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Sample records for adequate insurance coverage

  1. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  2. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  3. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  4. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  5. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  6. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  7. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  8. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  9. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  10. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  11. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  12. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  13. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  16. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  17. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  18. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  19. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  20. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  1. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  3. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  4. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  5. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  6. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  7. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  8. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  9. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  11. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  12. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  13. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  14. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  15. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  16. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  17. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  18. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  19. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  20. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  1. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  2. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  3. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  4. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  5. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  6. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  8. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  9. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  10. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  11. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  12. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  13. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  14. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  16. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  17. 2 CFR 200.310 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 200.310 Section 200.310... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Post Federal Award Requirements Property Standards § 200.310 Insurance coverage. The non-Federal entity must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real...

  18. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  19. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  20. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  1. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  2. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  3. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  4. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  5. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  7. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  8. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  9. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  11. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  13. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  14. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  15. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  16. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  17. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  18. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  19. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  20. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  1. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  2. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  3. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  4. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31... A-110) Post Award Requirements Property Standards § 215.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  5. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  6. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  7. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  8. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  9. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  12. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  13. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  14. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  15. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  16. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  17. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  18. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  19. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  20. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  1. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  2. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  3. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  4. HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR WORKERS ON LAYOFF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOLODRUBETZ, WALTER W.

    ESTIMATES OF GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE BY INDUSTRY INDICATE THAT EXTENDED PROTECTION DURING LAYOFF IS GUARANTEED TO NO MORE THAN A TENTH OF THE APPROXIMATELY 50 MILLION WORKERS COVERED BY GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE PLANS. THIS COVERAGE HAS LARGELY DEVELOPED DURING THE PAST 15 YEARS. FRAGMENTARY DATA SUGGEST THAT INCREASED COST ATTRIBUTABLE TO…

  5. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  6. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  12. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  13. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  14. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  15. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  16. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  17. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  18. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  19. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  20. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hresko, Andrew; Haga, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related) and pharmacogenetic (PGx) tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less) of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit. PMID:25562360

  1. Insurance coverage policies for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Hresko, Andrew; Haga, Susanne B

    2012-10-30

    Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related) and pharmacogenetic (PGx) tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less) of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  2. Increasing Health Insurance Costs and the Decline in Insurance Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Chernew, Michael; Cutler, David M; Keenan, Patricia Seliger

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of rising health insurance premiums on coverage rates. Data Sources & Study Setting Our analysis is based on two cohorts of nonelderly Americans residing in 64 large metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) surveyed in the Current Population Survey in 1989–1991 and 1998–2000. Measures of premiums are based on data from the Health Insurance Association of America and the Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Benefits. Study Design Probit regression and instrumental variable techniques are used to estimate the association between rising local health insurance costs and the falling propensity for individuals to have any health insurance coverage, controlling for a rich array of economic, demographic, and policy covariates. Principal Findings More than half of the decline in coverage rates experienced over the 1990s is attributable to the increase in health insurance premiums (2.0 percentage points of the 3.1 percentage point decline). Medicaid expansions led to a 1 percentage point increase in coverage. Changes in economic and demographic factors had little net effect. The number of people uninsured could increase by 1.9–6.3 million in the decade ending 2010 if real, per capita medical costs increase at a rate of 1–3 percentage points, holding all else constant. Conclusions Initiatives aimed at reducing the number of uninsured must confront the growing pressure on coverage rates generated by rising costs. PMID:16033490

  3. The adequacy of college health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    McManus, M; Brauer, M; Weader, R; Newacheck, P

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of private health insurance plans offered in 100 four-year colleges and universities in 1988 indicates a tremendous diversity in plan options, benefits covered, cost-sharing requirements, and catastrophic protections. Consistent with relatively low premium prices, most student health insurance plans offer limited benefits and expose students to significant out-of-pocket medical cost liabilities. Only a minority of schools use financial incentives, such as preferred provider arrangements, to integrate their health insurance plans with their university health service system. We conclude that universities should carefully reexamine the adequacy of their health insurance plans and their relationship to student health centers. As more students rely on student health insurance as their only source of coverage, the quality of these plans assumes an even greater importance.

  4. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... proposed rule (76 FR 7767) regarding section 1560(c) entitled ``Student Health Insurance Coverage.'' In the... Departments), published interim final rules (IFR) with request for comments (76 FR 46621) amending the Interim... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  5. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards §...

  6. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards §...

  7. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards §...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260.131 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260.131 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260.131 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260.131 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131...

  12. 24 CFR 201.32 - Insurance coverage reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... guaranty, guarantee or repurchase agreement, the Secretary shall transfer insurance coverage to or from a... repurchase agreement, the Secretary shall transfer insurance coverage to the reserve account established for... repurchase agreement, no insurance coverage will be transferred and no reports will be required. (3)...

  13. 24 CFR 201.32 - Insurance coverage reserve account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... guaranty, guarantee or repurchase agreement, the Secretary shall transfer insurance coverage to or from a... repurchase agreement, the Secretary shall transfer insurance coverage to the reserve account established for... repurchase agreement, no insurance coverage will be transferred and no reports will be required. (3)...

  14. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  15. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  17. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  18. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  19. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  1. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  2. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  3. 14 CFR 198.5 - Types of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Types of insurance coverage available. 198.5 Section 198.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.5 Types of insurance coverage available....

  4. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 198.5 - Types of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of insurance coverage available. 198.5 Section 198.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.5 Types of insurance coverage available....

  7. 14 CFR 198.5 - Types of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Types of insurance coverage available. 198.5 Section 198.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.5 Types of insurance coverage available....

  8. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  9. Americans' health insurance coverage, 1980-91

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Katharine R.; Olin, Gary L.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1992-01-01

    The authors of this article have used Current Population Surveys to summarize public and private health insurance trends in the United States over the last 12 years. Key findings include the declining percentage of the non-elderly population with employer-sponsored coverage and increasing numbers of low- and middle-income uninsured. That is, in a period of fast-rising health care costs, the poor and the near-poor in working families have been losing coverage for health care and facing increasing risks of inadequate care and financial loss. These data highlight health care access and financing problems now facing the Nation. PMID:10124438

  10. Health Insurance Coverage: 2000. Consumer Income. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Robert J.

    This report uses data from the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2001 Current Population Survey to examine health insurance coverage. The number and percentage of people covered by employment-based health insurance rose significantly in 2000, driving the overall increase in health insurance coverage. Among the entire population age 18-64 years, workers…

  11. 22 CFR 151.3 - Types of insurance coverage required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Types of insurance coverage required. 151.3 Section 151.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.3 Types of insurance coverage required....

  12. 22 CFR 151.3 - Types of insurance coverage required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Types of insurance coverage required. 151.3 Section 151.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.3 Types of insurance coverage required....

  13. 22 CFR 151.3 - Types of insurance coverage required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Types of insurance coverage required. 151.3 Section 151.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.3 Types of insurance coverage required....

  14. Drug coverage insurance as a novel element of private health insurance in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there have been observed increased costs of health care in Poland. The patient's out of pocket expenses on drug have grown too. To the above, the insurance companies have offered patients drug coverage insurance policies since recently. Drug insurance policy covers the cost of purchasing pharmaceutical products not reimbursed by the National Health Fund is a modern product on the Polish health insurance market. The aim of the article is to characterize drug coverage insurance policies on the health insurance market in Poland. The Polish insurance market and entities offered these types of insurance are also presented.

  15. Guaranteed Coverage with Multiple Insurers: Closing Gaps and Easing Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugh, Kevin H.; Claxton, Gary J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an employer-based health insurance system and the effects of such a system on children. Examines employer decisions regarding coverage, financial limitations, insurer and health plan practices that affect the availability and continuity of coverage, and several new models for providing health insurance…

  16. 41 CFR 105-72.401 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 105-72.401 Section 105-72.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 105-72.401 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  17. 41 CFR 105-72.401 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 105-72.401 Section 105-72.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 105-72.401 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  18. 41 CFR 105-72.401 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 105-72.401 Section 105-72.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 105-72.401 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  19. 41 CFR 105-72.401 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 105-72.401 Section 105-72.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 105-72.401 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  20. 41 CFR 105-72.401 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 105-72.401 Section 105-72.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 105-72.401 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  1. 76 FR 41392 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 329 and 330 RIN 3064-AD78 Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The FDIC is issuing a...

  2. 76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 329 and 330 RIN 3064-AD78 Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) and request...

  3. 45 CFR 147.145 - Student health insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Student health insurance coverage. 147.145 Section 147.145 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS §...

  4. 45 CFR 147.145 - Student health insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Student health insurance coverage. 147.145 Section 147.145 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS §...

  5. 45 CFR 147.145 - Student health insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Student health insurance coverage. 147.145 Section 147.145 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS §...

  6. 5 CFR 870.1003 - Coverage and amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Benefits for United States Hostages in... of Basic life insurance for these individuals is the amount specified in § 870.202, subject to the... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage and amount of insurance....

  7. Does health insurance continuity among low-income adults impact their children's insurance coverage?

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Melissa; Carlson, Matthew J; Wright, Bill J; Angier, Heather; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-02-01

    Parent's insurance coverage is associated with children's insurance status, but little is known about whether a parent's coverage continuity affects a child's coverage. This study assesses the association between an adult's insurance continuity and the coverage status of their children. We used data from a subgroup of participants in the Oregon Health Care Survey, a three-wave, 30-month prospective cohort study (n = 559). We examined the relationship between the length of time an adult had health insurance coverage and whether or not all children in the same household were insured at the end of the study. We used a series of univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify significant associations and the rho correlation coefficient to assess collinearity. A dose response relationship was observed between continuity of adult coverage and the odds that all children in the household were insured. Among adults with continuous coverage, 91.4% reported that all children were insured at the end of the study period, compared to 83.7% of adults insured for 19-27 months, 74.3% of adults insured for 10-18 months, and 70.8% of adults insured for fewer than 9 months. This stepwise pattern persisted in logistic regression models: adults with the fewest months of coverage, as compared to those continuously insured, reported the highest odds of having uninsured children (adjusted odds ratio 7.26, 95% confidence interval 2.75, 19.17). Parental health insurance continuity is integral to maintaining children's insurance coverage. Policies to promote continuous coverage for adults will indirectly benefit children.

  8. The impact of insurance coverage during insurance reform on diagnostic resolution of cancer screening abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Alok; Battaglia, Tracy A; Isabelle, Alexis P; Hanchate, Amresh D; Kalish, Richard L; Bak, Sharon; Mishuris, Rebecca G; Shroff, Swati M; Freund, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    We examined the impact of Massachusetts insurance reform on the care of women at six community health centers with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening to investigate whether stability of insurance coverage was associated with more timely diagnostic resolution. We conducted Cox proportional hazards models to predict time from cancer screening to diagnostic resolution, examining the impact of 1) insurance status at time of screening abnormality, 2) number of insurance switches over a three-year period, and 3) insurance history over a three-year period. We identified 1,165 women with breast and 781 with cervical cancer screening abnormalities. In the breast cohort, Medicaid insurance at baseline, continuous public insurance, and losing insurance predicted delayed resolution. We did not find these effects in the cervical cohort. These data provide evidence that stability of health insurance coverage with insurance reform nationally may improve timely care after abnormal cancer screening in historically underserved women.

  9. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  10. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  11. Chiropractic Use by Urban and Rural Residents with Insurance Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Bonnie K.; Diehr, Paula K.; Grembowski, David E.; Lafferty, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the use of chiropractic care by urban and rural residents in Washington state with musculoskeletal diagnoses, all of whom have insurance coverage for this care. The analyses investigate whether restricting the analyses to insured individuals attenuates previously reported differences in the prevalence of chiropractic use…

  12. 44 CFR 73.4 - Restoration of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restoration of flood insurance coverage. 73.4 Section 73.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT... IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.4 Restoration of flood...

  13. 44 CFR 73.4 - Restoration of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restoration of flood insurance coverage. 73.4 Section 73.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT... IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.4 Restoration of flood...

  14. Insurance coverage for employment-related claims

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    This article analyzes the principal coverage issues arising under CGL policies for employment-related claims. Section I discusses the bases of the duty to defend and the duty to idemnify in the key CGL policy provisions at issue, including the bodily injury and personal injury coverages. Section II examines the three provisions in CGL policies typically raised as defenses to coverage for employment-related claims and two public policy considerations that may affect claims for coverage. The duty to defend is given closer crutiny in section III. Finally, in section IV the effects of settlement on coverage are discussed. 106 refs.

  15. Love Canal: insurance coverage for environmental accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwitz, S.; Kohane, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    The authors examine the standard insurance exclusionary clause developed by the Insurance Services Office in 1970 regarding injury and property damage from pollution, specifically, its genesis, its incorporation into New York state statutes, a brief history of Love Canal and its legacy of litigation, recent interpretations by US courts, and current developments. They conclude that, in every state where the courts have contended with the pollution exclusion clause in comprehensive general liability policy, judges have interpreted it from the perspective of the expectations and intentions of the insured. The exception to sudden and accidental pollution has, in effect, been interpreted coextensively with the definition of occurrence; that contamination was gradual is of no consequence to the availability of policy protection, the courts having defined sudden as unexpected, unintended, or unprepared for. In this respect, insurance for environmental accidents continues to cover the accidental conduct of the named insured. 25 references.

  16. Insurance policies may have hidden coverage for pollution liability

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    Insurance coverage for environmental incidents has changed twice in recent years. Besides preventing injury and starting cleanup, the most important actions a property owner confronted with an environmental incident can take are establishing when the incident began -- as opposed to when it was reported to the owner -- and determining the policy language insurers were using at all times from the incident's occurrence until its discovery. A property owner turning in an expensive environmental claim to an insurance broker or company should not simply accept a declaration that the policy does not cover damages or cleanup costs. Relevant insurance coverage is likely to be found in older policies in effect when the incident began. Such older policies almost certainly contain different language than current ones, and their language is nearly always more beneficial to property owners. Older policies typically provide broader coverage for environmental incidents than current ones.

  17. 45 CFR 148.122 - Guaranteed renewability of individual health insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance coverage. 148.122 Section 148.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... health insurance coverage. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all health insurance coverage...

  18. Risky business: how insurance companies gamble with your health coverage.

    PubMed

    Denny, J

    1993-01-01

    Under a patchwork of state laws and virtually no federal oversight, a decade of risky investments, questionable business dealings, lavish spending, and help-yourself ethics in the insurance industry is playing a hidden role in the crisis in affordable medical coverage. Skyrocketing medical costs are the main culprit, but financial losses have put pressure on insurers to raise premiums and cancel risky policyholders. The losses also are a major factor in the sharp increase in life/health insurance company failures, which can leave policyholders stranded.

  19. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452.228-71 Section 452.228-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71...

  20. 14 CFR § 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance coverage. § 1260.131 Section § 1260.131 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131...

  1. 20 CFR 726.5 - Effective date of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date of insurance coverage. 726.5 Section 726.5 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  2. 20 CFR 726.5 - Effective date of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective date of insurance coverage. 726.5 Section 726.5 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  3. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  4. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  5. 20 CFR 726.5 - Effective date of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective date of insurance coverage. 726.5 Section 726.5 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  6. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who must obtain insurance coverage. 726.4 Section 726.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  7. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  8. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance.

    PubMed

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme.

  9. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    PubMed Central

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  10. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  11. Pricing of drugs with heterogeneous health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Ida; Missios, Paul

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of insurance coverage in explaining the generic competition paradox in a two-stage game involving a single producer of brand-name drugs and n quantity-competing producers of generic drugs. Independently of brand loyalty, which some studies rely upon to explain the paradox, we show that heterogeneity in insurance coverage may result in higher prices of brand-name drugs following generic entry. With market segmentation based on insurance coverage present in both the pre- and post-entry stages, the paradox can arise when the two types of drugs are highly substitutable and the market is quite profitable but does not have to arise when the two types of drugs are highly differentiated. However, with market segmentation occurring only after generic entry, the paradox can arise when the two types of drugs are weakly substitutable, provided, however, that the industry is not very profitable. In both cases, that is, when market segmentation is present in the pre-entry stage and when it is not, the paradox becomes more likely to arise as the market expands and/or insurance companies decrease deductibles applied on the purchase of generic drugs.

  12. 78 FR 54996 - Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under Employer-Sponsored Plans AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... credit to help individuals and families afford health insurance coverage purchased through an Affordable... health insurance coverage offered by an employer to the employee that is (1) a governmental plan,...

  13. 24 CFR 234.17 - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 234.17 Section 234.17 Housing and Urban Development... maintaining flood insurance coverage. The maintenance of flood insurance coverage on the project by...

  14. 24 CFR 234.17 - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 234.17 Section 234.17 Housing and Urban Development... maintaining flood insurance coverage. The maintenance of flood insurance coverage on the project by...

  15. 24 CFR 234.17 - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 234.17 Section 234.17 Housing and Urban Development... maintaining flood insurance coverage. The maintenance of flood insurance coverage on the project by...

  16. 24 CFR 234.17 - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 234.17 Section 234.17 Housing and Urban Development... maintaining flood insurance coverage. The maintenance of flood insurance coverage on the project by...

  17. 24 CFR 234.17 - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 234.17 Section 234.17 Housing and Urban Development... maintaining flood insurance coverage. The maintenance of flood insurance coverage on the project by...

  18. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  19. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  20. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  1. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  2. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  3. 48 CFR 728.305-70 - Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage. 728.305-70 Section 728.305-70... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.305-70 Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard...

  4. 48 CFR 728.305-70 - Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage. 728.305-70 Section 728.305-70... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.305-70 Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard...

  5. 48 CFR 728.305-70 - Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage. 728.305-70 Section 728.305-70... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.305-70 Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard...

  6. 48 CFR 728.305-70 - Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage. 728.305-70 Section 728.305-70... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.305-70 Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard...

  7. 48 CFR 728.305-70 - Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard insurance-waivers and USAID insurance coverage. 728.305-70 Section 728.305-70... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.305-70 Overseas worker's compensation and war-hazard...

  8. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  9. Employer Cooperation in Group Insurance Coverage for Public-School Personnel, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This study presents data on group insurance coverage for public school personnel during the 1964-65 academic year, collected from 646 school systems of all sizes throughout the United States. Areas covered include (1) group life insurance, (2) group hospitalization insurance, (3) group medical-surgical insurance, (4) group major medical insurance,…

  10. Health Insurance Coverage at Midlife: Characteristics, Costs, and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard W.; Crystal, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Recent data from the first two waves of the Health and Retirement Study are analyzed to evaluate prevalence of different types of health insurance, characteristics of different plan types, and changes in coverage as individuals approach retirement age. Although overall rates of coverage are quite high among the middle-aged, the risk of non-coverage is high within many disadvantaged groups, including Hispanics, low-wage earners, and the recently disabled. Sixty percent of individuals with health benefits are enrolled in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) or preferred provider organizations (PPOs). In addition, one-fourth of enrollees in fee-for-service (FFS) plans report restrictions in their access to specialists. PMID:10170345

  11. Health insurance coverage - United States, 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Chang, Man-huei; Truman, Benedict I

    2013-11-22

    One out of four adults aged 19-64 years reported not having health insurance at some time during 2011, with a majority remaining uninsured for ≥1 year. In the first quarter of 2010, an estimated 59.1 million persons had no health insurance for at least part of the year, an increase from 58.7 million in 2009 and 56.4 million in 2008. The unemployment rate increased from 5.8% to 9.3% from 2008 to 2009, the largest 1-year increase on record. Losing or changing jobs was the primary reason persons experienced a gap in health insurance. Employment-based coverage for persons aged <65 years continued to erode for the ninth year in a row, falling 3.0 percentage points from 61.9% in 2008 to 58.9% in 2009. Persons aged 18-64 years with no health insurance during the preceding year were seven times as likely as those continuously insured to forgo needed health care because of cost. PMID:24264491

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis and insurance coverage: solving a puzzle.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The conventional model for the use of cost-effectiveness analysis for health programs involves determining whether the cost per unit of effectiveness of the program is lower than some socially determined maximum acceptable cost per unit of effectiveness. If a program is better by this criterion, the policy implication is that it should be implemented by full coverage of its cost by insurance; if not, the program should not be implemented. This paper examines the unanswered question of how cost-effectiveness analysis should be performed and interpreted when insurance coverage may involve cost sharing. It explores the question of how cost sharing should be related to the magnitude of a cost-effectiveness ratio. A common view that cost sharing should vary inversely with program cost-effectiveness is shown to be incorrect. A key issue in correct analysis is whether there is heterogeneity in marginal effectiveness of care that cannot be perceived by the social planner but is known by the demander. It is possible that some programs that would fail the social efficiency test at full coverage will be acceptable with positive cost sharing. Combining individual and social preferences affects both the choice of programs and the extent of cost sharing.

