, the secondaries boil dry through relief valves. The core decay heat leads to pressurization of the primary system, opening of the pressurizer safety relief valve, and loss of primary inventory. Without operator intervention, this scenario results in core uncovery and core damage as the primary inventory is depleted. At temperatures >800{degree}C (1500{degree}F), zircon/water reaction will take place accompanied by formation of substantial amounts of hydrogen. At this stage, even restored heat transfer (e.g., resumption of feedwater flow) will be impeded by the presence of the hydrogen. The influence of noncondensible gases on the heat transfer capability of a four-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) was investigated in several parametric studies carried out in the PKL test facility.

  7. Enhanced primary sludge sonication by heat insulation to reclaim carbon source for biological phosphorous removal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Yanbing; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Lin; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound pretreatment is a potent step to disintegrate primary sludge (PS). The supernatant of sonicated PS is recycled as an alternative carbon source for biological phosphorus removal. In this study, we investigated the role of temperature on PS disintegration during sonication. We found that a temperature of 60°C yielded a dissolution rate of about 2% soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as compared to 7% SCOD using sonication at the specific energy (SE) of 7359kJ/kg TS. Using the SE of 6000kJ/kg TS with heat insulation during sonication, the SCOD dissolution rate of PS was similar to the result at the SE of 7051kJ/kg TS without heat insulation. Upon treatment with sonication, the PS released low concentrations of Cu and Zn into the supernatant. The phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) used the supernatant of sonicated PS as the carbon source. Supplementation with the diluted sonicated PS supernatant (SCOD≈1000mg/L) in anaerobic phase resulted in the release of phosphorus (36mg/L) and the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) (0.36g PHA/g SS). Compared with sodium acetate, higher polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) faction in the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) was observed in the biomass when incubated with sonicated PS as the carbon source. This work provides a simple pathway to conserve energy and to enhance efficiencies of ultrasonic pretreatment and the recovery of carbon source from the sludge for improving the phosphorus removal in the ENR system.

  8. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Lap-Yan; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    The safety goal of the current designs of advanced high-temperature thermal gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) is that no core meltdown would occur in a depressurization event with a combination of concurrent safety system failures. This study focused on the analysis of passive decay heat removal (DHR) in a GEN IV direct-cycle gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) which is based on the technology developments of the HTRs. Given the different criteria and design characteristics of the GFR, an approach different from that taken for the HTRs for passive DHR would have to be explored. Different design options based on maintaining core flow weremore » evaluated by performing transient analysis of a depressurization accident using the system code RELAP5-3D. The study also reviewed the conceptual design of autonomous systems for shutdown decay heat removal and recommends that future work in this area should be focused on the potential for Brayton cycle DHRs.« less

  9. Ultrafine particle removal by residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning filters.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B; Siegel, J A

    2013-12-01

    This work uses an in situ filter test method to measure the size-resolved removal efficiency of indoor-generated ultrafine particles (approximately 7-100 nm) for six new commercially available filters installed in a recirculating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in an unoccupied test house. The fibrous HVAC filters were previously rated by the manufacturers according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2 and ranged from shallow (2.5 cm) fiberglass panel filters (MERV 4) to deep-bed (12.7 cm) electrostatically charged synthetic media filters (MERV 16). Measured removal efficiency ranged from 0 to 10% for most ultrafine particles (UFP) sizes with the lowest rated filters (MERV 4 and 6) to 60-80% for most UFP sizes with the highest rated filter (MERV 16). The deeper bed filters generally achieved higher removal efficiencies than the panel filters, while maintaining a low pressure drop and higher airflow rate in the operating HVAC system. Assuming constant efficiency, a modeling effort using these measured values for new filters and other inputs from real buildings shows that MERV 13-16 filters could reduce the indoor proportion of outdoor UFPs (in the absence of indoor sources) by as much as a factor of 2-3 in a typical single-family residence relative to the lowest efficiency filters, depending in part on particle size.

  10. Los Alamos PWR decay-heat-removal studies. Summary results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B E; Henninger, R J; Horley, E; Lime, J F; Nassersharif, B; Smith, R

    1986-03-01

    The adequacy of shutdown-decay-heat removal in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is currently under investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. One part of this effort is the review of feed-and-bleed procedures that could be used if the normal cooling mode through the steam generators were unavailable. Feed-and-bleed cooling is effected by manually activating the high-pressure injection (HPI) system and opening the power-operated relief valves (PORVs) to release the core decay energy. The feasibility of the feed-and-bleed concept as a diverse mode of heat removal has been evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The TRAC-PF1 code has been used to predict the expected performance of the Oconee-1 and Calvert Cliffs-1 reactors of Bobcock and Wilcox and Combustion Engineering, respectively, and the Zion-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 plants of Westinghouse. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in each of the four plants studied, provided it was initiated no later than the time of loss of secondary heat sink. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in two of the plants, Oconee-1 and Zion-1, provided it was initiated no later than the time of primary system saturation. Feed and bleed in Calvert Cliffs-1 when initiated at the time of primary system saturation did result in core dryout; however, the core heatup was eventually terminated by coolant injection. Feed-and-bleed initiation at primary system saturation was not studied for H.B. Robinson-2. Insights developed during the analyses of specific plant transients have been identified and documented. 33 refs., 107 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Study on natural convection capability of liquid gallium for passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    The safety issues of the SFRs are important due to the fact that it uses sodium as a nuclear coolant, reacting vigorously with water and air. For that reason, there are efforts to seek for alternative candidates of liquid metal coolants having excellent heat transfer property and to adopt improved safety features to the SFR concepts. This study considers gallium as alternative liquid metal coolant applicable to safety features in terms of chemical activity issue of the sodium and aims to experimentally investigate the natural convection capability of gallium as a feasibility study for the development of gallium-based passive safety features in SFRs. In this paper, the design and construction of the liquid gallium natural convection loop were carried out. The experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of liquid gallium resulting in heat removal {approx}2.53 kW were compared with existing correlations and they were much lower than the correlations. To comparison of the experimental data with computer code analysis, gallium property code was developed for employing MARS-LMR (Korea version of RELAP) based on liquid gallium as working fluid. (authors)

  12. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Preliminary test plan for Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants -- while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of addressing the emission of S0{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase 1 and Phase 2 requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The Task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variables than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The data from these tests greatly expands the IFGT performance database for coals and is needed for the technology to progress from the component engineering phase to system integration and commercialization. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides a preliminary test plan for all of the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  15. Thermophysiological responses induced by a body heat removal system with Peltier devices in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Suzurikawa, Jun; Fujimoto, Sho; Mikami, Kousei; Jonai, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takenobu

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injuries often experience thermoregulation disorders as well as sensory and motor disabilities. In order to prevent such individuals from becoming hyperthermic, we developed a body heat removal system (BHRS) with thermoelectric devices. Our BHRS comprises four Peltier devices mounted on a wheelchair backrest and continuously transfers body heat through the contacting interface to the external environment. Here, we characterized thermophysiological responses induced by this novel contact-type cooling system. A cooling experiment in a hot environment with five able-bodied subjects demonstrated that sweating and systolic blood pressure in the back-cooling (BC) trial were significantly suppressed compared with those in no-cooling (NC) trial, while no difference was found in oral and skin temperatures. A correlation was observed between chest skin temperature and blood flow in the NC trial; this was not observed in the BC trial. These results suggest that BHRS modulates normal thermoregulatory responses, including sweating and vascular dilation and has the capability to partly replace these functions.

  16. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  17. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-12-31

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  18. Improved reliability of residual heat removal capability in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Fitzpatrick, R.; Yoon, Won Hyo

    1987-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in supporting Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) effort towards the resolution of Generic Issue 99 ''Reactor Coolant System (RCS)/Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Suction Line Interlocks on Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs).'' Operational experience of US PWRs indicates that numerous loss of RHR events have occurred during plant shutdown. Of particular significance is the loss of RHR suction due to the inadvertent closure of the RHR suction/isolation valves or an excess lowering of the water level in the reactor vessel. In the absence of prompt mitigative action by the operator, the core may become uncovered. Various design/operational changes have been proposed. The objective of this paper is to estimate the improvement in the RHR reliability and the risk reduction potential provided by those proposed RHR design/operational changes. The benefits of those changes are expressed in terms of the reduction in the frequency of loss-of-cooling events and the frequency of core damage.

  19. Graphene-enhanced thermal interface materials for heat removal from photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadah, M.; Gamalath, D.; Hernandez, E.; Balandin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The increase in the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells affects negatively their power conversion efficiency and decreases their lifetime. The negative effects are particularly pronounced in concentrator solar cells. Therefore, it is crucial to limit the PV cell temperature by effectively removing the excess heat. Conventional thermal phase change materials (PCMs) and thermal interface materials (TIMs) do not possess the thermal conductivity values sufficient for thermal management of the next generation of PV cells. In this paper, we report the results of investigation of the increased efficiency of PV cells with the use of graphene-enhanced TIMs. Graphene reveals the highest values of the intrinsic thermal conductivity. It was also shown that the thermal conductivity of composites can be increased via utilization of graphene fillers. We prepared TIMs with up to 6% of graphene designed specifically for PV cell application. The solar cells were tested using the solar simulation module. It was found that the drop in the output voltage of the solar panel under two-sun concentrated illumination can be reduced from 19% to 6% when grapheneenhanced TIMs are used. The proposed method can recover up to 75% of the power loss in solar cells.

  20. Experimental evaluation of a breadboard heat and product-water removal system for a space-power fuel cell designed with static water removal and evaporative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Prokipius, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate the design of a heat and product-water removal system to be used with fuel cell having static water removal and evaporative cooling. The program, which was conducted on a breadboard version of the system, provided a general assessment of the design in terms of operational integrity and transient stability. This assessment showed that, on the whole, the concept appears to be inherently sound but that in refining this design, several facets will require additional study. These involve interactions between pressure regulators in the pumping loop that occur when they are not correctly matched and the question of whether an ejector is necessary in the system.

  1. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wild, P. J.; Nyqvist, R. G.; de Bruijn, F. A.; Stobbe, E. R.

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20 ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG.

  2. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed and new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.

  3. Coolability of stratified UO/sub 2/ debris in sodium with downward heat removal: The D13 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, C.A.; Mitchell, G.W.; Reed, A.W.; Meister, H.

    1987-03-01

    The LMFBR Debris Coolability Program at Sandia National Laboratories investigates the coolability of particle beds that may form following a severe accident involving core disassembly in a nuclear reactor. The D series experiments utilize fission heating of fully enriched UO/sub 2/ particles submerged in sodium to realistically simulate decay heating. The D13 experiment is the first in the series to study the effects of bottom cooling of stratified debris, which could be provided in an actual accident condition by structural materials onto which the debris might settle. Additionally, the D13 experiment was designed to achieve maximum temperatures in the debris approaching the melting point of UO/sub 2/. The experiment was operated for over 40 hours and investigated downward heat removal at specific powers of 0.22 to 2.58 W/g. Channeled dryout in the debris was achieved at powers from 0.94 to 2.58 W/g. Maximum temperatures approaching 2700/sup 0/C were attained. Bottom heat removal was up to 750 kW/m/sup 2/ as compared to 450 kW/m/sup 2/ in the D10 experiment.

  4. Scalability of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) data to VHTR/NGNP RCCS designs.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R .B.; Feldman, E. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-07

    Passive safety in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is strongly dependent on the thermal performance of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). Scaled experiments performed in the Natural Shutdown Test Facility (NSTF) are to provide data for assessing and/or improving computer code models for RCCS phenomena. Design studies and safety analyses that are to support licensing of the VHTR will rely on these models to achieve a high degree of certainty in predicted design heat removal rate. To guide in the selection and development of an appropriate set of experiments a scaling analysis has been performed for the air-cooled RCCS option. The goals were to (1) determine the phenomena that dominate the behavior of the RCCS, (2) determine the general conditions that must be met so that these phenomena and their relative importance are preserved in the experiments, (3) identify constraints specific to the NSTF that potentially might prevent exact similitude, and (4) then to indicate how the experiments can be scaled to prevent distortions in the phenomena of interest. The phenomena identified as important to RCCS operation were also the subject of a recent PIRT study. That work and the present work collectively indicate that the main phenomena influencing RCCS heat removal capability are (1) radiation heat transport from the vessel to the air ducts, (2) the integral effects of momentum and heat transfer in the air duct, (3) buoyancy at the wall inside the air duct giving rise to mixed convection, and (4) multidimensional effects inside the air duct caused by non-uniform circumferential heat flux and non-circular geometry.

  5. Removal of milk fat globules from whey protein concentrate 34% to prepare clear and heat-stable protein dispersions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-10-01

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) are low-cost protein ingredients, but their application in transparent ready-to-drink beverages is limited due to turbidity caused by fat globules and heat instability. In this work, fat globules were removed from WPC 34% (WPC-34) to prepare heat-stable ingredients via the Maillard reaction. The removal of fat globules by acid precipitation and centrifugation was observed to be the most complete at pH 4.0, and the loss of protein was caused by micrometer-sized fat globules and protein aggregates. Spray-dried powder prepared from the transparent supernatant was glycated at 130°C for 20 and 30min or 60°C for 24 and 48h. The 2 groups of samples had comparable heat stability and degree of glycation, evaluated by free amino content and analytical ultracentrifugation, but high-temperature, short-time treatment reduced the color formation during glycation. Therefore, WPC-34 can be processed for application in transparent beverages.

