Science.gov

Sample records for adequate internal controls

  1. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  2. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  3. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  4. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  5. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  6. Xenon International Automated Control

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-05

    The Xenon International Automated Control software monitors, displays status, and allows for manual operator control as well as fully automatic control of multiple commercial and PNNL designed hardware components to generate and transmit atmospheric radioxenon concentration measurements every six hours.

  7. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise shall establish adequate and efficient internal controls...

  8. Control Techtronics International

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  9. Protecting Our Assets: Internal Control Principles in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert

    1997-01-01

    Discusses financial and physical asset protection in libraries based on principles of internal control. Elements of internal control are explained: reliable personnel; physical safeguarding of assets; separation of duties; adequate documentation; independent checks; proper procedures and authorizations; and bonding, job rotation, and enforced…

  10. The TRICARE Mail Order Pharmacy Program Was Cost Efficient and Adequate Dispensing Controls Were in Place

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-24

    contractor designed controls, including automated controls and pharmacist intervention, to ensure beneficiaries received only necessary pharmaceuticals...contractor’s system identifies a potential problem, a real-time alert is issued to the dispensing pharmacist to prevent drug-related adverse events. The... pharmacist would review the prescription change, contact the prescribing physician to resolve any questions regarding safety or medication therapy

  11. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... objective measurements of effectiveness are available and placebo effect is negligible, the test drug...

  12. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... objective measurements of effectiveness are available and placebo effect is negligible, the test drug...

  13. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... objective measurements of effectiveness are available and placebo effect is negligible, the test drug...

  14. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... objective measurements of effectiveness are available and placebo effect is negligible, the test drug...

  15. 21 CFR 314.126 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conducting clinical investigations of a drug is to distinguish the effect of a drug from other influences... permits a valid comparison with a control to provide a quantitative assessment of drug effect. The... objective measurements of effectiveness are available and placebo effect is negligible, the test drug...

  16. Translating Research on Myoelectric Control into Clinics-Are the Performance Assessment Methods Adequate?

    PubMed

    Vujaklija, Ivan; Roche, Aidan D; Hasenoehrl, Timothy; Sturma, Agnes; Amsuess, Sebastian; Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2017-01-01

    Missing an upper limb dramatically impairs daily-life activities. Efforts in overcoming the issues arising from this disability have been made in both academia and industry, although their clinical outcome is still limited. Translation of prosthetic research into clinics has been challenging because of the difficulties in meeting the necessary requirements of the market. In this perspective article, we suggest that one relevant factor determining the relatively small clinical impact of myocontrol algorithms for upper limb prostheses is the limit of commonly used laboratory performance metrics. The laboratory conditions, in which the majority of the solutions are being evaluated, fail to sufficiently replicate real-life challenges. We qualitatively support this argument with representative data from seven transradial amputees. Their ability to control a myoelectric prosthesis was tested by measuring the accuracy of offline EMG signal classification, as a typical laboratory performance metrics, as well as by clinical scores when performing standard tests of daily living. Despite all subjects reaching relatively high classification accuracy offline, their clinical scores varied greatly and were not strongly predicted by classification accuracy. We therefore support the suggestion to test myocontrol systems using clinical tests on amputees, fully fitted with sockets and prostheses highly resembling the systems they would use in daily living, as evaluation benchmark. Agreement on this level of testing for systems developed in research laboratories would facilitate clinically relevant progresses in this field.

  17. Transmission potential and design of adequate control measures for Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Ajelli, Marco; Merler, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Marburg hemorrhagic fever is rare yet among the most severe diseases affecting humans, with case fatality ratio even higher than 80%. By analyzing the largest documented Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic, which occurred in Angola in 2005 and caused 329 deaths, and data on viral load over time in non-human primates, we make an assessment of transmissibility and severity of the disease. We also give insight into the control of new Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics to inform appropriate health responses. We estimated the distribution of the generation time to have mean 9 days (95%CI: 8.2-10 days) and standard deviation 5.4 days (95%CI: 3.9-8.6 days), and the basic reproduction number to be R(0) = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.53-1.66). Model simulations suggest that a timely isolation of cases, starting no later than 2-3 days after symptoms onset, is sufficient to contain an outbreak. Our analysis reveals that Marburg hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a relatively small reproduction number and by a relatively long generation time. Such factors, along with the extremely high severity and fatality, support the rare occurrence of large epidemics in human populations. Our results also support the effectiveness of social distancing measures--case isolation in particular--to contain or at least to mitigate an emerging outbreak. This work represents an advance in the knowledge required to manage a potential Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic.

  18. Translating Research on Myoelectric Control into Clinics—Are the Performance Assessment Methods Adequate?

    PubMed Central

    Vujaklija, Ivan; Roche, Aidan D.; Hasenoehrl, Timothy; Sturma, Agnes; Amsuess, Sebastian; Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2017-01-01

    Missing an upper limb dramatically impairs daily-life activities. Efforts in overcoming the issues arising from this disability have been made in both academia and industry, although their clinical outcome is still limited. Translation of prosthetic research into clinics has been challenging because of the difficulties in meeting the necessary requirements of the market. In this perspective article, we suggest that one relevant factor determining the relatively small clinical impact of myocontrol algorithms for upper limb prostheses is the limit of commonly used laboratory performance metrics. The laboratory conditions, in which the majority of the solutions are being evaluated, fail to sufficiently replicate real-life challenges. We qualitatively support this argument with representative data from seven transradial amputees. Their ability to control a myoelectric prosthesis was tested by measuring the accuracy of offline EMG signal classification, as a typical laboratory performance metrics, as well as by clinical scores when performing standard tests of daily living. Despite all subjects reaching relatively high classification accuracy offline, their clinical scores varied greatly and were not strongly predicted by classification accuracy. We therefore support the suggestion to test myocontrol systems using clinical tests on amputees, fully fitted with sockets and prostheses highly resembling the systems they would use in daily living, as evaluation benchmark. Agreement on this level of testing for systems developed in research laboratories would facilitate clinically relevant progresses in this field. PMID:28261085

  19. How rich is Australia's minerals endowment and is it adequate to sustain a major role in meeting international demand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Dr Ian Lambert, Geoscience Australia and Secretary General 34th International Geological Congress Australia has comparative advantages in production of mineral commodities compared to most other countries. These stem from its rich and diverse mineral endowment; availability of regional scale (pre-competitive) geoscience information to lower the risks of exploration; advances in exploration, mining and processing technologies; skilled work force; generally benign physical conditions; and low population density. Building on these strengths, Australia is a major producer and exporter of a wide range of mineral and energy commodities to global markets. Given that demand for most major commodities is likely to continue, and that there will be growing markets for some other commodities, Australia needs to have a strategic view of what is likely to be available for mining. Further, Australia (and the world) needs to be attuned to issues that need to be faced in meeting international demand for commodities in the long term. This presentation outlines how Australia's national minerals inventory is compiled. It discusses trends for Australia's identified mineral resources for major commodities, and how these compare with other major mining nations. It then considers some significant issues in relation to sustaining a strong mining sector - in the medium to long term this requires a strategic approach to achieve goals such as more effective/lower risk exploration particularly in greenfields regions; well-Informed decisions on mining proposals; ongoing significant improvements in efficiencies of energy, water and land use.

  20. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-24

    9 Methamphetamine Precursor Chemicals........................................................................ 11 Other Drug-Related...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine . Examples of other...are used to make methamphetamine , and potassium permanganate, which is used to make cocaine. With few exceptions, production and sale of controlled

  1. Store Security: Internal Shrinkage Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The document presents a 10-week training program designed to provide helpful and proven methods for controlling internal shrinkage in retail stores. Shrinkage includes the three problems of shoplifting, employee theft, and errors, each of which is addressed by the course. Ohio's laws are also discussed. The format for the course content section is…

  2. Impact of Rabies Vaccination History on Attainment of an Adequate Antibody Titre Among Dogs Tested for International Travel Certification, Israel - 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, B; Taylor, N; Dveres, N; Rotblat, S; Spero, Ż; Lankau, E W; Maki, J

    2016-12-02

    Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification. Having received only one previous rabies vaccination and a longer duration since the most recent vaccination was received were primary risk factors for not achieving an adequate rabies virus neutralizing antibody titre for travel certification. These risk factors had stronger effects in younger animals, but were consistent for dogs of all ages. In particular, these findings reiterate the importance of administering at least two rabies vaccinations (the primo vaccination and subsequent booster) to ensure population-level protection against rabies in dogs globally.

  3. Vigorous cleaning and adequate ventilation are necessary to control an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Miyake, Noriko; Uchida, Yujiro; Shimoda, Shinji; Furusyo, Norihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-06-01

    An outbreak of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) bacteremia occurred in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in July 2005. Many strains of B. cereus were cultured from patient specimens, as well as from environmental samples such as the surfaces of instruments and air in the NICU. Some of these strains were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and several were confirmed to be identical. We speculated that the bacterial load in the environment had initially increased and then possibly spread throughout the NICU facility via the airflow of the ventilation system. For this reason, besides maintaining standard precautions, we performed a vigorous clean of the NICU, and covered the vents to prevent dust falling from them. These protective measures ended the outbreak. In the hospital environment, adequate ventilation is important, especially in single-occupancy isolation rooms and operating theaters. However, the criteria for the adequate ventilation of multioccupancy rooms for acute care environments such as the NICU have not yet been defined. We need to pay more attention to these environmental factors in order to avoid cross contamination and infectious outbreaks.

  4. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an...

  5. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an...

  6. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... (NIGC) proposes to amend its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian... Internal Control Standards. 64 FR 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's...

  7. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to...

  8. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum Internal Control Standards AGENCY... Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming... NIGC published a final rule in the Federal Register called Minimum Internal Control Standards. 64...

  9. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an...

  10. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established...

  11. 2 CFR 200.303 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internal controls. 200.303 Section 200.303... § 200.303 Internal controls. The non-Federal entity must: (a) Establish and maintain effective internal control over the Federal award that provides reasonable assurance that the non-Federal entity is...

  12. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established...

  13. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to...

  14. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an...

  15. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established...

  16. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established...

  17. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to...

  18. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to...

  19. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established...

  20. Affect Control in International Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.; Lerner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that national leaders generate international interactions in the process of maintaining sentiments about nations and international actions. The analysis deals with 1,934 international incidents in which one of 25 Middle Eastern nations responded twice within four weeks to an instigation by another of the 25…

  1. 2 CFR 200.61 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internal controls. 200.61 Section 200.61 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.61 Internal controls. Internal...

  2. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  3. Internal quality control: best practice.

    PubMed

    Kinns, Helen; Pitkin, Sarah; Housley, David; Freedman, Danielle B

    2013-12-01

    There is a wide variation in laboratory practice with regard to implementation and review of internal quality control (IQC). A poor approach can lead to a spectrum of scenarios from validation of incorrect patient results to over investigation of falsely rejected analytical runs. This article will provide a practical approach for the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory to introduce an efficient quality control system that will optimise error detection and reduce the rate of false rejection. Each stage of the IQC system is considered, from selection of IQC material to selection of IQC rules, and finally the appropriate action to follow when a rejection signal has been obtained. The main objective of IQC is to ensure day-to-day consistency of an analytical process and thus help to determine whether patient results are reliable enough to be released. The required quality and assay performance varies between analytes as does the definition of a clinically significant error. Unfortunately many laboratories currently decide what is clinically significant at the troubleshooting stage. Assay-specific IQC systems will reduce the number of inappropriate sample-run rejections compared with the blanket use of one IQC rule. In practice, only three or four different IQC rules are required for the whole of the routine biochemistry repertoire as assays are assigned into groups based on performance. The tools to categorise performance and assign IQC rules based on that performance are presented. Although significant investment of time and education is required prior to implementation, laboratories have shown that such systems achieve considerable reductions in cost and labour.

  4. Internal Temperature Control For Vibration Testers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Vibration test fixtures with internal thermal-transfer capabilities developed. Made of aluminum for rapid thermal transfer. Small size gives rapid response to changing temperatures, with better thermal control. Setup quicker and internal ducting facilitates access to parts being tested. In addition, internal flows smaller, so less energy consumed in maintaining desired temperature settings.

  5. Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Production through Optimization of Medium Composition and Adequate Control of Aeration.

    PubMed

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent years, as they are potentially used in many commercial applications in petroleum, pharmaceuticals, biomedical, and food processing industries. Since improvement of their production was of great importance to reduce the final coast, cultural conditions were analyzed to optimize biosurfactants production from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 strain. A high yield of biosurfactants was obtained from a culture of B. subtilis using carbohydrate substrate as a carbon source; among carbohydrates, glucose enhanced the best surfactin production. The optimum glucose concentration was 40 g/L. Higher amount of biosurfactants was obtained using 5 g/L of urea as organic nitrogen source and applying C/N ratio of 7 with ammonium chloride as inorganic nitrogen source. The highest amount of biosurfactants was recorded with the addition of 2% kerosene. Moreover, it was shown, using an automated full-controlled 2.6 L fermenter, that aeration of the medium, which affected strongly the growth regulated biosurfactants synthesis by the producing cell. So that, low or high aerations lead to a decrease of biosurfactants synthesis yields. It was found that when using dissolved oxygen saturation of the medium at 30%, biosurfactants production reached 4.92 g/L.