  13. Determinants of Health Insurance Coverage among People Aged 45 and over in China: Who Buys Public, Private and Multiple Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yinzi; Hou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Donglan

    2016-01-01

    Background China is reforming and restructuring its health insurance system to achieve the goal of universal coverage. This study aims to understand the determinants of public, private and multiple insurance coverage among people of retirement-age in China. Methods We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey 2011 and 2013, a nationally representative survey of Chinese people aged 45 and over. Multinomial logit regression was performed to identify the determinants of public, private and multiple health insurance coverage. We also conducted logit regression to examine the association between public insurance coverage and demand for private insurance. Results In 2013, 94.5% of this population had at least one type of public insurance, and 12.2% purchased private insurance. In general, we found that rural residents were less likely to be uninsured (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34–0.47) and were less likely to buy private insurance (RRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). But rural-to-urban migrants were more likely to be uninsured (RRR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.24–1.57). Public health insurance coverage may crowd out private insurance market (Odds Ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63), particularly among enrollees of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance. There exists a huge socioeconomic disparity in both public and private insurance coverage. Conclusion The migrants, the poor and the vulnerable remained in the edge of the system. The growing private insurance market did not provide sufficient financial protection and did not cover the people with the greatest need. To achieve universal coverage and reduce socioeconomic disparity, China should integrate the urban and rural public insurance schemes across regions and remove the barriers for the middle-income and low-income to access private insurance. PMID:27564320

  14. Measuring adequacy of coverage for the privately insured: new state estimates to monitor trends in health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Lynn A; Rodin, Holly; Davidson, Gestur; Davern, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The privately insured are assuming a greater share of the costs of their health care, yet little is known about changes in out-of-pocket spending at the state level. The central problem is that national surveys with the relevant data are not designed to generate state-level estimates. The study addresses this shortcoming by using a two-sample modeling approach to estimate state-level measures of out-of-pocket spending relative to income for privately insured adults and children. National data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component and state representative data from the Current Population Survey are used. Variation in out-of-pocket spending over time and across states is shown, highlighting concern about the adequacy of coverage for 2.9% of privately insured children and 7.8% of privately insured adults. Out-of-pocket spending relative to income is an important indicator of access to care and should be monitored at the state level.

  15. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans. PMID:15138246

  16. Health insurance tax credits, the earned income tax credit, and health insurance coverage of single mothers.

    PubMed

    Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42.

  17. Health insurance tax credits, the earned income tax credit, and health insurance coverage of single mothers.

    PubMed

    Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. PMID:23813687

  18. 76 FR 61245 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2011 [FR Doc... Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations #0; #0; #0... Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International...

  19. 75 FR 61031 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 29, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-24900 Filed 9-30-10; 11:15 am... Memorandum of September 29, 2010--Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service...;The President ] Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage...

  20. Health Insurance Stability and Health Status: Do Family-Level Coverage Patterns Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert B.; Garasky, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Being uninsured affects one's ability to access medical services and maintain health. Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the authors investigated how individual and family insurance coverage affects adult health. They found that health insurance coverage often varies across family members and changes…

  1. 24 CFR 203.16a - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 203.16a Section 203.16a Housing and Urban Development... requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage. (a) If the mortgage is to cover property improvements (dwelling and related structures/equipment essential to the value of the property and subject to...

  2. 24 CFR 203.16a - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 203.16a Section 203.16a Housing and Urban Development... requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage. (a) If the mortgage is to cover property improvements (dwelling and related structures/equipment essential to the value of the property and subject to...

  3. 24 CFR 203.16a - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 203.16a Section 203.16a Housing and Urban Development... requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage. (a) If the mortgage is to cover property improvements (dwelling and related structures/equipment essential to the value of the property and subject to...

  4. 24 CFR 203.16a - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 203.16a Section 203.16a Housing and Urban Development... requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage. (a) If the mortgage is to cover property improvements (dwelling and related structures/equipment essential to the value of the property and subject to...

  5. 24 CFR 203.16a - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 203.16a Section 203.16a Housing and Urban Development... requirement for maintaining flood insurance coverage. (a) If the mortgage is to cover property improvements (dwelling and related structures/equipment essential to the value of the property and subject to...

  6. 77 FR 4734 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance-Stillborn Child Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    .... 74 FR 59479. Our research has determined that the law of the 50 States is silent as to which parent... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO30 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Stillborn Child Coverage AGENCY... a stillborn child is otherwise eligible to be insured by the SGLI coverage of more than one...

  7. 24 CFR 965.215 - Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead-based paint liability... Insurance Coverage § 965.215 Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. (a) General. The purpose of this... with lead-based paint activities that the PHA undertakes, in accordance with the PHA's ACC with...

  8. 24 CFR 965.215 - Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead-based paint liability... Insurance Coverage § 965.215 Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. (a) General. The purpose of this... with lead-based paint activities that the PHA undertakes, in accordance with the PHA's ACC with...

  9. 24 CFR 965.215 - Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead-based paint liability... Insurance Coverage § 965.215 Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. (a) General. The purpose of this... with lead-based paint activities that the PHA undertakes, in accordance with the PHA's ACC with...

  10. 24 CFR 965.215 - Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint liability... Insurance Coverage § 965.215 Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. (a) General. The purpose of this... with lead-based paint activities that the PHA undertakes, in accordance with the PHA's ACC with...

  11. 24 CFR 965.215 - Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead-based paint liability... Insurance Coverage § 965.215 Lead-based paint liability insurance coverage. (a) General. The purpose of this... with lead-based paint activities that the PHA undertakes, in accordance with the PHA's ACC with...

  12. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  13. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of December 27, 2013 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  14. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of August 21, 2009 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  15. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  16. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 28, 2011 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  17. 5 CFR 870.501 - Basic insurance: Effective dates of automatic coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... previously filed a waiver which remains in effect. (2) An insured employee who moves to another covered position is automatically insured on the effective date of the move, unless the employee files a waiver of... insurance coverage with the employing office or had previously filed a waiver which remains in effect....

  18. 48 CFR 1352.228-72 - Deductibles under required insurance coverage-fixed price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.228-72 Deductibles under required insurance coverage—fixed price. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(d), insert the following clause: Deductibles Under Required Insurance Coverage—Fixed Price... insurance coverage-fixed price. 1352.228-72 Section 1352.228-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  19. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  20. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  1. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  2. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  3. 14 CFR 205.7 - Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage. 205.7 Section 205.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.7 Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance... notice period shall start to run from the date such notice is actually received at the Department....

  4. 14 CFR 205.7 - Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage. 205.7 Section 205.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.7 Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance... notice period shall start to run from the date such notice is actually received at the Department....

  5. 14 CFR 205.7 - Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage. 205.7 Section 205.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.7 Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance... notice period shall start to run from the date such notice is actually received at the Department....

  6. 14 CFR 205.7 - Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage. 205.7 Section 205.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.7 Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance... notice period shall start to run from the date such notice is actually received at the Department....

  7. 14 CFR 205.7 - Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., expiration, or replacement of insurance coverage. 205.7 Section 205.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.7 Cancellation, withdrawal, modification, expiration, or replacement of insurance... notice period shall start to run from the date such notice is actually received at the Department....

  8. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 745 - Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded Accounts in Credit Unions Insured by the National Credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded... Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE... examples interpret the rules for insurance of accounts contained in 12 CFR part 745 and focus on...

  9. 20 CFR 726.4 - Who must obtain insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to self-insure or obtain a policy or contract of insurance to guarantee the payment of benefits for... business entity, any former, current, or future operator or any other form of business entity which has had... business entity to self-insure or obtain a policy or contract of insurance shall in no way relieve...

  10. 44 CFR 73.3 - Denial of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.3 Denial of flood...

  11. 44 CFR 73.3 - Denial of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.3 Denial of flood...

  12. 44 CFR 73.4 - Restoration of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Restoration of flood insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.4 Restoration of flood...

  13. 44 CFR 73.3 - Denial of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.3 Denial of flood...

  14. 44 CFR 73.3 - Denial of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Denial of flood insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.3 Denial of flood...

  15. 44 CFR 73.3 - Denial of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.3 Denial of flood...

  16. Closing the gaps in health insurance coverage. Council on Medical Service.

    PubMed

    1986-02-14

    Many persons in the United States are without adequate or any health insurance. Presented here are the details of the American Medical Association's proposal for the establishment of state private insurance pools to address the needs of the short-term unemployed and of state risk-pooling programs to help the medically uninsurable. Also discussed are possible solutions to the problems of a third group, those who cannot afford private health insurance policies or who cannot pay for adequate protection.

  17. 76 FR 46621 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Services, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Student Health Insurance Coverage (76 FR 7767, February 22, 2011...-AQ07 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under... group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions...

  18. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  19. 44 CFR 73.4 - Restoration of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restoration of flood... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.4 Restoration of flood...

  20. 44 CFR 73.4 - Restoration of flood insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restoration of flood... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1316 OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 § 73.4 Restoration of flood...

  1. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  2. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  3. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-03

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  4. The impact of the macroeconomy on health insurance coverage: evidence from the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the macroeconomy on the health insurance coverage of Americans using panel data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation for 2004-2010, a period that includes the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We find that a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 1.67 percentage point (2.12%) reduction in the probability that men have health insurance; this effect is strongest among college-educated, white, and older (50-64 years old) men. For women and children, health insurance coverage is not significantly correlated with the unemployment rate, which may be the result of public health insurance acting as a social safety net. Compared with the previous recession, the health insurance coverage of men is more sensitive to the unemployment rate, which may be due to the nature of the Great Recession.

  5. The impact of the macroeconomy on health insurance coverage: evidence from the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the macroeconomy on the health insurance coverage of Americans using panel data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation for 2004-2010, a period that includes the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We find that a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 1.67 percentage point (2.12%) reduction in the probability that men have health insurance; this effect is strongest among college-educated, white, and older (50-64 years old) men. For women and children, health insurance coverage is not significantly correlated with the unemployment rate, which may be the result of public health insurance acting as a social safety net. Compared with the previous recession, the health insurance coverage of men is more sensitive to the unemployment rate, which may be due to the nature of the Great Recession. PMID:24227184

  6. 77 FR 60035 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 27, 2012 [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  7. Prescription Drug Insurance Coverage and Patient Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kesselheim, Aaron S.; Huybrechts, Krista F.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Fulchino, Lisa A.; Isaman, Danielle L.; Kowal, Mary K.; Brennan, Troyen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous reviews have shown that changes in prescription drug insurance benefits can impact medication use and adherence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies addressing the association between prescription drug coverage and health outcomes. Studies were included if: (1) they involved collecting empirical data surrounding an expansion or restriction of prescription drug coverage and (2) reported on clinical outcomes. Twenty-three studies demonstrated that broader prescription drug insurance reduces use of other health care services, and positively affects outcomes. Coverage gaps or caps on drug insurance generally led to worse outcomes. States should consider implementing the expansions in drug coverage offered by the Affordable Care Act to improve the health of low-income patients receiving state-based health insurance. PMID:25521879

  8. Improving health insurance coverage for Latino children: a review of barriers, challenges and State strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Zambrana, Ruth E.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To summarize key findings on disparities in health insurance coverage for latino children, to present selected socioeconomic and healthcare access indicators for the nine states with latino populations over 500,000, and to recommend state strategies to increase public health insurance coverage for latino children. METHODS: Literature review performed on latino children and health insurance coverage, key informant interviews with frontline service providers, review of outreach sections of eight state 1115 waiver requests approved by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and national and state data compiled on sociodemographic and healthcare access indicators for nine states with the largest latino populations. RESULTS: Eligibility and enrollment into Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) are hindered by financial, nonfinancial, and social policy barriers. Disparities in insurance and access indicators show that lack of parental employment-linked benefits, procedural barriers to enrollment, and lack of clarification on eligibility for children of noncitizen parents are associated with low levels of insurance coverage among latino children. CONCLUSION: To state strategies consistent with the overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 to eliminate health disparities can increase health insurance coverage for children of low-wage latino workers. PMID:15101671

  9. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services for low-income children. Such procedures include those designed to— (1) Increase the number of... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  10. Insurance Coverage of Prescription Drugs and the Rural Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Curt; Schur, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Rural impacts of a Medicare drug benefit will ultimately depend on the number of elderly who are currently without drug coverage, new demand by those currently without coverage, the nature of the new benefit relative to current benefits, and benefit design. Purpose: To enhance understanding of drug coverage among rural elderly Medicare…

  11. Commentary: responsibility and insurance coverage of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Slovenko, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Should criminal law principles be applied to life insurance claims made by the beneficiaries of an insured person who commits suicide? Any discussion of the criminal law and the M'Naghten test of criminal responsibility, as sometimes used by the courts and recommended by the authors, obfuscates the resolution of contemporary issues.

  12. Insurance Coverage & Whither Thou Goest for Health Information in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Saulsberry, Loren; Price, Mary; Hsu, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine use of the Internet (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) technologies by privately insured, publicly insured (Medicare/Medicaid), or uninsured U.S. adults in 2012. Data Source Pew Charitable Trust telephone interviews of a nationally representative, random sample of 3,014 adult U.S. residents, age 18+. Methods Estimate health information seeking behavior overall and by segment (i.e., insurance type), then, adjust estimates for individual traits, clinical need, and technology access using logistic regression. Results Most respondents prefer offline to online (Internet) health information sources; over half across all segments use the Internet. More respondents communicate with providers offline compared with online. Most self-reported Internet users use online tools for health information, with privately insured respondents more likely to use new technologies. Unadjusted use rates differ across segments. Medicaid beneficiaries are more likely than the privately insured to share health information online, and Medicare beneficiaries are more likely than the privately insured to text with health professionals. After adjustment, these differences were minimal (e.g., Medicare beneficiaries had odds similar to the privately insured of online physician consultations), or the direction of the association reversed (e.g., Medicaid beneficiaries had greater odds than the privately insured of online physician consultations versus lower odds before adjustment). Discussion Few adults report eHealth or mHealth use in 2012. Use levels appear unevenly distributed across insurance types, which could be mostly attributed to differences in individual traits and/or need. As out-of-pocket costs of medical care increases, consumers may increasingly turn to these generally free electronic health tools. PMID:25383242

  13. 75 FR 41787 - Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under... regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of those temporary regulations also serves as the text of...

  14. 75 FR 34571 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules... respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan... temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance...

  15. 75 FR 70114 - Amendment to the Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Amendment to interim final... regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group...

  16. Building blocks for reform: achieving universal coverage with private and public group health insurance.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Davis, Karen; Collins, Sara R

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for universal health insurance that builds on the current U.S. mixed private-public system by expanding group coverage through private markets and publicly sponsored insurance. This Building Blocks approach includes a new national insurance "connector" that offers small businesses and individuals a structured choice of a Medicare-like public option and private plans. Other features include an individual mandate, required employer contributions, Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansion, and tax credits to assure affordability. The paper estimates coverage and costs, and assesses the approach. Our findings indicate that the framework could reach near-universal coverage with little net increase in national health spending. PMID:18474952

  17. Health Insurance Coverage and Take-Up: Lessons from Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Baicker, Katherine; Congdon, William J; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2012-01-01

    Context Millions of uninsured Americans ostensibly have insurance available to them—many at very low cost—but do not take it up. Traditional economic analysis is based on the premise that these are rational decisions, but it is hard to reconcile observed enrollment patterns with this view. The policy prescriptions that the traditional model generates may thus fail to achieve their goals. Behavioral economics, which integrates insights from psychology into economic analysis, identifies important deviations from the traditional assumptions of rationality and can thus improve our understanding of what drives health insurance take-up and improved policy design. Methods Rather than a systematic review of the coverage literature, this article is a primer for considering issues in health insurance coverage from a behavioral economics perspective, supplementing the standard model. We present relevant evidence on decision making and insurance take-up and use it to develop a behavioral approach to both the policy problem posed by the lack of health insurance coverage and possible policy solutions to that problem. Findings We found that evidence from behavioral economics can shed light on both the sources of low take-up and the efficacy of different policy levers intended to expand coverage. We then applied these insights to policy design questions for public and private insurance coverage and to the implementation of the recently enacted health reform, focusing on the use of behavioral insights to maximize the value of spending on coverage. Conclusions We concluded that the success of health insurance coverage reform depends crucially on understanding the behavioral barriers to take-up. The take-up process is likely governed by psychology as much as economics, and public resources can likely be used much more effectively with behaviorally informed policy design. PMID:22428694

  18. Equity of the premium of the Ghanaian national health insurance scheme and the implications for achieving universal coverage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced to provide access to adequate health care regardless of ability to pay. By law the NHIS is mandatory but because the informal sector has to make premium payment before they are enrolled, the authorities are unable to enforce mandatory nature of the scheme. The ultimate goal of the Scheme then is to provide all residents with access to adequate health care at affordable cost. In other words, the Scheme intends to achieve universal coverage. An important factor for the achievement of universal coverage is that revenue collection be equitable. The purpose of this study is to examine the vertical and horizontal equity of the premium collection of the Scheme. The Kakwani index method as well as graphical analysis was used to study the vertical equity. Horizontal inequity was measured through the effect of the premium on redistribution of ability to pay of members. The extent to which the premium could cause catastrophic expenditure was also examined. The results showed that revenue collection was both vertically and horizontally inequitable. The horizontal inequity had a greater effect on redistribution of ability to pay than vertical inequity. The computation of catastrophic expenditure showed that a small minority of the poor were likely to incur catastrophic expenditure from paying the premium a situation that could impede the achievement of universal coverage. The study provides recommendations to improve the inequitable system of premium payment to help achieve universal coverage. PMID:23294982

  19. Insurance coverage for civil RICO claims against professionals: The impact of recent trends and developments

    SciTech Connect

    Granofsky, R.; Getzoff, S.B.

    1993-12-31

    Litigants alleging violations of the Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) have increasingly attempted to ensnare attorneys and accountants. The rapid expansion of RICO lawsuits presents complex questions regarding insurance coverage under professional liability policies. Coverage for RICO claims against professionals may not automatically be excluded by typical policy language. The federal circuits have provided conflicting definitions of the elements of a RICO violation, including the nature of the intent that must be established against a defendant. The issues significantly affect the application of intentional and criminal act exclusions found in professional liability policies. Developing trends in the courts, including the recent Supreme Court decision in Reeves v. Ernst & Young will also undoubtedly have an impact upon these controversies and, indirectly, their coverage implications. The circuit courts are also divided on whether RICO liability can be imposed vicariously, an issue of great significance to professional firms and their insurers. Coverage may be available to a firm or its members for vicarious liability where a valid basis exists for disclaiming coverage for the person who committed the RICO violation. The RICO treble damages remedy creates another common coverage dispute. Recent cases analyzing the compensatory and punitive components of the treble damages remedy provide significant guidance regarding its insurability. Commentators have struggled with RICO insurance coverage issues during the twenty-two years since Congress enacted the legislation. While developing precedent in recent years provides a greater perspective on coverage issues, many unresolved questions remain. This article explores common coverage controversies arising out of RICO claims against professionals and the coverage implications of developing trends and controversies in RICO jurisprudence. 139 refs.

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Autism Coverage on Private Insurance Premiums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouder, James N.; Spielman, Stuart; Mandell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Many states are considering legislation requiring private insurance companies to pay for autism-related services. Arguments against mandates include that they will result in higher premiums. Using Pennsylvania legislation as an example, which proposed covering services up to $36,000 per year for individuals less than 21 years of age, this paper…

  1. 48 CFR 1852.228-75 - Minimum insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of at least $500,000 per occurrence. (c) Motor vehicle liability insurance written on the comprehensive form of policy which provides for bodily injury and property damage liability covering the operation of all motor vehicles used in connection with performing the contract. Policies covering...