  6. Comparisons of RELAP5-3D Analyses to Experimental Data from the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bucknor, Matthew; Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius; Kraus, Adam

    2016-04-17

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is an important passive safety system being incorporated into the overall safety strategy for high temperature advanced reactor concepts such as the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactors (HTGR). The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) reflects a 1/2-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The project conducts ex-vessel, passive heat removal experiments in support of Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program, while also generating data for code validation purposes. While experiments are being conducted at the NSTF to evaluate the feasibility of the passive RCCS, parallel modeling and simulation efforts are ongoing to support the design, fabrication, and operation of these natural convection systems. Both system-level and high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to gain a complete understanding of the complex flow and heat transfer phenomena in natural convection systems. This paper provides a summary of the RELAP5-3D NSTF model development efforts and provides comparisons between simulation results and experimental data from the NSTF. Overall, the simulation results compared favorably to the experimental data, however, further analyses need to be conducted to investigate any identified differences.

  7. RVACS/RACS (reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system/reactor air cooling system) shutdown heat removal in a modular sized LMR (liquid metal reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.; Wigeland, R.A.; Lo, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Shutdown heat removal by a RVACS for an unprotected loss of flow case in a modular sized LMR has been analyzed with the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code. For this case it was assumed that all power was lost to the primary and intermediate sodium pumps, and feedwater flow to the steam generators was lost. The control rods failed to scram, but reactivity feedback shut down the power to decay heat levels. The only heat removal was by sodium natural circulation from the core to the vessel wall and by cooling of the vessel wall by radiation and air natural circulation in the Reactor Air Cooling System. The case was run until the system temperatures peaked when the decay heat power level dropped below the heat removal rate.

  8. High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

  9. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower

  10. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,

    2003-01-01

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  11. Investigations on natural circulation in reactor models and shutdown heat removal systems for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Weinberg, D.; Marten, K. ); Ieda, Yoshiaki )

    1989-11-01

    For sodium-cooled pool-type reactors, studies have been undertaken to remove the decay heat by natural convection alone, as in the case of failure of all power supplies. For this purpose, four immersion coolers (ICs), two each installed at a 180-deg circumferential position with respect to the others, are arranged within the reactor tank. They are connected with natural-drift air coolers through independent intermediate circuits. The primary sodium in the tank as well as the secondary sodium in the intermediate loop circulate by natural convection. The general functioning of this passive shutdown decay heat removal (DHR) system is demonstrated in 1:20 and 1:5 scale test models using water as a simulant fluid for sodium. The model design is based on the thermohydraulics similarity criteria. In the RAMONA three-dimensional 1:20 scale model, experiments were carried out to clarify the steady-state in-vessel thermohydraulics for different parameter combinations (core power, radial power distribution across the core, DHR by 2 or 4 ICs in operation, above-core structure geometry and position, different IC designs). For all mentioned parameters, temperatures and their fluctuations were measured and used to indicate isotherms and lines of identical temperature fluctuations. The flow patterns were observed visually. The experiments were recalculated by an updated version of the single-phase three-dimensional thermohydraulics code COMMIX.

  12. Removal of Pb(II) from water by the activated carbon modified by nitric acid under microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui; Gu, Sai; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2016-02-01

    The rice husk based activated carbon (RH-AC) was treated by nitric acid under microwave heating, in order to improve its capability for the removal of heavy metal ions from water. The optimal conditions for the modification of RH-AC (M-RH-AC) were determined by means of orthogonal array experimental design, giving those as the concentration of nitric acid of 8mol/L, modification time of 15min, modification temperature of 130°C and microwave power of 800W. The characteristics of the M-RH-AC and RH-AC were examined by BET, XRD, Raman spectrum, pH titration, zeta potential, Boehm titration and FTIR analysis. The M-RH-AC has lower pore surface area, smaller crystallite, lower pHIEP and more oxygen-containing functional groups than the RH-AC. Removal capacity of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC and RH-AC from water solution was estimated concerning the influence of contact time, pH value, and initial concentration. The equilibrium time of Pb(II) removal was found to be around 90min after modification process. Two kinetic models are adopted to describe the possible Pb(II) adsorption mechanism, finding that the adsorption rate of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC is larger than that of RH-AC.

  13. D9 experiment: heat removal from stratified UO/sub 2/ debris

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, C A; Mitchell, G W; Lipinski, R J; Kelly, J E

    1985-04-01

    The D9 experiment investigated the coolability of a shallow (77 mm), stratified urania bed in sodium. The bed was fission heated in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories to simulate the effects of radioactive decay heating. It was the first stratified debris bed experiment to use an extended UO/sub 2/ particle size distribution (0.038 to 4.0 mm). Dryout occurred at powers ranging from 0.10 to 0.58 W/g, which was close to the incipient boiling power and before channels penetrated the subcooled zone in the bed, even with subcoolings as low as 80/sup 0/C. Channel penetration was observed after dryout began, but the bed became only moderately more coolable. All these observations agree with current models.

  14. Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Removal from Fractured Rock using Thermal Conductive Heating (TCH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    or karst . As control of water inflow may be problematic in fractured media and karst , and capture of contaminants may be difficult, effectiveness is...fractured media and karst , and capture of contaminants may be difficult, effectiveness is expected to be limited in these settings. If water inflow...conductive heating below the water table… As control of water inflow may be problematic in fractured media and karst , and capture of contaminants may be

  15. D10 experiment: coolability of UO/sub 2/ debris in sodium with downward heat removal. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.W.; Ottinger, C.A.; Meister, H.

    1984-12-01

    The LMFBR Debris Coolability Program at Sandia National Laboratories investigates the coolability of particle beds which may form following a severe accident involving core disassembly in a nuclear reactor. The D series experiments utilize fission heating of fully enriched UO/sub 2/ particles submerged in sodium to realistically simulate decay heating. The D10 experiment is the first in the series to study the effects of bottom cooling of the debris that could be provided in an actual accident condition by structural materials onto which the debris might settle. Additionally, the D10 experiment was designed to achieve maximum temperatures in the debris approaching the melting point of UO/sub 2/. The experiment was successfully operated for over 50 hours and investigated downward heat removal in a packed bed at specific powers of 0.16 to 0.58 W/g. Dryout in the debris was achieved at powers from 0.42 to 0.58 W/g. Channels were induced in the bed and channeled bed dryout was achieved at powers of 1.06 to 1.77 W/g. Maximum temperatures in excess of 2500/sup 0/C were attained.

  16. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  18. Effectiveness of photocatalytic filter for removing volatile organic compounds in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Huang, Wei-Ming; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Chia-ling; Yang, Shinhao

    2006-05-01

    Nowadays, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has been an important facility for maintaining indoor air quality. However, the primary function of typical HVAC systems is to control the temperature and humidity of the supply air. Most indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cannot be removed by typical HVAC systems. Thus, some air handling units for removing VOCs should be added in typical HVAC systems. Among all of the air cleaning techniques used to remove indoor VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive alternative technique for indoor air purification and deodorization. The objective of this research is to investigate the VOC removal efficiency of the photocatalytic filter in a HVAC system. Toluene and formaldehyde were chosen as the target pollutants. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber equipped with a simplified HVAC system. A mechanical filter coated with Degussa P25 titania photocatalyst and two commercial photocatalytic filters were used as the photocatalytic filters in this simplified HVAC system. The total air change rates were controlled at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 hr(-1), and the relative humidity (RH) was controlled at 30%, 50%, and 70%. The ultraviolet lamp used was a 4-W, ultraviolet-C (central wavelength at 254 nm) strip light bulb. The first-order decay constant of toluene and formaldehyde found in this study ranged from 0.381 to 1.01 hr(-1) under different total air change rates, from 0.34 to 0.433 hr(-1) under different RH, and from 0.381 to 0.433 hr(-1) for different photocatalytic filters.

  19. Demonstration of a high heat removal CVD diamond substrate edge-cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Andaleon, D.D.; Renzi, R.F.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    A single substrate intended for a 3-dimensional (3D) edge-cooled multichip module (MCM) has been built and thermally tested. The substrate, with dimensions 1.9 in. by 2 in., is mounted in a fluid cooled block at one end. To test this cooling architecture and verify the accuracy of thermal models, the authors constructed thermal test modules using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum nitride (AlN), and CVD diamond substrate materials. Each module was populated with an array of 16 Sandia ATC03 test chips with resistive heaters and temperature sensing diode thermometers. Comparative measurements of the 3 substrates were made in which the top row of 4 die were heated at 5 W each for a total of 20 W. The maximum temperature differences between the heated die and the interface with the cold chuck, {delta}T{sub js}, were 24, 126, and 265{degrees}C for diamond, AIN and alumina, respectively. Measurements on the diamond thermal test module, uniformly heated at a total power of 40 W, gave a measured junction-to-sink temperature of {delta}T{sub js} = 18{degrees}C. This result indicates that the diamond edge-cooled substrate could dissipate a total power {approximately}200 W for a maximum {delta}T{sub js} {approximately}100{degrees}C. If multiple substrates were mounted in the fluid cooled block, spaced 0.075 in. apart, the volumetric power density would be about 880 W/in.

  20. Organic compound destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for plasma incinerator off-gases using an electrically heated secondary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C.G.; Babko-Malyi, S.; Battleson, D.M.; Olstad, S.J.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a series pilot-scale plasma incineration tests of simulated mixed wastes at the MSE Technology Applications, Inc. technology development test facility in Butte, MT. One of the objectives of the test series was to assess the ability of an electrically heated afterburner to destroy organic compounds that may be present in the off-gases resulting from plasma incineration of mixed wastes. The anticipated benefit of an electrically heated afterburner was to decrease total off-gas volume by 50% or more, relative to fossil fuel-fired afterburners. For the present test series, feeds of interest to the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) were processed in a plasma centrifugal furnace while metering selected organic compounds upstream of the electrically heated afterburner. The plasma furnace was equipped with a transferred-mode torch and was operated under oxidizing conditions. Feeds consisted of various mixtures of soil, plastics, portland cement, silicate fines, diesel fuel, and scrap metals. Benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were selected for injection as simulates of organics likely to be present in DOE mixed wastes, and because of their relative rankings on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) thermal stability index. The organic compounds were injected into the off-gas system at a nominal concentration of 2,000 ppmv. The afterburner outlet gas stream was periodically sampled, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the electrically heated afterburner, at operating temperatures of 1,800--1,980 F (982--1,082 C), organic compound destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were found to be > 99.99%.

  1. High Heat Flux Interactions and Tritium Removal from Plasma Facing Components by a Scanning Laser

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; A. Hassanein

    2002-01-28

    A new technique for studying high heat flux interactions with plasma facing components is presented. The beam from a continuous wave 300 W neodymium laser was focused to 80 W/mm2 and scanned at high speed over the surface of carbon tiles. These tiles were previously used in the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] inner limiter and have a surface layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon that was codeposited during plasma operations. Laser scanning released up to 84% of the codeposited tritium. The temperature rise of the codeposit on the tiles was significantly higher than that of the manufactured material. In one experiment, the codeposit surface temperature rose to 1,770 C while for the same conditions, the manufactured surface increased to only 1,080 C. The peak temperature did not follow the usual square-root dependence on heat pulse duration. Durations of order 100 ms resulted in brittle destruction and material loss from the surface, while a duration of approximately 10 ms showed minimal change. A digital microscope imaged the codeposit before, during, and after the interaction with the laser and revealed hot spots on a 100-micron scale. These results will be compared to analytic modeling and are relevant to the response of plasma facing components to disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) in next-step magnetic fusion devices.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE WASTE REMOVAL PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2010-07-12

    The small column ion exchange (SCIX) process treats low curie salt (LCS) waste before feeding it to the saltstone facility to be made into grout. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is absorbed into the CST bed. A CST column loaded with radioactive cesium will generate significant heat from radiolytic decay. If engineering designs of the CST sorption column can not handle this thermal load, hot spots may develop locally within the column and degrade the performance of the ion-exchange process. The CST starts to degrade at about 80 to 85 C, and the CST completely changes to another material above 120 C. In addition, the process solution will boil around 130 C. If the column boiled dry, the sorbent could plug the column and require replacement of the column module. The objective of the present work is to compute temperature distributions across the column as a function of transit time after the initiation of accidents when there is loss of the salt solution flow in the CST column under abnormal conditions of the process operations. In this situation, the customer requested that the calculations should be conservative in that the model results would show the maximum centerline temperatures achievable by the CST design configurations. The thermal analysis results will be used to evaluate the fluid temperature distributions and the process component temperatures within the ion exchange system. This information will also assist in the system design and maintenance.

  4. Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-31

    -normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is

  5. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  6. Generation of a homozygous fertilization-defective gcs1 mutant by heat-inducible removal of a rescue gene.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Shiori; Takeuchi, Hidenori; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Key message: New gametic homozygous mutants. In angiosperms, a haploid male gamete (sperm cell) fuses with a haploid female gamete (egg cell) during fertilization to form a zygote carrying paternally and maternally derived chromosomes. Several fertilization-defective mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, including a generative cell-specific 1 (gcs1)/hapless 2 mutant, the sperm cells of which are unable to fuse with female gametes, can only be maintained as heterozygous lines due to the infertile male or female gametes. Here, we report successful generation of a gcs1 homozygous mutant by heat-inducible removal of the GCS1 transgene. Using the gcs1 homozygous mutant as male, the defect in gamete fusion was observed with great frequency; in our direct observation by semi-in vivo fertilization assay using ovules, 100 % of discharged sperm cells in culture failed to show gamete fusion. More than 70 % of ovules in the pistil received a second pollen tube as attempted fertilization recovery. Moreover, gcs1 mutant sperm cells could fertilize female gametes at a low frequency in the pistil. This strategy to generate homozygous fertilization-defective mutants will facilitate novel approaches in plant reproduction research.