  6. Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the science of corrosion control and control of scaling in drinking water systems. Topics covered include: types of corrosion; physical, microbial and chemical factors influencing corrosion; corrosion of specific materials; direct ...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  9. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  10. Regenerative Simulation Using Internal Controls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    PC) ( 2.43) I Y (a) is an unbiased estimator of Py for any fixed vector a of control coefficients, and its variance is minimized with the optimal ...large samples is [IGLE791 V[(.§ )J [l/(n P2 • V[ Y - rI - 0 TC). (3.33)z -. ..- ........ . ...I ’ | " 64 The variance of r(O) is minimized with the optimal ... Y -*rX, C1 ) (.5I a( Y - rX, C) Y -: rX, CQ)] (.5 I The optimal control coefficient 00 is estimated by Ib - ZE-l a( Y - rX, C) (3.36) using the

  11. Externally and internally controlled attention in infants: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Stroganova, T A; Orekhova, E V; Posikera, I N

    1998-11-01

    This work was designed to investigate EEG indices of Internally and Externally Controlled Attention in infancy. EEG was recorded in 15 infants aged 7-8 months under three experimental conditions: (1) visual attention to a new stimulation (Externally Controlled Attention or baseline condition); (2) attention guided by internal cognitive schemata during 'anticipatory' phase of the peek-a-boo game (Internally Controlled Attention); and (3) 'reappearance' phase of the peek-a-boo game when the experimenter talked and smiled to an infant (reappearance). The relative power (RP) in 4-5 single-Hz theta sub-band increased under both phases of the peek-a-boo game. The reactive changes of 4-5 single-Hz RP at prefrontal and frontal leads under the Internally Controlled Attention condition positively correlated with the total time during which an infant was able to maintain ICA. The RP in 5-6 single-Hz theta sub-band significantly increased only under the Internally Controlled Attention condition and did not correlate with the total time of this type of attention. The results support the concept of 'Diffuse Theta-Response System' that is active during expectancy and effortfully focused attention. In contrast to theta, the RP in 6-7, 7-8, and 8-9 single-Hz bands decreased during both phases of the game. The decrease was maximal at precentral leads and most probably reflected blockage of the sensorimotor (mu) rhythm due to higher motility and muscular tension in the game situation. It is concluded that EEG is an adequate vehicle for investigation of brain mechanisms of attention and voluntary control in infants.

  12. Valve control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptur, S.J.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a valve control system for an internal combustion engine. The system comprising a primary control and a secondary control for modifying the operation of the primary control. The primary control comprising: a camshaft journaled for rotation in camshaft brackets, intake and exhaust cylindrical cams including cam channels; valve pin means; and timing belt means. The secondary system comprising: control plate means adjustably mounted between the cylindrical cams, rocker arm means; and at least one driver positioned between the driver leg and one of cylindrical cams.

  13. Improved internal control for molecular diagnosis assays.

    PubMed

    Vinayagamoorthy, T; Maryanski, Danielle; Vinayagamoorthy, Dilanthi; Hay, Katie S L; Yo, Jacob; Carter, Mark; Wiegel, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The two principal determining steps in molecular diagnosis are the amplification and the identification steps. Accuracy of DNA amplification is primarily determined by the annealing sequence of the PCR primer to the analyte DNA. Accuracy for identification is determined either by the annealing region of a labelled probe for the real time PCR analysis, or the annealing of a sequencing primer for DNA sequencing analysis, that binds to the respective analyte (amplicon). Presently, housekeeping genes (Beta globin, GAPDH) are used in molecular diagnosis to verify that the PCR conditions are optimum, and are thus known as amplification controls [1-4]. Although these genes have been useful as amplification controls, they lack the true definition of an internal control because the primers and annealing conditions are not identical to the analyte being assayed. This may result in a false negative report [5]. The IC-Code platform technology described here provides a true internal control where the internal control and analyte share identical PCR primers annealing sequences for the amplification step and identical sequencing primer annealing sequence for the identification step. •The analyte and internal control have the same PCR and sequencing annealing sequences.•This method assures for little or no false negatives and false positives due to the method's design of using identical annealing conditions for the internal control and analyte, and by using DNA sequencing analysis for the identification step of the analyte, respectively.•This method also allows for a set lower limit of detection to be used by varying the amount of internal control used in the assay.

  14. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  15. Pointing control for the International Comet Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Schumacher, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the pointing control system for the proposed International Comet Mission, intended to fly by Comet Halley and rendezvous with Comet Tempel-2 is presented. Following a review of mission objectives and the spacecraft configuration, design constraints on the pointing control system controlling the two-axis gimballed scan platform supporting the science instruments are discussed in relation to the scientific requirements of the mission. The primary design options considered for the pointing control system design for the baseline spacecraft are summarized, and the design selected, which employs a target-referenced, inertially stabilized control system, is described in detail. The four basic modes of operation of the pointing control subsystem (target acquisition, inertial hold, target track and slew) are discussed as they relate to operations at Halley and Tempel-2. It is pointed that the pointing control system design represents a significant advance in the state of the art of pointing controls for planetary missions.

  16. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  17. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) amends its minimum internal control standards for Class II gaming under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act to provide comprehensive and updated standards for all aspects of Class II gaming. These amendments replace the partial standards published in 2008 with a set of comprehensive standards for the entire Class II gaming environment. The new sections......

  18. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Sara; Fenwick, Nicole; Ryan, Erin A; Baker, Liv; Baker, Sandra E; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Carter, Scott; Cartwright, Barbara; Costa, Federico; Draper, Chris; Griffin, John; Grogan, Adam; Howald, Gregg; Jones, Bidda; Littin, Kate E; Lombard, Amanda T; Mellor, David J; Ramp, Daniel; Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2017-01-16

    Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human-wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation.

  19. INTERMARS: User-controlled international management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1986-01-01

    Existing international space law as well as the best interest of all nations are consistent with the establishment of a user-based international organization, herein called INTERMARS. INTERMARS would provide access to facilities and services at a Martian base which would be of high functional potential, quality, safety, and reliability. These opportunities would be available on an open and nondiscriminatory basis to all peaceful users and investors. INTERMARS is a model organization concept tailored to provide cooperative international management of a Martian base for the benefit of its members, users, and investors. Most importantly, INTERMARS would provide such management through a sharing of both sovereignty and opportunity rather then unilateral control by any one nation or set of competing nations. Through an Assembly of Parties, a Board of Governors, a Board of Users and Investors, and a Director General, INTERMARS would meet its primary goal as it would be in the self-interest of all members, users, and investors to do so. The internal structure and philosophy of INTERMARS would provide not only for all participants to have representation in decisions affecting its activities, but also would insure effective and responsive management. Surely this is the precedent wished for, to establish for mankind at the now not-so-distant shores of the new ocean of space.

  20. Supercharger control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, H.; Hirayama, T.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a supercharger control system for an internal combustion engine. The system has a throttle valve with a throttle operating lever, an engine air inlet passage, and a venturi-type carburetor. It consists of: a supercharger located in the engine air inlet passage upstream of the throttle valve, the supercharger being driven by the engine, a bypass within the engine inlet passage around the supercharger, a control valve with a control lever located within the bypass to control air flow, a diaphragm device, a first side of the diaphragm device being in communication with the engine inlet passage at the exit of the supercharger, a second side of the diaphragm being in communication with the venturi carburetor, a valve control linkage being constructed and arranged to open the control valve with increased vacuum in the first side of the diaphragm, spring means biasing the diaphragm to open the control valve, an activation lever with a stopper protrustion, the activation lever being pivotally mounted about the throttle valve, a first stop pin in the intake passage wall, a second stop pin on the throttle operating lever to selectively engage the activation lever, a regulation lever pivotally mounted about the control valve, a third stop pin on the control lever to selectively engage the regulating lever, an activation linkage connecting the activation lever and the regulating lever so as to create reciprocating motion, and spring means biasing both the regulating lever against the third stop pin when the control valve is in the fully open position and the stopper protrusion is against the first stop pin.

  1. International collaborations in cancer control and the Third International Cancer Control Congress.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Andrea; Sanz, Natalia; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Coleman, Michel P; Neal, Claire; Ullrich, Andreas; Travado, Luzia; Santini, Luiz Antonio; Grassi, Luigi; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Costa, Alberto; Dangou, Jean-Marie; Bisanti, Luigi; Seniori Costantini, Adele; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Kamal, Mostafa; Federico, Massimo; Saracci, Rodolfo; Rennert, Gad; Stefanini, Angelo; Cavalli, Franco; Cazap, Eduardo; Redmond, Kathy; O'Reilly, Susan; Muti, Paola; Casali, Paolo; Gatta, Gemma; Ferrari, Andrea; Koifman, Sergio; Bah, Ebrima; Pastore, Guido; Barr, Ronald; Lombardo, Claudio; Frazzingaro, Cristina; Ciampichini, Roberta; Baili, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been growing support for the idea that cancer needs an interdisciplinary approach. Therefore, the international cancer community has developed several strategies as outlined in the WHO non-communicable diseases Action Plan (which includes cancer control) as the World Health Assembly and the UICC World Cancer Declaration, which both include primary prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care. This paper highlights experiences/ideas in cancer control for international collaborations between low, middle, and high income countries, including collaborations between the European Union (EU) and African Union (AU) Member States, the Latin-American and Caribbean countries, and the Eastern Mediterranean countries. These proposals are presented within the context of the global vision on cancer control set forth by WHO in partnership with the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), in addition to issues that should be considered for collaborations at the global level: cancer survival (similar to the project CONCORD), cancer control for youth and adaptation of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Since cancer control is given lower priority on the health agenda of low and middle income countries and is less represented in global health efforts in those countries, EU and AU cancer stakeholders are working to put cancer control on the agenda of the EU-AU treaty for collaborations, and are proposing to consider palliative care, population-based cancer registration, and training and education focusing on primary prevention as core tools. A Community of Practice, such as the Third International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-3), is an ideal place to share new proposals, learn from other experiences, and formulate new ideas. The aim of the ICCC-3 is to foster new international collaborations to promote cancer control actions in low and middle income countries. The development of supranational collaborations has been hindered by the fact

  2. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  6. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated... internal system from the transmitter control circuit or to close the system......

  7. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated... internal system from the transmitter control circuit or to close the system......

  8. 12 CFR 917.6 - Internal control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal control system. 917.6 Section 917.6... internal control system that addresses: (i) The efficiency and effectiveness of Bank activities; (ii) The... activities necessary to maintain the internal control system required under paragraph (a)(1) of this...

  9. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section... for Boards and Management § 609.940 Internal systems and controls. When applicable, internal systems and controls must provide reasonable assurances that System institutions will: (a) Follow and...

  10. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program....

  11. 12 CFR 917.6 - Internal control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Internal control system. 917.6 Section 917.6... internal control system that addresses: (i) The efficiency and effectiveness of Bank activities; (ii) The... activities necessary to maintain the internal control system required under paragraph (a)(1) of this...

  12. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section... for Boards and Management § 609.940 Internal systems and controls. When applicable, internal systems and controls must provide reasonable assurances that System institutions will: (a) Follow and...

  13. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program....

  14. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program....

  15. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program....

  16. Method for controlling an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, S.; Achleitner, E.

    1993-07-13

    In a method for controlling an internal combustion engine having cylinders operating in cycles and an intake tube for intake air, which includes determining a fuel mass to be injected into each cylinder for each cycle as a function of operating parameters of the internal combustion engine by reading a basic fuel value out of a basic family of characteristics and correcting the basic fuel value as a function of a temperature of the intake air, and multiplying the basic fuel value by a correction factor FK = A/B, wherein the denominator B is a temperature value, the improvement is described which comprises: selecting the variables of the basic family of characteristics as a pressure in the intake tube and an rpm, and reading a correction temperature contained in the temperature value out of a family of temperature characteristics in dependence on a variable dependent on an air flow and of a heating temperature being determinative for heating up the intake air in the intake tube.

  17. Internal combustion engine camshaft phaseshift control system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine, a hydraulic system for varying the timing of an intake valve camshaft and an exhaust valve camshaft relative to a crankshaft. It comprises a drive flange adapted to be rotatably coupled to a crank shaft for rotation about one the camshaft axis; a driven flange coupled to the camshaft for rotation above the one camshaft axis; a hydraulic coupling including a housing means connected to one of the flanges and a piston means cooperating with the housing means and connected to the other of the flanges; valve means for regulating the flow of fluid in the conduit means in response to a control signal to cause the drive and driven flanges to rotate relative to one another in a direction selected without any external power utilizing the cyclically varying fluid pressure within the fluid chambers.

  18. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  19. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  20. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported...

  1. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported,...

  2. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported,...

  3. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported,...

  4. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported...

  5. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported...

  6. Improving the Internal Accounting Controls of Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolou, Nicholas G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Accounting controls are primarily concerned with methods and procedures that safeguard an entity's assets and ensure the reliability of its financial records. This article discusses internal control objectives as applied to educational institutions, outlines specific steps necessary to develop an effective internal control system, and mentions…

  7. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported,...

  8. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported...

  9. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported...

  10. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported,...

  11. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control....