  2. Health Insurance and Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…

  3. Health insurance coverage, income distribution and healthcare quality in local healthcare markets.

    PubMed

    Damianov, Damian S; Pagán, José A

    2013-08-01

    We develop a theoretical model of a local healthcare system in which consumers, health insurance companies, and healthcare providers interact with each other in markets for health insurance and healthcare services. When income and health status are heterogeneous, and healthcare quality is associated with fixed costs, the market equilibrium level of healthcare quality will be underprovided. Thus, healthcare reform provisions and proposals to cover the uninsured can be interpreted as an attempt to correct this market failure. We illustrate with a numerical example that if consumers at the local level clearly understand the linkages between health insurance coverage and the quality of local healthcare services, health insurance coverage proposals are more likely to enjoy public support.

  4. Another health insurance gap: gaining and losing coverage among natives and immigrants at older ages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Adriana M; Hardy, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As the immigrant population grows older and larger, limitations on access to health insurance may create a new subgroup of people who remain outside or on the margin of coverage. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we address the health insurance gap between foreign-born and native-born adults among those aged 50-64 and the 65 and older, two sub-populations that have received relatively little attention in past research. We argue that current practices leave a significant minority of older foreign-born residents inconsistently covered or without any insurance. We find that health insurance coverage for older immigrants is both less likely and more episodic even when compositional differences in SES and assimilation are controlled.

  5. Insurance cancellations in context: stability of coverage in the nongroup market prior to health reform.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D

    2014-05-01

    Recent cancellations of nongroup health insurance plans generated much policy debate and raised concerns that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) may increase the number of uninsured Americans in the short term. This article provides evidence on the stability of nongroup coverage using US census data for the period 2008-11, before ACA provisions took effect. The principal findings are threefold. First, this market was characterized by high turnover: Only 42 percent of people with nongroup coverage at the outset of the study period retained that coverage after twelve months. Second, 80 percent of people experiencing coverage changes acquired other insurance within a year, most commonly from an employer. Third, turnover varied across groups, with stable coverage more common for whites and self-employed people than for other groups. Turnover was particularly high among adults ages 19-35, with only 21 percent of young adults retaining continuous nongroup coverage for two years. Given estimates from 2012 that 10.8 million people were covered in this market, these results suggest that 6.2 million people leave nongroup coverage annually. This suggests that the nongroup market was characterized by frequent disruptions in coverage before the ACA and that the effects of the recent cancellations are not necessarily out of the norm. These results can serve as a useful pre-ACA baseline with which to evaluate the law's long-term impact on the stability of nongroup coverage. PMID:24760479

  6. Insurance cancellations in context: stability of coverage in the nongroup market prior to health reform.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D

    2014-05-01

    Recent cancellations of nongroup health insurance plans generated much policy debate and raised concerns that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) may increase the number of uninsured Americans in the short term. This article provides evidence on the stability of nongroup coverage using US census data for the period 2008-11, before ACA provisions took effect. The principal findings are threefold. First, this market was characterized by high turnover: Only 42 percent of people with nongroup coverage at the outset of the study period retained that coverage after twelve months. Second, 80 percent of people experiencing coverage changes acquired other insurance within a year, most commonly from an employer. Third, turnover varied across groups, with stable coverage more common for whites and self-employed people than for other groups. Turnover was particularly high among adults ages 19-35, with only 21 percent of young adults retaining continuous nongroup coverage for two years. Given estimates from 2012 that 10.8 million people were covered in this market, these results suggest that 6.2 million people leave nongroup coverage annually. This suggests that the nongroup market was characterized by frequent disruptions in coverage before the ACA and that the effects of the recent cancellations are not necessarily out of the norm. These results can serve as a useful pre-ACA baseline with which to evaluate the law's long-term impact on the stability of nongroup coverage.

  7. Women's Health Coverage Since the ACA: Improvements for Most, But Insurer Exclusions Put Many at Risk.

    PubMed

    Palanker, Dania; Davenport, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Issue: Since enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many more women have health insurance than before the law, in part because it prohibits insurer practices that discriminate against women. However, gaps in women's health coverage persist. Insurers often exclude health services that women are likely to need, leaving women vulnerable to higher costs and denied claims that threaten their economic security and physical health. Goal: To uncover the types and incidence of insurer exclusions that may disproportionately affect women's coverage. Method: The authors examined qualified health plans from 109 insurers across 16 states for 2014, 2015, or both years. Key findings and conclusions: Six types of services are frequently excluded from insurance coverage: treatment of conditions resulting from noncovered services, maintenance therapy, genetic testing, fetal reduction surgery, treatment of self-inflicted conditions, and preventive services not covered by law. Policy change recommendations include prohibiting variations within states' "essential health benefits" benchmark plans and requiring transparency and simplified language in plan documents. PMID:27483555

  8. Moving toward Universal Coverage of Health Insurance in Vietnam: Barriers, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons from Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045223

  9. Employer-sponsored health insurance coverage continues to decline in a new decade.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Most Americans, particularly those under age 65, rely on health insurance offered through the workplace. Given continuing high unemployment, it comes as no surprise that the share of Americans under age 65 covered by employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) eroded for the 11th year in a row in 2011, falling from 58.6 percent in 2010 to 58.3 percent. The situation started deteriorating long before the Great Recession: the share of Americans under age 65 covered by ESI eroded every year from 2000 to 2011, decreasing by a total of 10.9 percentage points. As many as 29 million more people under age 65 would have had ESI in 2011 if the coverage rate had remained at the 2000 level. The decline in ESI coverage has been accompanied by an overall decline in health insurance coverage. The number of uninsured non-elderly Americans was 47.9 million in 2011--11.7 million higher than in 2000. Increasing public insurance coverage, particularly among children, is the only reason the uninsured rate did not rise one-for-one with losses in ESI. In addition, key components in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act took effect in 2010, shielding young adults from further coverage losses. PMID:24397230

  10. A Survey of Oral Cancer Screening Insurance Coverage in New York City.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Goh, Charlene; Zavras, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies show that fewer than 25% of people who visit a dentist regularly are screened for oral cancer, and that the majority of oral cancers present at an advanced stage, when cure rates are already abysmal. This study explores the current status of oral cancer screening coverage among a variety of insurance providers in New York City. The study focuses on determining the coverage and frequency of the cluster of salient CDT (dental) codes surrounding oral cancer screenings. PMID:27209714

  11. 77 FR 31814 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Insurance Coverage and Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... on August 5, 1999 (64 FR 42632), is withdrawn as of May 30, 2012. ADDRESSES: The Notice of Proposed... flood insurance would be available for older structures built without the benefit of detailed flood risk... discussed the criteria banks use in issuing mortgages, such as a borrower's ability to insure the...

  12. Variations in Health Insurance Coverage for Rural and Urban Nonelderly Adult Residents of Florida, Indiana, and Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei Hu, Hsou; Duncan, R. Paul; Radcliff, Tiffany A.; Porter, Colleen K.; Hall, Allyson G.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Evidence exists for differences in health insurance coverage among states, but less is known about variations across different kinds of communities within states. Purpose: This article assesses the role of residential setting (metropolitan county, rural adjacent, and rural nonadjacent) in health insurance coverage for adult residents,…

  13. Does Health Insurance Coverage Lead to Better Health and Educational Outcomes? Evidence from Rural China. NBER Working Paper No. 16417

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuyu; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Many governments advocate nationwide health insurance coverage but the effects of such a program are less known in developing countries. We use part of the 2006 China Agricultural Census (CAC) to examine whether the recent health insurance coverage in rural China has affected children mortality, pregnancy mortality, and the school enrollment of…

  14. Pollution-liability insurance: Availability, demand, and coverage. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution liability insurance availability, demand, and coverage. References discuss the reduced availability of pollution liability insurance, the increased demand for this insurance, and the impact of Superfund decisions by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on pollution liability insurance claims. Court cases to determine whether the polluting company or the insurance company is responsible for hazardous materials cleanup are cited. Requirements for self insurance and elimination of the requirement for hazardous waste clean-up companies to be insured by a third company are included. (Contains a minimum of 204 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Health insurance eroding for working families: employer-provided coverage declines for fifth consecutive year.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elise

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the percentage of Americans with employer-provided health insurance fell for the fifth year in a row. Workers and their families have been falling into the ranks of the uninsured at alarming rates. The downward trend in employer-provided coverage for children also continued into 2005. In the previous four years, children were less likely to become uninsured as public sector health coverage expanded, but in 2005 the rate of uninsured children increased. While Medicaid and SCHIP still work for many, the government has not picked up coverage for everybody who lost insurance. The weakening of this system-notably for children-is particularly difficult for workers and their families in a time of stagnating incomes. Furthermore, these programs are not designed to prevent low-income adults or middle- or high-income families from becoming uninsured. Government at the federal and state levels has responded to medical inflation with policy changes that reduce public insurance eligibility or with proposals to reduce government costs. Federal policy proposals to lessen the tax advantage of workplace insurance or to encourage a private purchase system could further destabilize the employer-provided system. Now is a critical time to consider health insurance reform. Several promising solutions could increase access to affordable health care. The key is to create large, varied, and stable risk pools.

  16. Is Welfare Reform Responsible for Low Skilled Women's Declining Health Insurance Coverage in the 1990s?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Levine, Judith A.; Levy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the 1989-2001 March Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine whether welfare reform contributed to declines in health insurance coverage experienced by low-skilled women. Between 1988 and 2000, women with less than a high school education experienced an 8.0 percentage point decline in the probability of having…

  17. 75 FR 69577 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Unlimited Coverage for Noninterest-Bearing Transaction Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... provisions of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1821(a)(1)) to provide temporary ] separate insurance coverage for... requested comments on all aspects of the proposed rule. \\2\\ 75 FR 60341 (Sept. 30, 2010). II. Comments on... high assessment rates on banks with a relatively low level of noninterest-bearing transaction...

  18. Insurance coverage of customers induces dishonesty of sellers in markets for credence goods

    PubMed Central

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Neururer, Daniel; Sutter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Honesty is a fundamental pillar for cooperation in human societies and thus for their economic welfare. However, humans do not always act in an honest way. Here, we examine how insurance coverage affects the degree of honesty in credence goods markets. Such markets are plagued by strong incentives for fraudulent behavior of sellers, resulting in estimated annual costs of billions of dollars to customers and the society as a whole. Prime examples of credence goods are all kinds of repair services, the provision of medical treatments, the sale of software programs, and the provision of taxi rides in unfamiliar cities. We examine in a natural field experiment how computer repair shops take advantage of customers’ insurance for repair costs. In a control treatment, the average repair price is about EUR 70, whereas the repair bill increases by more than 80% when the service provider is informed that an insurance would reimburse the bill. Our design allows decomposing the sources of this economically impressive difference, showing that it is mainly due to the overprovision of parts and overcharging of working time. A survey among repair shops shows that the higher bills are mainly ascribed to insured customers being less likely to be concerned about minimizing costs because a third party (the insurer) pays the bill. Overall, our results strongly suggest that insurance coverage greatly increases the extent of dishonesty in important sectors of the economy with potentially huge costs to customers and whole economies. PMID:27325784

  19. Low-wage workers and health insurance coverage: can policymakers target them through their employers?

    PubMed

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2001-01-01

    Many policy initiatives to increase health insurance coverage would subsidize employers to offer coverage or subsidize employees to participate in their employers' health plans. Using data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey, we contrast "low-wage employers" with all other employers. Employees in low-wage businesses have significantly worse access to employment-based insurance than other employees do; they are less likely to work for an employer that offers insurance, less likely to be eligible if working in a business that offers insurance, and less likely to be enrolled if eligible. Low-wage employers contribute lower shares of premiums and offer less generous benefits than other employers do. Policies that would target subsidies to selected employers to increase insurance offers to low-wage workers are difficult to design, however, because several commonly mentioned employer characteristics (including firm size) are found to be poor indicators of low-wage worker concentration. Programs that would set minimum standards for employer plans to be eligible for "buy-ins" need to base these standards on the less generous terms offered by low-wage employers in order to effectively reach low-wage workers and their dependents.

  20. Insurance coverage of customers induces dishonesty of sellers in markets for credence goods.

    PubMed

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Neururer, Daniel; Sutter, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Honesty is a fundamental pillar for cooperation in human societies and thus for their economic welfare. However, humans do not always act in an honest way. Here, we examine how insurance coverage affects the degree of honesty in credence goods markets. Such markets are plagued by strong incentives for fraudulent behavior of sellers, resulting in estimated annual costs of billions of dollars to customers and the society as a whole. Prime examples of credence goods are all kinds of repair services, the provision of medical treatments, the sale of software programs, and the provision of taxi rides in unfamiliar cities. We examine in a natural field experiment how computer repair shops take advantage of customers' insurance for repair costs. In a control treatment, the average repair price is about EUR 70, whereas the repair bill increases by more than 80% when the service provider is informed that an insurance would reimburse the bill. Our design allows decomposing the sources of this economically impressive difference, showing that it is mainly due to the overprovision of parts and overcharging of working time. A survey among repair shops shows that the higher bills are mainly ascribed to insured customers being less likely to be concerned about minimizing costs because a third party (the insurer) pays the bill. Overall, our results strongly suggest that insurance coverage greatly increases the extent of dishonesty in important sectors of the economy with potentially huge costs to customers and whole economies. PMID:27325784

  1. Insurance coverage of customers induces dishonesty of sellers in markets for credence goods.

    PubMed

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Neururer, Daniel; Sutter, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Honesty is a fundamental pillar for cooperation in human societies and thus for their economic welfare. However, humans do not always act in an honest way. Here, we examine how insurance coverage affects the degree of honesty in credence goods markets. Such markets are plagued by strong incentives for fraudulent behavior of sellers, resulting in estimated annual costs of billions of dollars to customers and the society as a whole. Prime examples of credence goods are all kinds of repair services, the provision of medical treatments, the sale of software programs, and the provision of taxi rides in unfamiliar cities. We examine in a natural field experiment how computer repair shops take advantage of customers' insurance for repair costs. In a control treatment, the average repair price is about EUR 70, whereas the repair bill increases by more than 80% when the service provider is informed that an insurance would reimburse the bill. Our design allows decomposing the sources of this economically impressive difference, showing that it is mainly due to the overprovision of parts and overcharging of working time. A survey among repair shops shows that the higher bills are mainly ascribed to insured customers being less likely to be concerned about minimizing costs because a third party (the insurer) pays the bill. Overall, our results strongly suggest that insurance coverage greatly increases the extent of dishonesty in important sectors of the economy with potentially huge costs to customers and whole economies.

  2. Disability, Health Insurance Coverage, and Utilization of Acute Health Services in the United States. Disability Statistics Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    This report uses data from the 1989 National Health Interview Survey to estimate health insurance coverage of children and nonelderly adults with disabilities and their utilization of physician and hospital care as a function of health insurance status. In part 1, national statistics on disability and insurance status are provided for different…

  3. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under...

  4. 75 FR 70159 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage... provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially...

  5. Vaccination coverage in children can be estimated from health insurance data

    PubMed Central

    Kalies, Helen; Redel, Rebekka; Varga, Rudolf; Tauscher, Martin; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    Background The introduction of new vaccines for young children requires instruments for a rapid and timely assessment of the progressively increasing vaccination coverage. We assessed whether routine data generated by statutory health insurances (SHI) might be used to monitor vaccination coverage in young children. Methods For 90% of the population Germany's healthcare system is premium-funded through SHI. Specific medical codes on childhood vaccination are used for billing. These were used to analyse vaccine uptake up to 24 months in children born in Bavaria between 2001–10–01 and 2002–12–31. For children insured in the biggest SHI, vaccination coverage estimates based on billing data were compared to estimates considering only continuously insured children since birth, based on additional data provided by this SHI. Results Definition of an appropriate denominator from the billing data was a major challenge: defining the denominator by any consultation by children with different ID numbers yielded 196,732 children, exceeding the number of births in Bavaria by a factor of 1.4. The main causes for this inflated denominator were migration and change of health insurance number. A reduced dataset based on at least one physician's visit in the first six months and 2nd year of life yielded 111,977 children. Vaccination coverage estimates for children in the biggest SHI were at maximum 1.7% higher than in the data set based on continuously insured children. Conclusion With appropriate adjustments to define the denominator physician's billing data provide a promising tool to estimate immunisation coverage. A slight overestimation based on these data was explained by children never seeing a physician. PMID:18312683

  6. Ethical and value issues in insurance coverage for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Brock, Dan W

    2010-01-01

    Many new cancer drugs provide only limited benefits, but at very great cost, for example, $200,000-$300,000 per quality-adjusted life year produced. By most standards of value or cost-effectiveness, this does not represent good value. I first review several of the causes of this value failure, including monopoly patents, prohibitions on Medicare's negotiating on drug prices, health insurance protecting patients from costs, and financial incentives of physicians to use these drugs. Besides value or cost-effectiveness, the other principal aim in health care resource allocation should be equity among the population served. I examine several equity considerations-priority to the worse off, aggregation and special priority to life extension, and the rule of rescue-and argue that none justifies greater priority for cancer treatment on the grounds of equity. Finally, I conclude by noting two recent policy changes that are in the wrong direction for achieving value in cancer care, and suggesting some small steps that could take us in the right direction.

  7. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  8. Child Health Insurance Coverage and Household Activity toward Child Development in Four South American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. Methods We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. Results We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. Conclusions The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship. PMID:23807717

  9. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act Evaluation Findings on Children's Health Insurance Coverage in an Evolving Health Care Landscape.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) reauthorized CHIP through federal fiscal year 2019 and, together with provisions in the Affordable Care Act, federal funding for the program was extended through federal fiscal year 2015. Congressional action is required or federal funding for the program will end in September 2015. This supplement to Academic Pediatrics is intended to inform discussions about CHIP's future. Most of the new research presented comes from a large evaluation of CHIP mandated by Congress in the CHIPRA. Since CHIP started in 1997, millions of lower-income children have secured health insurance coverage and needed care, reducing the financial burdens and stress on their families. States made substantial progress in simplifying enrollment and retention. When implemented optimally, Express Lane Eligibility has the potential to help cover more of the millions of eligible children who remain uninsured. Children move frequently between Medicaid and CHIP, and many experienced a gap in coverage with this transition. CHIP enrollees had good access to care. For nearly every health care access, use, care, and cost measure examined, CHIP enrollees fared better than uninsured children. Access in CHIP was similar to private coverage for most measures, but financial burdens were substantially lower and access to weekend and nighttime care was not as good. The Affordable Care Act coverage options have the potential to reduce uninsured rates among children, but complex transition issues must first be resolved to ensure families have access to affordable coverage, leading many stakeholders to recommend funding for CHIP be continued. PMID:25906953

  10. Paying for Prevention: Challenges to Health Insurance Coverage for Biomedical HIV Prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of HIV infection continues to be a crucial public health priority in the United States, especially among populations at elevated risk such as men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, and racial and ethnic minority communities. Although most HIV prevention efforts to date have focused on changing risky behaviors, the past decade has yielded efficacious new biomedical technologies designed to prevent infection, such as the prophylactic use of antiretroviral drugs and the first indications of an efficacious vaccine. Access to prevention technologies will be a significant part of the next decade’s response to HIV, and advocates are mobilizing to achieve more widespread use of these interventions. These breakthroughs, however, arrive at a time of escalating healthcare costs; health insurance coverage therefore raises pressing new questions about priority-setting and the allocation of responsibility for public health. The goals of this Article are to identify legal challenges and potential solutions for expanding access to biomedical HIV prevention through health insurance coverage. This Article discusses the public policy implications of HIV prevention coverage decisions, assesses possible legal grounds on which insurers may initially deny coverage for these technologies, and evaluates the extent to which these denials may survive external and judicial review. Because several of these legal grounds may be persuasive, particularly denials on the basis of medical necessity, this Article also explores alternative strategies for financing biomedical HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23356098

  11. Paying for prevention: challenges to health insurance coverage for biomedical HIV prevention in the United States.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of HIV infection continues to be a crucial public health priority in the United States, especially among populations at elevated risk such as men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, and racial and ethnic minority communities. Although most HIV prevention efforts to date have focused on changing risky behaviors, the past decade yielded efficacious new biomedical technologies designed to prevent infection, such as the prophylactic use of antiretroviral drugs and the first indications of an efficacious vaccine. Access to prevention technologies will be a significant part of the next decade's response to HIV and advocates are mobilizing to achieve more widespread use of these interventions. These breakthroughs, however, arrive at a time of escalating healthcare costs; health insurance coverage therefore raises pressing new questions about priority-setting and the allocation of responsibility for public health. The goals of this Article are to identify legal challenges and potential solutions for expanding access to biomedical HIV prevention through health insurance coverage. This Article discusses the public policy implications of HIVprevention coverage decisions, assesses possible legal grounds on which insurers may initially deny coverage for these technologies, and evaluates the extent to which these denials may survive external and judicial review. Because several of these legal grounds may be persuasive, particularly denials on the basis of medical necessity, this Article also explores alternative strategies for financing biomedical HIV prevention efforts.