  7. Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process Heat Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman

    2007-10-01

    The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon heat transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. Heat transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the heat transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process heat, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The production of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production requires both heat at higher temperatures (up to 1000oC) and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact heat exchanger is to maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900oC, based on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen production plant. Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE’s) have superior heat transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, heat losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change heat transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral Heat Exchanger.

  8. Simulation of decay heat removal by natural convection in a pool type fast reactor model-ramona-with coupled 1D/2D thermal hydraulic code system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, N.; Rajakumar, A.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Chetal, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Post shutdown decay heat removal is an important safety requirement in any nuclear system. In order to improve the reliability of this function, Liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) are equipped with redundant hot pool dipped immersion coolers connected to natural draught air cooled heat exchangers through intermediate sodium circuits. During decay heat removal, flow through the core, immersion cooler primary side and in the intermediate sodium circuits are also through natural convection. In order to establish the viability and validate computer codes used in making predictions, a 1:20 scale experimental model called RAMONA with water as coolant has been built and experimental simulation of decay heat removal situation has been performed at KfK Karlsruhe. Results of two such experiments have been compiled and published as benchmarks. This paper brings out the results of the numerical simulation of one of the benchmark case through a 1D/2D coupled code system, DHDYN-1D/THYC-2D and the salient features of the comparisons. Brief description of the formulations of the codes are also included.

  9. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  10. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  11. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  12. Evaluation of catalyzed and electrically heated filters for removal of particulate emissions from diesel-A- and JP-8-fueled engines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David A; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F; Bretecher, Brad; Holden, Bruce; Helgeson, Norm; Sahay, Keshav; Nardi, Zack

    2004-01-01

    In-service diesel engines are a significant source of particulate matter (PM) emissions, and they have been subjected to increasingly strict emissions standards. Consequently, the wide-scale use of some type of particulate filter is expected. This study evaluated the effect of an Engelhard catalyzed soot filter (CSF) and a Rypos electrically heated soot filter on the emissions from in-service diesel engines in terms of PM mass, black carbon concentration, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration, and size distribution. Both filters capture PM. The CSF relies on the engine's exhaust to reach the catalyst regeneration temperature and oxidize soot, whereas the electrically heated filter contains a heating element to oxidize soot. The filters were installed on several military diesel engines. Particle concentrations and compositions were measured before and after installation of the filter and again after several months of operation. Generally, the CSF removed at least 90% of total PM, and the removal efficiency improved or remained constant after several months of operation. In contrast, the electrical filters removed 44-69% of PM mass. In addition to evaluating the soot filters, the sampling team also compared the results of several real-time particle measurement instruments to traditional filter measurements of total mass.

  13. Design Report for the ½ Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, D. D.; Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Bremer, N.; Aeschlimann, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  14. CFD analysis for the applicability of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for the simulation of the VHTR RCCS. Topical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C. P.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-16

    The Very High Temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) is one of the GEN IV reactor concepts that have been proposed for thermochemical hydrogen production and other process-heat applications like coal gasification. The USDOE has selected the VHTR for further research and development, aiming to demonstrate emissions-free electricity and hydrogen production at a future time. One of the major safety advantages of the VHTR is the potential for passive decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-side of the RCCS is very similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that has been proposed for the PRISM reactor design. The design and safety analysis of the RVACS have been based on extensive analytical and experimental work performed at ANL. The Natural Convective Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at ANL that simulates at full scale the air-side of the RVACS was built to provide experimental support for the design and analysis of the PRISM RVACS system. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that the NSTF facility can be used to generate RCCS experimental data: to validate CFD and systems codes for the analysis of the RCCS; and to support the design and safety analysis of the RCCS.

  15. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  16. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mudali, U.K.; Khatak, H.S.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. )

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800, 9Cr-1 Mo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-1Mo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  17. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Khatak, H. S.; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-lMo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  18. Enhancement of n-butanol production by in situ butanol removal using permeating-heating-gas stripping in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Ren, Hengfei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Nan; Li, Zhenjian; Li, Bingbing; Niu, Huanqing; Zhuang, Wei; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Wu, Jinglan; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-07-01

    Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and sugar utilization to below 20 g/L and 60 g/L, respectively. In batch fermentation (without permeating-heating-gas stripping), C. acetobutylicum B3 utilized 60 g/L glucose and produced 19.9 g/L ABE and 12 g/L butanol, while in the integrated process 290 g/L glucose was utilized and 106.27 g/L ABE and 66.09 g/L butanol were produced. The intermittent gas stripping process generated a highly concentrated condensate containing approximately 15% (w/v) butanol, 4% (w/v) acetone, a small amount of ethanol (<1%), and almost no acids, resulting in a highly concentrated butanol solution [∼ 70% (w/v)] after phase separation. Butanol removal by permeating-heating-gas stripping has potential for commercial ABE production.

  19. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  20. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  1. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  2. Portable breathing system. [a breathing apparatus using a rebreathing system of heat exchangers for carbon dioxide removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, J. S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A semiclosed-loop rebreathing system is discussed for use in a hostile environment. A packed bed regenerative heat exchanger providing two distinct temperature humidity zones of breathing gas with one zone providing cool, relatively dry air and the second zone providing hot, moist air is described.

  3. The effects of urea modification and heat treatment on the process of NO2 removal by wood-based activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Bashkova, Svetlana; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2009-05-01

    The removal of NO(2) on urea-modified and heat-treated wood-based activated carbons was studied. From the obtained results it was found that these modifications, especially when done at 950 degrees C, have a positive effect on NO(2) adsorption and on the retention of NO (the product of NO(2) reduction by carbon). The presence of moisture in the system enhances the removal of NO(2) but negatively affects the retention of NO. It is possible that the formation of active centers on the carbon surface and some increase in the volume of supermicropores during the high temperature treatment play a significant role in these removal processes. The surface of the carbons was analyzed in terms of the pK(a) distributions. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the NO(2) adsorption products were carried out by means of FTIR and TA techniques, respectively. The main products found on the carbon surface were the NO(3) and NO(2) species.

  4. Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Ortego, Jeffrey; Rusch, Kelly A; Boldor, Dorin

    2008-12-15

    A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.

  5. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  6. Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 2805, a heat and intense, sunlight-tolerant microalga with potential for removing ammonium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    de-Bashan, Luz E; Trejo, Adan; Huss, Volker A R; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2008-07-01

    In the summer of 2003, a microalga strain was isolated from a massive green microalgae bloom in wastewater stabilization ponds at the treatment facility of La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico. Prevailing environmental conditions were air temperatures over 40 degrees C, water temperature of 37 degrees C, and insolation of up to 2400 micromol m2 s(-1) at midday for several hours at the water surface for four months. The microalga was identified as Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, based on sequencing its entire 18S rRNA gene. In a controlled photo-bioreactor, this strain can grow to high population densities in synthetic wastewater at temperatures of 40-42 degrees C and light intensity of 2500 micromol m2 s(-1) for 5h daily and efficiently remove ammonium from the wastewater under these conditions better than under normal lower temperature (28 degrees C) and lower light intensity (60 micromol m2 s(-1)). When co-immobilized with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense that promotes growth of microalgae, the population of microalga grew faster and removed even more ammonium. Under exposure to extreme growth conditions, the quantity of four photosynthetic pigments increased in the co-immobilized cultures. This strain of microalga has potential as a wastewater treatment agent under extreme conditions of temperature and light intensity.

  7. Lotus-like effect for metal filings recovery and particle removal on heated metal surfaces using Leidenfrost water droplets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher Lin Clara; Sapiha, Kostantyn; Leong, Yoke Fun Hannah; Choi, Siwon; Anariba, Franklin; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2015-07-21

    A "lotus-like" effect is applied to demonstrate the ability of the Leidenfrost water droplets to recover Cu particles on a heated Al substrate. Cu particles on the heated surface adhere to the rim of the Leidenfrost droplets and eventually coat the droplets' surface to form an aggregation. When Fe filings are added to the Cu particles, the aggregated mixture can then be collected using a strong rare earth magnet (NdFeB) upon evaporation of the water. We also show that the Leidenfrost effect can be effectively utilized to recover both hydrophobic (dust and activated carbon) and hydrophilic (SiO2 and MgO) particles from heated Al surfaces without any topographical modification or surfactant addition. Our results show that hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials can be collected with >92% and >96% effectiveness on grooved and smooth Al surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we observed no significant differences in the amount of material collected above the Leidenfrost point within the tested temperature range (240 °C vs. 340 °C) as well as when the Al sheet was replaced with a Cu sheet as the substrate. However, we did observe that the Leidenfrost droplets were able to collect a greater amount of material when the working liquid was water than when it was ethanol. Our findings show promise in the development of an effective precious coinage metal filings recovery technology for application in the mint industry, as well as the self-cleaning of metallic and semiconductor surfaces where manual cleaning is not amenable.

  8. Topical report : CFD analysis for the applicability of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for the simulation of the VHTR RCCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C. P.

    2007-05-16

    The Very High Temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) is one of the GEN IV reactor concepts that have been proposed for thermochemical hydrogen production and other process-heat applications like coal gasification. The United States Department of Energy has selected the VHTR for further research and development, aiming to demonstrate emissions-free electricity and hydrogen production at a future time. One of the major safety advantages of the VHTR is the potential for passive decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-side of the RCCS is very similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that has been proposed for the PRISM reactor design. The design and safety analysis of the RVACS have been based on extensive analytical and experimental work performed at ANL. The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at ANL that simulates at full scale the air-side of the RVACS was built to provide experimental support for the design and analysis of the PRISM RVACS system. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that the NSTF facility can be used to generate RCCS experimental data: to validate CFD and systems codes for the analysis of the RCCS; and to support the design and safety analysis of the RCCS. At this time no reference design is available for the NGNP. The General Atomics (GA) gas turbine - modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) has been used in many analyses as a starting reference design. In the GT-MHR the reactor outlet temperature is 850 C, while the target outlet reactor temperature in VHTR is 1000 C. VHTR scoping studies with a reactor outlet temperature of 1000 C have been performed at GA and INEL. Although the reactor outlet temperature in the VHTR is significantly higher than in the GT-MHR, the peak temperature in the reactor vessel (which is the heat source for the RCCS) is not drastically different. In this work, analyses have been performed using reactor vessel

  9. One-dimensional modeling of radial heat removal during depressurized heatup transients in modular pebble-bed and prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.G.

    1984-07-01

    A one-dimensional computational model was developed to evaluate the heat removal capabilities of both prismatic-core and pebble-bed modular HTGRs during depressurized heatup transients. A correlation was incorporated to calculate the temperature- and neutron-fluence-dependent thermal conductivity of graphite. The modified Zehner-Schluender model was used to determine the effective thermal conductivity of a pebble bed, accounting for both conduction and radiation. Studies were performed for prismatic-core and pebble-bed modular HTGRs, and the results were compared to analyses performed by GA and GR, respectively. For the particular modular reactor design studied, the prismatic HTGR peak temperature was 2152.2/sup 0/C at 38 hours following the transient initiation, and the pebble-bed peak temperature was 1647.8/sup 0/C at 26 hours. These results compared favorably with those of GA and GE, with only slight differences caused by neglecting axial heat transfer in a one-dimensional radial model. This study found that the magnitude of the initial power density had a greater effect on the temperature excursion than did the initial temperature.

  10. Experimental investigation of egg ovalbumin scaling on heated stainless steel surface and scale-removal compared with that of whey protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Lv, Hui Ting; Deng, Ren Pan; Liao, Zhen Kai; Wu, Xue E; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    Fouling and cleaning on a heat exchanger surface during milk processing have been studied extensively in the past due to their great importance in energy, product quality, and safety. However, little information is available for egg ovalbumin (OVA) fouling and cleaning behavior. In the present work, fouling and cleaning behaviors of OVA were investigated using a real-time monitoring system for heat transfer coefficient. A comparison was made between the behavior of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and that of OVA. WPC has been well studied which can be used as a benchmark. Ultrasonic cleaning was also applied to investigate the cleaning behavior of OVA fouling. Results have shown that OVA created more thermal resistance than WPC in the 2 h fouling process. It was also much more difficult to remove the OVA deposit than the WPC fouling. Different from what were observed from WPC deposit, there was no optimal cleaning rate for OVA deposit in the NaOH concentration range tested (0-2.0 wt%), while WPC fouling is known to have the highest cleaning rate around 0.5 wt% NaOH concentration at moderate temperatures.

  11. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  12. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  13. Validation of the integration of CFD and SAS4A/SASSYS-1: Analysis of EBR-II shutdown heat removal test 17

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Vilim, R.; Briggs, L. L.

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses have demonstrated the need to model multidimensional phenomena, particularly thermal stratification in outlet plena, during safety analyses of loss-of-flow transients of certain liquid-metal cooled reactor designs. Therefore, Argonne's reactor systems safety code SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is being enhanced by integrating 3D computational fluid dynamics models of the plena. A validation exercise of the new tool is being performed by analyzing the protected loss-of-flow event demonstrated by the EBR-II Shutdown Heat Removal Test 17. In this analysis, the behavior of the coolant in the cold pool is modeled using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, while the remainder of the cooling system and the reactor core are modeled with SAS4A/SASSYS-1. This paper summarizes the code integration strategy and provides the predicted 3D temperature and velocity distributions inside the cold pool during SHRT-17. The results of the coupled analysis should be considered preliminary at this stage, as the exercise pointed to the need to improve the CFD model of the cold pool tank. (authors)

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  16. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  1. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  5. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  6. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  7. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  8. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  9. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  10. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  11. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  12. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  13. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  14. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  15. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  19. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  20. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  1. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  3. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  5. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  8. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  9. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  10. Removal of the process-induced fluorine associated to chemical vapor deposition of tungsten onto a polycrystalline silicon gate structure by heat treatment in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Th.; Carlsson, J.-O.; Mohadjeri, B.; Östling, M.; d'Heurle, F. M.; Petersson, C. S.; Keinonen, J.