  13. Internal Administrative Control: Its Applicability to the Marine Corps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL : Master’s Thesis ITS APPLICABILITY TO THE MARINE CORPS June 1984 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 4. CONTRACT OR GRANT Nr...NUMBERS Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 93943 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Postgraduate School jUne 1984 13...Continu. on fevers# side It nec esary and Identify by. block number) internal Control Internal Administrative Control Administrative Control 0

  14. Canagliflozin Compared With Sitagliptin for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Who Do Not Have Adequate Glycemic Control With Metformin Plus Sulfonylurea

    PubMed Central

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Gross, Jorge L.; Rosenstock, Julio; Guarisco, Michael; Fu, Min; Yee, Jacqueline; Kawaguchi, Masato; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, compared with sitagliptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin plus sulfonylurea. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 study, subjects using stable metformin plus sulfonylurea (N = 755) received canagliflozin 300 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Primary end point was change from baseline in A1C at 52 weeks. Secondary end points included change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and systolic blood pressure (BP), and percent change in body weight, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. Safety was assessed based on adverse event (AE) reports. RESULTS At 52 weeks, canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated noninferiority and, in a subsequent assessment, showed superiority to sitagliptin 100 mg in reducing A1C (−1.03% [−11.3 mmol/mol] and −0.66% [−7.2 mmol/mol], respectively; least squares mean difference between groups, −0.37% [95% CI, −0.50 to −0.25] or −4.0 mmol/mol [−5.5 to −2.7]). Greater reductions in FPG, body weight, and systolic BP were observed with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin (P < 0.001). Overall AE rates were similar with canagliflozin (76.7%) and sitagliptin (77.5%); incidence of serious AEs and AE-related discontinuations was low for both groups. Higher incidences of genital mycotic infections and osmotic diuresis–related AEs were observed with canagliflozin, which led to one discontinuation. Hypoglycemia rates were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that canagliflozin may be a new therapeutic tool providing better improvement in glycemic control and body weight reduction than sitagliptin, but with increased genital infections in subjects with type 2 diabetes using metformin plus sulfonylurea. PMID:23564919

  15. DoD ADP Internal Control Guideline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    wOaiainRm e Washington, D. C. 1I& Sponsoerng organization Name and Andree I&. Type of Illgt 4 Pen"" Coe"Ma Guide IS. suop4.mentairv Hote $ 16. Abstfuet...of control techniques to satisfy the requirements specified. c. Areas of control - the terms used to describe how and where control techniques are...applied to satisfy basic control requirements. 2. The basic structure of the conceptual framework revolves around these three elements. The remainder of

  16. Drug Control: International Policy and Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-07

    sources of supply, or the so-called “balloon syndrome ”: when squeezed in one place, it pops up in another. Nevertheless, many point out that the...much as a hectare of wheat at prevailing prices ($13,000 compared to $300 to $400). Even if the international community bought up the entire Afghan...development and implementation of programs worldwide that aim at increasing public intolerance for illicit drug use. Such programs, through information

  17. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    In a mixed template, the presence of homologous target DNA sequences creates environments that almost inevitably give rise to artifacts and biases during PCR. Heteroduplexes, chimeras, and skewed template-to-product ratios are the exclusive attributes of mixed template PCR and never occur in a single template assay. Yet, multi-template PCR has been used without appropriate attention to quality control and assay validation, in spite of the fact that such practice diminishes the reliability of results. External and internal amplification controls became obligatory elements of good laboratory practice in different PCR assays. We propose the inclusion of an analogous approach as a quality control system for multi-template PCR applications. The amplification controls must take into account the characteristics of multi-template PCR and be able to effectively monitor particular assay performance. This study demonstrated the efficiency of a model mixed template as an adequate external amplification control for a particular PCR application. The conditions of multi-template PCR do not allow implementation of a classic internal control; therefore we developed a convenient semi-internal control as an acceptable alternative. In order to evaluate the effects of inhibitors, a model multi-template mix was amplified in a mixture with DNAse-treated sample. Semi-internal control allowed establishment of intervals for robust PCR performance for different samples, thus enabling correct comparison of the samples. The complexity of the external and semi-internal amplification controls must be comparable with the assumed complexity of the samples. We also emphasize that amplification controls should be applied in multi-template PCR regardless of the post-assay method used to analyze products.

  18. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  19. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  20. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter...

  1. International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbits, Ted W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Lighting is a central and critical aspect of control in environmental research for plant research and is gaining recognition as a significant factor to control carefully for animal and human research. Thus this workshop was convened to reevaluate the technology that is available today and to work toward developing guidelines for the most effective use of lighting in controlled environments with emphasis on lighting for plants but also to initiate interest in the development of improved guidelines for human and animal research.

  2. Internal Control Systems in the Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines system for safeguarding assets and guaranteeing reliability of library's financial records within context of management functions that comprise accounting controls: planning by budget or other standard of comparison; operation of effective accounting and record-keeping system; personnel management practices. Cash controls as example of…

  3. Temporal control of internal states in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Cook, Robert G; Rosen, Hara A

    2010-12-01

    To understand how animals serially organize complex competing behaviors, we tested pigeons in a sequential task-switching procedure. Daily sessions involved two conditional discrimination tasks that were presented in sequence. In Experiment 1, the first half of a session employed a matching-to-sample task, and the second half tested an oddity-from-sample task. Because the same colors were used for both tasks, these tasks could be solved only by employing a modulating sequential cue. The results of the first experiment revealed that the pigeons could learn this task-switching procedure and that an internal clock was the critical modulator between the tasks. In Experiment 2, we tested a three-alternative choice task. By examining the pattern of errors among choices, the results of this experiment revealed that pigeons learned and used different representations of the choice rules for each half of the experiment. This modulation of the pigeons' internal states by time has implications for how animals organize their behavior in different settings and holds clues as to the evolution of the serial organization of behavior.

  4. Reduce Fraud Risk in Your District with Stronger Internal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okrzesik, Daryl J.; Nuehring, Bert G.

    2011-01-01

    Internal accounts offer schools a faster, more convenient way to handle the income and expenses that result from student fees, school clubs and organizations, field trips, fund-raising, and similar activities. But this convenience also incurs the added risk of fraud. Fortunately, there are proven ways to strengthen internal controls and reduce…

  5. 21 CFR 1308.46 - Control required under international treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control required under international treaty. 1308.46 Section 1308.46 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF... under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, the...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.46 - Control required under international treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control required under international treaty. 1308.46 Section 1308.46 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF... under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971, the...

  7. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  8. Tobacco Control and Children: An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hipple, Bethany J.; Muramoto, Myra; Klein, Jonathan D.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use currently claims >5 million deaths per year worldwide and this number is projected to increase dramatically by 2030. The burden of death and disease is shifting to low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco control initiatives face numerous challenges including not being a high priority in many countries, government dependence upon immediate revenue from tobacco sales and production, and opposition of the tobacco industry. Tobacco leads to environmental harms, exploitation of workers in tobacco farming, and increased poverty. Children are especially vulnerable. Not only do they initiate tobacco use themselves, but also they are victimized by exposure to highly toxic secondhand smoke. Awareness of tobacco adverse health effects is often superficial even among health professionals. The tobacco industry continues to aggressively promote its products and recognizes that children are its future. The tools and knowledge exist, however, to dramatically reduce the global burden of tobacco. In 2003 the World Health Organization adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Aggressive tobacco control initiatives have been undertaken not only in high-income countries but also in less-wealthy countries such as Uruguay and Thailand. Stakeholders must come together in coordinated efforts and there must be a broad and sustained investment in global tobacco control. PMID:22375275

  9. Analysis of Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    The sources of market research data include public information on the industry, feedback from companies, previous experience with similar... feedback to the participants. D. DATA ANALYSIS The methods used to analyze the data included the use of descriptive statistics. The results were...State Internal Control Association (NYSICA). (2006). Internal control survey. 2006 Conference NYS OSC . Retrieved from http://www.nysica.com Office of

  10. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOEpatents

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  11. International Union, UAW v. Johnson Controls, Inc.

    PubMed

    1989-09-26

    The U.S. Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit, upheld the legality of excluding women from specific work areas under Johnson Controls' fetal protection policy as reasonably necessary for the protection of fetuses from lead exposure. The policy was challenged as sexually discriminatory because it disallowed women from working in high lead-exposure workplaces if the women were still fertile or were pregnant. The court found that overwhelming evidence demonstrated the hazardous health effects of exposure to lead. The risk of transmission of harm to a fetus was confined to fertile female employees. Therefore, the sex bias of the policy was permissible. Furthermore, no alternatives were demonstrated which would be any less discriminatory, and still equally effective. Finally, the court found the policy to be necessary to industrial safety and hence a bona fide occupational qualification, protected against claims of sexual discrimination.

  12. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier C gaming operations, a separate internal audit department shall...

  13. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier A gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  14. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? 542.22 Section 542.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier A gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  15. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier B gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  16. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? 542.32 Section 542.32 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier B gaming operations, a separate internal audit department must...

  17. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? 542.42 Section 542.42 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING... the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a) Internal audit personnel. (1) For Tier C gaming operations, a separate internal audit department shall...

  18. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control.

    PubMed

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-12-08

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  19. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  20. Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matviychuk, Oksana G.

    2014-11-18

    A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.

  1. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  2. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  3. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions... of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Rock Island, Illinois... International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these...

  4. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the... premises controlled by the licensee. (2) An internal transmitter control system may......

  5. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the... premises controlled by the licensee. (2) An internal transmitter control system may......

  6. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  7. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  8. Control of mental activities by internal models in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masao

    2008-04-01

    The intricate neuronal circuitry of the cerebellum is thought to encode internal models that reproduce the dynamic properties of body parts. These models are essential for controlling the movement of these body parts: they allow the brain to precisely control the movement without the need for sensory feedback. It is thought that the cerebellum might also encode internal models that reproduce the essential properties of mental representations in the cerebral cortex. This hypothesis suggests a possible mechanism by which intuition and implicit thought might function and explains some of the symptoms that are exhibited by psychiatric patients. This article examines the conceptual bases and experimental evidence for this hypothesis.

  9. Explanation and Use of the Rio 2011 Colposcopy Nomenclature of the IFCPC (International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy): Comments on the general colposcopic assessment of the uterine cervix: adequate/inadequate; squamocolumnar junction; transformation zone.

    PubMed

    Quaas, J; Reich, O; Küppers, V

    2014-12-01

    In July 2012 the IFCPC adopted a revised terminology for colposcopic examinations of the uterine cervix. In 2012, the Boards of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kolposkopie (AGK - Austrian Society of Colposcopy), the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kolposkopie und Zervixpathologie (AGKOL - Swiss Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kolposkopie und Zervixpathologie (AGCPC - German Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology) accepted the validity of the 2011 IFCPC nomenclature and recommended its use in general clinical practice across German-speaking countries. The revised nomenclature was devised so that examiners can evaluate colposcopic criteria according to a specific scheme. At the start of the examination, the examiner must assess whether the colposcopy is representative or not. 1. Can the examination be classed as adequate or inadequate (reasons must be given)? 2. How would you describe the visibility of the squamocolumnar junction and categorize the transformation zone? Below we discuss some aspects of this general assessment as outlined in the nomenclature which were found to require further clarification for general practice.

  10. Uncertainty-based internal quality control. Harmonization considerations.

    PubMed

    Bonet-Domingo, E; Escuder-Gilabert, L; Medina-Hernandez, M J; Sagrado, S

    2006-12-01

    Three main quality aspects for analytical laboratories are internal method validation, internal quality control (IQC), and sample result uncertainty. Unfortunately, in the past they have been used in a nonharmonized way. The most universal IQC tool is the mean chart, but some criteria used to fix their control limits do not fit the real nature of analytical results. A new approach for fixing these limits is proposed (the u-approach). The key is the combined uncertainty, u, obtained from the method validation information, also used for estimating the sample result uncertainty. A comparative study on "in-control" simulated, bibliographic, and real laboratory data suggests that the u-approach is more reliable than other well-established criteria. In addition, the u-approach mean chart emerges as an IQC tool, consistent with chemical assays, which harmonizes the validation-control-uncertainty process.

  11. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  12. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  13. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section 609.940 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards... business plan objectives and policies and procedures requirements regarding E-commerce; and (b) Prevent...

  14. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section 609.940 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards... business plan objectives and policies and procedures requirements regarding E-commerce; and (b) Prevent...

  15. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section 609.940 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards... business plan objectives and policies and procedures requirements regarding E-commerce; and (b) Prevent...

  16. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  17. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    A Knowledge Assessment Juanita M. Rendon—is a CPA and instructor at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). Rendon teaches auditing , finance, and...review academic journal articles, government reports, and previous research studies in the areas of auditability , contract management processes, and...internal control components. Auditability in Public Organizations The literature on auditability reflects an organization’s transformation in its

  18. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shipments to bonded warehouses and free trade zones; (12) A system for notifying BIS promptly if the SCL... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11 Section 752.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade...

  19. Trends in International Persuasion: Persuasion in the Arms Control Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmann, P. Terrence; Walcott, Charles

    An analysis of the bargaining process in international arms control negotiations is possible by developing a framework of interrelated hypotheses, by delineating and practicing interactions study called "Bargaining Process Analysis," and by formulating procedural steps that bridge the gap between laboratory studies and "real world" situations. In…

  20. Engine idle control system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzawa, H.; Seimiya, Y.

    1989-05-16

    A automotive vehicle is described including: an internal combustion engine having an induction system; a throttle valve disposed in the induction system, the throttle valve being movable in response to a manually derived command signal to move between a closed position and an open position; and a device for controlling the position of the throttle valve when the manually derived command signal is absent and the engine is idling; the device comprising: a control valve which modulates a vacuum pressure signal derived from the induction system in a manner to form a control signal, the control valve having a solenoid; a servo operatively connected with the throttle valve, the servo being responsive to the vacuum pressure signal and the control signal, the servo being arranged to be motivated by the vacuum pressure signal and so that the amount of motivation by the vacuum pressure signal is subject to control by the control signal.

  1. Effects of internal border control on spread of pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Wood, James G; Zamani, Nasim; MacIntyre, C Raina; Beckert, Niels G

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the capacity of internal border control to limit influenza spread in an emergent pandemic in the context of Australia, a country with a low-population density and geopolitical boundaries that may facilitate restrictions. Mathematical models were used to study the time delay between epidemics in 2 population centers when travel restrictions were imposed. The models demonstrated that population size, travel rates, and places where travelers reside can strongly influence delay. The model simulations suggested that moderate delays in geographic spread may be possible with stringent restrictions and a low reproduction number, but results will be sensitive to the reproduction number and timing of restrictions. Model limitations include the absence of further importations and additional control measures. Internal border control may have a role in protecting domestic centers early in a pandemic, when importations are sparse. Our results may be useful for policymakers.