  12. Health Care Reform and Women’s Insurance Coverage for Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bruen, Brian K.; Ku, Leighton

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) will increase insurance coverage for US citizens and for breast and cervical cancer screening through insurance expansions and regulatory changes. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the number of low-income women who would gain health insurance after implementation of the ACA and thus be able to obtain cancer screening. A secondary objective was to estimate the size and characteristics of the uninsured low-income population and the number of women who would still need National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) services. Methods We used the nationally representative 2009 American Community Survey to estimate the determinants of insurance status for women in Massachusetts, assuming full implementation of the ACA. We extrapolated findings to simulate the effects of the ACA on each state. We used individual-level predicted probabilities of being uninsured to generate estimates of the number of women who would gain health insurance after implementation of the ACA and to predict demand for NBCCEDP services. Results Approximately 6.8 million low-income women would gain health insurance, potentially increasing the annual demand for cancer screenings initially by about 500,000 mammograms and 1.3 million Papanicolaou tests. Despite a 60% decrease in the number of low-income uninsured women, the NBCCEDP would still serve fewer than one-third of the estimated number of women eligible for services. The NBCCEDP-eligible population would comprise a larger number of women with language and literacy-related barriers to care. Conclusion Implementation of the ACA would increase insurance coverage and access to cancer screening for millions of women, but the NBCCEDP will remain essential for the millions who will remain uninsured. PMID:23098646

  13. Moving towards universal health coverage: health insurance reforms in nine developing countries in Africa and Asia.

    PubMed

    Lagomarsino, Gina; Garabrant, Alice; Adyas, Atikah; Muga, Richard; Otoo, Nathaniel

    2012-09-01

    We analyse nine low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia that have implemented national health insurance reforms designed to move towards universal health coverage. Using the functions-of-health-systems framework, we describe these countries' approaches to raising prepaid revenues, pooling risk, and purchasing services. Then, using the coverage-box framework, we assess their progress across three dimensions of coverage: who, what services, and what proportion of health costs are covered. We identify some patterns in the structure of these countries' reforms, such as use of tax revenues to subsidise target populations, steps towards broader risk pools, and emphasis on purchasing services through demand-side financing mechanisms. However, none of the reforms purely conform to common health-system archetypes, nor are they identical to each other. We report some trends in these countries' progress towards universal coverage, such as increasing enrolment in government health insurance, a movement towards expanded benefits packages, and decreasing out-of-pocket spending accompanied by increasing government share of spending on health. Common, comparable indicators of progress towards universal coverage are needed to enable countries undergoing reforms to assess outcomes and make midcourse corrections in policy and implementation. PMID:22959390

  14. National Health Insurance Development in China from 2004 to 2011: Coverage versus Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yaoguang; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The simultaneous improvement of the security capability of China Health Insurance System and its development in the last decade remains uncertain. This study measures the status and trends of reimbursement levels of the China Health Insurance System, as well as to offer policy advice to subsequent insurance reforms. Methods The National Reimbursement Ratio was created to determine the reimbursement level of the national health insurance system based on total health expenditure and the covered population. Chinese total health expenditure data from 2004 to 2011 were extracted from China’s Health Statistics according to the standards of the International Classification for Health Accounts by Healthcare Financing. Results In 2011, the medical expenditure per capita in China was USD 130.95 and the National Reimbursement Ratio was 26.39%. The National Reimbursement Ratio showed an intense transition from 2004 to 2011, with a sharp decrease from 98.51% in 2004 to 22.44% in 2009, and then a small increase to 26.39% in 2011. Conclusion The National Reimbursement Ratio was effective in revealing the reimbursement level of the national health insurance system and in predicting its trends. The challenge to China’s healthcare reform is to switch from increasing insurance coverage to guaranteeing a steady increase in government input and building a powerful supervision mechanism. PMID:26020248

  15. A Tale of Two Counties: Expanding Health Insurance Coverage for Children in California

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Embry M; Hughes, Dana

    2006-01-01

    During difficult economic times, many California counties have expanded health insurance coverage for low-income children. These Children's Health Initiatives (CHIs) enroll children in public programs and provide new health insurance, Healthy Kids, for those ineligible for existing programs. This article describes the policy issues in implementing the Santa Clara and San Mateo County CHIs, as well as the children's enrollment levels and utilization of services. These CHIs are among the first of the thirty California counties planning or implementing such initiatives. Their success depends on leadership from county agencies that have not traditionally worked closely together, as well as the development of a diverse public and private funding base. This effort to provide universal coverage for all children is important to national policymakers desiring similar goals. PMID:16953809

  16. The impact of maternity length-of-stay mandates on the labor market and insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Sabik, Lindsay M; Laugesen, Miriam J

    2012-01-01

    To understand the effects of insurance regulation on the labor market and insurance coverage, this study uses a difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis to compare five states that passed minimum maternity length-of-stay laws with states that waited until after a federal law was passed. On average, we do not find statistically significant effects on labor market outcomes such as hours of work and wages. However, we find that employees of small firms in states with maternity length-of-stay mandates experienced a 6.2-percentage-point decline in the likelihood of having employer-sponsored insurance. Implementation of federal health reform that requires minimum benefit standards should consider the implications for firms of differing sizes.

  17. Expensive but worth it: older parents’ attitudes and opinions about the costs and insurance coverage for in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Robert D.; MacDougall, Kirstin; Davis, Anne C.; Beyene, Yewoubdar

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe older parents’ attitudes and opinions about the costs and insurance coverage for IVF. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Two Northern California IVF practices. Patient(s) Sixty women and 35 male partners in which the woman had delivered her first child after the age of 40 years using IVF. Intervention(s) Two in-depth interviews over 3 months. Main Outcome Measure(s) Thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Result(s) We found that although the costs of IVF were perceived as high, even by those with insurance or who could afford them, the cost of IVF relative to other expenses in life was dwarfed by the value attributed to having a child. Women were twice as likely as men to support insurance coverage for IVF. Both men and women with complete or partial IVF insurance coverage were more likely to support insurance than those without coverage. There was a broad range of attitudes and opinions about the appropriateness of IVF insurance coverage, which addressed questions of age, gender equality, reproductive choice, whether infertility is a medical illness, and the role of personal and societal economic equity and responsibility. Conclusion(s) Despite a generally favorable opinion about the appropriateness of insurance coverage by those who have successfully undergone IVF treatment, the affordability of IVF remains an unresolved dilemma in the United States. PMID:22118993

  18. Stability of children's insurance coverage and implications for access to care: evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Thomas; Orzol, Sean M; Shore-Sheppard, Lara

    2014-06-01

    Even as the number of children with health insurance has increased, coverage transitions--movement into and out of coverage and between public and private insurance--have become more common. Using data from 1996 to 2005, we examine whether insurance instability has implications for access to primary care. Because unobserved factors related to parental behavior and child health may affect both the stability of coverage and utilization, we estimate the relationship between insurance and the probability that a child has at least one physician visit per year using a model that includes child fixed effects to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Although we find that unobserved heterogeneity is an important factor influencing cross-sectional correlations, conditioning on child fixed effects we find a statistically and economically significant relationship between insurance coverage stability and access to care. Children who have part-year public or private insurance are more likely to have at least one doctor's visit than children who are uninsured for a full year, but less likely than children with full-year coverage. We find comparable effects for public and private insurance. Although cross-sectional analyses suggest that transitions directly between public and private insurance are associated with lower rates of utilization, the evidence of such an effect is much weaker when we condition on child fixed effects.

  19. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China's success?

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    China successfully achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history. While the achievement is widely recognized, it is still largely unexplored why China was able to attain it within a short period. This study aims to fill the gap. Through a systematic political and socio-economic analysis, it identifies seven major drivers for China's success, including (1) the SARS outbreak as a wake-up call, (2) strong public support for government intervention in health care, (3) renewed political commitment from top leaders, (4) heavy government subsidies, (5) fiscal capacity backed by China's economic power, (6) financial and political responsibilities delegated to local governments and (7) programmatic implementation strategy. Three of the factors seem to be unique to China (i.e., the SARS outbreak, the delegation, and the programmatic strategy.) while the other factors are commonly found in other countries' insurance expansion experiences. This study also discusses challenges and recommendations for China's health financing, such as reducing financial risk as an immediate task, equalizing benefit across insurance programs as a long-term goal, improving quality by tying provider payment to performance, and controlling costs through coordinated reform initiatives. Finally, it draws lessons for other developing countries. PMID:26251322

  20. Insurers' policies on coverage for behavior management services and the impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on dental insurance coverage for behavior management services depends upon the child's source of insurance (Medicaid, CHIP, private commercial) and the policies that govern each such source. This contribution describes historical and projected sources of pediatric dental coverage, catalogues the seven behavior codes used by dentists, compares how often they are billed by pediatric and general dentists, assesses payment policies and practices for behavioral services across coverage sources, and describes how ACA coverage policies may impact each source. Differences between Congressional intent to ensure comprehensive oral health services with meaningful consumer protections for all legal-resident children and regulatory action by the Departments of Treasury and Health and Human Services are explored to explain how regulations fail to meet Congressional intent as of 2014. The ACA may additionally impact pediatric dentistry practice, including dentists' behavior management services, by expanding pediatric dental training and safety net delivery sites and by stimulating the evolution of novel payment and delivery systems designed to move provider incentives away from procedure-based payments and toward health outcome-based payments.

  1. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Yan; Collins, Charles D; Tang, Shenglan

    2007-01-01

    Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS) and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS) to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS). Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a) The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b) The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c) Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS) were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d) There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in health insurance

  2. U.S. Physicians’ Views on Financing Options to Expand Health Insurance Coverage: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Bose-Kolanu, Anjali; Germann, Antonio; Bor, David H.; Himmelstein, David U.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physician opinion can influence the prospects for health care reform, yet there are few recent data on physician views on reform proposals or access to medical care in the United States. OBJECTIVE To assess physician views on financing options for expanding health care coverage and on access to health care. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative mail survey conducted between March 2007 and October 2007 of U.S. physicians engaged in direct patient care. MEASUREMENTS Rated support for reform options including financial incentives to induce individuals to purchase health insurance and single-payer national health insurance; rated views of several dimensions of access to care. MAIN RESULTS 1,675 of 3,300 physicians responded (50.8%). Only 9% of physicians preferred the current employer-based financing system. Forty-nine percent favored either tax incentives or penalties to encourage the purchase of medical insurance, and 42% preferred a government-run, taxpayer-financed single-payer national health insurance program. The majority of respondents believed that all Americans should receive needed medical care regardless of ability to pay (89%); 33% believed that the uninsured currently have access to needed care. Nearly one fifth of respondents (19.3%) believed that even the insured lack access to needed care. Views about access were independently associated with support for single-payer national health insurance. CONCLUSIONS The vast majority of physicians surveyed supported a change in the health care financing system. While a plurality support the use of financial incentives, a substantial proportion support single payer national health insurance. These findings challenge the perception that fundamental restructuring of the U.S. health care financing system receives little acceptance by physicians. PMID:19184240

  3. 7 CFR 457.3 - Premium rates, production guarantees or amounts of insurance, coverage levels, and prices at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Premium rates, production guarantees or amounts of insurance, coverage levels, and prices at which indemnities shall be computed. 457.3 Section 457.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP...

  4. 29 CFR 500.122 - Adjustments in insurance requirements when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... policy or liability bond apply: (1) Except as provided in § 500.123, no vehicle liability insurance policy or liability bond shall be required of the employer, if such worker is transported only under circumstances for which there is coverage under such State law. (2) A liability insurance policy or...

  5. 29 CFR 500.122 - Adjustments in insurance requirements when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... policy or liability bond apply: (1) Except as provided in § 500.123, no vehicle liability insurance policy or liability bond shall be required of the employer, if such worker is transported only under circumstances for which there is coverage under such State law. (2) A liability insurance policy or...

  6. 29 CFR 500.122 - Adjustments in insurance requirements when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... policy or liability bond apply: (1) Except as provided in § 500.123, no vehicle liability insurance policy or liability bond shall be required of the employer, if such worker is transported only under circumstances for which there is coverage under such State law. (2) A liability insurance policy or...

  7. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Insurance Coverage before Pregnancy and the Timing of Prenatal Care Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Norma I; Kathleen Adams, E; Manning, Willard G; Raskind-Hood, Cheryl; Urato, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy and on first-trimester initiation of prenatal care (PNC) among pregnant women eligible for Medicaid under welfare-related eligibility criteria. Data Sources We used pooled data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for eight states (AL, FL, ME, NY, OK, SC, WA, and WV) from 1996 through 1999. Study Design We estimated a two-part logistic model of insurance coverage before pregnancy and first-trimester PNC initiation. The impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy was measured by marginal effects computed from coefficients of an interaction term for the postreform period and welfare-related eligibility and on PNC initiation by the same interaction term and the coefficients of insurance coverage adjusted for potential simultaneous equation bias. We compared the estimates from this model with results from simple logistic, ordinary least squares, and two-stage least squares models. Principal Findings Welfare reform had a significant negative impact on Medicaid coverage before pregnancy among welfare-related Medicaid eligibles. This drop resulted in a small decline in their first-trimester PNC initiation. Enrollment in Medicaid before pregnancy was independent of the decision to initiate PNC, and estimates of the effect of a reduction in Medicaid coverage before pregnancy on PNC initiation were consistent over the single- and two-stage models. Effects of private coverage were mixed. Welfare reform had no impact on first-trimester PNC beyond that from reduced Medicaid coverage in the pooled regression but separate state-specific regressions suggest additional effects from time and income constraints induced by welfare reform may have occurred in some states. Conclusions Welfare reform had significant adverse effects on insurance coverage and first-trimester PNC initiation among our nation's poorest women of childbearing age. Improved

  8. Changes in Drug Utilization during a Gap in Insurance Coverage: An Examination of the Medicare Part D Coverage Gap

    PubMed Central

    Polinski, Jennifer M.; Shrank, William H.; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Glynn, Robert J.; Liberman, Joshua N.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Background Nations are struggling to expand access to essential medications while curbing rising health and drug spending. While the US government's Medicare Part D drug insurance benefit expanded elderly citizens' access to drugs, it also includes a controversial period called the “coverage gap” during which beneficiaries are fully responsible for drug costs. We examined the impact of entering the coverage gap on drug discontinuation, switching to another drug for the same indication, and drug adherence. While increased discontinuation of and adherence to essential medications is a regrettable response, increased switching to less expensive but therapeutically interchangeable medications is a positive response to minimize costs. Methods and Findings We followed 663,850 Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Part D or retiree drug plans with prescription and health claims in 2006 and/or 2007 to determine who reached the gap spending threshold, n = 217,131 (33%). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we compared drug discontinuation and switching rates in selected drug classes after reaching the threshold between all 1,993 who had no financial assistance during the coverage gap (exposed) versus 9,965 multivariate propensity score-matched comparators with financial assistance (unexposed). Multivariate logistic regressions compared drug adherence (≤80% versus >80% of days covered). Beneficiaries reached the gap spending threshold on average 222 d ±79. At the drug level, exposed beneficiaries were twice as likely to discontinue (hazard ratio [HR]  = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64–2.43) but less likely to switch a drug (HR  = 0.60, 0.46–0.78) after reaching the threshold. Gap-exposed beneficiaries were slightly more likely to have reduced adherence (OR  = 1.07, 0.98–1.18). Conclusions A lack of financial assistance after reaching the gap spending threshold was associated with a doubling in discontinuing essential medications

  9. “Aging Out” of Dependent Coverage and the Effects on US Labor Market and Health Insurance Choices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I examined how labor market and health insurance outcomes were affected by the loss of dependent coverage eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. I used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and regression discontinuity models to measure the percentage-point change in labor market and health insurance outcomes at age 26 years. My sample was restricted to unmarried individuals aged 24 to 28 years and to a period of time before the ACA’s individual mandate (2011–2013). I ran models separately for men and women to determine if there were differences based on gender. Results. Aging out of this provision increased employment among men, employer-sponsored health insurance offers for women, and reports that health insurance coverage was worse than it was 1 year previously (overall and for young women). Uninsured rates did not increase at age 26 years, but there was an increase in the purchase of non–group health coverage, indicating interest in remaining insured after age 26 years. Conclusions. Many young adults will turn to state and federal health insurance marketplaces for information about health coverage. Because young adults (aged 18–29 years) regularly use social media sites, these sites could be used to advertise insurance to individuals reaching their 26th birthdays. PMID:26447916

  10. Health Insurance Coverage and Medical Expenditures of Immigrants and Native-Born Citizens in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. I examined insurance coverage and medical expenditures of both immigrant and US-born adults to determine the extent to which immigrants contribute to US medical expenditures. Methods. I used data from the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to perform 2-part multivariate analyses of medical expenditures, controlling for health status, insurance coverage, race/ethnicity, and other sociodemographic factors. Results. Approximately 44% of recent immigrants and 63% of established immigrants were fully insured over the 12-month period analyzed. Immigrants' per-person unadjusted medical expenditures were approximately one half to two thirds as high as expenditures for the US born, even when immigrants were fully insured. Recent immigrants were responsible for only about 1% of public medical expenditures even though they constituted 5% of the population. After controlling for other factors, I found that immigrants' medical costs averaged about 14% to 20% less than those who were US born. Conclusions. Insured immigrants had much lower medical expenses than insured US-born citizens, even after the effects of insurance coverage were controlled. This suggests that immigrants' insurance premiums may be cross-subsidizing care for the US-born. If so, health care resources could be redirected back to immigrants to improve their care. PMID:19443829

  11. Effect of state-mandated insurance coverage on accrual to community cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Shellie D; Carpenter, William R; Minasian, Lori M; Weiner, Bryan J

    2012-09-01

    Thirty-five U.S. states and territories have implemented policies requiring insurers to cover patient care costs in the context of cancer clinical trials; however, evidence of the effectiveness of these policies is limited. This study assesses the impact of state insurance mandates on clinical trial accrual among community-based practices participating in the NCI Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP), which enrolls approximately one-third of all NCI cancer trial participants. We analyzed CCOP clinical trial enrollment over 17 years in 37 states, 14 of which implemented coverage policies, using fixed effects least squares regression to estimate the effect of state policies on trial accrual among community providers, controlling for state and CCOP differences in capacity to recruit. Of 91 CCOPs active during this time, 28 were directly affected by coverage mandates. Average recruitment per CCOP between 1991 and 2007 was 95.1 participants per year (SD=55.8). CCOPs in states with a mandate recruited similar numbers of participants compared to states without a mandate. In multivariable analysis, treatment trial accrual among CCOPs in states that had implemented a coverage mandate, was not statistically different than accrual among CCOPs in states that did not implement a coverage mandate (β=2.95, p=0.681). State mandates did not appear to confer a benefit in terms of CCOP clinical trial accrual. State policies vary in strength, which may have diluted their effect on accrual. Nonetheless, policy mandates alone may not have a meaningful impact on participation in clinical trials in these states.