    1990-09-01

    Tungsten was deposited from a gas mixture of hydrogen and tungsten hexafluoride onto a polycrystalline silicon gate structure in a chemical vapor deposition system. During the deposition process fluorine was also deposited as an undesired impurity. In order to remove the fluorine, heat treatments in the temperature range 550-1050 °C were performed in a hydrogen atmosphere. By this treatment it is possible to form volatile hydrofluoric acid and hence remove fluorine from the structure. Nuclear-resonance-broadening technique and secondary ion mass spectrometry were used for the analysis of fluorine. Fluorine was detected in all the samples except for the sample heat treated at 1050 °C. Moreover, etching of the polycrystalline silicon was observed. The gettering of fluorine, the etching of silicon and the observed formation of tungsten disilicide at 650 °C are discussed with respect to conceivable mechanisms. A thermodynamic study supporting the interpretations is also included.

  11. Closed-Loop System Removes Contaminants From Inert Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentration of oxygen in this closed-loop system kept low by use of heated catalytic sorbent bed in cartridge. Proposed to keep concentration of water vapor low by use of predried zeolite sorbent bed in another cartridge, and to remove particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer by use of porous metal filters. In specific application, chamber is one in which semiconducting materials processed. By virtue of closed-loop operation, limited supply of inert gas adequate to provide atmosphere for industrial processing of semiconductors.

  12. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  13. Heat pipe radiation cooling of advanced hypersonic propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. A.; Keddy, M.; Merrigan, M. A.; Silverstein, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Heat transfer, heat pipe, and system studies were performed to assess the newly proposed heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) concept. With an HPRC system, heat is removed from the ramburner and nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft engine by a surrounding, high-temperature, heat pipe nacelle structure, transported to nearby external surfaces, and rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. With HPRC, the Mach number range available for using hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft operation extends into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 range, up from the current limit of about Mach 4. Heat transfer studies using a newly developed HPRC computer code determine cooling system and ramburner and nozzle temperatures, heat loads, and weights for a representative combined-cycle engine cruising at Mach 5 at 80,000 ft altitude. Heat pipe heat transport calculations, using the Los Alamos code HTPIPE, reveal that adequate heat trasport capability is available using molybdenum-lithium heat pipe technology. Results show that the HPRC system radiator area is limited in size to the ramburner-nozzle region of the engine nacelle; reasonable system weights are expected; hot section temperatures are consistent with advanced structural materials development goals; and system impact on engine performance is minimal.

  14. Adenoid removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... This does not cause problems most of the time. Alternative Names Adenoidectomy; Removal of adenoid glands Images Adenoid removal - series References Wetmore RF. Tonsils and adenoids. In: Kliegman ...

  15. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  16. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  17. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  18. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  19. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  20. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  1. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  2. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  3. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  4. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  5. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  6. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  7. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  8. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  9. Despite depression, claimant was able to function adequately.

    PubMed

    1998-10-02

    A Federal judge denied a social security application from an HIV-positive person who was claiming to suffer from HIV-related depression. [Name removed] claimed that he also suffered from pain, difficulty breathing, and many other symptoms. His original application was denied by an administrative law judge, so [name removed] appealed. A Federal judge upheld the decision since evidence supported the fact that [name removed] had been working 25 hours a week, did not take any pain medications, and still rode a bike.

  10. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  12. [Incidence of primary malignant lesions in clinically benign teratoma: on the problem of adequate surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, G; Jung, E M; Maassen, V; Bise, K

    1996-08-01

    The Problem of an Adequate Surgical Approach: Frequency of malignant teratomas is, according to the literature, 2%-10%. Examining 194 own cases (1983-1993) it was 1.5%. We found one squamous cell carcinoma (0.5%). Additionally we found 2 immature teratomas (1%). We point out the different biological behaviour of malignant mature teratomas and immature teratomas. We agree with the majority of authors that the method of choice is the intact removal of all teratomas without iatrogen rupture or contamination of the abdominal cavity by contents of the teratoma. This adequate surgical procedure can and should be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy with endobag. The often practised method of cutting open the cyst during laparoscopy, sucking off the contents or cutting the teratoma into pieces, has been proven to lead to implantation and worsening the prognosis in case of a malignant teratoma. Even the rinsing of the abdominal cavity, usually carried out with this method, could not compensate always for the disadvantage of this "dirty" endoscopical method compared with usual oncological standards. This is pointed out by case reports in the literature and the first analysis of a German survey with early-follow-up of 192 laparoscopically managed ovarian malignancies [11a]. The principle of intact removal of every teratoma should again be kept in mind.

  13. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques associated with thermal-vacuum and bench testing, along with flight testing of the OAO-C spacecraft heat pipes are outlined, to show that the processes used in heat transfer design and testing are adequate for good performance evaluations.

  14. Textile dryer heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J. S.

    1985-08-06

    A textile dryer heat recovery system includes a textile dryer and a heat exchanger. A duct is provided for directing dryer exhaust gas to the heat exchanger for preheating dryer input air. A cleaning system within the heat exchanger removes dryer exhaust gas contaminants deposited in the heat exchanger.

  15. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  16. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  17. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  18. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  19. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  20. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  1. The evaluation of workplaces subjected to heat stress: can ISO 7933 (1989) adequately describe heat strain in industrial workplaces?

    PubMed

    Kampmann, B; Piekarski, C

    2000-02-01

    The International Standard ISO 7933 (1989) Hot environments--Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal stress using calculation of required sweat rate has been proposed for the evaluation of climatic stress within the European system of CEN standards. Comparison of results of studies performed in climatic chambers and those in the field with the predictions of ISO 7933 show that there are considerable problems in using this index in practice. In its present state of development, ISO 7933 seems to be rather a step towards a useable index for evaluating climatic conditions rather than an established climatic index which is applicable in practice. Within the CEN standards, the deficiencies of ISO 7933 are reflected mainly by a restriction of the limits of application within EN 12 515 (1997) which is based on ISO 7933.

  2. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  3. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; Mole - removal; Nevus - removal; ... can remove: Benign or pre-malignant skin lesions Warts Moles Sunspots Hair Small blood vessels in the ...

  4. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  5. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  6. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  7. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  8. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  9. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  10. Demonstration of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Dunham, Jonah; Straub-Lopez, Katie; Anerson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber

    2007-01-01

    Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is currently being investigated for removal and rejection of CO2 and heat from a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to a Martian environment. The metabolically-produced CO2 present in the vent loop gas is collected using a CO2 selective adsorbent that has been cooled via a heat exchanger to near CO2 sublimation temperatures (approx.195K) with liquid CO2 obtained from Martian resources. Once the adsorbent is fully loaded, fresh warm, moist vent loop (approx.300K) is used to heat the adsorbent via another heat exchanger. The adsorbent will then reject the collected CO2 to the Martian ambient. Two beds are used to achieve continuous CO2 removal by cycling between the cold and warm conditions for adsorbent loading and regeneration, respectively. Small experiments have already been completed to show that an adsorbent can be cycled between these PLSS operating conditions to provide adequate conditions for CO2 removal from a simulated vent loop. One of the remaining technical challenges is extracting enough heat from the vent loop to warm the adsorbent in an appreciable time frame to meet the required adsorb/desorb cycle. The other key technical aspect of the technology is employing liquid CO2 to achieve the appropriate cooling. A technology demonstrator has been designed, built and tested to investigate the feasibility of 1) warming the adsorbent using the moist vent loop, 2) cooling the adsorbent using liquid CO2, and 3) using these two methods in conjunction to successfully remove CO2 from a vent loop and reject it to Mars ambient. Both analytical and numerical methods were used to perform design calculations and trades. The demonstrator was built and tested. The design analysis and testing results are presented along with recommendations for future development required to increase the maturity of the technology.

  11. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  12. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  13. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  14. Steam turbine: Alternative emergency drive for the secure removal of residual heat from the core of light water reactors in ultimate emergency situation

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dos Santos, R.

    2012-07-01

    In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

  15. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  16. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  17. Fishhook removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection such as redness, swelling, pain, or drainage. Wire cutting method: First, wash your hands with soap ... cut it off just behind the barb with wire cutters. Remove the rest of the hook by ...

  18. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and medical centers are doing this surgery using robots . Why the Procedure is Performed Kidney removal may ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Tick removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... are small, insect-like creatures that live in woods and fields. They attach to you as you ... your clothes and skin often while in the woods. After returning home: Remove your clothes. Look closely ...

  20. Cataract removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... incision. Extracapsular extraction: The doctor uses a small tool to remove the cataract in mostly one piece. This procedure uses a larger incision. Laser surgery: The doctor guides a machine that uses laser energy to make the incisions ...

  1. Tick Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are several tick removal devices on the market, but a plain set of fine-tipped tweezers ... for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector- ...

  2. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Burris, Katy; Kim, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Tattoos have been a part of costume, expression, and identification in various cultures for centuries. Although tattoos have become more popular in western culture, many people regret their tattoos in later years. In this situation, it is important to be aware of the mechanisms of tattoo removal methods available, as well as their potential short- and long-term effects. Among the myriad of options available, laser tattoo removal is the current treatment of choice, given its safety and efficacy.

  3. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal.

  4. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  6. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  7. Hair removal.

    PubMed

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices.

  8. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  9. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  10. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  11. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  12. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  13. Method of making thermally removable polymeric encapsulants

    DOEpatents

    Small, James H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable encapsulant by heating a mixture of at least one bis(maleimide) compound and at least one monomeric tris(furan) or tetrakis(furan) compound at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a gel and cooling the gel to form the thermally-removable encapsulant. The encapsulant can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C., preferably in a polar solvent. The encapsulant can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the encapsulant for component repair, modification or quality control.

  14. Investigations in gallium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  15. Condensate-removal device for heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trusch, R. B.; Oconnor, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    Device comprises array of perforated tubes manifolded together and connected to a vacuum suction device. Vacuum applied to these tubes pulls mixture of condensate and effluent gas through perforations and along length of tubes to discharge device. Discharge device may be a separator which separates water vapor from effluent air and allows recirculation of both of them.

  16. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  17. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  18. Laser Tattoo Removal: An Update.

    PubMed

    Naga, Lina I; Alster, Tina S

    2017-02-01

    Tattoo art has been around for thousands of years in every culture and is currently flourishing in all age groups, social classes, and occupations. Despite the rising popularity of tattoos, demand for their removal has also increased. While various treatments, including surgical excision, dermabrasion, and chemical destruction have historically been applied, over the past 2 decades, lasers have revolutionized the way tattoos are treated and have become the gold standard of treatment. To achieve optimal cosmetic outcome of treatment, lasers emitting high energies and short pulses are required to adequately destroy tattoo ink. We review the history of laser tattoo removal, outlining the challenges inherent in developing lasers that can most effectively remove tattoo particles while safely protecting skin from unwanted injury.

  19. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  20. Removing Solids From Supercritical Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus removes precipitated inorganic salts and other solids in water-recycling process. Designed for use with oxidation in supercritical water which treats wastes and yields nearly pure water. Heating coils and insulation around vessel keep it hot. Locking bracket seals vessel but allows it to be easily opened for replacement of filled canisters.

  1. Vacuum powered heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, R.F.

    1986-06-24

    In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

  2. 14 CFR 27.859 - Heating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be means for safe drainage of any fuel that might accumulate in the combustion chamber or the heat...) Heat exchangers. Each heat exchanger must be— (1) Of suitable materials; (2) Adequately cooled under all conditions; and (3) Easily disassembled for inspection. (c) Combustion heater fire...

  3. Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1964-01-01

    Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

  4. Thermally induced vibrations due to internal heat generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandino, Joseph Robert

    Virtually all previous research on thermally induced vibrations has investigated vibrations caused by surface heating. This is the first detailed study of a thermally induced vibration caused by surface cooling. The phenomenon is shown to be driven by thermal moments. The thermal moments are caused by convection because the vibrations occur in air but not in a vacuum. A mathematical model was developed to predict the thermal-structural behavior of an internally heated beam. The convection heat transfer for a vibrating beam is complex. In most cases it is neither completely natural nor completely forced convection. The convection heat transfer is a mix of both components. The convection is further complicated by the transition of the airflow along the beam from laminar to turbulent flow. An experimental heat transfer investigation was conducted to determine expressions for the natural and forced convection as functions of both position along the beam and velocity. The results from the model were verified using experimental data for an internally heated beam undergoing thermally induced vibrations. The model was shown to predict the steady-state temperatures accurately. The model adequately predicted the steady-state displacements, although it predicted the displacement histories with some error. The analysis showed that the thermal and structural problems are coupled by the forced convection. Once initiated, the amplitude of the vibration increases until the amplitude is such that the heat removed by convection balances the internal heating. The steady-state amplitude is not affected by the initial displacement of the beam. Thermally induced vibrations of internally heated beams belong to the class of vibrations called self-sustaining oscillations.

  5. Heat shock protein response in phosphorus-deficient heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Edens, F W; Hill, C H; Wang, S

    1992-12-01

    1. During acute in vivo heat stress, a normal heat shock protein (HSP) response was not inducible in chickens deficient in inorganic phosphorus (P(i)-deficient). 2. Small quantities of HSP 70 and HSP 90 were induced, but little or no HSP 23 was induced in P(i)-deficient chickens compared to P(i)-adequate chickens. 3. Increased susceptibility of P(i)-deficient chickens to acute heat stress was attributed to their inability to produce an adequate HSP response.