  2. Controlling of explicit internal signal stochastic resonance by external signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya Ping; Wang, Pin; Li, Qian Shu

    2004-09-01

    Explicit internal signal stochastic resonance (EISSR) is investigated in a model of energy transduction of molecular machinery when noise is added to the region of oscillation in the presence of external signal (ES). It is found that EISSR could be controlled, i.e., enhanced or suppressed by adjusting frequency (ωe) and amplitude (A) of ES, and that there exits an optimal frequency for ES, which makes EISSR strength reach the maximum. Meanwhile, a critical amplitude (Ac) is found, which is a threshold of occurrence of EISSR. Finally, the difference and similarity between EISSR and IISSR (implicit internal signal stochastic resonance) are discussed.

  3. Editorial and Introduction of the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Benson, Sally M.; Karimjee, Anhar; Rubin, Edward S.

    2010-03-01

    Short one page editorial to introduce the +30 peer reviewed papers contained within the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

  4. Dynamic and attitude control characteristics of an International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Cooper, Paul A.; Young, John W.; Mccutchen, Don K.

    1987-01-01

    The structural dynamic characteristics of the International Space Station (ISS), the interim reference configuration established for NASA's Space Station developmental program, are discussed, and a finite element model is described. Modes and frequencies of the station below 2.0 Hz are derived, and the dynamic response of the station is simulated for an external impulse load corresponding to a failed shuttle-docking maneuver. A three-axis attitude control system regulates the ISS orientation, with control moment gyros responding to attitude and attitude rate signals. No instabilities were found in the attitude control system.

  5. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  6. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the deduction. (e) Each gaming operation shall establish internal control systems sufficient to ensure... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  7. Active vibration control using an inertial actuator with internal damping.

    PubMed

    Paulitsch, Christoph; Gardonio, Paolo; Elliott, Stephen J

    2006-04-01

    Collocated direct velocity feedback with ideal point force actuators mounted on structures is unconditionally stable and generates active damping. When inertial actuators are used to generate the control force, the system can become unstable even for moderate velocity feedback gains due to an additional -180 degree phase lag introduced by the fundamental axial resonant mode of the inertial actuator. In this study a relative velocity sensor is used to implement an inner velocity feedback loop that generates internal damping in a lightweight, electrodynamic, inertial actuator. Simulation results for a model problem with the actuator mounted on a clamped plate show that, when internal relative velocity feedback is used in addition to a conventional external velocity feedback loop, there is an optimum combination of internal and external velocity feedback gains, which, for a given gain margin, maximizes vibration reduction. These predictions are validated in experiments with a specially built lightweight inertial actuator.

  8. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  9. The stages of the international drug control system.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the history of the international drug control system of the League of Nations/United Nations can be divided into three cumulative stages. The first stage, the supply stage, dates back to early part of the 20th century, and aimed to reduce the supply of drugs through careful monitoring and trade regulations. This has remained the dominant control strategy. In the middle of the century, demand control, in the form of treatment and criminalization of the individual user, began to appear. This was the least successful stage. Finally, in the 1980s, the dangers of the drug traffic assumed an important place on the international agenda and measures to reduce drug-related organized crime were enacted. To date, this has been a process of proliferation of regulatory strategies. Recently, new challenges to the international drug control system have emerged, including well-funded non-governmental organizations critical of the war on drugs, and the adoption of harm reduction measures in national policies around the world.

  10. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects’ internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10015.001 PMID:26646183

  11. Internal regulation of a modular system: the different faces of internal control.

    PubMed

    van der Gugten, A A; Westerhoff, H V

    1997-01-01

    The living cell houses a multitude of molecular processes that operate simultaneously in a mutually consistent fashion. A certain degree of organization stands out, e.g. in terms of the various metabolic pathways, transcription versus translation, signal transduction versus metabolism. This paper shows that by taking one of the aforementioned organizational principles into account, the complexity of understanding cell function quantitatively may be reduced significantly. To this aim the definition of the corresponding type of organization is refined and the conceptual tools used in the analysis of the control of cell function are adjusted. The approach is elaborated for a theoretical model of cell function, in which the latter depends on a constellation of interdependent but unconnected modules. The organization of a system is reduced to global control within a limited set of partaking modules and the links between them. Information about the systems total internal control and regulability is then drastically reduced to the information specifying global control and the regulability of the pathways that constitute the system. It is shown quantitatively how control at a lower level of organization bears on the control of the cell as a whole. The approach centers on writing the product of control (matrix) and elasticity (matrix) at a number of different levels of aggregation; these products equalling the identity (matrix) under different conditions. We demonstrate that there are at least three ways in which control and regulability of a system can be matched. In one, the true control within and between the modules of the systems is the inverse of the primary regulability (i.e. elasticity plus stoichiometry). In a second, the control internal to a module (but partly determined through the other modules) is matched by the inverse of newly defined 'global' regulabilities for each module separately, which comprise the regulatory impact of the remainder of the system. In

  12. Impact of Export Control and Technology Transfer Regimes: International Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-07

    Impact of Export Control and Technology Transfer Regimes: International Perspectives 7 January 2012 by BGen (Ret.) Raymond E. Franck ...contact: NPS Acquisition Research Program Attn: James B. Greene, RADM, USN, (Ret.) Acquisition Chair Graduate School of Business and Public Policy...k^s^i=mlpqdo^ar^qb=p`elli= About the Authors Raymond (Chip) Franck , PhD, Senior Lecturer, Graduate School of Business & Public Policy, Naval

  13. A demand assignment control in international business satellite communications network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio; Hirata, Yasuo

    An experimental system is being developed for use in an international business satellite (IBS) communications network based on demand-assignment (DA) and TDMA techniques. This paper discusses its system design, in particular from the viewpoints of a network configuration, a DA control, and a satellite channel-assignment algorithm. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission rate, HPA output power, satellite resource efficiency, service quality, and so on.

  14. Performance monitoring following conflict: internal adjustments in cognitive control?

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Baldwin, Scott A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strategic conflict-related adjustments in cognitive control processes on indices of performance monitoring. Previous research has examined the ability of parametric task-related manipulations to bias attention to errors; however, the present study sought to elucidate the effects of internal adjustments in control mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex on error-related conflict processing. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 124 healthy individuals (68 female, 66 male) during a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral measures (i.e., error rates, response times [RTs]) and N2 amplitudes showed significant conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruencies influenced current-trial measures). For error trials, the error-related negativity (ERN) was more negative for errors on high-conflict (i.e., incongruent) trials following high-conflict trials relative to errors on high-conflict trials following low-conflict (i.e., congruent) trials. These findings indicate that error-related conflict-monitoring processes adjust according to the post-conflict recruitment of strategic cognitive control and suggest an ongoing interplay between conflict and internal adjustments in control resources. Interpretations from the perspective of the conflict monitoring theory of cognitive control, the reinforcement learning theory, and the response-outcome theory of the ERN are discussed.

  15. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  16. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  17. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  18. 7 CFR 4290.506 - Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls... Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  19. Nanoparticle hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems offer fundamental advantages over current therapeutic agents that commonly display a longer circulation time, lower toxicity, specific targeted release, and greater bioavailability. For successful NP-based drug delivery it is essential that the drug-carrying nanocarriers can be internalized by the target cells and transported to specific sites, and the inefficient internalization of nanocarriers is often one of the major sources for drug resistance. In this work, we use the dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the effect of NP hardness on their internalization efficiency. Three simplified models of NP platforms for drug delivery, including polymeric NP, liposome and solid NP, are designed here to represent increasing nanocarrier hardness. Simulation results indicate that NP hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery. Rigid NPs can enter the cell by a pathway of endocytosis, whereas for soft NPs the endocytosis process can be inhibited or frustrated due to wrapping-induced shape deformation and non-uniform ligand distribution. Instead, soft NPs tend to find one of three penetration pathways to enter the cell membrane via rearranging their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Finally, we show that the interaction between nanocarriers and drug molecules is also essential for effective drug delivery.

  20. Nanoparticle hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-02-14

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems offer fundamental advantages over current therapeutic agents that commonly display a longer circulation time, lower toxicity, specific targeted release, and greater bioavailability. For successful NP-based drug delivery it is essential that the drug-carrying nanocarriers can be internalized by the target cells and transported to specific sites, and the inefficient internalization of nanocarriers is often one of the major sources for drug resistance. In this work, we use the dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the effect of NP hardness on their internalization efficiency. Three simplified models of NP platforms for drug delivery, including polymeric NP, liposome and solid NP, are designed here to represent increasing nanocarrier hardness. Simulation results indicate that NP hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery. Rigid NPs can enter the cell by a pathway of endocytosis, whereas for soft NPs the endocytosis process can be inhibited or frustrated due to wrapping-induced shape deformation and non-uniform ligand distribution. Instead, soft NPs tend to find one of three penetration pathways to enter the cell membrane via rearranging their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Finally, we show that the interaction between nanocarriers and drug molecules is also essential for effective drug delivery.

  1. Development of internal controls for PCR detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, G; Pearce, M; Leslie, D

    1998-12-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Bacillus anthracis strains harbouring plasmid pX02. The multiplex also incorporated an internal control (IC) to avoid false negative reactions. Internal controls consisted of plasmids containing modified PCR target sequences, corresponding to the capC and BA813 genes of B. anthracis, which were then co-amplified with the original target sequences using the same set of amplimers. The initial IC construct comprised of an internally deleted form of the genomic target sequence cloned into pUC19. A series of nested DNA fragments corresponding to the 23S rRNA sequences of Bacillus cereus were then subcloned into the point of deletion, producing a number of IC constructs with similar sequences but increasing product size on PCR amplification. Neither the presence of IC DNA template or IC PCR product size affected the specificity or non-specific cross-reactivity of the original PCR assay. The concentration of IC was critical, too much IC DNA template would out compete the genomic DNA template, thus giving a false negative result. However, when the concentration of IC was optimal assay sensitivity was not compromised.

  2. Pointwise and Internal Controllability for the Wave Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Avdonin, S.A. Seidman, T.I.

    2002-12-19

    Problems of internal and pointwise observation and control for the one-dimensional wave equation arise in the simulation of control and identification processes in electrical engineering, flaw detection, and medical tomography. The generally accepted way of modelling sensors and actuators as pointlike objects leads to results which may make no apparent physical sense: they may depend, for instance, on the rationality or irrationality of the location for a point sensor or actuator. We propose a new formulation of sensor (actuator) action, expressed mathematically by using somewhat unconventional spaces for data presentation and processing. For interaction restricted to an interval of length {epsilon} , the limit system of observation (or control) now makes sense when {epsilon} tends to zero without a sensitive dependence on the precise location of the limiting point.

  3. Internal combustion engine camshaft phase shift control system

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, A.O.; Schechter, M.M.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine, a rotary coupling for varying the timing of at least one camshaft relative to a crankshaft, the rotary coupling. It comprises a drive flange adapted to be coupled to the crankshaft for rotation about an axis; a driven flange adapted to be coupled to the at least one camshaft for rotation about the axis; a hydraulic coupling including a housing means connected to one of the flanges and a piston means cooperating with the housing means and connected to the other of the flanges, valve means for regulating the flow of fluid in the conduit means in response to a control signal; each the shuttle plunger member storing a predetermined volume of fluid under pressure to be selectively transferred to a respective one of the fluid chambers in response to a control signal; and control valve means within the conduit means.

  4. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  5. Vehicle active steering control research based on two-DOF robust internal model control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Fengbo; Bao, Chunjiang; Sun, Qun; Zhao, Youqun

    2016-07-01

    Because of vehicle's external disturbances and model uncertainties, robust control algorithms have obtained popularity in vehicle stability control. The robust control usually gives up performance in order to guarantee the robustness of the control algorithm, therefore an improved robust internal model control(IMC) algorithm blending model tracking and internal model control is put forward for active steering system in order to reach high performance of yaw rate tracking with certain robustness. The proposed algorithm inherits the good model tracking ability of the IMC control and guarantees robustness to model uncertainties. In order to separate the design process of model tracking from the robustness design process, the improved 2 degree of freedom(DOF) robust internal model controller structure is given from the standard Youla parameterization. Simulations of double lane change maneuver and those of crosswind disturbances are conducted for evaluating the robust control algorithm, on the basis of a nonlinear vehicle simulation model with a magic tyre model. Results show that the established 2-DOF robust IMC method has better model tracking ability and a guaranteed level of robustness and robust performance, which can enhance the vehicle stability and handling, regardless of variations of the vehicle model parameters and the external crosswind interferences. Contradiction between performance and robustness of active steering control algorithm is solved and higher control performance with certain robustness to model uncertainties is obtained.

  6. International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Lab Module Simulator Build-Up and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul; Miller, Lee; Ibarra, Tom

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Sustaining Engineering program for the International Space Station (ISS), a ground simulator of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) in the Lab Module was designed and built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). To support prediction and troubleshooting, this facility is operationally and functionally similar to the flight system and flight-like components were used when available. Flight software algorithms, implemented using the LabVIEW(Registered Trademark) programming language, were used for monitoring performance and controlling operation. Validation testing of the low temperature loop was completed prior to activation of the Lab module in 2001. Assembly of the moderate temperature loop was completed in 2002 and validated in 2003. The facility has been used to address flight issues with the ITCS, successfully demonstrating the ability to add silver biocide and to adjust the pH of the coolant. Upon validation of the entire facility, it will be capable not only of checking procedures, but also of evaluating payload timelining, operational modifications, physical modifications, and other aspects affecting the thermal control system.