  12. Effect of insurance coverage on the relationship between asthma hospitalizations and exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Nauenberg, E; Basu, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Based on the assumption that people without health insurance have limited access to the primary care services needed to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations for asthma, the authors hypothesized that insurance is a factor in the strength of the association between hospital admissions for asthma and exposure to air pollution. They tested this hypothesis with 1991-1994 data from central Los Angeles. METHODS: The authors analyzed the effect of insurance status on the association between asthma-related hospital admissions and exposure to atmospheric particulates (PM10) and ozone (O3) using hospital discharge and air quality data for 1991-1994 for central Los Angeles. They used regression techniques with weighted moving averages (simulating distributed lag structures) to measure the effects of exposure on overall hospital admissions, admissions of uninsured patients, admissions for which MediCal (California Medicaid) was the primary payer, and admissions for which the primary payer was another government or private health insurance program. RESULTS: No associations were found between asthma admissions and O3 exposure. An estimated increase from 1991 to 1994 of 50 micrograms per cubic meter in PM10 concentrations averaged over eight days was associated with an increase of 21.0% in the number of asthma admissions. An even stronger increase--27.4%--was noted among MediCal asthma admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that low family income, as indicated by MediCal coverage, is a better predictor of asthma exacerbations associated with air pollution than lack of insurance and, by implication, a better predictor of insufficient access to primary care. PMID:10199716

  13. Racial Gaps in Child Health Insurance Coverage in Four South American Countries: The Role of Wealth, Human Capital, and Other Household Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. Design Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. Data Collection/Extraction Methods In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. Principal Findings The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. Conclusions Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries. PMID:21210797

  14. Racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in four South American countries: the role of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. DESIGN. Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries.

  15. Medicines coverage and community-based health insurance in low-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Ntaganira, Joseph; Wagner, Anita K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The 2004 International Conference on Improving Use of Medicines recommended that emerging and expanding health insurances in low-income countries focus on improving access to and use of medicines. In recent years, Community-based Health Insurance (CHI) schemes have multiplied, with mounting evidence of their positive effects on financial protection and resource mobilization for healthcare in poor settings. Using literature review and qualitative interviews, this paper investigates whether and how CHI expands access to medicines in low-income countries. Methods We used three complementary data collection approaches: (1) analysis of WHO National Health Accounts (NHA) and available results from the World Health Survey (WHS); (2) review of peer-reviewed articles published since 2002 and documents posted online by national insurance programs and international organizations; (3) structured interviews of CHI managers about key issues related to medicines benefit packages in Lao PDR and Rwanda. Results In low-income countries, only two percent of WHS respondents with voluntary insurance belong to the lowest income quintile, suggesting very low CHI penetration among the poor. Yet according to the WHS, medicines are the largest reported component of out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in these countries (median 41.7%) and this proportion is inversely associated with income quintile. Publications have mentioned over a thousand CHI schemes in 19 low-income countries, usually without in-depth description of the type, extent, or adequacy of medicines coverage. Evidence from the literature is scarce about how coverage affects medicines utilization or how schemes use cost-containment tools like co-payments and formularies. On the other hand, interviews found that medicines may represent up to 80% of CHI expenditures. Conclusion This paper highlights the paucity of evidence about medicines coverage in CHI. Given the policy commitment to expand CHI in several countries

  16. English Proficiency and Access to Health Insurance in Hispanics Who Are Elderly: Implications for Adequate Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caesar, Lena G.

    2006-01-01

    Medicare, as a publicly funded insurance program, has produced significant improvement in the overall health of America's elderly populations. However, health disparities still persist between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White populations in terms of overall access to health services. This study utilized data from the Hispanic Established Population…

  17. Cumulative Inequality and Racial Disparities in Health: Private Insurance Coverage and Black/White Differences in Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Miles G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To test different forms of private insurance coverage as mediators for racial disparities in onset, persistent level, and acceleration of functional limitations among Medicare age-eligible Americans. Method. Data come from 7 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (1996–2008). Onset and progression latent growth models were used to estimate racial differences in onset, level, and growth of functional limitations among a sample of 5,755 people aged 65 and older in 1996. Employer-provided insurance, spousal insurance, and market insurance were next added to the model to test how differences in private insurance mediated the racial gap in physical limitations. Results. In baseline models, African Americans had larger persistent level of limitations over time. Although employer-provided, spousal provided, and market insurances were directly associated with lower persistent levels of limitation, only differences in market insurance accounted for the racial disparities in persistent level of limitations. Discussion. Results suggest private insurance is important for reducing functional limitations, but market insurance is an important mediator of the persistently larger level of limitations observed among African Americans. PMID:24569001

  18. Health Insurance Instability Among Older Immigrants: Region of Origin Disparities in Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We provide a detailed analysis of how the dynamics of health insurance coverage (HIC) at older ages differs among Latino, Asian, and European immigrants in the United States. Method. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we estimate discrete-time event history models to examine first and second transitions into and out of HIC, highlighting substantial differences in hazard rates among immigrants aged 50–64 from Asia, Latin America, and Europe. Results. We find that the likelihood of having HIC at first observation and the rates of gaining and losing coverage within a relatively short time frame are least favorable for older Latino immigrants, although immigrants from all three regions are at a disadvantage relative to native-born non-Hispanic Whites. This disparity among immigrant groups persists even when lower rates of citizenship, greater difficulty with English, and low-skill job placements are taken into account. Discussion. Factors that have contributed to the lower rates and shorter durations of HIC among older immigrants, particularly those from Latin America, may not be easily resolved by the Affordable Care Act. The importance of region of origin and assimilation characteristics for the risk of being uninsured in later life argues that immigration and health care policy should be jointly addressed. PMID:25637934

  19. Pollution liability insurance: availability, demand, and coverage. January 1985-March 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for January 1985-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning pollution liability insurance availability, demand, and coverage. Topics include the reduced availability of pollution liability insurance, the increased demand for this insurance, and the impact of Superfund decisions on pollution liability insurance claims. Court cases to determine whether the polluting company or the insurance company is responsible for hazardous materials cleanup are cited. Requirements for self insurance and elimination of the requirement for hazardous waste clean-up companies to be insured by a third company are included. (Contains 96 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  20. Health insurance coverage in the Houston-Galveston area under the patient protection and affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Begley, Charles; Deshmukh, Ashish; Eschbach, Karl; Fouladi, Negin; Liu, Qian June; Reynolds, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    This study projects the number of nonelderly people who could gain coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) for the period from 2014 through 2020 in the 13-county Houston-Galveston area region. The major PPACA provisions aimed at expanding coverage as well as the populations targeted by those provisions are described. Projections of the impact of PPACA on coverage in the area are based on estimates of growth in the size of targeted populations in each county and the anticipated responses of those populations to the major provisions of PPACA. The projections indicate that, if fully implemented, PPACA could cut the uninsurance rate in the region by half, from 26% in 2010 to 13% in 2020. This change translates into health insurance coverage for approximately 2 million additional people, from the current 4.2 million to a projected 5.9 million. The number of Medicaid enrollees could increase by an estimated 600,000 (a 79% increase), although private insurance coverage, which could increase by as much as 1 million enrollees (a 30% increase), will remain the primary source of coverage for most people. Coverage gains from PPACA will vary considerably by county, depending on the age-income-citizenship characteristics of the population, current uninsurance rates, and the rate of population growth.

  1. Unhealthy and uninsured: exploring racial differences in health and health insurance coverage using a life table approach.

    PubMed

    Kirby, James B; Kaneda, Toshiko

    2010-11-01

    Millions of people in the United States do not have health insurance, and wide racial and ethnic disparities exist in coverage. Current research provides a limited description of this problem, focusing on the number or proportion of individuals without insurance at a single time point or for a short period. Moreover, the literature provides no sense of the joint risk of being uninsured and in need of medical care. In this article, we use a life table approach to calculate health- and insurance-specific life expectancies for whites and blacks, thereby providing estimates of the duration of exposure to different insurance and health states over a typical lifetime. We find that, on average, Americans can expect to spend well over a decade without health insurance during a typical lifetime and that 40% of these years are spent in less-healthy categories. Findings also reveal a significant racial gap: despite their shorter overall life expectancy, blacks have a longer uninsured life expectancy than whites, and this racial gap consists entirely of less-healthy years. Racial disparities in insurance coverage are thus likely more severe than indicated by previous research.

  2. Unhealthy and Uninsured: Exploring Racial Differences in Health and Health Insurance Coverage Using a Life Table Approach

    PubMed Central

    KIRBY, JAMES B.; KANEDA, TOSHIKO

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people in the United States do not have health insurance, and wide racial and ethnic disparities exist in coverage. Current research provides a limited description of this problem, focusing on the number or proportion of individuals without insurance at a single time point or for a short period. Moreover, the literature provides no sense of the joint risk of being uninsured and in need of medical care. In this article, we use a life table approach to calculate health- and insurance-specific life expectancies for whites and blacks, thereby providing estimates of the duration of exposure to different insurance and health states over a typical lifetime. We find that, on average, Americans can expect to spend well over a decade without health insurance during a typical lifetime and that 40% of these years are spent in less-healthy categories. Findings also reveal a significant racial gap: despite their shorter overall life expectancy, blacks have a longer uninsured life expectancy than whites, and this racial gap consists entirely of less-healthy years. Racial disparities in insurance coverage are thus likely more severe than indicated by previous research. PMID:21308569

  3. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data of 2006 and 2009 were used to create the concentration curve and the concentration index. GEE logistic regression was used to model the health insurance coverage as dependent variable and household income per capita as independent variable, controlling for individuals' age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, year 2009 (Y2009), household size, retirement status, and geographic variations. The change in the income-related inequality in 2009 was estimated using the interaction term of income*Y2009. Results In 2006, 49.7% (4,712/9,476) respondents had health insurance: 13.4% with BHIS and 28.4% with NCMS. In 2009, 90.8% (8,964/9,863) had health insurance: 10.1% with URBMI, 18.3% with BHIS, and 57.6% with NCMS. The BHIS, URBMI, and NCMS programs had different patterns of population coverage over 10 income deciles. The concentration index was 0.15 in 2006 and 0.04 in 2009. The dominance test showed that the concentration curves were significantly different between 2006 and 2009 (p < 0.05). An income increase per capita by 10,000 RMB was associated with 25.5% more likely to have health insurance coverage (odds ratio = 1.255, 95% confidence interval: [1.130-1.393]). In 2009, there was significant improvement in the income-related inequality (p < 0.001). Discussions Comparing 2009 to 2006, the income inequality in health insurance coverage was largely corrected in China through rapid expansion of CHNS in rural areas and initiation of URBMI in urban

  4. Costs of breast cancer care in Mexico: analysis of two insurance coverage scenarios

    PubMed Central

    González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Wong, Rebeca; Ornelas, Héctor Arreola; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is a major cause of disease and death worldwide. In addition to its contribution to mortality and disability, it is a major economic burden both public and private. Objective To estimate the average direct medical cost/year of care for the diagnosis and treatment of BC in two coverage scenarios in Mexico: What is ‘ideal’ based on service usage patterns according to international guidelines and what is ‘current’ using the service usage patterns of suppliers in Mexico. Material and Methods The pattern and intensity of use of procedures for the care of BC in the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) for 2009 were identified and prices were associated using the guidelines from the System of Social Protection in Health (SPSS) and the IMSS for the current scenario and the ideal scenario, international patterns (Breast Health Global Initiative BHGI after its acronym in English) were used and prices were associated from the SPSS guidelines. Results The annual average direct medical cost per patient in the ‘current’ scenario was 8557 US$, while the cost in the ‘ideal’ scenario was 4554 US$. There are differences in costs between ‘what we do’ and ‘what should be done’, due to differences in the implementation of the interventions for the treatment of the different stages of the disease. A proportional increase in the average cost was also identified as the diagnosis stage advanced (from I to III). Conclusions Given that in Mexico there is universal insurance coverage for the treatment of BC, it is necessary to use economic resources more efficiently. It is necessary to continue to examine this topic in more depth and the next step will be to assess the effectiveness of both scenarios in order to provide enough evidence for the decision-making process. PMID:26557885

  5. Your Insurance Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet provides some practical guidelines for determining total insurance needs, examining options, and comparing costs. It discusses how to fit insurance costs into an overall financial plan, the necessity of adequate liability coverage, and the importance of keeping policies up to date. The next four sections highlight the basic types of…

  6. The enigma of higher income immigrants with lower rates of health insurance coverage in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bass, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This research compares rates of health insurance coverage among middle-class non-elderly immigrants to native-born American adults using data from the March 1996-2000 Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Probit regressions reveal that immigrants were three times as likely to be uninsured at income levels exceeding $50,000, controlling for economic, demographic and immigrant-related characteristics. Work-related characteristics, income, martial status and nativity considerably influenced health insurance status for all adults, but work-related factors had the strongest effect on immigrants' rates of coverage. Why, ceteris paribus, immigrants have lower coverage rates is unclear. Many low-income and recent immigrants face barriers to access due to legal status or job sector. But lower rates of health insurance coverage which persist among long-time residents at higher income levels cannot be explained by such barriers, a finding highly relevant for policy makers. Encouraging uninsured immigrants to opt into health plans voluntarily will remain a challenge. PMID:19834995

  7. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes.

  8. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes. PMID:26452699

  9. Place as a predictor of health insurance coverage: A multivariate analysis of counties in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lisa Cacari; Boursaw, Blake; Bettez, Sonia P; Larzelere Marley, Tennille; Waitzkin, Howard

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the importance of county characteristics in explaining county-level variations in health insurance coverage. Using public databases from 2008 to 2012, we studied 3112 counties in the United States. Rates of uninsurance ranged widely from 3% to 53%. Multivariate analysis suggested that poverty, unemployment, Republican voting, and percentages of Hispanic and American Indian/Alaskan Native residents in a county were significant predictors of uninsurance rates. The associations between uninsurance rates and both race/ethnicity and poverty varied significantly between metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. Collaborative actions by the federal, tribal, state, and county governments are needed to promote coverage and access to care. PMID:26086690

  10. Insuring against environmental risks

    SciTech Connect

    Anspach, K.G.

    1993-06-01

    As the chemical process industries now know all too well, environmental damages represent a significant risk to the firms and individuals in it. Whether the cause of the damage is a sudden spill or the gradual contamination of a site through underground leakage, major financial losses are a constant threat. U.S. insurance companies are also aware of these risks. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, many limited environmental coverage in the policies that they sold; later, such coverage was dropped entirely. Recently, many new types of coverage have become available, but often at high expense. To get adequate insurance coverage at a reasonable price, CPI firms can pursue several options: general liability insurance, self-insurance, specialized environmental insurance--or no insurance at all. Each of these options raise certain risks and costs. At the same time, individual engineers or consulting engineering groups that service the CPI have their own set of insurance options. Most independent engineering consultants carry some type of liability insurance; now, as the potential consequences of their work on the environment become clearer, some have invested in various types of professional insurance.

  11. Gaining Coverage Through Medicaid Or Private Insurance Increased Prescription Use And Lowered Out-Of-Pocket Spending.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Andrew W; Eibner, Christine; Finegold, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of literature describes how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has expanded health insurance coverage. What is less well known is how these coverage gains have affected populations that are at risk for high health spending. To investigate this issue, we used prescription transaction data for a panel of 6.7 million prescription drug users to compare changes in coverage, prescription fills, plan spending, and out-of-pocket spending before and after the implementation of the ACA's coverage expansion. We found a 30 percent reduction in the proportion of this population that was uninsured in 2014 compared to 2013. Uninsured people who gained private coverage filled, on average, 28 percent more prescriptions and had 29 percent less out-of-pocket spending per prescription in 2014 compared to 2013. Those who gained Medicaid coverage had larger increases in fill rates (79 percent) and reductions in out-of-pocket spending per prescription (58 percent). People who gained coverage who had at least one of the chronic conditions detailed in our study saw larger decreases in out-of-pocket spending compared to those who did not have at least one condition. These results demonstrate that by reducing financial barriers to care, the ACA has increased treatment rates while reducing out-of-pocket spending, particularly for people with chronic conditions. PMID:27534776

  12. Are Americans finding affordable coverage in the health insurance marketplaces? Results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    By the end of the first open enrollment period for coverage offered through the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces, increasing numbers of people said they found it easy to find a plan they could afford, according to The Commonwealth Fund's Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, April-June 2014. Adults with low or moderate incomes were more likely to say it was easy to find an affordable plan than were adults with higher incomes. Adults with low or moderate incomes who purchased a plan through the marketplaces this year have similar premium costs and deductibles as adults in the same income ranges with employer-provided coverage. A majority of adults with marketplace coverage gave high ratings to their insurance and were confident in their ability to afford the care they need when sick. PMID:25265646

  13. Gaps in health insurance: why so many Americans experience breaks in coverage and how the Affordable Care Act will help: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of U.S. Adults, 2011.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Robertson, Ruth; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2012-04-01

    The Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of U.S. Adults finds that one-quarter of adults ages 19 to 64 experienced a gap in their health insurance in 2011, with a majority remaining uninsured for one year or more. Losing or changing jobs was the primary reason people experienced a gap. Compared with adults who had continuous coverage, those who experienced gaps were less likely to have a regular doctor and less likely to be up to date with recommended preventive care tests, with rates declining as the length of the coverage gap increases. Early provisions of the Affordable Care Act are already helping bridge gaps in coverage among young adults and people with preexisting conditions. Beginning in 2014, new affordable health insurance options through Medicaid and state insurance exchanges will enable adults and their families to remain insured even in the face of job changes and other life disruptions.

  14. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 745 - Examples of Insurance Coverage Afforded Accounts in Credit Unions Insured by the National Credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... examples interpret the rules for insurance of accounts contained in 12 CFR part 745 and focus on those... Consolidated School District, A maintains a $275,000 account in the credit union containing school district... that the account containing the school district funds is held by A in a fiduciary capacity. Thus,...

  15. Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships.

  16. Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

  17. Combined photon-electron beams in the treatment of the supraclavicular lymph nodes in breast cancer: A novel technique that achieves adequate coverage while reducing lung dose.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed; Mohamad, Issa; Dayyat, Abdulmajeed; Kanaa'n, Haitham; Sarhan, Nasim; Roujob, Ibrahim; Salem, Abdel-Fattah; Afifi, Shatha; Jaradat, Imad; Mubiden, Rasmi; Almousa, Abdelateif

    2015-01-01

    , photon-only plans demonstrated the highest target coverage and total lung V(20 Gy). The superiority of electron-only beams, in terms of decreasing lung dose, is set back by the dosimetric hotspots associated with such plans. Combined photon-electron treatment is a feasible technique for supraclavicular nodal irradiation and results in adequate target coverage, acceptable dosimetric hotspot volume, and slightly reduced lung dose.

  18. Combined photon-electron beams in the treatment of the supraclavicular lymph nodes in breast cancer: A novel technique that achieves adequate coverage while reducing lung dose

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, Ahmed; Mohamad, Issa; Dayyat, Abdulmajeed; Kanaa’n, Haitham; Sarhan, Nasim; Roujob, Ibrahim; Salem, Abdel-Fattah; Afifi, Shatha; Jaradat, Imad; Mubiden, Rasmi; Almousa, Abdelateif

    2015-10-01

    -only plans (mean = 16.2 ± 3%, p < 0.001). As expected, photon-only plans demonstrated the highest target coverage and total lung V{sub 20} {sub Gy}. The superiority of electron-only beams, in terms of decreasing lung dose, is set back by the dosimetric hotspots associated with such plans. Combined photon-electron treatment is a feasible technique for supraclavicular nodal irradiation and results in adequate target coverage, acceptable dosimetric hotspot volume, and slightly reduced lung dose.

  19. Effects of the health insurance coverage extension on the use of outpatient services among small children in rural China.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Nobuo; Liu, Guoxiang; Chiang, Chifa; Zhang, Yan; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-08-01

    A new public health insurance scheme has been gradually introduced in rural provinces in China since 2003. This would likely cause an increment in the use of health services. It is known that the association between health insurance coverage and health service utilization varies among different age groups. This study aims to examine the association between extending health insurance coverage and increment in outpatient service utilization of small children in rural China, and to identify other factors associated with the outpatient service utilization. A household survey was conducted in 2 counties in north China in August 2010, targeting 107 selected households with a child aged 12-59 months. The questionnaire included modules on demographic information such as ages of children and parents, enrollment status of health insurance, the number of episodes of illness as perceived by parents, month of incidence of episode and outpatient service utilization at each episode. Based on the utilization at each episode of illness, a random effects logistic regression model was employed to analyze the association. It was found that eligibility for the reimbursement of outpatient medical expenses was not significantly associated with decision to seek care or choice of health facility. This might be in part due to the low level of reimbursement which could discourage the use of insured, and to the close relationship with village clinic workers which would encourage the use of uninsured. Three other factors were significantly associated with increment in the outpatient service utilization; age of children, mother's education, and number of children in a household. PMID:26412893

  20. 76 FR 4813 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Unlimited Coverage for Noninterest-Bearing Transaction Accounts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...\\ 75 FR 69577 (Nov. 15, 2010). \\2\\ Public Law 111-203 (July 21, 2010). In the November final rule, the... Insurance Act (FDI Act), as added by section 343 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer... 343'').\\2\\ Section 343 amended the deposit insurance provisions of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C....