  6. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  7. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  8. Removing Bonded Integrated Circuits From Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Small resistance heater makes it easier, faster, and cheaper to remove integrated circuit from hybrid-circuit board, package, or other substrate for rework. Heater, located directly in polymeric bond interface or on substrate under integrated-circuit chip, energized when necessary to remove chip. Heat generated softens adhesive or solder that bonds chip to substrate. Chip then lifted easily from substrate.

  9. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  10. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  11. Compact laser through improved heat conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    A 16-joule-pulse laser has been developed in which a boron nitride heat-conductor enclosure is used to remove heat from the elements. Enclosure is smaller and lighter than systems in which cooling fluids are used.

  12. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  13. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  17. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  18. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  19. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  20. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  1. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  2. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  3. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  4. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  5. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  6. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  7. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  8. Solid0Core Heat-Pipe Nuclear Batterly Type Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ehud Greenspan

    2008-09-30

    This project was devoted to a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of designing an Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor to have a solid core from which heat is removed by liquid-metal heat pipes (HP).

  9. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and reusable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper base alloy material adjacent to he fuel coolant. High pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics recently evaluated at Rocketdyne using stainless steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  10. Methane heat transfer investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Future high chamber pressure LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines require copper-base alloy main combustion chamber coolant channels similar to the SSME to provide adequate cooling and resuable engine life. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics and coking thresholds for LNG (94% methane) cooling, with a copper-base alloy material adjacent to the fuel coolant. High-pressure methane cooling and coking characteristics were recently evaluated using stainless-steel heated tubes at methane bulk temperatures and coolant wall temperatures typical of advanced engine operation except at lower heat fluxes as limited by the tube material. As expected, there was no coking observed. However, coking evaluations need be conducted with a copper-base surface exposed to the methane coolant at higher heat fluxes approaching those of future high chamber pressure engines.

  11. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  12. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  13. Efficacy of Biofilm Removal From Hemodialysis Piping

    PubMed Central

    Isakozawa, Yutaka; Migita, Heihachi; Takesawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Background Central dialysate fluid delivery systems (CDDS) are used by dialysis centers in Japan, and although these systems are effective at delivering dialysate, they have a complex piping network with numerous sites where contamination can develop. In Japan, cleaning disinfectants have been clinically evaluated based on endotoxin levels and bacterial counts, but there have been no published studies evaluating the biofilm removal efficacy of these agents at the electron microscope level. Objectives In this study, we used electron microscopy to evaluate the effectiveness of various cleaning disinfectants in removing biofilms from hemodialysis piping. Methods Liquid nitrogen was used to sever a section of dialysis piping on which a biofilm had formed during clinical use. Sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and peracetic acid were used at stock-solution concentrations as cleaning disinfectants. These disinfectants were tested at room temperature and when heated (80°C). After cleaning and disinfection, biofilm removal from the surface of the piping was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results Sodium hypochlorite did not show good biofilm removal at room temperature or when heated. Acetic acid was more effective at biofilm removal when heated than at room temperature. Peracetic acid was highly effective at biofilm removal at both room temperature and when heated Conclusions Cleaning and disinfection using a disinfectant at a high temperature and high concentration effectively removes biofilms from hemodialysis piping. However, long-term exposure to disinfectants may affect the piping material. PMID:27878114

  14. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  15. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  16. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  17. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  18. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  19. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  20. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  1. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  2. Heat reclaiming method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Douglas M.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

  3. Lightweight Long Life Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    A shuttle orbiter flight configuration aluminum heat exchanger was designed, fabricated, and tested. The heat exchanger utilized aluminum clad titanium composite parting sheets for protection against parting sheet pin hole corrosion. The heat exchanger, which is fully interchangeable with the shuttle condensing heat exchanger, includes slurpers (a means for removing condensed water from the downstream face of the heat exchanger), and both the core air passes and slurpers were hydrophilic coated to enhance wettability. The test program included performance tests which demonstrated the adequacy of the design and confirmed the predicted weight savings.

  4. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  6. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  7. An in vitro study into the effect of a limited range of denture cleaners on surface roughness and removal of Candida albicans from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Z; Johnson, A; Douglas, C W I

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated the abrasiveness of four denture cleaners on the surface of denture base material and assessed their ability to remove Candida albicans. Acrylic resin discs 20 mm diameter and 2 mm thick were identically produced and polished. Four cleaners were evaluated: conventional toothpaste; toothpaste with stain remover; denture cleaning paste and an immersion type cleaner, and water were used as control. These were used at dilutions of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 with water. An electric toothbrush was used, and the discs cleaned to simulate 1 years' cleaning. The surface roughness of the discs were then measured, before and after cleaning, using a stylus profilometer, then inoculated with 1.2 x 10(6)C. albicans cells. The effectiveness of the denture cleaners to remove C. albicans cells was assessed following a single cleaning event. The immersion cleaner was significantly less abrasive than paste cleaners (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between any dilutions for any cleaner used (P > 0.05). Immersion and paste cleaners removed almost all recoverable C. albicans from the discs, as cleaning with water alone was less effective (P < 0.05). An immersion type cleaner was found to be the most suitable cleaner because of its low abrasivity and effective removal of organic debris.

  8. Bonded Invar Clip Removal Using Foil Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T.; Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    A new process uses local heating and temperature monitoring to soften the adhesive under Invar clips enough that they can be removed without damaging the composite underneath or other nearby bonds. Two 1x1 in. (approx.2.5x2.5 cm), 10-W/sq in. (approx.1.6-W/sq cm), 80-ohm resistive foil Kapton foil heaters, with pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, are wired in parallel to a 50-V, 1-A limited power supply. At 1 A, 40 W are applied to the heater pair. The temperature is monitored in the clip radius and inside the tube, using a dual thermocouple readout. Several layers of aluminum foil are used to speed the heat up, allowing clips to be removed in less than five minutes. The very local heating via the foil heaters allows good access for clip removal and protects all underlying and adjacent materials.

  9. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  10. Heat Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction, function, and applications of heat pipes. Suggests using the heat pipe to teach principles related to heat transfer and gives sources for obtaining instructional kits for this purpose. (GS)

  11. Latest innovations for tattoo and permanent makeup removal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Johnny C; DeJoseph, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this article is to reveal the latest techniques and advances in laser removal of both amateur and professional tattoos, as well as cosmetic tattoos and permanent makeup. Each pose different challenges to the removing physician, but the goal is always the same: removal without sequelae. The authors' technique is detailed, and discussion of basic principles of light reflection, ink properties, effects of laser energy and heat, and outcomes and complications of tattoo removal are presented.

  12. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    PubMed

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  13. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  14. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  15. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  16. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  17. Surfactants for Bubble Removal against Buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Raza, Md Qaisar; Kumar, Nirbhay; Raj, Rishi

    2016-01-08

    The common phenomenon of buoyancy-induced vapor bubble lift-off from a heated surface is of importance to many areas of science and technology. In the absence of buoyancy in zero gravity of space, non-departing bubbles coalesce to form a big dry patch on the heated surface and heat transfer deteriorates despite the high latent heat of vaporization of water. The situation is worse on an inverted heater in earth gravity where both buoyancy and surface tension act upwards to oppose bubble removal. Here we report a robust passive technique which uses surfactants found in common soaps and detergents to avoid coalescence and remove bubbles downwards, away from an inverted heater. A force balance model is developed to demonstrate that the force of repulsion resulting from the interaction of surfactants adsorbed at the neighboring liquid-vapor interfaces of the thin liquid film contained between bubbles is strong enough to overcome buoyancy and surface tension. Bubble removal frequencies in excess of ten Hz resulted in more than twofold enhancement in heat transfer in comparison to pure water. We believe that this novel bubble removal mechanism opens up opportunities for designing boiling-based systems for space applications.

  18. Surfactants for Bubble Removal against Buoyancy

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Md. Qaisar; Kumar, Nirbhay; Raj, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    The common phenomenon of buoyancy-induced vapor bubble lift-off from a heated surface is of importance to many areas of science and technology. In the absence of buoyancy in zero gravity of space, non-departing bubbles coalesce to form a big dry patch on the heated surface and heat transfer deteriorates despite the high latent heat of vaporization of water. The situation is worse on an inverted heater in earth gravity where both buoyancy and surface tension act upwards to oppose bubble removal. Here we report a robust passive technique which uses surfactants found in common soaps and detergents to avoid coalescence and remove bubbles downwards, away from an inverted heater. A force balance model is developed to demonstrate that the force of repulsion resulting from the interaction of surfactants adsorbed at the neighboring liquid-vapor interfaces of the thin liquid film contained between bubbles is strong enough to overcome buoyancy and surface tension. Bubble removal frequencies in excess of ten Hz resulted in more than twofold enhancement in heat transfer in comparison to pure water. We believe that this novel bubble removal mechanism opens up opportunities for designing boiling-based systems for space applications. PMID:26743179

  19. Surfactants for Bubble Removal against Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Md. Qaisar; Kumar, Nirbhay; Raj, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    The common phenomenon of buoyancy-induced vapor bubble lift-off from a heated surface is of importance to many areas of science and technology. In the absence of buoyancy in zero gravity of space, non-departing bubbles coalesce to form a big dry patch on the heated surface and heat transfer deteriorates despite the high latent heat of vaporization of water. The situation is worse on an inverted heater in earth gravity where both buoyancy and surface tension act upwards to oppose bubble removal. Here we report a robust passive technique which uses surfactants found in common soaps and detergents to avoid coalescence and remove bubbles downwards, away from an inverted heater. A force balance model is developed to demonstrate that the force of repulsion resulting from the interaction of surfactants adsorbed at the neighboring liquid-vapor interfaces of the thin liquid film contained between bubbles is strong enough to overcome buoyancy and surface tension. Bubble removal frequencies in excess of ten Hz resulted in more than twofold enhancement in heat transfer in comparison to pure water. We believe that this novel bubble removal mechanism opens up opportunities for designing boiling-based systems for space applications.

  20. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  1. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  2. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  3. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  4. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  5. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  6. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  7. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  8. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  9. Heat Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear up the heat rash?Should I use diaper ointment on my child?What caused my heat rash?Should I stop exercising until the heat rash clears up?What is the best way to prevent heat rash? Last Updated: April 2014 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: ...

  10. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  11. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  12. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  13. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  14. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  15. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  16. 45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all systems in which identifiable personal data... data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of personal data. (4... technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual...

  17. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  18. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  19. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  20. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  1. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  3. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  4. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  5. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  6. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  7. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  8. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  10. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  11. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  12. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  13. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  14. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  15. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  16. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  17. 30 CFR 227.801 - What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delegated function? 227.801 Section 227.801 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.801 What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function? If your performance of the delegated function does...

  18. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  19. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  20. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  1. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  2. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  3. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  4. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  5. Adequate Yearly Progress for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Temple-Harvey, Kimberly K.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2009-01-01

    Because schools are held accountable for the academic performance of all students, it is important to focus on academics and the need for effective teaching practices. Adequate yearly progress, a method of accountability that is part of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), profoundly affects the education of students who have emotional and…

  6. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  7. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  8. The feasibility of producing adequate feedstock for year–round cellulosic ethanol production in an intensive agricultural fuelshed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Allen, Craig R.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland within the service area suitable for conversion from annual rowcrops to switchgrass and ∼132,000 ha of maize-enrolled cropland from which maize stover could be collected. Annual maize stover and switchgrass biomass supplies within the 40-km service area could range between 429,000 and 752,000 metric tons (mT). Approximately 140–250 million liters (l) of cellulosic ethanol could be produced, rivaling the current 208 million l annual starch-based ethanol production capacity of the plant. We conclude that sufficient quantities of biomass could be produced from maize stover and switchgrass near the plant to support year-round cellulosic ethanol production at current feedstock yields, sustainable removal rates and bioconversion efficiencies. Modifying existing starch-based ethanol plants in intensive agricultural fuelsheds could increase ethanol output, return marginally productive cropland to perennial vegetation, and remove maize stover from productive cropland to meet feedstock demand.

  9. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  10. Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    1992-08-20

    A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

  11. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures.

  12. Space Station trash removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  13. Presymptomatic diagnosis with MRI and adequate treatment ameliorate the outcome after natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lindå, Hans; von Heijne, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Natalizumab (Tysabri(®)) is a monoclonal antibody that prevents inflammatory cells from binding to brain endothelial cells and passing into the brain parenchyma. Natalizumab is a highly effective treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic brain JC virus infection that has been shown to be associated with natalizumab treatment. We describe PML in a patient with MS after 44 monthly infusions of natalizumab. With the aid of a routine Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, PML was detected before any unambiguous clinical manifestations had emerged. PML was treated with plasma exchange to accelerate removal of natalizumab. Mirtazapine and mefloquine was promptly added and approximately 1 month after plasma exchange, when an immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome appeared, steroid treatment was initiated. Steroid treatment was then continued until no virus could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable. We believe that this case clearly illustrates the importance of an early, presymptomatic, detection of PML, and an adequate treatment. We also propose that surveillance with MRI scans, every 3 months after 24 months of treatment, should be performed in JC virus antibody positive natalizumab-treated MS patients in order to detect PML in an early phase.