  7. Hybrid internal model control and proportional control of chaotic dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dong-lian; Yao, Liang-bin

    2004-01-01

    A new chaos control method is proposed to take advantage of chaos or avoid it. The hybrid Internal Model Control and Proportional Control learning scheme are introduced. In order to gain the desired robust performance and ensure the system's stability, Adaptive Momentum Algorithms are also developed. Through properly designing the neural network plant model and neural network controller, the chaotic dynamical systems are controlled while the parameters of the BP neural network are modified. Taking the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the results show that chaotic dynamical systems can be stabilized at the desired orbits by this control strategy.

  8. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  9. A survey. Financial accounting and internal control functions pursued by hospital boards.

    PubMed

    Gavin, T A

    1984-09-01

    Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of

  10. A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Vipul P.; Winton, Dale; Ibarra, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001. The dual loop system of the ITCS is comprised of a lowtemperature loop (LTL) and a moderate-temperature loop (MTL). Each loop has a pump package assembly (PPA), a system flow control assembly (SFCA), a threeway mixing valve (TWMV), several rack flow control assemblies (RFCA), cold plates, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, pump bypass assembly (PBA) and a heat exchanger. In addition, the MTL has an additional TWMV, a payload regeneration heat exchanger (P/RHE) and a manual flow control valve (MFCV). The LTL has a service performance and checkout unit (SPCU) heat exchanger. The two loops are linked via one loop crossover assembly (LCA) providing cross loop capabilities and a single PPA, two-loop functionality. One important parameter monitored by the ground stations and on-orbit is the amount of fluid leakage from the ITCS. ISS fluid leakage is of importance since ITCS fluid is costly to re-supply, may be difficult to clean up in zero-g, and if uncontained could lead to equipment failures and potential hazards. This paper examines the nominal leakage observed over period of a year

  11. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. 90.475 Section 90.475 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems...

  12. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. 90.475 Section 90.475 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems...

  13. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. 90.475 Section 90.475 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems...

  14. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  15. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  16. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a credit instrument control form. (2) Records of all correspondence, transfers to and from outside... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards...

  17. Formation of rigid organic nanotubes with controlled internal cavity based on frustrated aggregate internal rearrangement mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Minwoo; Hyun, Jungin; Sim, Eunji

    2013-06-27

    We introduce frustrated aggregate internal rearrangement (FAIR) mechanism for anisotropic higher-order structure formations, in which the anisotropy arose due to the structural frustration. We demonstrate the FAIR mechanism by investigating the recently observed rigid organic nanotube formations through the self-assembly of building blocks, which include rigid segments and make intermolecular H-bonds, whereas the principle of the FAIR mechanism is general and is not limited to H-bonding building blocks or nanotube formations. Initially, molecules aggregate into sheetlike structures driven by nonspecific and nondirectional intermolecular interactions such as π-π stacking or amphiphilicity. Weak intermolecular H-bonds provide additional stability to the structure. Within the aggregate, however, not all molecules have the right orientation for specific and directional H-bonds whereas collective internal rearrangement of rigid building blocks requires a large amount of energy to overcome kinetically trapped barriers. Consequently, instead of the fully H-bonded global equilibrium structure, self-assembled layers become trapped with partial and disordered H-bonding schemes at various fractions leading to an anisotropic layer that undergoes spontaneous transformation into curved structures. The FAIR mechanism can readily be extended to anisotropic higher-order structures other than nanotubes and to the assembly of diverse building blocks including hybrids such as polymer nanocomposites. Also the reversible transformation from metastable nanotubes into layered sheets is potentially useful for controlling internal cavity size of nanotubes.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  20. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  1. 7 CFR 1773.32 - Report on compliance and on internal control over financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Report on compliance and on internal control over... RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.32 Report on compliance and on internal control over financial... compliance with applicable laws, regulations, contracts, and grants, and on internal control over...

  2. 7 CFR 1773.32 - Report on compliance and on internal control over financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Report on compliance and on internal control over... RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.32 Report on compliance and on internal control over financial... compliance with applicable laws, regulations, contracts, and grants, and on internal control over...

  3. 7 CFR 1773.32 - Report on compliance and on internal control over financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Report on compliance and on internal control over... RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.32 Report on compliance and on internal control over financial... compliance with applicable laws, regulations, contracts, and grants, and on internal control over...

  4. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  5. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  6. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  7. 25 CFR 543.16 - What are the minimum internal controls for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... access controls. (1) For computer systems that can be accessed remotely, the written system of internal... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the minimum internal controls for information... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.16 What are the minimum...

  8. 12 CFR 630.5 - Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT SYSTEM General § 630.5 Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial... assessment of internal control over financial reporting. (1) Annual reports must include a report by the Funding Corporation's management assessing the effectiveness of the internal control over...

  9. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  10. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  11. 7 CFR 1773.32 - Report on compliance and on internal control over financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report on compliance and on internal control over... RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.32 Report on compliance and on internal control over financial... compliance with applicable laws, regulations, contracts, and grants, and on internal control over...

  12. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  13. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  14. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  15. International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Cold Plate/Fluid-Stability Test: Two Year Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul; Holt, Mike; Roman, Monsi; Cole, Harold; Daugherty, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Operation of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Cold Plate/Fluid-Stability Test Facility commenced on September 5, 2000. The facility was intended to provide advance indication of potential problems on board the International Space Station (ISS) and was designed: 1) To be materially similar to the flight ITCS. 2) To allow for monitoring during operation. 3) To run continuously for three years. During the first two years of operation the conditions of the coolant and components were remarkably stable. During this same period of time, the conditions of the ISS ITCS significantly diverged from the desired state. Due to this divergence, the test facility has not been providing information useful for predicting the flight ITCS condition. Results of the first two years are compared with flight conditions over the same time period, showing the similarities and divergences. To address the divergences, the test facility was modified incrementally to more closely match the flight conditions, and to gain insight into the reasons for the divergence. Results of these incremental changes are discussed and provide insight into the development of the conditions on orbit.

  16. Variable Gain Type Internal Model Control-PID Speed Control for Ultrasonic Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kanya; Yoshimura, Yoshie; Wakasa, Yuji; Akashi, Takuya

    Ultrasonic motors (USM) causes serious characteristic changes during operation. It is difficult for the conventional internal model control (IMC) proportional integral differential (PID) control to compensate such characteristic changes of the plant. To solve these problems, we propose a method of variable gain type IMC-PID control. In the proposed method, plant parameters are identified on line and these estimated parameters are used for adjusting three gains of PID. Then the proposed method makes it possible to compensate characteristic changes of the plant. The effectiveness of the proposed control method have been confirmed by experiments using the existing ultrasonic motors servo system.

  17. Internal Control Rod Drive Mechanisms, Design Options for IRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2004-07-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a medium-power (335 MWe) PWR with an integral, primary circuit configuration, where all the reactor coolant system components are contained within the reactor vessel. This integral configuration is a key reason for the success of IRIS' 'safety-by-design' approach, whereby accident initiators are eliminated or the accident consequences and/or frequency are reduced. The most obvious example of the IRIS safety by design approach is the elimination of large LOCA's, since the integral reactor coolant system has no large loop piping. Another serious accident scenario that is being addressed in IRIS is the postulated ejection of a reactor control cluster assembly (RCCA). This accident initiator can be eliminated by locating the RCCA drive mechanisms (CRDMs) inside the reactor vessel. This eliminates the mechanical drive rod penetration between the RCCA and the external CRDM, eliminating the potential for differential pressure across the pressure boundary, and thus eliminating 'by design' the possibility for rod ejection accident. Moreover, the elimination of the 'large' drive-rod penetrations and the external CRDM pressure housings decreases the likelihood of boric acid leakage and subsequent corrosion of the reactor pressure boundary (like the Davis-Besse incident). This paper will discuss the IRIS top level design requirements and objectives for internal CRDMs, and provide examples candidate designs and their specific performance characteristics. (authors)

  18. Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

  19. Preliminary design of the Space Station internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, Mark T.; Patterson, David W.; Turner, Larry D.

    1987-01-01

    The baseline preliminary design configuration of the Internal Thermal Control system (ITCS) of the U.S. Space Station pressurized elements (i.e., the Habitation and U.S. Laboratory modules, pressurized logistics carrier, and resources nodes) is defined. The ITCS is composed of both active and passive components. The subsystems which comprise the ITCS are identified and their functional descriptions are provided. The significant trades and analyses, which were performed during Phase B (i.e., the preliminary design phase) that resulted in the design described herein, are discussed. The ITCS interfaces with the station's central Heat Rejection and Transport System (HRTS), other systems, and externally attached pressurized payloads are described. Requirements on the ITCS with regard to redundancy and experiment support are also addressed.

  20. Internal-control weaknesses at Department of Energy research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-15

    Two requests were made by Chairman, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, that GAO review the vulnerability of selected Department of Energy (DOE) research facilities to fraud, waste, and abuse. The review examined internal controls over payroll, procurement, and property management at six government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) research laboratories (Sandia, Hanford, Argonne, Oak Ridge, Fermi, and Brookhaven) and four government-owned, government-operated energy technology centers (Bartlesville, Laramie, Morgantown, and Pittsburgh). In fiscal 1982, DOE budgeted over $3 billion for its GOCO facilities and over $230 million for its energy technology centers. GAO noted specific problems at a number of the laboratories in each of the areas covered. In many instances, DOE has acknowledged the problems and corrective action is underway or is planned.

  1. Sensitive single-stage PCR using custom-synthesized internal controls.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, K; Rieger, M; Gross, P; Turecek, P L; Schwarz, H P

    2000-04-01

    A new approach for an internally controlled PCR was developed using a custom-synthesized oligonucleotide as the internal control. Three different PCR setups demonstrated the usefulness of this approach: (i) the addition of the respective internal control to samples containing ssDNA virus Parvo B19; (ii) the co-extraction of plasma samples and the respective internal control for the detection of the ssDNA virus TTV; and (iii) the addition of the respective internal control to a crude lysate of tail pieces for the genotyping of FVIII knockout mice, demonstrating that this approach is also applicable for dsDNA.

  2. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  3. Valve timing control system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Morita, Y.; Oda, H.

    1986-04-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a camshaft, having an axis of rotation, bearing thereon a cam and a tappet member which transmits the movement of the cam to the stem of a valve to open and close the valve in a timed relation, a valve timing control system comprising a swinging member which is mounted for pivotal movement about the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is provided with a tappet receiving hole for receiving the tappet member to permit sliding movement of the tappet member therein to transmit the movement of the cam to the valve stem, and a control device which swings the swinging member together with the tappet member received in the tappet receiving hole according to the operating condition of the engine so that the relative position of the tappet member to the cam at a given angular position of the camshaft is changed. The tappet member has a cam abutting surface at one end and a valve stem abutting surface at the other end. The valve stem abutting surface is arcuately convex toward the valve, the center of curvature thereof being on the axis of rotation of the camshaft.

  4. Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Robert J.; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo

    2015-04-01

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S2 and S1 states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S2 potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S0 → S2 followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.

  5. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems....

  6. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems....

  7. 19 CFR 113.66 - Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of containers and instruments of... Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions. A bond for control of... shall be a continuous bond. Control of Containers and Instruments of International Traffic...

  8. 19 CFR 113.66 - Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of containers and instruments of... Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions. A bond for control of... shall be a continuous bond. Control of Containers and Instruments of International Traffic...

  9. 19 CFR 113.66 - Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of containers and instruments of... Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions. A bond for control of... shall be a continuous bond. Control of Containers and Instruments of International Traffic...

  10. 19 CFR 113.66 - Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control of containers and instruments of... Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions. A bond for control of... shall be a continuous bond. Control of Containers and Instruments of International Traffic...

  11. 19 CFR 113.66 - Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of containers and instruments of... Control of containers and instruments of international traffic bond conditions. A bond for control of... shall be a continuous bond. Control of Containers and Instruments of International Traffic...

  12. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  13. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  14. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  15. Effectiveness of Stop-Smoking Medications: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Borland, Ron; McNeill, Ann D.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fix, Brian V.; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the population effectiveness of stop-smoking medications while accounting for potential recall bias by controlling for quit attempt recency. Design Prospective cohort survey. Setting United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States. Participants 7,436 adult smokers (18+ years), selected via random digit dialling and interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4) between 2002 and 2009. Primary analyses utilized the subset of respondents who participated in 2006 or later (N = 2,550). Measurements Continuous abstinence from smoking for one month/six months. Findings Among participants who recalled making a quit attempt within one month of interview, those who reported using varenicline, bupropion, or the nicotine patch were more likely to maintain six-month continuous abstinence from smoking compared to those who attempted to quit without medication (adjusted OR (95% CI): 5.84 (2.12 – 16.12), 3.94 (0.87 – 17.80), 4.09 (1.72 – 9.74), respectively); there were no clear effects for oral NRT use. Those who did not use any medication when attempting to quit tended to be younger, to be racial/ethnic minorities, to have lower incomes, and to believe that medications do not make quitting easier. Conclusions Consistent with evidence from randomized controlled trials, smokers in the UK, Canada, Australia, and the US are more likely to succeed in quit attempts if they use varenicline, bupropion or nicotine patch. Previous population studies that failed to find an effect failed to adjust adequately for important sources of bias. PMID:22891869

  16. Space station freedom resource nodes internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhoff, Paul; Dellinger, Brent; Taggert, Shawn; Cornwell, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2. A SINDA/FLUINT math model of the ITCS is described, and results of analyses for an MTC and a PMC case are shown and discussed.