  1. 29 CFR 500.121 - Coverage and level of insurance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., obtain a policy of vehicle liability insurance. (b) The amount of vehicle liability insurance shall not... transported, as required under paragraph (a) by obtaining and making available upon request to the Department... applying for authorization to transport migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. (f) With respect to...

  2. 29 CFR 500.121 - Coverage and level of insurance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., obtain a policy of vehicle liability insurance. (b) The amount of vehicle liability insurance shall not... transported, as required under paragraph (a) by obtaining and making available upon request to the Department... applying for authorization to transport migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. (f) With respect to...

  3. 29 CFR 500.121 - Coverage and level of insurance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., obtain a policy of vehicle liability insurance. (b) The amount of vehicle liability insurance shall not... transported, as required under paragraph (a) by obtaining and making available upon request to the Department... applying for authorization to transport migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. (f) With respect to...

  4. Towards universal coverage: a policy analysis of the development of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onoka, Chima A; Hanson, Kara; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2015-11-01

    This article examines why and how a national health insurance (NHI) proposal targeting universal health coverage (UHC) in Nigeria developed over time. The study involved document reviews, in-depth interviews, a further review of preliminary analysis by relevant actors and use of a stakeholder analysis approach. The need for strategies to improve healthcare funding during the economic recession of the 1980s stimulated the proposal. The inclusion of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) as financing organizations for national health insurance at the expense of sub-national (state) government mechanisms increased credibility of policy implementation but resulted in loss of support from states. The most successful period of the policy process occurred when a new minister of health (strongly supported by the president that displayed interest in UHC) provided leadership through the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), and effectively managed stakeholders' interests and galvanized their support to advance the policy. Later, the National Health Insurance Scheme (the federal government's implementing/regulatory agency) assumed this leadership role but has been unable to extend coverage in a significant way. Nigeria's experience shows that where political leaders are interested in a UHC-related proposal, the strong political leadership they provide considerably enhances the pace of the policy process. However, public officials should carefully guide policymaking processes that involve private sector actors, to ensure that strategies that compromise the chance of achieving UHC are not introduced. In contexts where authority is shared between federal and state governments, securing federal level commitment does not guarantee that a national health insurance proposal has become a 'national' proposal. States need to be provided with an active role in the process and governance structure. Finally, the article underscores the utility of retrospective stakeholder analysis in

  5. Towards universal coverage: a policy analysis of the development of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onoka, Chima A; Hanson, Kara; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2015-11-01

    This article examines why and how a national health insurance (NHI) proposal targeting universal health coverage (UHC) in Nigeria developed over time. The study involved document reviews, in-depth interviews, a further review of preliminary analysis by relevant actors and use of a stakeholder analysis approach. The need for strategies to improve healthcare funding during the economic recession of the 1980s stimulated the proposal. The inclusion of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) as financing organizations for national health insurance at the expense of sub-national (state) government mechanisms increased credibility of policy implementation but resulted in loss of support from states. The most successful period of the policy process occurred when a new minister of health (strongly supported by the president that displayed interest in UHC) provided leadership through the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), and effectively managed stakeholders' interests and galvanized their support to advance the policy. Later, the National Health Insurance Scheme (the federal government's implementing/regulatory agency) assumed this leadership role but has been unable to extend coverage in a significant way. Nigeria's experience shows that where political leaders are interested in a UHC-related proposal, the strong political leadership they provide considerably enhances the pace of the policy process. However, public officials should carefully guide policymaking processes that involve private sector actors, to ensure that strategies that compromise the chance of achieving UHC are not introduced. In contexts where authority is shared between federal and state governments, securing federal level commitment does not guarantee that a national health insurance proposal has become a 'national' proposal. States need to be provided with an active role in the process and governance structure. Finally, the article underscores the utility of retrospective stakeholder analysis in

  6. Disentangling incentives effects of insurance coverage from adverse selection in the case of drug expenditure: a finite mixture approach.

    PubMed

    Munkin, Murat K; Trivedi, Pravin K

    2010-09-01

    This paper takes a finite mixture approach to model heterogeneity in incentive and selection effects of drug coverage on total drug expenditure among the Medicare elderly US population. Evidence is found that the positive drug expenditures of the elderly population can be decomposed into two groups different in the identified selection effects and interpreted as relatively healthy with lower average expenditures and relatively unhealthy with higher average expenditures, accounting for approximately 25 and 75% of the population, respectively. Adverse selection into drug insurance appears to be strong for the higher expenditure component and weak for the lower expenditure group.

  7. Assessment of Levels of Hospice Care Coverage Offered to Commercial Managed Care Plan Members in California: Implications for the California Health Insurance Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyusuk; Jahng, Joelle; Petrosyan, Syuzanna; Yim, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act that provides for the expansion of affordable insurance to uninsured individuals and small businesses, coupled with the provision of mandated hospice coverage, is expected to increase the enrollment of the terminally ill younger population in hospice care. We surveyed health insurance companies that offer managed care plans in the 2014 California Health Insurance Exchange and large hospice agencies that provided hospice care to privately insured patients in 2011. Compared with Medicare and Medicaid Hospice Benefits, hospice benefits for privately insured patients, particularly those enrolled in managed care plans, varied widely. Mandating hospice care alone may not be sufficient to ensure that individuals enrolled in different managed care plans receive the same level of coverage. PMID:24619923

  8. Comparing Individual Health Coverage On and Off the Affordable Care Act's Insurance Exchanges.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    The new health insurance exchanges are the core of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) reforms, but how the law improves the nonsubsidized portion of the individual market is also important. This issue brief compares products sold on and off the exchanges to gain insight into how the ACA's market reforms are functioning. Initial concerns that insurers might seek to enroll lower-risk customers outside the exchanges have not been realized. Instead, more-generous benefit plans, which appeal to people with health problems, constitute a greater portion of plans sold off-exchange than those sold on-exchange. Although insur­ers that sell mostly on the exchanges incur an additional fee, they still devote a greater portion of their premium dollars to medical care. Their projected admin­istrative costs and profit margins are lower than are those of insurers selling only off the exchanges. PMID:26372970

  9. The effect of health insurance on workers' compensation filing: Evidence from the affordable care act's age-based threshold for dependent coverage.

    PubMed

    Dillender, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    This paper identifies the effect of health insurance on workers' compensation (WC) filing for young adults by implementing a regression discontinuity design using WC medical claims data from Texas. The results suggest health insurance factors into the decision to have WC pay for discretionary care. The implied instrumental variables estimates suggest a ten-percentage-point decrease in health insurance coverage increases WC bills by 15.3 percent. Despite the large impact of health insurance on the number of WC bills, the additional cost to WC at age 26 appears to be small as most of the increase comes from small bills.

  10. Promoting universal financial protection: constraints and enabling factors in scaling-up coverage with social health insurance in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria was launched in 2005 as part of efforts by the federal government to achieve universal coverage using financial risk protection mechanisms. However, only 4% of the population, and mainly federal government employees, are currently covered by health insurance and this is primarily through the Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme (FSSHIP) of the NHIS. This study aimed to understand why different state (sub-national) governments decided whether or not to adopt the FSSHIP for their employees. Methods This study used a comparative case study approach. Data were collected through document reviews and 48 in-depth interviews with policy makers, programme managers, health providers, and civil servant leaders. Results Although the programme’s benefits seemed acceptable to state policy makers and the intended beneficiaries (employees), the feasibility of employer contributions, concerns about transparency in the NHIS and the role of states in the FSSHIP, the roles of policy champions such as state governors and resistance by employees to making contributions, all influenced the decision of state governments on adoption. Overall, the power of state governments over state-level health reforms, attributed to the prevailing system of government that allows states to deliberate on certain national-level policies, enhanced by the NHIS legislation that made adoption voluntary, enabled states to adopt or not to adopt the program. Conclusions The study demonstrates and supports observations that even when the content of a programme is generally acceptable, context, actor roles, and the wider implications of programme design on actor interests can explain decision on policy adoption. Policy implementers involved in scaling-up the NHIS programme need to consider the prevailing contextual factors, and effectively engage policy champions to overcome known challenges in order to encourage adoption by sub

  11. Identifying barriers to move to better health coverage: preferences for health insurance benefits among the rural poor population in La Guajira, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Jeannette Liliana; Ruiz, Fernando; Trujillo, Antonio J; Buttorff, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Even though access to health insurance in Colombia has improved since the implementation of the 1993 health reforms (Law 100), universal coverage has not yet been accomplished. There is still a segment of the population under the low-income (subsidized) health insurance policy or without health insurance altogether. The purpose of this research was to identify preferences and behavior regarding health insurance among the subsidized rural population in La Guajira, Colombia, and to understand why that population remains under the subsidized health insurance policy. The field experiment gathered information from 400 households regarding their socioeconomic situation, health conditions, and preferences for health insurance characteristics. Results suggest that the surveyed population gives priority to expanded family coverage, physician and hospital choice, and access to specialists, rather than to attributes associated with co-payments or premiums. That indicates that people value healthcare benefits and family coverage more than health insurance expenses, and policy makers could use these preferences to enroll subsidized population into the contributory regime.

  12. The impacts of health insurance coverage on access to healthcare in children entering kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Haboush-Deloye, Amanda; Hensley, Spencer; Teramoto, Masaru; Phebus, Tara; Tanata-Ashby, Denise

    2014-09-01

    To examine access to healthcare and health outcomes for kindergartners as they relate to insurance status and type. For the 2008, 2009, and 2010 school years, surveys were distributed to parents with a child entering kindergarten in the state of Nevada. Surveys asked parents to provide information about their child concerning their insurance status, routine medical care, medical conditions, and health behaviors. Compared to their insured peers, uninsured kindergartners were less likely to have had a check-up in the previous 12 months (p < .001; OR 6.14; 95 % CI 5.77-6.53), have a primary physician (p < .001; OR 14.32; 95 % CI 13.49-15.20), or have seen a dentist (p < .001; OR 3.93; 95 % CI 3.70-4.16), and were more likely to have a reported unmet medical need (p < .001; OR 2.60; 95 % CI 2.19-3.07). Additionally, compared to children with private insurance, those children with public insurance were less likely to have had a check-up (p < .001; OR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.59-1.89), have a primary care provider (p < .001; OR 3.87; 95 % CI 3.55-4.21), and were more likely to have unmet medical needs (p < .001; OR 2.27; 95 % CI 1.83-2.81). For children in early development-a deeply critical period-insurance status and type are predictors of important access to healthcare variables.

  13. Fixing flaws in Medicare drug coverage that prompt insurers to avoid low-income patients.

    PubMed

    Hsu, John; Fung, Vicki; Huang, Jie; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Hui, Rita; Fireman, Bruce; Dow, William H; Bertko, John; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2010-12-01

    Since 2006 numerous insurers have stopped serving the low-income segment of the Medicare Part D program, forcing millions of beneficiaries to change prescription drug plans. Using data from participating plans, we found that Medicare payments do not sufficiently reimburse insurers for the relatively high medication use among this population, creating perverse incentives for plans to avoid this part of the Part D market. Plans can accomplish this by increasing their premiums for all beneficiaries to an amount above regional benchmarks. We demonstrate that improving the accuracy of Medicare's risk and subsidy adjustments could mitigate these perverse incentives.

  14. Health Insurance Coverage of Direct Support Workers in the Developmental Disabilities Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenstein, William

    2006-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that employer-provided health insurance is an important factor in recruiting and retaining a competent and motivated direct support workforce within health and human services occupations. A review of the literature in this area, including new information related to the developmental disabilities field, is presented to…

  15. 29 CFR 500.121 - Coverage and level of insurance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers... applying for authorization to transport migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. (f) With respect to...

  16. 75 FR 49363 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Permanent Increase in Standard Coverage Amount; Advertisement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... increase in the SMDIA from $100,000 to $250,000.\\7\\ \\1\\ Public Law 110-343 (Oct. 3, 2008). \\2\\ 73 FR 61658 (Oct. 17, 2008). \\3\\ Public Law 111-22 (May 20, 2009). \\4\\ 74 FR 47711 (Sept. 17, 2009). \\5\\ Public Law... CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 328, 330, and 347 RIN 3064-AD61 Deposit Insurance Regulations; Permanent Increase...

  17. The effect of increased private health insurance coverage on Victorian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Powers, Neil; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Gillett, Steve; Marshall, Ric

    2003-01-01

    It was anticipated that the recent reforms to private health insurance arrangements would reduce the demand pressures on Australian public hospitals. However, this has not been demonstrated by trends in elective surgery waiting lists in Victorian public hospitals. Moreover, it appears that the increased caseload assumed by Victorian private hospitals since the reforms took effect mainly reflects an increase in low cost same day episodes.

  18. 77 FR 70374 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance-Stillborn Child Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ..., 2012, VA published in the Federal Register (77 FR 4734) a proposed rule to provide that, if a stillborn... surrogate's physical custody. 77 FR 4734. If however a surrogate is not the biological mother of the... coverage. As explained in the preamble to the proposed rule, 77 FR 4734, this amendment will obviate...

  19. 45 CFR 148.122 - Guaranteed renewability of individual health insurance coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this section and applicable State law. (4) Movement outside the service area. For network plans, the... health status-related factor of covered individuals. (5) Association membership ceases. For coverage made available in the individual market only through one or more bona fide associations, the...

  20. Borrowing to cope with adverse health events: liquidity constraints, insurance coverage, and unsecured debt.

    PubMed

    Babiarz, Patryk; Widdows, Richard; Yilmazer, Tansel

    2013-10-01

    This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study for 1998-2010 to investigate whether households respond to the financial stress caused by health problems by increasing their unsecured debt. Results show both the probability of having unsecured debt and the amount of debt increase after an adverse health event among households with low financial assets, who are uninsured, or who have less generous health insurance. The effect of health problems on borrowing is caused by both medical expenditures and disruptions to the income stream. Unsecured debt seems to remain on some households' balance sheets for an extended period.

  1. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer.

  2. Effects of Type of Health Insurance Coverage on Colorectal Cancer Survival in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J.; Ramírez-García, Roberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Ríos-González, Moraima Y.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004–2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively). Government Health Plan patients in the 50–64 (RR = 6.59; CI: 2.85–15.24) and ≥65 (RR = 2.4; CI: 1.72–4.04) age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted. PMID:24796444

  3. Group health plans and health insurance issuers relating to coverage of preventive services under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2012-02-15

    These regulations finalize, without change, interim final regulations authorizing the exemption of group health plans and group health insurance coverage sponsored by certain religious employers from having to cover certain preventive health services under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  4. The Impact of Increased Tax Subsidies on the Insurance Coverage of Self-Employed Families: Evidence from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The share of health insurance premiums that self-employed workers can deduct when computing federal income taxes rose from 30 percent in 1996 to 100 percent in 2003. Data from the 1996-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey are used to show that the increased tax subsidy was associated with substantial increases in private coverage among…

  5. Change in Health Insurance Coverage in Massachusetts and Other New England States by Perceived Health Status: Potential Impact of Health Reform

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Strine, Tara W.; Druss, Benjamin G.; Simoes, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of Massachusetts health reform and its public health component (enacted in 2006) on change in health insurance coverage by perceived health. Methods. We used 2003–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. We used a difference-in-differences framework to examine the experience in Massachusetts to predict the outcomes of national health care reform. Results. The proportion of adults aged 18 to 64 years with health insurance coverage increased more in Massachusetts than in other New England states (4.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5%, 5.6%). For those with higher perceived health care need (more recent mentally and physically unhealthy days and activity limitation days [ALDs]), the postreform proportion significantly exceeded prereform (P < .001). Groups with higher perceived health care need represented a disproportionate increase in health insurance coverage in Massachusetts compared with other New England states—from 4.3% (95% CI = 3.3%, 5.4%) for fewer than 14 ALDs to 9.0% (95% CI = 4.5%, 13.5%) for 14 or more ALDs. Conclusions. On the basis of the Massachusetts experience, full implementation of the Affordable Care Act may increase health insurance coverage especially among populations with higher perceived health care need. PMID:23597359

  6. Achieving universal health coverage through voluntary insurance: what can we learn from the experience of Lao PDR?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Government of Lao Peoples’ Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has embarked on a path to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) through implementation of four risk-protection schemes. One of these schemes is community-based health insurance (CBHI) – a voluntary scheme that targets roughly half the population. However, after 12 years of implementation, coverage through CBHI remains very low. Increasing coverage of the scheme would require expansion to households in both villages where CBHI is currently operating, and new geographic areas. In this study we explore the prospects of both types of expansion by examining household and district level data. Methods Using a household survey based on a case-comparison design of 3000 households, we examine the determinants of enrolment at the household level in areas where the scheme is currently operating. We model the determinants of enrolment using a probit model and predicted probabilities. Findings from focus group discussions are used to explain the quantitative findings. To examine the prospects for geographic scale-up, we use secondary data to compare characteristics of districts with and without insurance, using a combination of univariate and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analysis is a probit model, which models the factors associated with roll-out of CBHI to the districts. Results The household findings show that enrolment is concentrated among the better off and that adverse selection is present in the scheme. The district level findings show that to date, the scheme has been implemented in the most affluent areas, in closest proximity to the district hospitals, and in areas where quality of care is relatively good. Conclusions The household-level findings indicate that the scheme suffers from poor risk-pooling, which threatens financial sustainability. The district-level findings call into question whether or not the Government of Laos can successfully expand to more remote, less affluent

  7. State trends in the cost of employer health insurance coverage, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Radley, David; Collins, Sara R

    2015-01-01

    From 2010 to 2013--the years following the implementation of the Affordable Care Act--there has been a marked slowdown in premium growth in 31 states and the District of Columbia. Yet, the costs employees and their families pay out-of-pocket for deductibles and their share of premiums continued to rise, consuming a greater share of incomes across the country. In all but a handful of states, average deductibles more than doubled over the past decade for employees working in large and small firms. Workers are paying more but getting less protective benefits. Costs are particularly high, compared with median income, in Southern and South Central states, where incomes are below the national average. Based on recent forecasts that predict an uptick in private insurance growth rates starting in 2015, securing slow cost growth for workers, families, and employers will likely require action to address rising costs of medical care services.

  8. “Will Employers Drop Health Insurance Coverage because of the Affordable Care Act?” Health Affairs 32(9): 1522–1530

    PubMed Central

    Buchmueller, Thomas; Carey, Colleen; Levy, Helen G.