  14. Heat stress control in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) defueling and decontamination activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, J.S.; Parfitt, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the initial stages of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) defueling and decontamination activities for the reactor building, it was realized that the high levels of loose radioactive contamination would require the use of extensive protective clothing by entry personnel. While there was no doubt that layered protective clothing protects workers from becoming contaminated, it was recognized that these same layers of clothing would impose a very significant heat stress burden. To prevent the potentially serious consequences of a severe reaction to heat stress by workers in the hostile environment of the TMI-2 reactor building and yet maintain the reasonable work productivity necessary to perform the recovery adequately, an effective program of controlling worker exposure to heat stress had to be developed. Body-cooling devices produce a flow of cool air, which is introduced close to the skin to remove body heat through convection and increased sweat evaporation. The cooling effect produced by the Vortex tube successfully protected the workers from heat stress, however, there were several logistical and operational problems that hindered extensive use of these devices. The last type of cooling garment examined was the frozen water garment (FWG) developed by Elizier Kamon at the Pennsylvania State University as part of an Electric Power Research Institute research grant. Personal protection, i.e., body cooling, engineering controls, and administrative controls, have been implemented successfully.

  15. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  16. Process for removing carbon from uranium

    DOEpatents

    Powell, George L.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon contamination is removed from uranium and uranium alloys by heating in inert atmosphere to 700.degree.-1900.degree.C in effective contact with yttrium to cause carbon in the uranium to react with the yttrium. The yttrium is either in direct contact with the contaminated uranium or in indirect contact by means of an intermediate transport medium.

  17. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  18. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  19. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  20. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  1. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IITRI RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) technologies use electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency (RF) band to heat soil in situ, thereby potentially enhancing the performance of standard soil vapor extraction (SVE) technologies. Contaminants are removed from in situ soils and transfe...

  2. Coldplate of pin fin design makes efficient heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, W. F.

    1967-01-01

    Flat, hollow coldplate that permits the flow of coolant liquid removes heat from heat-generating electronic equipment. This coldplate solves usual problems of bulk, weight, and excessive pumping requirements.

  3. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  4. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  5. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  6. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  7. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  8. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  9. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  10. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  11. Turbomachinery debris remover

    DOEpatents

    Krawiec, Donald F.; Kraf, Robert J.; Houser, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for removing debris from a turbomachine. The apparatus includes housing and remotely operable viewing and grappling mechanisms for the purpose of locating and removing debris lodged between adjacent blades in a turbomachine.

  12. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wart removers are medicines used to get rid of warts. Warts are small growths on the skin that are caused by a virus. They are usually painless. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows or uses ...

  13. Spider Vein Removal

    MedlinePlus

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  14. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  15. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms include heavy sweating, rapid breathing and a fast, weak pulse Heat cramps - muscle pains or spasms that happen during heavy exercise Heat rash - skin irritation from excessive sweating Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  16. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stress Learn some tips to protect workers including: acclimatization, rest breaks, and fluid recommendations. NIOSH Workplace Solution: ... Blog: Adjusting to Work in the Heat: Why Acclimatization Matters The natural adaptation to the heat takes ...

  17. Extreme Heat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber Incident Drought Earthquakes Extreme Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ... Emergencies Biological Threats Chemical Threats Cyber ... Heat Explosions Floods Hazardous Materials Incidents Home ...

  18. Removal program priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The directive contains general policy guidelines regarding removal program priorities as it specifically relates to the 10 regional offices. Emphasis is placed on addressing the most serious public health and environmental threats (classic emergencies, time-critical removals at NPL sites, and time-critical removals at non-NPL sites). Regions are urged to pursue cleanup by the responsible parties (RP) and manage the removal program within the boundaries of their resources.

  19. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  20. Chimney heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, I.C.

    1981-09-01

    A heat exchanger for installation on the top of a chimney of a building includes a housing having a lower end receiving the top of the chimney and an upper end with openings permitting the escape of effluent from the chimney and a heat exchanger assembly disposed in the housing including a central chamber and a spirally arranged duct network defining an effluent spiral path between the top of the chimney and the central chamber and a fresh air spiral path between an inlet disposed at the lower end of the housing and the central chamber, the effluent and fresh air spiral paths being in heat exchange relationship such that air passing through the fresh air spiral path is heated by hot effluent gases passing upward through the chimney and the effluent spiral path for use in heating the building. A pollution trap can be disposed in the central chamber of the heat exchanger assembly for removing pollutants from the effluent, the pollution trap including a rotating cage carrying pumice stones for absorbing pollutants from the effluent with the surface of the pumice gradually ground off to reveal fresh stone as the cage rotates.

  1. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  3. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  4. Facilitation may not be an adequate mechanism of community succession on carrion.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Gaétan

    2017-04-01

    The facilitation model of ecological succession was advanced by plant ecologists in the late 1970s and was then introduced to carrion ecology in the late 1980s, without empirical evidence of its applicability. Ecologists in both disciplines proposed removing early colonists, in this case fly eggs and larvae, from the substrate to determine whether other species could still colonize, which to our knowledge has never been attempted. Here, we tested the facilitation model in a carrion system by removing fly eggs and larvae from carcasses that were exposed in agricultural fields and assigned to one of the following treatment levels of removal intensity: 0, <5, 50, and 100%. Subsequent patterns of colonisation did not provide support for the applicability of the facilitation model in carrion systems. Although results showed, in part, that the removal of fly eggs and larvae decreased the decomposition rate of carcasses, the removal did not prevent colonization by secondary colonizers. Finally, we discuss future studies and make recommendations as to how the facilitation model could be improved, firstly by being more specific about the scale where facilitation is believed to be occurring, secondly by clearly stating what environmental modification is believed to be involved, and thirdly by disentangling facilitation from priority effects.

  5. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  6. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  7. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  8. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  9. Transient Analysis of a Magnetic Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental heat pump that uses a rare earth element as the refrigerant is modeled using NASTRAN. The refrigerant is a ferromagnetic metal whose temperature rises when a magnetic field is applied and falls when the magnetic field is removed. The heat pump is used as a refrigerator to remove heat from a reservoir and discharge it through a heat exchanger. In the NASTRAN model the components modeled are represented by one-dimensional ROD elements. Heat flow in the solids and fluid are analyzed. The problem is mildly nonlinear since the heat capacity of the refrigerant is temperature-dependent. One simulation run consists of a series of transient analyses, each representing one stroke of the heat pump. An auxiliary program was written that uses the results of one NASTRAN analysis to generate data for the next NASTRAN analysis.

  10. Enhanced nitrogen removal in trickling filter plants.

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Constantinou, A; Griffiths, P

    2013-01-01

    The Beaudesert Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), originally built in 1966 and augmented in 1977, is a typical biological trickling filter (TF) STP comprising primary sedimentation tanks (PSTs), TFs and humus tanks. The plant, despite not originally being designed for nitrogen removal, has been consistently achieving over 60% total nitrogen reduction and low effluent ammonium concentration of less than 5 mg NH3-N/L. Through the return of a NO3(-)-rich stream from the humus tanks to the PSTs and maintaining an adequate sludge age within the PSTs, the current plant is achieving a substantial degree of denitrification. Further enhanced denitrification has been achieved by raising the recycle flows and maintaining an adequate solids retention time (SRT) within the PSTs. This paper describes the approach to operating a TF plant to achieve a high degree of nitrification and denitrification. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through the pilot plant trial. The results from the pilot trial demonstrate a significant improvement in nitrogen removal performance whilst maximising the asset life of the existing infrastructure. This shows great potential as a retrofit option for small and rural communities with pre-existing TFs that require improvements in terms of nitrogen removal.

  11. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  12. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  13. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  14. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  15. Computer synthesis of human motion as a part of an adequate motion analysis experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandre A.; Sholukha, Victor A.; Zinkovsky, Anatoly V.

    1999-05-01

    The role of problem of computer synthesis of a human motion for a traditional problem of control generalized and muscular forces determination is discussed. It is emphasized significance of computer model choice for adequate analysis kinematic and dynamic experimental data. On the basis of an imitation computer model influence of model's parameters values is demonstrated. With help of non-stationary constraints we can simulate human motions that satisfy to the most significant parameters of the concerned class of motion. Some results of simulation are discussed. We arrive at a conclusion that for correct interpretation of an experiment mixed problem of bodies system dynamics must be solved.

  16. Condensation heat transfer in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, L. C.; Parish, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    In the present treatment of the condensation heat transfer process in a microgravity environment, two mechanisms for condensate removal are analyzed in light of two problems: (1) film condensation on a flat, porous plate, with condensate being removed by wall suction; and (2) the analytical prediction of the heat transfer coefficient of condensing annular flows, where the condensate film is driven by vapor shear. Both suction and vapor shear can effectively drain the condensate, ensuring continuous operation in microgravity.

  17. Evaluation of a satellite constellation for active debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, Hironori

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes an example of a three-dimensional constellation of debris removal satellites and proposes an effective constellation using a delta-V analysis that discusses the advisability of rendezvousing satellites with space debris. Lambert's Equation was used to establish a means of analysis to construct a constellation of debris removal satellites, which has a limit of delta-V injection by evaluating the amount of space debris that can be rendezvoused by a certain number of removal satellite. Consequently, we determine a constellation of up to 38 removal satellites for debris removal, where the number of space debris rendezvoused by a single removal satellite is not more than 25, removing up to 584 pieces of debris total. Even if we prepare 38 removal satellites in their respective orbits, it is impossible to remove all of the space debris. Although many removal satellites, over 100 for example, can remove most of the space debris, this method is economically disproportionate. However, we can also see the removal satellites are distributed nearly evenly. Accordingly, we propose a practical two-stage strategy. The first stage is to implement emergent debris removal with the 38 removal satellites. When we find a very high probability of collision between a working satellite and space debris, one of the removal satellites in the constellation previously constructed in orbit initiates a maneuver of emergent debris removal. The second stage is a long-term space debris removal strategy to suppress the increase of space debris derived from collisions among the pieces of space debris. The constellation analyzed in this paper, which consists of the first 38 removal satellites, can remove half of the over 1000 dangerous space debris among others, and then the constellation increases the number of the following removal satellites in steps. At any rate, an adequate orbital configuration and constellation form is very important for both space debris removal and

  18. MRI can determine the adequate area for debridement in the case of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Fujita, Fumihiko; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Yuichiro; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of gluteal pain. His right buttock had flare and swelling. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis, and renal failure was evident. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abscess, including gas, was widespread into the hypodermal tissue of the right buttock. Fournier's gangrene had been suspected, and immediate drainage was performed on the right buttock. The symptom and the condition improved rapidly, but on the day after the operation, the patient became drowsy and fell into endotoxic shock. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed strong inflammation along the entire fascia of the right femur and necrotizing fasciitis. MRI was very useful for identification of the necrotic range. Immediately, an emergency operation was performed; 3 wide incisions were made on the right thigh and crus for drainage. The patient was cared for intensively under a sedated condition, and irrigation and debridement were repeated every day. Culture of the pus revealed mixed infection of Escherichia coli and anaerobic bacteria, and a large quantity of antimicrobial drug was used. The inflammatory reaction decreased, and the patient's general condition tentatively improved. With Fournier's gangrene, initiating adequate surgical and medical treatment is essential. Therefore, MRI should be used in the early exact diagnosis of this disease to obtain knowledge of the extent of necrosis and to determine the adequate area for debridement.

  19. Duration of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infectiousness under Adequate Therapy, as Assessed Using Induced Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yousang; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Suh-Young; Park, So Young; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Changhwan

    2017-01-01

    Background A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. Methods We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. Results Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). Conclusion The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB. PMID:28119744

  20. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    PubMed Central

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Results Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). Conclusion According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies. PMID:24427475

  1. Transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe with variable heat load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe were studied by using variable heat load. First, the effects of the property variations of the working fluid with temperature were investigated by operating the water heat pipe at several different temperatures. The experimental results show that, even for the same heat input profile and heat pipe configuration, the heat pipe transports more heat at higher temperature within the tested temperature range. Adequate liquid return to the evaporator due to decreasing viscosity of the working fluid permits continuous vaporization of water without dry-out. Second, rewetting of the evaporator was studied after the evaporator had experienced dry-out. To rewet the evaporator, the elevation of the condenser end was the most effective way. Without elevating the condenser end, rewetting is not straight-forward even with power turned off unless the heat pipe is kept at isothermal condition for sufficiently long time.

  2. Simulation of reflooding on two parallel heated channel by TRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakir, Md. Ghulam

    2016-07-01

    In case of Loss-Of-Coolant accident (LOCA) in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), heat generated in the nuclear fuel is not adequately removed because of the decrease of the coolant mass flow rate in the reactor core. This fact leads to an increase of the fuel temperature that can cause damage to the core and leakage of the radioactive fission products. In order to reflood the core and to discontinue the increase of temperature, an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) delivers water under this kind of conditions. This study is an investigation of how the power distribution between two channels can affect the process of reflooding when the emergency water is injected from the top of the channels. The peak cladding temperature (PCT) on LOCA transient for different axial level is determined as well. A thermal-hydraulic system code TRACE has been used. A TRACE model of the two heated channels has been developed, and three hypothetical cases with different power distributions have been studied. Later, a comparison between a simulated and experimental data has been shown as well.