  17. Controlling a hurricane by altering its internal climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric hazards, like the fury of a hurricane, can be controlled by altering its internal climate. The hurricane controlling technique suggested is eco-friendly, compatible with hurricane size, has a sound scientific base and is practically possible. The key factor is a large scale dilution of the hurricane fuel, vapour, in the eye wall and spiral rain bands where condensation causing vapor volume reduction (a new concept which can be explained by Avogadro's law) and latent heat release drive the storm. This can be achieved by installing multiple storage tanks containing dry liquefied air on the onshore and offshore coastal regions and islands, preferably underground, in the usual path of a hurricane. Each storage tank is designed to hold and release dry liquefied air of around 100,000 tons. Satellite tracking of hurricanes can locate the eye wall and the spiral rain bands. The installed storage tanks coming under these areas will rapidly inject dry air in huge quantities thereby diluting the vapour content of the vapour-rich air in the eye wall and in the spiral rain bands. This will result in reduced natural input of vapour-rich air, reduced release of latent heat, reduced formation of the low pressure zone due to condensation and volume reduction of the vapor, expansion of the artificially introduced dry air as it goes up occupying a larger space with the diluted fuel, absorption of energy from the system by low temperature of the artificially introduced air. It will effect considerable condensation of the vapor near the sea surface thus further starving the hurricane of its fuel in its engine. Seeding materials, or microscopic dust as suggested by Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld in large quantities may also be introduced via the flow of the injected dry air in order to enhance the hurricane controlling ability. All the above factors are in favour of retarding the hurricane's wind speed and power. The sudden weakening of hurricane Lili was found to be partially caused

  18. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  19. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    SciTech Connect

    Sanusi Fasilat, A. Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  20. 13 CFR 108.506 - Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assets/Internal controls. 108.506 Section 108.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Requirements § 108.506 Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to... document describing your control procedures....

  1. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  2. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  3. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  4. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or... the effectiveness of the internal controls, policies, procedures, and operational training program...

  5. The International Space Station 2B Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) Leak: An Operational History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vareha, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    As early as 2004, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B electrical power channel began slowly leaking ammonia overboard. Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) during the STS-134 Space Shuttle mission. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased from 1.5lbm/year to approximately 5lbm/year. As a result, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to an adjacent dormant thermal control system. This EVA, US EVA 20, was successfully executed on November 1, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator had not been leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the crew noticing the leak, US EVA 21 was in progress to replace the coolant pump - the only remaining replaceable leak source. This was successful, and telemetry monitoring has shown that indeed the coolant pump was the leak source and was thus isolated from the running 2B PVTCS. This paper will explore the management of the 2B PVTCS leak from the operations perspective.

  6. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  7. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB) has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely) and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the International Harm Reduction

  8. Internal Controls over Cash Collections at Selected Campus Peripheral Locations. Report 94-S-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This report sought to assess whether campuses of the State University of New York (SUNY) have established adequate controls for safeguarding cash collections at peripheral locations. An audit of 33 selected peripheral locations, such as libraries, intercollegiate athletics, telecommunications, and student advisement, was conducted between April…

  9. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  10. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  12. Internal Structure and Clinical Utility of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire-Revised (ACQ-R) Spanish Version.

    PubMed

    Osma, Jorge; Barrada, Juan Ramón; García-Palacios, Azucena; Navarro-Haro, María; Aguilar, Alejandra

    2016-10-03

    Perceived control has shown predictive value for anxiety severity symptoms as well as cognitive-behavior therapy outcomes. The most commonly used measure of perceived control is the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and more recently the ACQ Revised (ACQ-R). However, both questionnaires have shown structural inconsistencies among several studies. Also, although the ACQ and ACQ-R seem to be multidimensional instruments, a single total score have been commonly used. This study examined the internal structure of the ACQ-R Spanish version using exploratory factor and exploratory bi-factor analysis in a sample of 382 college students and 52 people diagnosed of panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Also, in this study we assessed the preliminary diagnostic value of the ACQ-R scores. The results indicated that the ACQ-R Spanish version structure consisted of two factors: one related with perceived control of internal emotional reactions (Emotion Control) and another related with perceived control of external events (Threat and Stress Control). Both specific factors can be adequately summarized by a general factor (General Anxiety Perception of Control; CFI = .973, TLI = .954, RMSEA = .039; p = .002), which accounted for 70% of the common explained variance. The correlations between the ACQ-R scores and with variables like anxiety (r = -.66) or anxiety sensitivity (r = -.50) presented the expected pattern of results. Either the two dimensions structure or the total score have proved to be a good tool to distinguish between participants with panic disorder and non-clinical samples (area under the curve = 0.79).

  13. International standards for the control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E

    2003-01-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has developed international standards to reduce the risk of the spread of high-pathogenicity avian influenza though international trade. These standards include providing a definition of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), procedures for prompt reporting of HPAI outbreaks, requirements that must be met for a country or zone to be defined as free of HPAI, requirements that should be met to import live birds and avian products into a HPAI-free country or zone, and the general provisions that countries should meet to reduce the risk of spread of HPAI through trade. The goal of these standards is to facilitate trade while minimizing the risk of the introduction of HPAI.

  14. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes. Effective internal controls should include procedures: (a) For the conduct of periodic inventories; (b) To... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe...

  15. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes. Effective internal controls should include procedures: (a) For the conduct of periodic inventories; (b) To... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe...

  16. 25 CFR 543.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 543.9 Section 543.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.9 What are the minimum...

  17. 25 CFR 543.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs? 543.9 Section 543.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.9 What are the minimum...

  18. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and....46 Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. Grantee financial... required by the grantee's financial management system. The Secretary or his/her designee may review...

  19. Promoting Internal Control and Business Ethics: A New Role for Internal Auditors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, William E.

    1994-01-01

    This article argues that, to be effective and ethical organizations, colleges and universities should develop and implement codes of conduct and staff training programs in business ethics and fraud prevention, which are most logically managed by the internal audit department of the institution. (MSE)

  20. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  1. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a description of the activities and accomplishments of the American Society for Testing and Materials' U. S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 146 on Air Quality. The purpose of the TAG is to re...

  3. International Standards: The Road to Universal Bibliographic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Elizabeth L.

    1976-01-01

    The evolution of modern practices in bibliographic description is traced to provide a frame of reference for consideration of the new ISBD(M) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications. The origin and objectives of the standard are discussed, and the American experience in its application is reviewed. (Author)

  4. 1981 international directory of oil spill control products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This directory provides detailed information on oil spill control products in the following categories: booms, pumps, skimmers, spill control chemicals, and sorbents. The information was obtained directly from manufacturers. Prices are not included. (DMC)

  5. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  6. Transition of RF internal antenna plasma by gas control

    SciTech Connect

    Hamajima, Takafumi; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Hiruta, Toshihito; Kanno, Yoshinori

    2012-07-11

    The transition between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was investigated with the internal radio frequency (RF) multi-turn antenna. The transition between them showed the hysteresis curve. The radiation power and the period of the self-pulse mode became small in proportion to the gas pressure. It was found that the ICP transition occurred by decreasing the gas pressure from 400 Pa.

  7. Proceedings, 25th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K.; Luo, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: computer and physical modelling; geology in ground control; geophysics in ground control; ground control; impoundments stability; longwall gateroad support design; longwall operations; longwall shields and standing supports; mine design; multiple-seam mining interactions; pillar and pillar extraction; roof bolting; roof bolting - resin; and subsidence. Most of the topics include a retrospective paper which summarises the progress of the subject field during the past 25 years.

  8. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  9. Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    No. DODIG-2015-043 D E C E M B E R 1 , 2 0 1 4 Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE SUBJECT: Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization (Report No

  10. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  11. Solid-state Distributed Temperature Control for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon B.; Reagan, Shawn E.; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed solid-state temperature controller will offer greater flexibility in the thermal control of aerospace vehicle structures. A status of the hardware development along with its implementation on the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module will be provided. Numerous advantages of the device will also be discussed with regards to current and future flight vehicle implementations.

  12. 29 CFR 505.5 - Adequate assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of a weekly or monthly salary, talent or performance fee, hourly rate or other basis on which... requirements in paragraph (b) were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  13. 29 CFR 505.5 - Adequate assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amount of a weekly or monthly salary, talent or performance fee, hourly rate or other basis on which... requirements in paragraph (b) were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  14. Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bin; Yang, Xin; Yang, Jianguo

    2009-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process of the third runway building project of Pudong International Airport is briefly introduced in the paper. The basic principle, the features, and the operation steps of newly imported FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) are discussed for evaluating the aircraft noise impacts. The prediction of the aircraft noise and the countermeasures for the noise mitigation are developed, which includes the reasonable runway location, the optimized land use, the selection of low noise aircrafts, the Fly Quit Program, the relocation of sensitive receptors and the noise insulation of sensitive buildings. Finally, the expansion project is justified and its feasibility is confirmed.

  15. An internal regulatory element controls troponin I gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yutzey, K.E.; Kline, R.L.; Konieczmy, S.F. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1989-04-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, approximately 20 contractile proteins and related gene products temporally accumulate as the cells fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. In most instances, the contractile protein genes are regulated transcriptionally, which suggests that a common molecular mechanism may coordinate the expression of this diverse and evolutionarily unrelated gene set. Recent studies have examined the muscle-specific cis-acting elements associated with numerous contractile protein genes. All of the identified regulatory elements are positioned in the 5'-flanking regions, usually within 1,500 base pairs of the transcription start site. Surprisingly, a DNA consensus sequence that is common to each contractile protein gene has not been identified. In contrast to the results of these earlier studies, the authors have found that the 5'-flanking region of the quail troponin I (TnI) gene is not sufficient to permit the normal myofiber transcriptional activation of the gene. Instead, the TnI gene utilizes a unique internal regulatory element that is responsible for the correct myofiber-specific expression pattern associated with the TnI gene. This is the first example in which a contractile protein gene has been shown to rely primarily on an internal regulatory element to elicit transcriptional activation during myogenesis. The diversity of regulatory elements associated with the contractile protein genes suggests that the temporal expression of the genes may involve individual cis-trans regulatory components specific for each gene.

  16. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  17. Blunted Response to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Elite Controllers: An International HIV Controller Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Boufassa, Faroudy; Lechenadec, Jérome; Meyer, Laurence; Costagliola, Dominique; Hunt, Peter W.; Pereyra, Florencia; Deeks, Steve; Pancino, Gianfranco; Taulera, Olivier; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Delobel, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective HIV “elite controllers” (ECs) spontaneously control viral load, but some eventually require combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), due to a loss of viral control or a decline in CD4 T-cell counts. Here we studied the CD4 T-cell count dynamics after cART initiation among 34 ECs followed in U.S. and European cohorts, by comparison with chronically viremic patients (VIRs). Methods ECs were defined as patients with at least ≥5 viral load (VL) measurements below 400 copies/mL during at least a 5-year period despite never receiving ART and were selected from the French ANRS CO18 cohort, the U.S. SCOPE cohort, the International HIV Controllers study and the European CASCADE collaboration. VIRs were selected from the ANRS COPANA cohort of recently-diagnosed (<1 year) ART-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. CD4 T-cell count dynamics after cART initiation in both groups were modelled with piecewise mixed linear models. Results After cART initiation, CD4 T-cell counts showed a biphasic rise in VIRs with: an initial rapid increase during the first 3 months (+0.63/month), followed by +0.19/month. This first rapid phase was not observed in ECs, in whom the CD4Tc count increased steadily, at a rate similar to that of the second phase observed in VIRs. After cART initiation at a CD4 T-cell count of 300/mm3, the estimated mean CD4 T-cell gain during the first 12 months was 139/mm3 in VIRs and 80/mm3 in ECs (p = 0.048). Conclusions cART increases CD4 T-cell counts in elite controllers, albeit less markedly than in other patients. PMID:24465584

  18. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  19. Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, G; Murray, K; Jacques, T Y; Koenig, A L; Vandegeest, K A

    1996-04-01

    We examined inhibitory control as a quality of temperament that contributes to internalization. Children were assessed twice, at 26-41 months (N = 103) and at 43-56 months (N = 99), on repeated occasions, in multiple observational contexts and using parental reports. Comprehensive behavioral batteries incorporating multiple tasks were designed to measure inhibitory control at toddler and preschool age. They had good internal consistencies, corresponded with maternal ratings, and were developmentally sensitive. Individual children's performance was significantly correlated across both assessments, indicating stable individual differences. Girls surpassed boys at both ages. Children's internalization was observed while they were alone with prohibited objects, with a mundane chore, playing games that occasioned cheating, being induced to violate standards of conduct, and assessed using maternal reports. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with internalization, both contemporaneously and as a predictor in the longitudinal sense. The implications for considering children's temperament as a significant, yet often neglected contributor to developing internalization are discussed.

  20. Monitoring of International Space Station Telemetry Using Shewhart Control Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitch, Jeffery T.; Simon, Alan L.; Gouveia, John A.; Hillin, Andrew M.; Hernandez, Steve A.