    2014-01-01

    Since the passage of the Affordable Care Act, there has been considerable speculation about how many employers will stop offering health insurance once the major coverage provisions of the Act take effect. While some observers predict little aggregate effect, others believe that 2014 marks the beginning of the end for our current system of employer- sponsored insurance. We address the question “how will employer health insurance offering respond to health reform?” using theoretical and empirical evidence. First, we describe economic models of why employers offer insurance. Second, we recap the relevant provisions of health reform and use our economic framework to consider how they may affect employer offers. Third, we review the various predictions that have been made on this subject. Finally, we offer some observations on interpreting early data from 2014. PMID:24019355

  9. Determinants of Coverage Decisions in Health Insurance Marketplaces: Consumers' Decision-Making Abilities and the Amount of Information in Their Choice Environment

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rice, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinants and quality of coverage decisions among uninsured choosing plans in a hypothetical health insurance marketplace. Study Setting Two samples of uninsured individuals: one from an Internet-based sample comprised largely of young, healthy, tech-savvy individuals (n = 276), and the other from low-income, rural Virginians (n = 161). Study Design We assessed whether health insurance comprehension, numeracy, choice consistency, and the number of plan choices were associated with participants' ability to choose a cost-minimizing plan, given their expected health care needs (defined as choosing a plan costing no more than $500 in excess of the total estimated annual costs of the cheapest plan available). Data Collection Primary data were collected using an online questionnaire. Principal Findings Uninsured who were more numerate showed higher health insurance comprehension; those with more health insurance comprehension made choices of health insurance plans more consistent with their stated preferences; and those who made choices more concordant with their stated preferences were less likely to choose a plan that cost more than $500 in excess of the cheapest plan available. Conclusions Increasing health insurance comprehension and designing exchanges to facilitate plan comparison will be critical to ensuring the success of health insurance marketplaces. PMID:24779769

  10. Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage and Health Status Among Farmworkers, Sonoma County, California, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Jenny; Hill, Jana; Katz, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Sonoma County Farmworker Health Survey (FHS) was conducted to describe the health and well-being of adult farmworkers in Sonoma County, California, and to identify preventable health disparities for this population. Methods From September 2013 through January 2014, venue-based and convenience sampling were used to survey 293 farmworkers aged 18 years or older. The questions included self-rated general health, diabetes and hypertension, and body mass index. To identify disparities between surveyed farmworkers and Sonoma County residents overall, age-adjusted prevalence estimates were developed by using indirect standardization to the adult (≥18 years) Sonoma County sample from the California Health Interview Survey for 2011–2012. Results Surveyed farmworkers were mostly male (91%) and Latino or Hispanic (95%), and 54% had an educational attainment of 8th grade or less. Most (81%) farmworkers reported their families earned less than $30,000 in 2012. After adjusting for age, 30% of farmworkers had US-based health insurance as compared with the 86% of Sonoma County adults in 2011–2012 (P < .001), and 15% of farmworkers reported ever being diagnosed with diabetes after adjusting for age as compared with 5% of Sonoma County adults (P = .002). After adjusting for age, 44% of farmworkers reported poor or fair health in general as compared with 13% of Sonoma County adults (P < .001). Conclusion We identified significant health disparities between Sonoma County farmworkers and Sonoma County adults overall. Additional research and new health policies are necessary to eliminate these health disparities and to facilitate farmworker access to the health care system. PMID:27032988

  11. Can Plan Recommendations Improve the Coverage Decisions of Vulnerable Populations in Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew J.; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rice, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Affordable Care Act’s marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool—plan recommendations—in improving marketplace decisions. Study Setting Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. Study Design We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated marketplaces, and examined their decision quality. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition or three types of plan recommendations: social normative, physician, and government. For participants randomized to a plan recommendation condition, the plan that maximized expected earnings, and minimized total expected annual health care costs, was recommended. Data Collection Primary data were gathered using an online choice experiment and questionnaire. Principal Findings Plan recommendations resulted in a 21 percentage point increase in the probability of choosing the earnings maximizing plan, after controlling for participant characteristics. Two conditions, government or providers recommending the lowest cost plan, resulted in plan choices that lowered annual costs compared to marketplaces where no recommendations were made. Conclusions As millions of adults grapple with choosing plans in marketplaces and whether to switch plans during open enrollment, it is time to consider marketplace redesigns and leverage insights from the behavioral sciences to facilitate consumers’ decisions. PMID:27028008

  12. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  13. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, James P.; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana’s anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  14. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  15. Incoherent policies on universal coverage of health insurance and promotion of international trade in health services in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pachanee, Cha-aim; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2006-07-01

    The Thai government has implemented universal coverage of health insurance since October 2001. Universal access to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs has also been included since October 2003. These two policies have greatly increased the demand for health services and human resources for health, particularly among public health care providers. After the 1997 economic crisis, private health care providers, with the support of the government, embarked on new marketing strategies targeted at attracting foreign patients. Consequently, increasing numbers of foreign patients are visiting Thailand to seek medical care. In addition, the economic recovery since 2001 has greatly increased the demand for private health services among the Thai population. The increasing demand and much higher financial incentives from urban private providers have attracted health personnel, particularly medical doctors, from rural public health care facilities. Responding to this increasing demand and internal brain drain, in mid-2004 the Thai government approved the increased production of medical doctors by 10,678 in the following 15 years. Many additional financial incentives have also been applied. However, the immediate shortage of human resources needs to be addressed competently and urgently. Equity in health care access under this situation of competing demands from dual track policies is a challenge to policy makers and analysts. This paper summarizes the situation and trends as well as the responses by the Thai government. Both supply and demand side responses are described, and some solutions to restore equity in health care access are proposed.

  16. Incoherent policies on universal coverage of health insurance and promotion of international trade in health services in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pachanee, Cha-aim; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2006-07-01

    The Thai government has implemented universal coverage of health insurance since October 2001. Universal access to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs has also been included since October 2003. These two policies have greatly increased the demand for health services and human resources for health, particularly among public health care providers. After the 1997 economic crisis, private health care providers, with the support of the government, embarked on new marketing strategies targeted at attracting foreign patients. Consequently, increasing numbers of foreign patients are visiting Thailand to seek medical care. In addition, the economic recovery since 2001 has greatly increased the demand for private health services among the Thai population. The increasing demand and much higher financial incentives from urban private providers have attracted health personnel, particularly medical doctors, from rural public health care facilities. Responding to this increasing demand and internal brain drain, in mid-2004 the Thai government approved the increased production of medical doctors by 10,678 in the following 15 years. Many additional financial incentives have also been applied. However, the immediate shortage of human resources needs to be addressed competently and urgently. Equity in health care access under this situation of competing demands from dual track policies is a challenge to policy makers and analysts. This paper summarizes the situation and trends as well as the responses by the Thai government. Both supply and demand side responses are described, and some solutions to restore equity in health care access are proposed. PMID:16728511

  17. Extending Medicare immunosuppressive medication coverage.

    PubMed

    Beaubrun, Anne Christine

    2012-02-01

    African Americans and the poor are at a high risk of suffering from kidney disease and are at an extreme disadvantage when it comes to obtaining the resources needed to maintain a functioning kidney post-transplant. Medicare currently covers 80% of the cost of immunosuppressive therapy for up to three years following a Medicare-covered transplant for patients whose Medicare entitlement was based solely on their end-stage renal disease diagnosis. Adequate insurance coverage has the potential to prevent graft failure and retransplantation resulting from cost-related immunosuppressive medication nonadherence. Given the multifactorial nature of medication nonadherence, extending insurance coverage in an attempt to reduce graft failures should be coupled with intensive interventions to prevent the socioeconomic and various other factors associated with medication nonadherence. Lifetime Medicare coverage for all kidney-transplant recipients, coupled with medication adherence promotion, has the potential to minimize poor outcomes associated with graft failure, especially among minorities and the impoverished.

  18. 29 CFR 500.122 - Adjustments in insurance requirements when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Insurance § 500.122 Adjustments in insurance...

  19. A different kind of Medicaid expansion. Medicaid managed-care insurers prepare to offer plans on insurance exchanges, testing whether more Americans are ready for economy-class health coverage.

    PubMed

    McQueen, M P; Meyer, Harris

    2013-07-29

    As Medicaid managed-care insurers prepare to offer coverage to the general public on the upcoming exchanges, experts say those plans could help improve continuity of care for enrollees. "As people's income fluctuates, it will be really important that they not be handed off from one health plan to another and instead stay with the same plan," says Matt Salo, of the National Association of Medicaid Directors. PMID:24010231

  20. The role of insurance in the achievement of universal coverage within a developing country context: South Africa as a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Achieving universal coverage as an objective needs to confront the reality of multiple mechanisms, with healthcare financing and provision occurring in both public and private settings. South Africa has both large and mature public and private health systems offering useful insights into how they can be effectively harmonized to optimise coverage. Private healthcare in South Africa has also gone through many phases and regulatory regimes which, through careful review, can help identify potential policy frameworks that can optimise their ability to deepen coverage in a manner that complements the basic coverage of public arrangements. Research question Using South Africa as a case study, this review examines whether private health systems are susceptible to regulation and therefore able to support an extension and deepening of coverage when complementing a pre-existing publicly funded and delivered health system? Methods The approach involves a review of different stages in the development of the South African private health system and its response to policy changes. The focus is on the time-bound characteristics of the health system and associated policy responses and opportunities. A distinction is consequently made between the early, largely unregulated, phases of development and more mature phases with alternative regulatory regimes. Results The private health system in South Africa has played an important supplementary role in achieving universal coverage throughout its history, but more especially in the post-Apartheid period. However, the quality of this role has been erratic, influenced predominantly by policy vacillation. The private system expanded rapidly during the 1980s mainly due to the pre-existence of a mature health insurance system and a weakening public hospital system which could accommodate and facilitate an increased demand for private hospital services. This growth served to expand commercial interest in health insurance, in the

  1. Health insurance coverage and health-related quality of life: analysis of 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data.

    PubMed

    Bharmal, Murtuza; Thomas, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated relationships between health insurance status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. Health-related quality of life was measured using the SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and SF-12 Mental Component Summary (MCS). The analysis controlled for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables and medical conditions. The analysis also investigated and controlled for possible reverse causality between HRQOL and health insurance in the models. After adjusting for covariates, individuals without health insurance had significantly lower mean PCS scores (beta=-5.8; SE=0.4) than those with health insurance. The adjusted association between no health insurance and MCS scores (beta=-1.1; SE=0.4) also was significant. The adjusted difference in HRQOL among people with health insurance and those without it exceeds or is comparable to adjusted differences in HRQOL between people with each of various medical conditions and people without them.

  2. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... with incomes less than 138% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) regardless of their family or disability ... 1.5 million uninsured women with incomes below poverty in 2014 who had been expected to qualify ...

  3. Insurance crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.L.

    1996-11-01

    The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators.

  4. 38 CFR 9.3 - Waiver or reduction of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICEMEMBERS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.3 Waiver or reduction of coverage. (a... coverage waives his or her right to group coverage or elects a reduced amount of insurance, such waiver...

  5. Community perceptions of health insurance and their preferred design features: implications for the design of universal health coverage reforms in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health insurance is currently being considered as a mechanism for promoting progress to universal health coverage (UHC) in many African countries. The concept of health insurance is relatively new in Africa, it is hardly well understood and remains unclear how it will function in countries where the majority of the population work outside the formal sector. Kenya has been considering introducing a national health insurance scheme (NHIS) since 2004. Progress has been slow, but commitment to achieve UHC through a NHIS remains. This study contributes to this process by exploring communities’ understanding and perceptions of health insurance and their preferred designs features. Communities are the major beneficiaries of UHC reforms. Kenyans should understand the implications of health financing reforms and their preferred design features considered to ensure acceptability and sustainability. Methods Data presented in this paper are part of a study that explored feasibility of health insurance in Kenya. Data collection methods included a cross-sectional household survey (n = 594 households) and focus group discussions (n = 16). Results About half of the household survey respondents had at least one member in a health insurance scheme. There was high awareness of health insurance schemes but limited knowledge of how health insurance functions as well as understanding of key concepts related to income and risk cross-subsidization. Wide dissatisfaction with the public health system was reported. However, the government was the most preferred and trusted agency for collecting revenue as part of a NHIS. People preferred a comprehensive benefit package that included inpatient and outpatient care with no co-payments. Affordability of premiums, timing of contributions and the extent to which population needs would be met under a contributory scheme were major issues of concern for a NHIS design. Possibilities of funding health care through tax instead of

  6. Gender-affirming Surgeries in the Era of Insurance Coverage: Developing a Framework for Psychosocial Support and Care Navigation in the Perioperative Period.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-01-01

    Transgender people have a gender identity different from their birth-assigned sex. Transgender people may seek gender-affirming surgeries to align their body with their identified gender. With increasing visibility of transgender identities, and recognition of the importance of gender-affirming care, has come a policy shift toward mandated coverage or provision of blanket exclusions of these procedures by insurance companies and Medicaid. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health provides guidance to mental health professionals evaluating patients for gender-affirming surgeries, including making a diagnosis and assessing for capacity to consent. However the expansion of covered gender-affirming surgeries to safety-net populations has highlighted the need for an expanded presurgical process which includes a psychosocial assessment and care navigation. The proposed framework expands the preoperative assessment to include these components, and can be used to guide both health systems and insurance providers in the development of transgender medicine programs. PMID:27180683

  7. Gender-affirming Surgeries in the Era of Insurance Coverage: Developing a Framework for Psychosocial Support and Care Navigation in the Perioperative Period.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-01-01

    Transgender people have a gender identity different from their birth-assigned sex. Transgender people may seek gender-affirming surgeries to align their body with their identified gender. With increasing visibility of transgender identities, and recognition of the importance of gender-affirming care, has come a policy shift toward mandated coverage or provision of blanket exclusions of these procedures by insurance companies and Medicaid. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health provides guidance to mental health professionals evaluating patients for gender-affirming surgeries, including making a diagnosis and assessing for capacity to consent. However the expansion of covered gender-affirming surgeries to safety-net populations has highlighted the need for an expanded presurgical process which includes a psychosocial assessment and care navigation. The proposed framework expands the preoperative assessment to include these components, and can be used to guide both health systems and insurance providers in the development of transgender medicine programs.

  8. Health Insurance: Most College Students Are Covered through Employer-Sponsored Plans, and Some Colleges and States Are Taking Steps to Increase Coverage. Report to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. GAO-08-389

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicken, John E.

    2008-01-01

    College students face challenges obtaining health insurance: they may not have access to insurance through an employer, and as they get older, they may lose dependent coverage obtained through a parent's plan. Federal law ensures continued access to health insurance for some, but not all, such students. Without health insurance, college students…

  9. The role of insurance in the achievement of universal coverage within a developing country context: South Africa as a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Achieving universal coverage as an objective needs to confront the reality of multiple mechanisms, with healthcare financing and provision occurring in both public and private settings. South Africa has both large and mature public and private health systems offering useful insights into how they can be effectively harmonized to optimise coverage. Private healthcare in South Africa has also gone through many phases and regulatory regimes which, through careful review, can help identify potential policy frameworks that can optimise their ability to deepen coverage in a manner that complements the basic coverage of public arrangements. Research question Using South Africa as a case study, this review examines whether private health systems are susceptible to regulation and therefore able to support an extension and deepening of coverage when complementing a pre-existing publicly funded and delivered health system? Methods The approach involves a review of different stages in the development of the South African private health system and its response to policy changes. The focus is on the time-bound characteristics of the health system and associated policy responses and opportunities. A distinction is consequently made between the early, largely unregulated, phases of development and more mature phases with alternative regulatory regimes. Results The private health system in South Africa has played an important supplementary role in achieving universal coverage throughout its history, but more especially in the post-Apartheid period. However, the quality of this role has been erratic, influenced predominantly by policy vacillation. The private system expanded rapidly during the 1980s mainly due to the pre-existence of a mature health insurance system and a weakening public hospital system which could accommodate and facilitate an increased demand for private hospital services. This growth served to expand commercial interest in health insurance, in the

  10. 45 CFR 148.120 - Guaranteed availability of individual health insurance coverage to certain individuals with prior...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... coverage within 30 days of birth, adoption, or placement for adoption (or longer if the State provides for... section does not restrict the amount of the premium rates that an issuer may charge an individual...

  11. Insurance Types and Coverages: Knowledge to Plan for the Future (with a Focus on Motor Skill Activities and Athletics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Robin L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the major kinds of insurance that educational administrators need to be familiar with, explains the recent modifications that have been developed to respond to lawsuits and the rising costs of medical care, and recommends ways to achieve the protection of the district and its employees without negative financial…

  12. Children's Health in Washington, D.C.: Access and Health Challenges despite High Insurance Coverage Rates. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, David M.

    2009-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., the vast majority of children have health insurance. Yet District children often lack sufficient access to medical care and face significant health threats from chronic conditions and risk factors such as exposure to violence in schools and neighborhoods. These findings emerged from an assessment of children's health in…

  13. 75 FR 41726 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... information from the Department of Labor concerning employment-based health coverage laws may call the EBSA... April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19297). The second phase was interim final regulations implementing PHS Act... May 13, 2010 (75 FR 27122). The third phase was interim final regulations implementing section 1251...

  14. 45 CFR 148.120 - Guaranteed availability of individual health insurance coverage to certain individuals with prior...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... before his employment ended, his wife had a baby. B took advantage of the special enrollment period that applied, changed to family coverage, and enrolled the baby in the group health plan within 20 days... eligible individuals, and the baby is deemed to be an eligible individual even though she has less than...

  15. 45 CFR 148.120 - Guaranteed availability of individual health insurance coverage to certain individuals with prior...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... before his employment ended, his wife had a baby. B took advantage of the special enrollment period that applied, changed to family coverage, and enrolled the baby in the group health plan within 20 days... eligible individuals, and the baby is deemed to be an eligible individual even though she has less than...

  16. 45 CFR 148.120 - Guaranteed availability of individual health insurance coverage to certain individuals with prior...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... policy form must be designed for, made generally available to, and actively marketed to, and enroll, both... issuer wants to market the policy form. (d) Special rules for network plans. (1) An issuer that offers coverage in the individual market through a network plan may take the following actions: (i) Specify...

  17. 44 CFR 61.11 - Effective date and time of coverage under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy-New Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the capacity of an agent of a Write-Your-Own (WYO) Company authorized by 44 CFR 62.23, is under... shall be effective as of the time of the loan closing, provided the written request for the coverage is... does not wish to write the business, in which case any applicable waiting period under this...

  18. Using the WHO Essential Medicines List to Assess the Appropriateness of Insurance Coverage Decisions: A Case Study of the Croatian National Medicine Reimbursement List

    PubMed Central

    Jeličić Kadić, Antonia; Žanić, Maja; Škaričić, Nataša; Marušić, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the use of the WHO EML as a tool with which to evaluate the evidence base for the medicines on the national insurance coverage list of the Croatian Institute of Health Insurance (CIHI). Methods Medicines from 9 ATC categories with highest expenditures from 2012 CIHI Basic List (n = 509) were compared with 2011 WHO EML for adults (n = 359). For medicines with specific indication listed only in CIHI Basic List we assessed whether there was evidence in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews questioning their efficacy and safety. Results The two lists shared 188 medicines (52.4% of WHO EML and 32.0% of CIHI list). CIHI Basic List had 254 medicines and 33 combinations of these medicines which were not on the WHO EML, plus 14 medicines rejected and 20 deleted from WHO EML by its Evaluation Committee. For deleted medicines, we could obtain data that showed 2,965,378 prescriptions issued to 617,684 insured patients, and the cost of approximately € 41.2 million for 2012 and the first half of 2013, when the CIHI Basic List was in effect. For CIHI List-only medicines with a specific indication (n = 164 or 57.1% of the analyzed set), fewer benefits or more serious side-effects than other medicines were found for 17 (10.4%) and not enough evidence for recommendations for specific indication for 21 (12.8%) medicines in Cochrane systematic reviews. Conclusions National health care policy should use high-quality evidence in deciding on adding new medicines and reassessing those already present on national medicines lists, in order to rationalize expenditures and ensure wider and better access to medicines. The WHO EML and recommendations from its Evaluation Committee may be useful tools in this quality assurance process. PMID:25337860

  19. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  20. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  1. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends: -Promoting Universal Health Coverage Globally and Ensuring the Sustainability of Japan's Universal Coverage of Health Insurance System: Problems and Proposals.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Eguchi, Narumi; Deguchi, Mayumi; Yazawa, Manami; Ishii, Masami

    2015-09-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan's healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan's universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  2. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends: -Promoting Universal Health Coverage Globally and Ensuring the Sustainability of Japan's Universal Coverage of Health Insurance System: Problems and Proposals.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Eguchi, Narumi; Deguchi, Mayumi; Yazawa, Manami; Ishii, Masami

    2015-09-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan's healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan's universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  3. Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

  4. Information reporting by applicable large employers on health insurance coverage offered under employer-sponsored plans. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-03-10

    This document contains final regulations providing guidance toemployers that are subject to the information reporting requirements under section 6056 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code), enacted by the Affordable Care Act (generally employers with at least 50 full-time employees, including full-time equivalent employees). Section 6056 requires those employers to report to the IRS information about the health care coverage, if any, they offered to full-time employees, in order to administer the employer shared responsibility provisions of section 4980H of the Code. Section 6056 also requires those employers to furnish related statements to employees that employees may use to determine whether, for each month of the calendar year, they may claim on their individual tax returns a premium tax credit under section 36B (premium tax credit). The regulations provide for a general reporting method and alternative reporting methods designed to simplify and reduce the cost of reporting for employers subject to the information reporting requirements under section 6056. The regulations affect those employers, employees and other individuals. PMID:24693561

  5. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  6. 14 CFR 205.5 - Minimum coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum coverage. 205.5 Section 205.5... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.5 Minimum coverage. (a) Insurance contracts and self... maintain the following coverage: (1) Third-party aircraft accident liability coverage for bodily injury...