  3. Kinetic study on removal of copper(II) using goethite and hematite nano-photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Li, Fu-An

    2010-07-15

    Goethite and hematite nanomaterials (nano-goethite and nano-hematite) can be synthesized using a coprecipitation method. Nano-hematite is synthesized via the reaction of HCl and FeCl(3) solution at 100 degrees C for 2 days, while nano-goethite is prepared by adding Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) into the 2.5 M NaOH solution for 4h, and then heated at 40 degrees C for 2 days. Afterward the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution is performed by UV-light irradiation, and the adsorption procedure is carried out by batch experiments. It is observed that both nano-hematite and nano-goethite exhibit some photocatalytic activity and possess a high adsorption capacity for copper ions. The maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity is 149.25 and 84.46 mg/g for nano-goethite and nano-hematite, respectively. Further, the experimental data are well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. It also suggests that the Langmuir isotherm is more adequate than the Freundlich isotherm in simulating the adsorption isotherm of Cu(2+), and the Cu(2+) adsorption onto nanomaterials is a spontaneous process. Therefore, these findings indicate that nano-goethite and nano-hematite are effective materials for Cu(2+) removal and, together with its photocatalytic activity, may be applied in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous streams.

  4. Methods of hydrotreating a liquid stream to remove clogging compounds

    DOEpatents

    Minderhoud, Johannes Kornelis [Amsterdam, NL; Nelson, Richard Gene [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-22

    A method includes producing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a gas stream. At least a portion of the liquid stream is provided to a hydrotreating unit. At least a portion of selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions in the liquid stream are removed to produce a hydrotreated liquid stream by hydrotreating at least a portion of the liquid stream at conditions sufficient to remove the selected in situ heat treatment clogging compositions.

  5. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  6. Heat pipe heat rejection system. [for electrical batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroliczek, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a battery heat rejection system was developed which uses heat pipes for more efficient heat removal and for temperature control of the cells. The package consists of five thermal mock-ups of 100 amp-hr prismatic cells. Highly conductive spacers fabricated from honeycomb panels into which heat pipes are embedded transport the heat generated by the cells to the edge of the battery. From there it can be either rejected directly to a cold plate or the heat flow can be controlled by means of two variable conductance heat pipes. The thermal resistance between the interior of the cells and the directly attached cold plate was measured to be 0.08 F/Watt for the 5-cell battery. Compared to a conductive aluminum spacer of equal weight the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer has approximately one-fifth of the thermal resistance. In addition, the honeycomb/heat pipe spacer virtually eliminates temperature gradients along the cells.

  7. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  8. Specimen length as a perioperative surrogate marker for adequate lymphadenectomy in colon cancer: the surgeon's role.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, David; Bugyev, Nikolay; Grankin, Mila; Gutman, Mordechay; Klein, Ehud; Bernheim, Joelle; Shpitz, Baruch

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between the length of the sigmoid colon removed and the number of harvested lymph nodes (LNs). Pathology charts of 137 sigmoid resections that were done over a 5-year period were reviewed. The length of removed sigmoid specimen reported in the pathology reports was correlated with the number of LNs retrieved from the specimen. The mean and median numbers of retrieved LNs were 9 and 10, respectively. There was an increase in the number of retrieved LNs with increasing length of resected sigmoid colon. For Dukes' B patients, the average length of the resected specimen was 15.1 cm for those with < 12 LNs and 20.3 cm for those with > 12 LNs (P = 0.01). Our data suggest that the surgeon may play an important role in determining the extent of LN harvesting during large bowel resection for cancer.

  9. 21 CFR 573.310 - Crambe meal, heat toasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crambe meal, heat toasted. 573.310 Section 573.310... Additive Listing § 573.310 Crambe meal, heat toasted. (a) The additive is the seed meal of Crambe abyssinica obtained after the removal of oil from the seed and hull. The oil may be removed by...

  10. 21 CFR 573.310 - Crambe meal, heat toasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crambe meal, heat toasted. 573.310 Section 573.310... Additive Listing § 573.310 Crambe meal, heat toasted. (a) The additive is the seed meal of Crambe abyssinica obtained after the removal of oil from the seed and hull. The oil may be removed by...

  11. 21 CFR 573.310 - Crambe meal, heat toasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crambe meal, heat toasted. 573.310 Section 573.310... Additive Listing § 573.310 Crambe meal, heat toasted. (a) The additive is the seed meal of Crambe abyssinica obtained after the removal of oil from the seed and hull. The oil may be removed by...

  12. 21 CFR 573.310 - Crambe meal, heat toasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crambe meal, heat toasted. 573.310 Section 573.310... Additive Listing § 573.310 Crambe meal, heat toasted. (a) The additive is the seed meal of Crambe abyssinica obtained after the removal of oil from the seed and hull. The oil may be removed by...

  13. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to... use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction...

  14. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  19. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    PubMed

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  20. Adequate connexin-mediated coupling is required for proper insulin production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To assess whether connexin (Cx) expression contributes to insulin secretion, we have investigated normal and tumoral insulin-producing cells for connexins, gap junctions, and coupling. We have found that the glucose-sensitive cells of pancreatic islets and of a rat insulinoma are functionally coupled by gap junctions made of Cx43. In contrast, cells of several lines secreting insulin abnormally do not express Cx43, gap junctions, and coupling. After correction of these defects by stable transfection of Cx43 cDNA, cells expressing modest levels of Cx43 and coupling, as observed in native beta-cells, showed an expression of the insulin gene and an insulin content that were markedly elevated, compared with those observed in both wild-type (uncoupled) cells and in transfected cells overexpressing Cx43. These findings indicate that adequate levels of Cx-mediated coupling are required for proper insulin production and storage. PMID:8522612

  1. Switching off angiogenic signalling: creating channelled constructs for adequate oxygen delivery in tissue engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Cheema, U; Alekseeva, T; Abou-Neel, E A; Brown, R A

    2010-10-06

    A major question in biomimetic tissue engineering is how much of the structure/function of native vasculature needs to be reproduced for effective tissue perfusion. O2 supplied to cells in 3D scaffolds in vitro is initially dependent upon diffusion through the scaffold and cell consumption. Low O2 (3%) enhances specific cell behaviours, but where O2 is critically low (pathological hypoxia) cell survival becomes compromised. We measured real-time O2 in 3D scaffolds and introduced micro-channelled architecture to controllably increase delivery of O2 to cells and switch off the hypoxic response. Simple static micro-channelling gives adequate perfusion and can be used to control cell generated hypoxia-induced signalling.

  2. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  3. J-modulated ADEQUATE experiments using different kinds of refocusing pulses.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Christina M; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Owing to the recent developments concerning residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), the interest in methods for the accurate determination of coupling constants is renascenting. We intended to use the J-modulated ADEQUATE experiment by Kövér et al. for the measurement of (13)C - (13)C coupling constants at natural abundance. The use of adiabatic composite chirp pulses instead of the conventional 180 degrees pulses, which compensate for the offset dependence of (13)C 180 degrees pulses, led to irregularities of the line shapes in the indirect dimension causing deviations of the extracted coupling constants. This behaviour was attributed to coupling evolution, during the time of the adiabatic pulse (2 ms), in the J-modulation spin echo. The replacement of this pulse by different kinds of refocusing pulses indicated that a pair of BIPs (broadband inversion pulses), which behave only partially adiabatic, leads to correct line shapes and coupling constants conserving the good sensitivity obtained with adiabatic pulses.

  4. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  5. A Nomogram to Predict Adequate Lymph Node Recovery before Resection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Li, Cong; Gao, Wei; Yin, Xiao-wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Liu, Nan; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymph node count (LNC) has been associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The study aims to identify new predictors and develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the probability of adequate LNC (≥ 12). 501 eligible patients were retrospectively selected to identify clinical-pathological factors associated with LNC ≥ 12 through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The nomogram was built according to multivariate analyses of preoperative factors. Model performance was assessed with concordance index (c-index) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), followed by internal validation and calibration using 1000-resample bootstrapping. Clinical validity of the nomogram and LNC impact on stage migration were also evaluated. Multivariate analyses showed patient age, CA19-9, circulating lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, tumor diameter, histology and deposit significantly correlated with LNC (P < 0.05). The effects were marginal for CEA, anemia and CRC location (0.05 < P < 0.1). The multivariate analyses of preoperative factors suggested decreased age, CEA, CA19-9, neutrophils, proximal location, and increased platelets and diameter were significantly associated with increased probability of LNC ≥ 12 (P < 0.05). The nomogram achieved c-indexes of 0.75 and 0.73 before and after correction for overfitting. The AUC was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.79) and the clinically valid threshold probabilities were between 10% and 60% for the nomogram to predict LNC < 12. Additionally, increased probability of adequate LNC before surgery was associated with increased LNC and negative lymph nodes rather than increased positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, pN stages or AJCC stages. Collectively, the results indicate the LNC is multifactorial and irrelevant to stage migration. The significant correlations with preoperative circulating markers may

  6. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  7. [Quality of Mesorectal Excision ("Plane of Surgery") - Which Quality Targets are Adequate?].

    PubMed

    Hermanek, P; Merkel, S; Ptok, H; Hohenberger, W

    2015-12-01

    Today, the examination of rectal cancer specimens includes the obligate macroscopic assessment of the quality of mesorectal excision by the pathologist reporting the plane of surgery. The frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery (earlier described as incomplete mesorectal excision) is essential. The quality of mesorectal excision is important for the prognosis, especially as local recurrences are observed more frequently after operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery. For the definition of quality targets, data of 13 studies published between 2006 and 2012, each with more than 100 patients and adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeons (5413 patients), data of the prospective multicentric observation study "Quality Assurance - Rectal Cancer" (at the Institute for Quality Assurance in Operative Medicine at the Otto-von-Guericke University at Magdeburg) from 2005 to 2010 (8044 patients) and data of the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, from 1998 to 2011 (991 patients) were analysed. The total incidence of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery was 5.0 % (721/14 448). Even with adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeon, the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery is higher in abdominoperineal excisions than in sphincter-preserving surgery (8.4 vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.001). Thus, the quality target for the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane should be defined as < 5 % for sphincter-preserving procedures and as < 10 % for abdominoperineal excisions.

  8. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

  9. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  10. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  11. Device for removing blackheads

    DOEpatents

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  12. On-Orbit Daytime Solar Heating Effects: A Comparison of Ground Chamber Arcing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment is to make direct comparisons between the arcing results obtained from the diffusion pumped vertical chamber and our newly renovated Teney vacuum chamber which is equipped with a cryogenic pump. Recall that the prior reported results obtained for the Vertical chamber were nominal at best, showing only a slight reduction in the arc rate after five heating cycles at the lower bias potentials and virtually no changes at high potential biases. It was concluded that the vertical chamber was unable to remove enough water vapor from the chamber to adequately test the arcing criterion. Because the cryo-pumped Teney chamber has a ten times better pumping speed, (40,000 liters per sec compared to 4,000 liters per sec for the diffusion pumped vertical chamber), a decision was made to retest that experiment in both the Teney and Vertical vacuum chambers. A comparison of the various data is presented with encouraging results.

  13. On Orbit Daytime Solar Heating Effects: A Comparison of Ground Chamber Arcing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment is to make direct comparisons between the arcing results obtained from the diffusion pumped vertical chamber and our newly renovated Teney vacuum chamber which is equipped with a cryogenic pump. Recall that the prior reported results obtained for the Vertical chamber were nominal at best, showing only a slight reduction in the arc rate after 5 heating cycles at the lower bias potentials and virtually no changes at high potential biases. It was concluded that the vertical chamber was unable to remove enough water vapor from the chamber to adequately test the arcing criterion. Because the cryo-pumped Teney chamber has a ten times better pumping speed, (40,000 liters per sec compared to 4,000 liters per sec for the diffusion pumped vertical chamber), a decision was made to retest that experiment in both the Teney and Vertical vacuum chambers. A comparison of the various data is presented with encouraging results.

  14. Critical heat flux of subcooled flow boiling with water for high heat flux application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki

    1993-11-01

    Subcooled flow boiling in water is thought to be advantageous in removing high heat load of more than 10 MW/m2. Characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, are very important for the design of cooling systems. In this paper, studies on subcooled flow boiling CHF, which have been conducted by the authors, are reported. Experiments were conducted using direct current heating of stainless steel tube. For uniform heating conditions, CHF increment in small diameter tubes (1 - 3 mm inside diameter) and the CHF characteristics in tubes with internal twisted tapes were investigated, and also the existing CHF correlations for ordinary tubes (more than 3 mm inside diameter) were evaluated. For peripherally non-uniform heating conditions using the tube, whose wall thickness was partly reduced, the CHF for swirl flow was higher than the CHF under uniform heating conditions with an increase of the non-uniformity factor.

  15. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  16. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    of this WD&R model (CRWMS M&O 2000b) are to quantify and evaluate the distribution and drainage of seepage water within emplacement drifts during the period of compliance for post-closure performance. The model bounds the fraction of water entering the drift that will be prevented from contacting the waste by the combined effects of engineered controls on water distribution and on water removal. For example, water can be removed during pre-closure operation by ventilation and after closure by natural drainage into the fractured rock. Engineered drains could be used, if demonstrated to be necessary and effective, to ensure that adequate drainage capacity is provided. This report provides the screening arguments for certain Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) that are related to water distribution and removal in the EBS. Applicable acceptance criteria from the Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs) developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; and 1999d) are also addressed in this document.

  17. Current concepts in gutta-percha removal in endodontic retreatment.

    PubMed

    Mounce, Rich

    2004-01-01

    Effective removal of gutta-percha (GP) in endodontic retreatment is a significant factor in creating successful outcomes from failed procedures. Ideally, gutta-percha removal must be efficient, not predispose the tooth to subsequent failure through iatrogenic events, and clean the existing canals so that subsequent irrigants can effectively and biomechanically cleanse the root canal system. All things being equal, it is recommended that GP be removed without solvents in the coronal two-thirds of canals as much as possible and with solvents in the apical third. Rotary nickel titanium files and the SystemB heat source (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) are significant adjuncts in effective GP removal.