    2012-01-01

    Shewhart control charts have been established as an expedient method for analyzing dynamic, trending data in order to identify anomalous subsystem performance as soon as such performance would exceed a statistically established baseline. Additionally, this leading indicator tool integrates a selection methodology that reduces false positive indications, optimizes true leading indicator events, minimizes computer processor unit duty cycles, and addresses human factor concerns (i.e., the potential for flight-controller data overload). This innovation leverages statistical process control, and provides a relatively simple way to allow flight controllers to focus their attention on subtle system changes that could lead to dramatic off-nominal system performance. Finally, this capability improves response time to potential hardware damage and/or crew injury, thereby improving space flight safety. Shewhart control charts require normalized data. However, the telemetry from the ISS Early External Thermal Control System (EETCS) was not normally distributed. A method for normalizing the data was implemented, as was a means of selecting data windows, the number of standard deviations (Sigma Level), the number of consecutive points out of limits (Sequence), and direction (increasing or decreasing trend data). By varying these options, and treating them like dial settings, the number of nuisance alerts and leading indicators were optimized. The goal was to capture all leading indicators while minimizing the number of nuisances. Lean Six Sigma (L6S) design of experiment methodologies were employed. To optimize the results, Perl programming language was used to automate the massive amounts of telemetry data, control chart plots, and the data analysis.

  1. Hydraulic valve control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.J.; LoRusso, J.A.; Kaufman, W.F.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a hydraulic engine valve actuating assembly for use in an internal combustion engine cylinder head having a poppet valve which is axially shiftable therein by a rotary camshaft, the hydraulic engine valve actuating assembly. It comprises a housing having a mounted surface to attach to the cylinder head immediately above the poppet valve, a master piston cooperating with the camshaft and sealingly engaging the first cavity; a slave piston cooperating with the poppet valve and sealingly engaging the housing second cavity; a hydraulic energy and fluid storage accumulator assembly affixed and sealingly engaged relative to the housing and being provided with a fluid port coupled with the housing fluid passageway; valve means; the housing including a third cavity coaxially aligned with the poppet valve; and the valve means including a reciprocal valve piston sealingly engaged within the third cavity.

  2. Issues associated with establishing control zones for international space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nader, Blair A.; Krishen, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative missions in Earth orbit can be facilitated by developing a strategy to regulate the manner in which vehicles interact in orbit. One means of implementing such a strategy is to utilize a control zones technique that assigns different types of orbital operations to specific regions of space surrounding a vehicle. Considered here are issues associated with developing a control zones technique to regulate the interactions of spacecraft in proximity to a manned vehicle. Technical and planning issues, flight hardware and software issues, mission management parameter, and other constraints are discussed. Also covered are manned and unmanned vehicle operations, and manual versus automated flight control. A review of the strategies utilized by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Space Station Freedom Program is also presented.

  3. 78 FR 30332 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Lin Zhi International, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Lin Zhi International... that on April 3, 2013, Lin Zhi International, Inc., 670 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, California 94085... (9193) II Methadone (9250) II Dextropropoxyphene, bulk (non-dosage forms) II (9273). Morphine (9300)...

  4. 77 FR 30326 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Lin Zhi International Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Lin Zhi International... that on April 19, 2012, Lin Zhi International Inc., 670 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, California 94085... (9193) II Methadone (9250) II Dextropropoxyphene, bulk (non-dosage forms) II (9273). Morphine (9300)...

  5. Internal-External Control and the Attribution of Responsibility Under Questionnaire and Interview Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbings, Paul; Stone, Gerald L.

    1977-01-01

    The study examined the attribution of responsibility of 34 students with an internal or external locus of control following success or failure feedback on a communication task. Results indicated externals attribute more responsibility to impersonal external sources than do internals. The importance of attributional processes for counseling is…

  6. Financial Management: Poor Internal Controls Expose Department of Education to Improper Payments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Accounting Office GAO September 2001 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Poor Internal Controls Expose Department of Education to Improper Payments GAO-01-1151 Report...Documentation Page Report Date 00SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: Poor Internal...1 Financial Management: Poor

  7. 25 CFR 543.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... surveillance? 543.21 Section 543.21 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.21 What are the minimum internal... gaming and count room activities. (11) A periodic inspection of the surveillance systems must...

  8. 25 CFR 543.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... surveillance? 543.21 Section 543.21 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.21 What are the minimum internal... gaming and count room activities. (11) A periodic inspection of the surveillance systems must...

  9. International Symposium on Information Technology: Standards for Bibliographic Control (Bangkok, Thailand, September 4-8, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thammasat Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Univ. Libraries.

    This document which covers the proceedings of the 1989 International Symposium on Information Technology, begins with several opening ceremony messages and includes the following papers: (1) "Reflections on International Bibliographic Standards" (Winston D. Roberts); (2) "Bibliographic Control from the User's Perspective" (Ruth…

  10. REVIEW: Internal models in sensorimotor integration: perspectives from adaptive control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, Chung; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2005-09-01

    Internal models and adaptive controls are empirical and mathematical paradigms that have evolved separately to describe learning control processes in brain systems and engineering systems, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive appraisal of the correlation between these paradigms with a view to forging a unified theoretical framework that may benefit both disciplines. It is suggested that the classic equilibrium-point theory of impedance control of arm movement is analogous to continuous gain-scheduling or high-gain adaptive control within or across movement trials, respectively, and that the recently proposed inverse internal model is akin to adaptive sliding control originally for robotic manipulator applications. Modular internal models' architecture for multiple motor tasks is a form of multi-model adaptive control. Stochastic methods, such as generalized predictive control, reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning and Hebbian feedback covariance learning, are reviewed and their possible relevance to motor control is discussed. Possible applicability of a Luenberger observer and an extended Kalman filter to state estimation problems—such as sensorimotor prediction or the resolution of vestibular sensory ambiguity—is also discussed. The important role played by vestibular system identification in postural control suggests an indirect adaptive control scheme whereby system states or parameters are explicitly estimated prior to the implementation of control. This interdisciplinary framework should facilitate the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms of internal models in sensorimotor systems and the reverse engineering of such neural mechanisms into novel brain-inspired adaptive control paradigms in future.

  11. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  12. Preparation of Internal Quality Control Material for Lymphocyte Subset Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Eun Youn; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Oh, Sohee; Park, Kyoung Un; Lee, Nuri; Song, Eun Young

    2016-07-01

    Lymphocyte subset analysis is widely used in clinical laboratories, and more than two levels of daily QC materials are required for reliable results. Commercially available, expensive QC materials have short shelf lives and may not be suitable in resource-poor settings. We compared different methods for preparing homemade QC material, including fixation with 1%, 2%, or 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA); freezing with 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 0.1% bovine serum albumin-phosphate buffered saline, or after ethanolic dehydration; and using cryopreservation temperatures of -20°C, -80°C, or -196°C. We found an optimal experimental condition, which is 'fixation with 4% PFA, freezing with 10% DMSO, and storage at 80°C'. To evaluate long-term stability of QC materials prepared in this optimal condition, two levels of QC materials (QM1 and QM2) were thawed after 30, 33, 35, 37, 60, 62, 64, and 67 days of cryopreservation. Lymphocyte subset was analyzed with BD Multitest IMK kit (BD Biosciences, USA). QM1 and QM2 were stable after 1-2 months of cryopreservation (CV <3% for CD3, CD4, and CD8 and 5-7% for CD16/56 and CD19). We propose this method as an alternative cost-effective protocol for preparing homemade internal QC materials for lymphocyte subset analysis in resource-poor settings.

  13. Quality Control Review of the Defense Commissary Agency Internal Audit Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    Mark Center Drive Alexandria, VA 22350-1500 Acronyms and Abbreviations DeCA Defense Commissary Agency DeCAM Defense...We have reviewed the Defense Commissary Agency ( DeCA ) Office of Internal Audit system of quality control in effect for the period ended July 31...GAGAS). The DeCA Office of Internal Audit is responsible for designing a system of quality control and complying with its system to provide DeCA

  14. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment Juanita M. Rendon Rene G. Rendon Report... Knowledge Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...fraud • Knowledge of the procurement process and internal controls and their relationship to fraud vulnerabilities are critical 5

  15. Quality Control Review of BDO USA, LLP FY 2013 Single Audit of Advanced Technology International

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-03

    Report No. DODIG-2015-027 N o v e m b e r 3 , 2 0 1 4 Quality Control Review of BDO USA , LLP FY 2013 Single Audit of Advanced Technology...03 NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quality Control Review of BDO USA , LLP FY 2013...Directors Advanced Technology International Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer Advanced Technology International Audit Partner BDO USA , LLP SUBJECT

  16. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  17. Internal combustion engine valve lift and cam duration control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, P.G.

    1987-02-17

    A mechanism is described for varying the lift, timing and duration of a valve member associated with an internal combustion engine having a camshaft, a cam on the camshaft, and a rectilinear reciprocatable valve member for opening and closing a valve port in communication with a combustion chamber of the engine. The mechanism comprises an elongated rocker arm having a first pivot end and a second end forming a valve member actuating free end and an intermediate portion extending therebetween. The free end has a shaped valve member contact formation projecting therefrom and the pivot end has a circular opening therethrough receiving a pivotal mounting assembly therethrough having an exterior cylindrical surface within and corresponding substantially to the diameter of the circular opening forming the surface about which the rocker arm pivots. A pair of eccentric means form a first eccentric member and a second eccentric member collectively defines a pivot axis within the circular opening for the rocker arm, the first eccentric member comprising a shaft having cylindrical end portions journaled for rotation about a shaft axis and an eccentric cylindrical portion located within the opening of the rocker arm. The eccentric cylindrical portion is concentric with a first eccentric axis spaced from the shaft axis, and the second eccentric member comprises a tubular sleeve defining the exterior cylindrical surface and having a cylindrical bore having an inner diameter corresponding to the eccentric cylindrical portion of the shaft rotatably supported on the surface of the latter and concentric with a second eccentric axis spaced from the shaft axis and the first eccentric axis, a first means for rotating the shaft.

  18. Significance of modeling internal damping in the control of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Inman, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several simple systems are examined to illustrate the importance of the estimation of damping parameters in closed-loop system performance and stability. The negative effects of unmodeled damping are particularly pronounced in systems that do not use collocated sensors and actuators. An example is considered for which even the actuators (a tip jet nozzle and flexible hose) for a simple beam produce significant damping which, if ignored, results in a model that cannot yield a reasonable time response using physically meaningful parameter values. It is concluded that correct damping modeling is essential in structure control.

  19. Feedback control of major disruptions in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    It is argued that major disruptions in ITER can be avoided by the feedback control of the causative MHD precursors. The sensors will be 2D-arrays of ECE detectors and the suppressors will be modulated ECH beams injected radially to produce non-thermal radial pressures to counter the radial dynamics of MHD modes. The appropriate amplitude and phase of this signal can stabilize the relevant MHD modes and prevent their evolution to a major disruption. For multimode MHD precursors, an optimal feedback scheme with a Kalman filter is discussed.

  20. Review of selected dynamic material control functions for international safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    With the development of Dynamic Special Nuclear Material Accounting and Control systems used in nuclear manufacturing and reprocessing plants, there arises the question as to how these systems affect the IAEA inspection capabilities. The systems in being and under development provide information and control for a variety of purposes important to the plant operator, the safeguards purpose being one of them. This report attempts to judge the usefulness of these dynamic systems to the IAEA and have defined 12 functions that provide essential information to it. If the information acquired by these dynamic systems is to be useful to the IAEA, the inspectors must be able to independently verify it. Some suggestions are made as to how this might be done. But, even if it should not be possible to verify all the data, the availability to the IAEA of detailed, simultaneous, and plant-wide information would tend to inhibit a plant operator from attempting to generate a floating or fictitious inventory. Suggestions are made that might be helpful in the design of future software systems, an area which has proved to be fatally deficient in some systems and difficult in all.

  1. The national and international regulatory environment in tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2015-07-09

    Despite their lethality, cigarettes are subject to little regulation that directly restricts their contents or their legality. This may change in the near future with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the world's first global health treaty, now in force, as well as developments in a few individual countries. Cigarettes are subject to a substantial number of country-specific regulations regarding their conditions of sale: their price (mostly through taxation), the places where they can be consumed (clean indoor air laws), who can smoke them (prohibitions on their use by or sales to minors), how they can be advertised or promoted (if at all), and how they must be packaged (minimum pack sizes, warning labels, plain packaging). Such policies constitute the core of successful tobacco control. The FCTC has been ratified by 180 countries representing 90% of the world's population. The FCTC requires compliance with numerous provisions relating to the kinds of regulations noted above. The treaty also mandates explicit attention to direct product regulation. Several countries have such authority, at least in limited forms. In the US, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the legal authority to regulate tobacco products, including their contents. The possibility exists that, in the foreseeable future, a country will mandate product standards that will substantially reduce the appeal of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products, which are by far the leading sources of the death and disease associated with tobacco.

  2. The Glioma International Case-Control Study: A Report From the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Zhou, Renke; Lau, Ching C.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel; Olson, Sara H.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Merrell, Ryan T.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Davis, Faith G.; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Aldape, Kenneth; Alafuzoff, Irina; Brännström, Thomas; Broholm, Helle; Collins, Peter; Giannini, Caterina; Rosenblum, Marc; Tihan, Tarik; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010–2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions. PMID:26656478

  3. National Intelligence Focus on Latin America: Is It Adequate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-22

    independent legislature, an impartial judicial branch, and the ability to control their national borders and internal territory. A stable...powers” (los poderes fácticos, including elites, media, business groups, military, criminal organizations, etc.) in electoral contests. Ungoverned...between the IC, government agencies and academia, increase the use of foreign born analysts and approve judicious use of the Article 98 waiver

  4. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    PubMed

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... the following when adopting its internal control system guidelines, policies, and procedures: (1) The... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A...

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... the following when adopting its internal control system guidelines, policies, and procedures: (1) The... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A...