  7. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  8. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; the Application of Mental Health Parity Requirements to Coverage Offered by Medicaid Managed Care Organizations, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and Alternative Benefit Plans. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-30

    This final rule will address the application of certain requirements set forth in the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, to coverage offered by Medicaid managed care organizations, Medicaid Alternative Benefit Plans, and Children’s Health Insurance Programs.

  9. Catastrophic Health Insurance. Hearing on S. 210 To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Provide Catastrophic Health Insurance Coverage for Elderly and Disabled Americans before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The text of a congressional hearing on a bill to provide catastropic health insurance coverage for elderly and disabled Americans is presented in this document. Statements are given by Senators Edward M. Kennedy, Orrin G. Hatch, Brock Adams, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., Strom Thurmond, Tom Harkin, Dan Quayle, Gordon J. Humphrey, Jim Sasser, and…

  10. Insurance company denial of payment and enforced changes in the type and dose of opioid analgesics for patients with cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Tanco, Kimberson; Bruera, Sofia E; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    Opioids are the mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe cancer pain. The variations in average monthly cost can make it difficult for most patients to procure them without adequate insurance coverage. There are increasing numbers of denials of payment and statements made by insurance agents and other sources regarding inappropriate opioid use, resulting in severe pain and emotional distress for cancer patients and their families. This case series describes five events where the insurer was a major barrier to opioid access.

  11. Insurers lose court battle

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-09-28

    Recent court disputes concerning insurance coverage of Superfund costs have resulted in the retrial of a proinsurer ruling on environmental cleanup costs for potentially responsible parties. The court rejected the insurance industry`s pollution exclusion clause by Aetna and two nonchemical companies. Supposedly this is good news for the chemical industry, because there will be more access to insurance money in Superfund cleanups.

  12. Life Insurance Basics: A Self-Help Workbook for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific age levels and…

  13. 38 CFR 9.8 - Termination of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICEMEMBERS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.8 Termination of coverage... members who are insured under Veterans' Group Life Insurance in which event coverage terminates at the expiration of the day preceding the anniversary of the effective date of such insurance which first...

  14. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage requirements. 1806.3 Section 1806.3... REGULATIONS INSURANCE Real Property Insurance § 1806.3 Coverage requirements. The County Supervisor should..., the County Supervisor will see that the coverage is obtained on one or more of the most...

  15. 12 CFR 362.3 - Activities of insured State banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance company, provided that the savings bank life insurance company provides written disclosures to purchasers or potential purchasers of life insurance policies, other insurance products, and annuities that... insurance coverage for insured depository institutions. (B) Stock of savings bank life insurance company.......

  16. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    PubMed

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies. PMID:19899193

  17. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran's health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868

  18. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran's health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper.

  19. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran’s health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868

  20. Necessary health care and basic needs: health insurance plans and essential benefits.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Johnson, Pamela Jo

    2013-12-01

    According to HealthCare.gov, by improving access to quality health for all Americans, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will reduce disparities in health insurance coverage. One way this will happen under the provisions of the ACA is by creating a new health insurance marketplace (a health insurance exchange) by 2014 in which "all people will have a choice for quality, affordable health insurance even if a job loss, job switch, move or illness occurs". This does not mean that everyone will have whatever insurance coverage he or she wants. The provisions of the ACA require that each of the four benefit categories of plans (known as bronze, silver, gold and platinum) provides no less than the benefits available in an "essential health benefits package". However, without a clear understanding of what criteria must be satisfied for health care to be essential, the ACA's requirement is much too vague and open to multiple, potentially conflicting interpretations. Indeed, without such understanding, in the rush to provide health insurance coverage to as many people as is economically feasible, we may replace one kind of disparity (lack of health insurance) with another kind of disparity (lack of adequate health insurance). Thus, this paper explores the concept of "essential benefits", arguing that the "essential health benefits package" in the ACA should be one that optimally satisfies the basic needs of the people covered.

  1. The search for coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Laseter, W.S.

    1993-06-01

    Anyone involved with the purchase or management of corporate liability insurance is familiar with the onerous pollution exclusions'' that accompany virtually all liability and property policies issued in recent years. As a result of these provisions, many businesses mistakenly presume their insurance program provides no coverage for environmental losses. Most companies, however, already own substantial sums of environmental coverage in the form of old comprehensive general liability (CGL) and first party, all risks'' property insurance policies issued before the introduction of pollution exclusions in the early 1970s. Unfortunately, due to records destruction policies, office moves, changes in ownership and other opportunities to lose files, most businesses have a difficult time reconstructing their past coverage.

  2. 45 CFR 148.124 - Certification and disclosure of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access and... insurance coverage. (2) Exception. The provisions of this section do not apply to issuers of the following types of coverage: (i) Health insurance coverage furnished in connection with a group health...

  3. 7 CFR 1806.26 - Coverage and premium rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage and premium rates. 1806.26 Section 1806.26... REGULATIONS INSURANCE National Flood Insurance § 1806.26 Coverage and premium rates. Exhibit A sets forth limits of coverage and chargeable premium rates under the program. Insurance policies under the...

  4. 29 CFR 2590.701-5 - Evidence of creditable coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plan, and each health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage under a group health...) of this section. For example, in the case of a group health plan funded through an insurance policy... a plan consists of group health insurance coverage, the plan satisfies the...

  5. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. (a... insurance plans do not exceed the total charges. (b) Double coverage plan. A double coverage plan is one...

  6. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Double coverage. 199.8 Section 199.8 National... CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.8 Double coverage. (a... insurance plans do not exceed the total charges. (b) Double coverage plan. A double coverage plan is one...

  7. 12 CFR 330.4 - Continuation of separate deposit insurance after merger of insured depository institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of separate deposit insurance... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.4 Continuation of separate deposit insurance after merger of insured depository institutions. Whenever...

  8. 12 CFR 330.4 - Continuation of separate deposit insurance after merger of insured depository institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of separate deposit insurance... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.4 Continuation of separate deposit insurance after merger of insured depository institutions. Whenever...

  9. 44 CFR 61.17 - Group Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Group Flood Insurance Policy..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.17 Group Flood Insurance Policy. (a) A Group Flood Insurance Policy (GFIP) is...

  10. 44 CFR 61.17 - Group Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Group Flood Insurance Policy..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.17 Group Flood Insurance Policy. (a) A Group Flood Insurance Policy (GFIP) is...

  11. 44 CFR 61.17 - Group Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Group Flood Insurance Policy..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.17 Group Flood Insurance Policy. (a) A Group Flood Insurance Policy (GFIP) is...

  12. 44 CFR 61.17 - Group Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group Flood Insurance Policy..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.17 Group Flood Insurance Policy. (a) A Group Flood Insurance Policy (GFIP) is...

  13. 44 CFR 61.17 - Group Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Group Flood Insurance Policy..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.17 Group Flood Insurance Policy. (a) A Group Flood Insurance Policy (GFIP) is...

  14. 75 FR 80367 - Share Insurance and Appendix

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 745 RIN 3133-AD79 Share Insurance and Appendix AGENCY: National Credit Union... union maintains in a noninterest- bearing transaction account. Although this insurance coverage is self... ``noninterest-bearing transaction account;'' provides that this new insurance coverage is separate from, and...

  15. 45 CFR 147.150 - Coverage of essential health benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... January 1, 2014. (b) Cost-sharing under group health plans. (c) Child-only plans. If a health insurance... CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS... package. A health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in the individual or small......

  16. Insuring influence: Annual ranking of healthcare's 100 Most Influential shows big impact of health coverage issues in America, from policy to business to politics.

    PubMed

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2012-08-27

    It was a year of surprises on the 100 Most Influential People in Healthcare ranking, with the top three all being newcomers. The top 10 was dominated by players in government and the insurance business, spheres where reform is driving the agenda. "We are not waiting for reform to happen, we are leading the change," says No. 2 Mark Bertolini, of Aetna.

  17. 29 CFR 2590.715-1251 - Preservation of right to maintain existing coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organizations—(A) Contribution rate based on cost of coverage. A group health plan or group health insurance.... Grandfathered health plan coverage means coverage provided by a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer... the rules of this section). A group health plan or group health insurance coverage does......

  18. 26 CFR 54.9815-1251T - Preservation of right to maintain existing coverage (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... insurance coverage to cease to be a grandfathered health plan, if the total percentage increase in the cost... coverage means coverage provided by a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer, in which an... section). A group health plan or group health insurance coverage does not cease to be grandfathered...

  19. 26 CFR 54.9815-1251T - Preservation of right to maintain existing coverage (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... insurance coverage to cease to be a grandfathered health plan, if the total percentage increase in the cost... coverage means coverage provided by a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer, in which an... section). A group health plan or group health insurance coverage does not cease to be grandfathered...

  20. 29 CFR 2590.715-1251 - Preservation of right to maintain existing coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organizations—(A) Contribution rate based on cost of coverage. A group health plan or group health insurance.... Grandfathered health plan coverage means coverage provided by a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer... the rules of this section). A group health plan or group health insurance coverage does......

  1. Reforming health insurance in Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, A; Lloyd-Sherlock, P

    2000-12-01

    The paper examines the recent reforms of health insurance in Chile and Argentina. These partially replace social health insurance with individual insurance administered through the private sector. In Chile, reforms in the early 1980s allowed private health insurance funds to compete for affiliates with the social health insurance system. In Argentina, reforms in the 1990s aim to open up the union-administered social insurance system to competition both internally and from private insurers. The paper outlines the specific articulation of social and individual health insurance produced by these reforms, and discusses the implications for health insurance coverage, inequalities in access to healthcare, and health expenditures.

  2. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    PubMed

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity.

  3. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    PubMed

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity. PMID:12187517

  4. The Mold Insurance Crisis: Less than It Appears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Joseph F.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses two different but closely related problems that must be solved when determining what insurance coverage a campus needs for mold losses: issues of property insurance and of liability insurance. (EV)

  5. Insurance and Prevention: Why and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungarelli, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Stressing importance of insurance coverage for the buildings and contents of libraries, this article covers insurance history, the modern insurance industry, examples of loss experiences, prevention and preparedness, risk management, appraisals and valuations of property, insurance options, and lack of recognition of protective and preventive…

  6. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870... individual who is eligible to continue Basic Life insurance coverage as an annuitant or compensationer is the... subpart K of this part. (c) The amount of an employee's Basic Life insurance coverage is equal to...

  7. Self Insuring against Asbestos Removal Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slutzky, Lorence H.

    1987-01-01

    Asbestos removal is costly and many contractors have difficulty in obtaining insurance coverage. Presents a case for self insuring if contractors perform the removal work in compliance with state and federal regulations. Includes a reference list. (MD)

  8. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must: (a) Have an MPCI policy in force for the insured crop (or for citrus fruit, citrus trees, and stone fruit or other crops, as applicable, the insured type) and comply with all terms and conditions of... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage...

  9. Transitional care issues influencing access to health care: employability and insurability.

    PubMed

    Hellstedt, Linda F

    2004-12-01

    Addressing the issues of employability and insurability remains a challenge for young adults with CHD, their parents, and health care professionals who care for this patient group. Because of their chronic condition, these young persons require ongoing access to health care, throughout their adult lives. Because most individuals obtain insurance through their place of employment (unless it is obtained under a spouse's policy), adolescents with CHD should begin to look carefully at career options that are compatible with their interests and their physical abilities. If it is more appropriate, assistance with referral to vocational rehabilitation programs may be given. Finally, guidance should include how to avoid issues of discrimination during a job interview and when working at one's place of employment. Legislation now supports many workers as long as they can carry out the job for which they were hired. With the continuing rise in cost of health care and health insurance coverage, young persons with CHD must understand the high importance of maintaining health care coverage for their chronic health condition, usually through a group plan in their place of employment. Current legislation supports supplemental coverage and portability of coverage when changing jobs, which minimizes or eliminates waiting periods for pre-existing conditions. Suggestions for ongoing health care are included not only for care by a cardiologist but noncardiac care, including a primary care practitioner, dental care, and obstetric-gynecologic care. With the size and life expectancy of this patient group growing each year, the issues of employability and insurability must continually be addressed by health care professionals in conjunction with government policy makers and insurance representatives. As additional long-term survival data become available on the natural history of CHD, it is hoped that insurance requirements will be modified to afford this group the insurance coverage

  10. Transitional care issues influencing access to health care: employability and insurability.

    PubMed

    Hellstedt, Linda F

    2004-12-01

    Addressing the issues of employability and insurability remains a challenge for young adults with CHD, their parents, and health care professionals who care for this patient group. Because of their chronic condition, these young persons require ongoing access to health care, throughout their adult lives. Because most individuals obtain insurance through their place of employment (unless it is obtained under a spouse's policy), adolescents with CHD should begin to look carefully at career options that are compatible with their interests and their physical abilities. If it is more appropriate, assistance with referral to vocational rehabilitation programs may be given. Finally, guidance should include how to avoid issues of discrimination during a job interview and when working at one's place of employment. Legislation now supports many workers as long as they can carry out the job for which they were hired. With the continuing rise in cost of health care and health insurance coverage, young persons with CHD must understand the high importance of maintaining health care coverage for their chronic health condition, usually through a group plan in their place of employment. Current legislation supports supplemental coverage and portability of coverage when changing jobs, which minimizes or eliminates waiting periods for pre-existing conditions. Suggestions for ongoing health care are included not only for care by a cardiologist but noncardiac care, including a primary care practitioner, dental care, and obstetric-gynecologic care. With the size and life expectancy of this patient group growing each year, the issues of employability and insurability must continually be addressed by health care professionals in conjunction with government policy makers and insurance representatives. As additional long-term survival data become available on the natural history of CHD, it is hoped that insurance requirements will be modified to afford this group the insurance coverage

  11. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage level... coverage greater than the Catastrophic Risk Protection (CAT) coverage level and a 100 percent price election. CEO is not available for the CAT level of coverage. 4. CEO is continuous and will remain...

  12. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Allowable... purchase the coverage if it would otherwise substitute for health insurance coverage that would be provided... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section...

  13. Environmental insurance adapts to changing needs

    SciTech Connect

    Vuono, M. )

    1995-03-01

    No longer simply a specialty service niche, environmental insurance has become an increasingly important asset to businesses worldwide. Companies of all sizes are using insurance as a proactive tool for prudent environmental risk management. During the last five years, the environmental insurance industry has matured to meet the ever-changing environmental insurance needs of business. A broad range of policies and programs offers coverage against damages caused by chemical spills, hazardous material and related environmental contaminants. Securing environmental insurance coverage has become as customary for many businesses as acquiring general liability and automobile insurance.

  14. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  15. 44 CFR 61.13 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.13 Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (a) Incorporation of forms. Each of...

  16. 44 CFR 61.13 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Standard Flood Insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.13 Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (a) Incorporation of forms. Each of...

  17. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  18. 44 CFR 61.13 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.13 Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (a) Incorporation of forms. Each of...

  19. 44 CFR 61.13 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.13 Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (a) Incorporation of forms. Each of...

  20. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  1. 44 CFR 61.13 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.13 Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (a) Incorporation of forms. Each of...

  2. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  3. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  4. Current issues in HIV/AIDS and insurance.

    PubMed

    Elliott, D

    Insurance was rarely a major concern for Canadians with AIDS early in the AIDS epidemic, when life expectancies were short and drug treatments less expensive. However, with the advent of early diagnosis and triple-drug combinations, people with HIV/AIDS are now confronting insurance problems. In the first of a two-part series, fictional scenarios explore the current issues of obtaining insurance coverage. Insurance applications may ask for HIV status and some people apply for insurance when they suspect they may be infected to protect their coverage. Applying for insurance before confirming HIV status may lead the insurance companies to interpret HIV testing and treatment shortly after initiating coverage as possibly fraudulent and questionable. Group life and mortgage insurance issues, and pre- and post-test counseling are addressed. Recent court cases and their implications on insurance coverage are described, including Gibbs v. Battleford & District Cooperative Ltd., a mental health case that affects AIDS coverage. PMID:11365276

  5. 45 CFR 146.152 - Guaranteed renewability of coverage for employers in the group market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Provisions Applicable to Only Health Insurance Issuers § 146.152 Guaranteed renewability of coverage for employers in... insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in the small or large group market is required to...

  6. The Status of Group Life Insurance Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    Information on provisions of group life insurance plans and the tendency of colleges and universities to provide this coverage is considered. There has been an increase in the percentage of institutions adopting group life insurance plans over the last decade. Absence of coverage is concentrated among smaller two-year and four-year institutions…

  7. Do Infant Birth Outcomes Vary Among Mothers With and Without Health Insurance Coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa? Findings from the National Health Insurance and Cash and Carry Eras in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdallah; O’Keefe, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beginning in the late 1960’s, and accelerating after 1985, a system known as “Cash and Carry” required the people of Ghana to pay for health services out-of-pocket before receiving them. In 2003, Ghana enacted a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) (fully implemented by 2005) that allowed pregnant women to access antenatal care and hospital delivery services for low annual premiums tied to income. The objective of this study was to compare trends in low birth weight (LBW) among infants born under the NHIS with infants born during the Cash and Carry system when patients paid out-of-pocket for maternal and child health services. Methods: Sampled birth records abstracted from birth folders at the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH) were examined. Chi-squared tests were performed to determine differences in the prevalence of LBW. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted for selected variables in each year from 2000 to 2003 (Cash and Carry) and 2008 to 2011(NHIS). Results: Higher birth weights were not observed for deliveries under NHIS compared to those under Cash and Carry. More than one-third of infants in both eras were born to first-time mothers, and they had a significantly higher prevalence of LBW compared to infants born to multiparous mothers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: Understanding the factors that affect the prevalence of LBW is crucial to public health policy makers in Ghana. LBW is a powerful predictor of infant survival, and therefore, an important factor in determining the country’s progress toward meeting the United Nations Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five child mortality rates (MDG4) by the end of 2015.

  8. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... changes. \\15\\ 78 FR 11604 (February 19, 2013). II. Statutory Framework A. Definition of ``Insured Deposit....C. 1820(g); see, e.g., Unlimited Coverage for Noninterest- Bearing Transaction Accounts, 75 FR 69577 (Nov. 15, 2010) (codified at 12 CFR part 330); Permanent Increase in Standard Coverage Amount, 75...

  9. 78 FR 14034 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... applicable to student health insurance, see Student Health Insurance Coverage, 77 FR 16453, 16455-56 (March... definition of covered entity is also Sec. 2520.101-2(c)(2)(ii)(B) (RIN 1210-AB51). See 76 FR 76222. If and... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 57 RIN 1545-BL20 Health Insurance Providers Fee AGENCY:...

  10. The New York Schools Insurance Reciprocal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapetina, Alison J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the New York Schools Insurance Reciprocal (NYSIR), which provides both property and liability coverage for school districts. A reciprocal is wholly owned by those insured. NYSIR insures 55 school district subscribers, providing a service that specifically accommodates school district needs and saves them money. (MLF)

  11. 7 CFR 1416.7 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1416.7 Section 1416.7... PROGRAMS General Provisions for 2006 Emergency Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 1416.7 Insurance... rates for producers who did not have crop insurance or coverage under the Noninsured Crop...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.113. The coverage required by this section must...

  13. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section...

  15. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.113. The coverage required by this section must...

  16. 7 CFR 1416.7 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1416.7 Section 1416.7... PROGRAMS General Provisions for 2006 Emergency Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 1416.7 Insurance... rates for producers who did not have crop insurance or coverage under the Noninsured Crop...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.118. The coverage required by...

  18. 7 CFR 1416.7 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1416.7 Section 1416.7... PROGRAMS General Provisions for 2006 Emergency Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 1416.7 Insurance... rates for producers who did not have crop insurance or coverage under the Noninsured Crop...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section...