  18. Pyrolytic Removal Of The Plastic Mandrel From Sputtered Beryllium Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C; Letts, S A; Buckley, S R; Fearon, E

    2005-07-25

    An engineering model is presented for the removal of the plastic mandrel from the inside of a sputtered Be shell. The removal is accomplished by forcing heated air in and out of the 4 to 5 {micro}m laser drilled fill hole in the capsule wall by cycling the external pressure between 2 and 5 atm. The plastic is combusted to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O by this exposure, thus removing the mandrel. Calculations are presented to evaluate the various parameters in the approach. Experimental confirmation of the effectiveness of the removal is shown.

  19. Symptom removal: the twentieth century experience.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, André M

    2004-01-01

    The twentieth century hypnosis literature regarding the use of direct symptom removal with hypnosis is in strong contrast with that of the nineteenth. It shows much ambivalence about the use of symptom removal. Objections, largely based on conclusions drawn from psychoanalytic theory, led many twentieth century psychotherapists to reject direct symptom removal. However, a certain amount of empirical evidence, scattered through the literature, has accumulated during the twentieth century to support this rejection. The lack of satisfactory twentieth century statistics and of nineteenth century details concerning hypnotic interventions that were used, makes it impossible to satisfactorily account for the discrepancy in experiences of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although therapists did not altogether abandon working directly with symptoms, many opted instead for modifying and manipulating them by suggestion instead of completely removing them, usually allowing the patient to retain a psychodynamically suitable substitute. Here again a lack of adequate statistics prevents one from being able to properly appraise the effectiveness of this approach which has remained the preferred one for a number of therapists.

  20. Removal of broken hardware.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; McElvany, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Despite advances in metallurgy, fatigue failure of hardware is common when a fracture fails to heal. Revision procedures can be difficult, usually requiring removal of intact or broken hardware. Several different methods may need to be attempted to successfully remove intact or broken hardware. Broken intramedullary nail cross-locking screws may be advanced out by impacting with a Steinmann pin. Broken open-section (Küntscher type) intramedullary nails may be removed using a hook. Closed-section cannulated intramedullary nails require additional techniques, such as the use of guidewires or commercially available extraction tools. Removal of broken solid nails requires use of a commercial ratchet grip extractor or a bone window to directly impact the broken segment. Screw extractors, trephines, and extraction bolts are useful for removing stripped or broken screws. Cold-welded screws and plates can complicate removal of locked implants and require the use of carbide drills or high-speed metal cutting tools. Hardware removal can be a time-consuming process, and no single technique is uniformly successful.

  1. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  2. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  3. Enceladus' Enigmatic Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Spencer, D.; Verbiscer, A.; Hurford, T.; Segura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of Enceladus' heat flow is important because it provides a vital constraint on Enceladus' tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. In 2011 we published an estimate of the current heat flow from Enceladus' active south polar terrain: 15.8 +/- 3.1 GW (Howett et al., 2011). This value was calculated by first estimating by modeling, and then removing, the passive component from 17 to 1000 micron observations made of the entire south polar terrain by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). The heat flow was then directly calculated from the residual, assumed endogenic, component. The derived heat flow of 15.8 GW was surprisingly high, about 10 times greater than that predicted by steady-state tidal heating (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007). CIRS has also returned high spatial resolution observations of Enceladus' active south polar terrain. Two separate observations are used: 9 to 16 micron observations taken over nearly the complete south polar terrain and a single 17 to 1000 micron scan over Damascus, Baghdad and Cairo. The shorter wavelength observations are only sensitive to high temperature emission (>70 K), and so longer wavelength observations are required (despite their limited spatial coverage) to estimate the low temperature emission from the stripes. Analysis of these higher resolution observations tells a different story of Enceladus' endogenic heat flow: the preliminary estimate of the heat flow from the active tiger stripes using these observations is 4.2 GW. An additional 0.5 GW must be added to this number to account for the latent heat release by the plumes (Ingersoll and Pankine 2009), giving a total preliminary estimate of 4.9 GW. The discrepancy in these two numbers is significant and we are currently investigating the cause. One possible reason is that there is significantly higher endogenic emission from the regions between the tiger stripes than we currently estimate

  4. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  5. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  6. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    PubMed

    Thurling, Catherine H; Harris, Candice

    2012-06-05

    South Africa's high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation. The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training. A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation. The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted. The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  7. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  8. Radiation dose reduction in invasive cardiology by restriction to adequate instead of optimized picture quality.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Dorn, Christian; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the cinegraphic image intensifier entrance dose level for coronary angiography was changed in four steps from dose level A (0.041 microGy frame(-1)), allowing high contrast, but coarse mottled background, to level D (0.164 microGy frame(-1)), affording high transparency and sharpness. Using this new approach throughout the course of 404 consecutive cardiac catheterizations, we reduced patient radiation exposures down to 11 to 16% of currently typical values: i.e., mean dose area products of 5.97 Gy cm2 (n = 91), 6.73 (n = 113), 8.11 (n = 91), and 8.90 (n = 109); cinegraphic dose area products of 2.34, 3.64, 4.56, and 5.49; and cinegraphic dose area products frame(-1) of 13.3, 19.8, 27.0, and 30.2 mGy cm2, for levels A, B, C, and D, respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames ranged within 168 to 182 per case. Our results show that during catheterization interventionalists should vary image intensifier entrance dose levels in accordance with documented structure, angulation, and body mass index. With the exception of cases with special requirements, lower dose levels typically guarantee an adequate image quality.

  9. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  10. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic antidepressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  11. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  12. Are image quality metrics adequate to evaluate the quality of geometric objects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2001-06-01

    Geometric objects are often represented by many millions of triangles or polygons, which limits the ease with which they can be transmitted and displayed electronically. This has lead to the development of many algorithms for simplifying geometric models, and to the recognition that metrics are required to evaluate their success. The goal is to create computer graphic renderings of the object that do not appear to be degraded to a human observer. The perceptual evaluation of simplified objects is a new topic. One approach has been to sue image-based metrics to predict the perceived degradation of simplified 3D models. Since that 2D images of 3D objects can have significantly different perceived quality, depending on the direction of the illumination, 2D measures of image quality may not adequately capture the perceived quality of 3D objects. To address this question, we conducted experiments in which we explicitly compared the perceived quality of animated 3D objects and their corresponding 2D still image projections. Our results suggest that 2D judgements do not provide a good predictor of 3D image quality, and identify a need to develop 'object quality metrics.'

  13. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  14. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  15. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  16. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  17. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.

  18. Ipragliflozin effectively reduced visceral fat in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under adequate diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chiho; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ono, Kota; Sugawara, Hajime; Kameda, Reina; Ichiyama, Mei; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Akinobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-30

    To investigate if ipragliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, alters body composition and to identify variables associated with reductions in visceral adipose tissue in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prospective observational study enrolled Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were administered ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) once daily for 16 weeks. Body composition, visceral adipose tissue volume and plasma variables were measured at 0, 8, and 16-weeks. The subjects' lifestyle habits including diet and exercise were evaluated at baseline and 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as the decrease of visceral adipose tissue mass. Twenty-four of 26 enrolled participants completed the study. The visceral adipose tissue decreased significantly (110 ± 33 to 101 ± 36 cm(2), p = 0.005) as well as other parameters for metabolic insufficiency including hemoglobin A1c. Seventy-one % of the total body weight reduction (-2.49 kg) was estimated by a decrease in fat mass (-1.77 kg), and the remaining reduction (22%) by water volume (-0.55 kg). A minor but significant reduction in the skeletal muscle index was also observed. Correlation analyses were performed to identify variables associated with changes in visceral adipose tissue and the only significant variable identified was diet therapy (Spearman's r = -0.416, p = 0.043). Ipragliflozin significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue, and improved parametres for metabolic dysfunction. Adequate diet therapy would be necessary to induce and enhance the therapeutic merit.

  19. Gaussian membership functions are most adequate in representing uncertainty in measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, V.; Quintana, C.; Reznik, L.

    1992-01-01

    In rare situations, like fundamental physics, we perform experiments without knowing what their results will be. In the majority of real-life measurement situations, we more or less know beforehand what kind of results we will get. Of course, this is not the precise knowledge of the type 'the result will be between alpha - beta and alpha + beta,' because in this case, we would not need any measurements at all. This is usually a knowledge that is best represented in uncertain terms, like 'perhaps (or 'most likely', etc.) the measured value x is between alpha - beta and alpha + beta.' Traditional statistical methods neglect this additional knowledge and process only the measurement results. So it is desirable to be able to process this uncertain knowledge as well. A natural way to process it is by using fuzzy logic. But, there is a problem; we can use different membership functions to represent the same uncertain statements, and different functions lead to different results. What membership function do we choose? In the present paper, we show that under some reasonable assumptions, Gaussian functions mu(x) = exp(-beta(x(exp 2))) are the most adequate choice of the membership functions for representing uncertainty in measurements. This representation was efficiently used in testing jet engines to airplanes and spaceships.

  20. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  1. Parallel-plate heat pipe apparatus having a shaped wick structure

    DOEpatents

    Rightley, Michael J.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Mulhall, James J.; Robino, Charles V.; Reece, Mark; Smith, Paul M.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2004-12-07

    A parallel-plate heat pipe is disclosed that utilizes a plurality of evaporator regions at locations where heat sources (e.g. semiconductor chips) are to be provided. A plurality of curvilinear capillary grooves are formed on one or both major inner surfaces of the heat pipe to provide an independent flow of a liquid working fluid to the evaporator regions to optimize heat removal from different-size heat sources and to mitigate the possibility of heat-source shadowing. The parallel-plate heat pipe has applications for heat removal from high-density microelectronics and laptop computers.

  2. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the laparoscopic operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy ( ...

  3. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  4. Mechanical Foam Remover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streech, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Filter removes foam from soapy water stream discharged by primary phase separator of water-reclamation system. Uses no antifoam chemicals, contains no moving parts and requires no energy input other than small energy needed to pump water through filter.

  5. Paint removal using lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Garmire, E

    1995-07-20

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 10(7) in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m(2) area of paint 14 µm thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  6. Paint removal using lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Katherine; Garmire, Elsa

    1995-07-01

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 107 in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m2 area of paint 14 mu m thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  7. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid hormone medicine ... natural thyroid hormone. You may not need hormone replacement if only part of your thyroid was removed. ...

  8. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  9. Removing Images From Microfilm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    Film softened, scraped, and then dried. Unwanted images removed from microfilm for softening base film with hot water, scraping film and drying with isopropyl alcohol. Method simple and no visible damage to film.

  10. Sulfur removal from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Lompa-Krzymien, L.

    1985-01-01

    Coal is treated to remove both pyritic and organic sulfur by contacting with an aqueous solution comprising cupric ions at temperatures of about 140/sup 0/ C.-200/sup 0/ C. under autogenic pressure, until substantial amounts of the sulfur are solubilized, separating the coal solids, and washing the solids with water to remove soluble forms of sulfur, iron and copper therefrom. The copper can be recovered and recycled as a cupric salt.

  11. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  12. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  13. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...

  14. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  15. Multi-lead heat sink

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1984-07-03

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again. 4 figs.

  16. Multi-lead heat sink

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

  17. Multi-lead heat sink

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1982-08-25

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

  18. Homodecoupled 1,1- and 1,n-ADEQUATE: Pivotal NMR Experiments for the Structure Revision of Cryptospirolepine.

    PubMed

    Saurí, Josep; Bermel, Wolfgang; Buevich, Alexei V; Sherer, Edward C; Joyce, Leo A; Sharaf, Maged H M; Schiff, Paul L; Parella, Teodor; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E

    2015-08-24

    Cryptospirolepine is the most structurally complex alkaloid discovered and characterized thus far from any Cryptolepis specie. Characterization of several degradants of the original, sealed NMR sample a decade after the initial report called the validity of the originally proposed structure in question. We now report the development of improved, homodecoupled variants of the 1,1- and 1,n-ADEQUATE (HD-ADEQUATE) NMR experiments; utilization of these techniques was critical to successfully resolving long-standing structural questions associated with crytospirolepine.

  19. The Social, Historical, and Institutional Contingencies of Dam Removal.

    PubMed

    Magilligan, F J; Sneddon, C S; Fox, C A

    2017-02-25

    Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England. Each of these removal efforts followed quite different paths and resultant outcomes: successful removal, stalled removal, and failure despite seemingly favorable institutional conditions. Lengthy conflicts often transpired in instances where removals occurred, but these were successfully arbitrated by paying attention to local historical-geographical conditions conducive to removal and by brokering effective compromises between dam owners and the various local actors and stakeholders involved in the removal process. Yet our results across all cases suggest that these are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for restoration through dam removal since a similar set of conditions typified cases where removals are continuously stalled or completely halted. Scholars examining the intersection between ecological restoration and environmental politics should remain vigilant in seeking patterns and generalities across cases of environmental conflict in order to promote important biophysical goals, but must also remain open to the ways in which those goals are thwarted and shaped by conflicts that are deeply contingent on historical-geographical conditions and broader institutional networks of power and influence.

  20. Heat pipes for use in a magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Werner, Richard W.; Hoffman, Myron A.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pipe configuration for use in a magnetic field environment of a fusion reactor. Heat pipes for operation in a magnetic field when liquid metal working fluids are used are optimized by flattening of the heat pipes having an unobstructed annulus which significantly reduces the adverse side region effect of the prior known cylindrically configured heat pipes. The flattened heat pipes operating in a magnetic field can remove 2--3 times the heat as a cylindrical heat pipe of the same cross sectional area.