  7. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  8. Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changbao; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Feng, Guoze

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the design features, data collection methods and analytical strategies of the ITC China Survey, a prospective cohort study of 800 adult smokers and 200 adult non-smokers in each of six cities in China. In addition to features and methods which are common to ITC surveys in other countries, the ITC China Survey possesses unique features in frame construction, a large first phase data enumeration and sampling selection; and it uses special techniques and measures in training, field work organisation and quality control. It also faces technical challenges in sample selection and weight calculation when some selected upper level clusters need to be replaced by new ones owing to massive relocation exercises within the cities.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  10. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  11. Electrodeposition-based 3D Printing of Metallic Microarchitectures with Controlled Internal Structures.

    PubMed

    Seol, Seung Kwon; Kim, Daeho; Lee, Sanghyeon; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chang, Won Suk; Kim, Ji Tae

    2015-08-26

    3D printing of metallic microarchitectures with controlled internal structures is realized at room temperature in ambient air conditions by the manipulation of metal ion concentration and pulsed electric potentials in the electrolyte meniscus during the meniscus-guided electrodeposition. Precise control of the printing nozzle enables the drawing of complex 3D microarchitectures with well-defined geometries and positions.

  12. Internal-External Locus of Control in Middle and Later Life: The Search for Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, Denise D.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    This study validates the developmental nature of internal-external locus of control in middle and old age. Longitudinal stability of locus of control in the face of particular changes in social milieu common during the transition from middle to late life was contrasted with that of verbal intelligence, a known stable characteristic, and that of…

  13. 25 CFR 543.16 - What are the minimum internal controls for information technology?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... controls for information technology? (a) Physical security measures restricting access to agents, including... longer required. (2) In the event of remote access, the information technology employees must prepare a... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the minimum internal controls for...

  14. Body Management: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control the Internal Regenerator

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Robert

    2015-01-01

    care themes together into the thesis that regenerative medicine is a constant throughout life and its management is the next frontier of health care. Mesenchymal stem cells are used as the central connection in the broad theme, not as multipotent progenitors but rather as an important control element in the natural local regeneration process. PMID:26019227

  15. Corporate Characteristics and Internal Control Information Disclosure- Evidence from Annual Reports in 2009 of Listed Companies in Shenzhen Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowen, Song

    Under the research framework of internal control disclosure and combined the current economic situation, the paper empirically analyzes the relationship between corporate characteristics and internal control information disclosure. The paper selects 647 A share companies listed in Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in 2009 as a sample. The results show: (1) the companies with excellent performance and high liquidity tend to disclose more internal control information; (2) the companies with the high leverage and also issued B shares are not willing to disclosure internal control information; (3) the companies sizes and companies which have hired Four-big accounting firms have no significant effects on internal control disclosure.

  16. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.

  17. SDI and the lawyers: Evolving interpretations of international arms control accords

    SciTech Connect

    Kaman, E.J.; Loprest, F.J. Jr.; Pisano, N.A.; Steiner, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This note surveys international agreements that SDI may violate and discusses the policies underlying these potential legal and diplomatic conflicts. Part I provides an overview of the ABM Treaty, with emphasis on the provisions involved in the present interpretation controversy. Part II considers five other international covenants containing provisions upon which SDI may ultimately encroach. Part III evaluates several policy proposals that would permit SDI to proceed consistently with American international diplomatic commitments. This part also examines how an outright abrogation of the ABM Treaty or other agreements might affect American credibility and the arms-control process.

  18. Brief Report: Cognitive Control Helps Explain Comorbidity Between Alcohol Use Disorder and Internalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S; Slutske, Wendy S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use and internalizing problems frequently co-occur. Cognitive control has been implicated in their etiology, but no studies have tested whether this construct helps explain the co-occurrence of these disorders. Method: A total of 1,313 undergraduate students completed assessments of cognitive control, negative emotionality, and symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD), depression, and generalized anxiety disorder. Structural equation models examined the extent to which overlap between AUD and internalizing problems was explained by variance specific to cognitive control and negative emotionality, as well as variance shared by both constructs. Results: Symptoms of AUD and internalizing disorders were modestly correlated (depression: r = .16; anxiety: r = .14). Variance specific to cognitive control explained a significant proportion of the correlation between AUD and both depression and generalized anxiety (depression: 19%; generalized anxiety: 18%), as did variance common to cognitive control and negative emotionality (depression: 24%; generalized anxiety: 31%). Consistent with previous work, variance specific to negative emotionality also explained a large and statistically significant proportion of the correlation between AUD and internalizing disorder symptoms. Of note, the residualized correlation for AUD symptom endorsement with both depression and generalized anxiety problems was not statistically significant after accounting for both cognitive control and negative emotionality. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence that cognitive control may help explain the overlap between AUD and internalizing disorders while further supporting the contribution of negative emotionality to this overlap. Results have implications for intervention efforts aimed at reducing comorbid alcohol use disorder and internalizing disorders, as well as general psychopathology. PMID:25486397

  19. The Control Based on Internal Average Kinetic Energy in Complex Environment for Multi-robot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mao; Tian, Yantao; Yin, Xianghua

    In this paper, reference trajectory is designed according to minimum energy consumed for multi-robot system, which nonlinear programming and cubic spline interpolation are adopted. The control strategy is composed of two levels, which lower-level is simple PD control and the upper-level is based on the internal average kinetic energy for multi-robot system in the complex environment with velocity damping. Simulation tests verify the effectiveness of this control strategy.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System: Verification for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMA 1 and PMA 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and PMA 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and the detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for the PMAs.

  1. Regulatory and scientific frameworks for zoonosis control in Japan--contributing to International Health Regulations (2005).

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2009-12-01

    Zoonoses have earned recognition as the source of serious problems for both public and animal health throughout the world. Emerging infectious diseases have been occurring at an unprecedented rate since the 1970s and a large proportion of these diseases are considered zoonotic. To aid in controlling zoonoses, countermeasures have been strengthened against these diseases and are maintained at both national and international levels. Atypical example of this international effort can be found in the revised International Health Regulations (2005), known as the IHR (2005), which were instituted by the World Health Organization and have been implemented since 2007. In Japan, the appropriate Ministries have established frameworks for controlling zoonoses that employ both administrative and scientific approaches to fulfill the demands of the IHR (2005). In this paper, the authors present the Japanese framework for controlling zoonoses, as a useful example for global public and animal health management in coming years.

  2. International Funding for Malaria Control in Relation to Populations at Risk of Stable Plasmodium falciparum Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W; Guerra, Carlos A; Mutheu, Juliette J; Hay, Simon I

    2008-01-01

    Background The international financing of malaria control has increased significantly in the last ten years in parallel with calls to halve the malaria burden by the year 2015. The allocation of funds to countries should reflect the size of the populations at risk of infection, disease, and death. To examine this relationship, we compare an audit of international commitments with an objective assessment of national need: the population at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in 2007. Methods and Findings The national distributions of populations at risk of stable P. falciparum transmission were projected to the year 2007 for each of 87 P. falciparum–endemic countries. Systematic online- and literature-based searches were conducted to audit the international funding commitments made for malaria control by major donors between 2002 and 2007. These figures were used to generate annual malaria funding allocation (in US dollars) per capita population at risk of stable P. falciparum in 2007. Almost US$1 billion are distributed each year to the 1.4 billion people exposed to stable P. falciparum malaria risk. This is less than US$1 per person at risk per year. Forty percent of this total comes from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Substantial regional and national variations in disbursements exist. While the distribution of funds is found to be broadly appropriate, specific high population density countries receive disproportionately less support to scale up malaria control. Additionally, an inadequacy of current financial commitments by the international community was found: under-funding could be from 50% to 450%, depending on which global assessment of the cost required to scale up malaria control is adopted. Conclusions Without further increases in funding and appropriate targeting of global malaria control investment it is unlikely that international goals to halve disease burdens by 2015 will be achieved. Moreover, the

  3. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    PubMed

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  4. [Development of uncompetitive exogenous internal amplification control for real-time PCR based on UFA method].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, M K; Bragin, A G; Prasolova, M A; Vedernikov, V E; Dymshits, G M

    2009-01-01

    An uncompetitive exogenous internal amplification control method (EIAC) was developed on the basis of short synthetic DNA segment, whose amplification can be detected in real time by UFA spectroscopy principle. The EIAC was shown to be useful as internal control in diagnostic test systems based on DNA or RNA detection by multiplex real-time PCR. It can be applied to assess the quality of extracted DNA or RNA, and also to detect and study the factors causing PCR inhibition and earlier plateau effect.

  5. Fit-for-purpose shellfish reference materials for internal and external quality control in the analysis of phycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hess, Philipp; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    The need for reference materials for quality control of analysis of foodstuffs has been stressed frequently. This has been particularly true in the phycotoxins field, where there is a great shortage of both pure calibration standards and reference materials. Worldwide there are very few independent bodies that produce certified reference materials for phycotoxins, the main producers currently being the National Research Council Canada and the Japanese Food Research Laboratory. Limited availability of contaminated shellfish and algae, as well as the time and knowledge necessary for the production of adequate reference materials, continuously lead to limited editions of certified reference materials and even more limited production of in-house reference materials. The restricted availability of in-house quality control materials promotes the rapid use of the limited certified reference materials, which in turn hampers the production of the suite of materials required globally for complete protection of public health. This paper outlines the various options that analysts can pursue in the use of reference materials for internal and external quality control, with a view to optimising the efforts of both reference materials users and reference materials producers. For this purpose, the logical sequence is reviewed from the discovery of a new bioactive compound in shellfish, through initial method development up to regulation for food safety purposes including accepted reference methods. Subsequently, the requirements for and efforts typically spent in the production and characterisation of laboratory reference materials, certified reference materials and other test materials used in inter-laboratory studies or proficiency testing, in the area of marine biotoxins are evaluated. Particular emphasis is put on practical advice for the preparation of in-house reference materials. The intricate link between reference material characterisation and method performance is

  6. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression.

  7. Control of parameters of the International Space Station Alpha Russian-segment two-phase thermal control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Y. I.; Grigorov, E. I.; Cykhotsky, V. M.; Prokhorov, Y. M.; Gorbenko, G. A.; Blinkov, V. N.; Brus, N. A.; Malukhin, C. A.; Ganja, E. P.

    1997-01-01

    International Space Station ALPHA (ISSA) will present the assembly of many modules with total heat load a few tens of kilowatts. Collection, transport and rejection of heat from Russian Segment (RS) will be provided by central ammonia two-phase mechanically-pumped loop (MPL). Two-phase MPL should provide stable thermal regime at any number of attached modules, at variations in heat loads and at various orbit environment conditions. The paper presents principal schematic of MPL RS ISSA and specifications for control of parameters of the system. Recommendations on heat-controlled accumulator and flow control valves design are given.

  8. Thrombolysis in very elderly people: controlled comparison of SITS International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry and Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nishant K; Ahmed, Niaz; Andersen, Grethe; Egido, José A; Lindsberg, Perttu J; Ringleb, Peter A; Wahlgren, Nils G

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess effect of age on response to alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke. Design Adjusted controlled comparison of outcomes between non-randomised patients who did or did not undergo thrombolysis. Analysis used Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and proportional odds logistic regression analysis. Setting Collaboration between International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry (SITS-ISTR) and Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). Participants 23 334 patients from SITS-ISTR (December 2002 to November 2009) who underwent thrombolysis and 6166 from VISTA neuroprotection trials (1998-2007) who did not undergo thrombolysis (as controls). Of the 29 500 patients (3472 aged >80 (“elderly,” mean 84.6), data on 272 patients were missing for baseline National Institutes of Health stroke severity score, leaving 29 228 patients for analysis adjusted for age and baseline severity. Main outcome measures Functional outcomes at 90 days measured by score on modified Rankin scale. Results Median severity at baseline was the same for patients who underwent thrombolysis and controls (median baseline stroke scale score: 12 for each group, P=0.14; n=29 228). The distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale was better among all thrombolysis patients than controls (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 1.7; Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P<0.001). The association occurred independently among patients aged ≤80 (1.6, 1.5 to 1.7; P<0.001; n=25 789) and in those aged >80 (1.4, 1.3 to 1.6; P<0.001; n=3439). Odds ratios were consistent across all 10 year age ranges above 30, and benefit was significant from age 41 to 90; dichotomised outcomes (score on modified Rankin scale 0-1 v 2-6; 0-2 v 3-6; and 6 (death) v rest) were consistent with the results of the ordinal analysis. Conclusions Outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke is significantly better in those who undergo thrombolysis compared with those who do not. Increasing age is associated with

  9. Internal control and success orientation in a token economy for emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deiker, T; Matson, J L

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one emotionally disturbed adolescents were tested at each of three token economy levels on Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and Guevar's Success-Failure Inventory. Delay of reinforcement (immediate, daily, weekly) was the primary differentiation between levels. One-way analyses of variance indicated a change across levels in the direction of more perceived internal control of behavior (p less than .025) and a greater success orientation (p less than .005). Change scores were not correlated with length of time in the program. Results suggest that the token economy as an external source of control is not necessarily incompatible with increasing patient expectancies of present and future control of the environment.

  10. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  13. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  14. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  15. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  16. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  17. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  18. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  19. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  20. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  1. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  2. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  3. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  4. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-12-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  5. 77 FR 64144 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Lin Zhi International, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Lin Zhi... 30326, Lin Zhi International, Inc., 670 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, California 94085, made application by... Dextropropoxyphene, bulk (non-dosage forms) II (9273). Morphine (9300) II The company plans to manufacture the...

  6. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  7. International forum for surveillance and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript provides highlights of presentations given at the 1st International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Disease in Beijing, China. Topics covered in this 4-day forum included: diseases, surveillance, insecticides, physiology and ecology, behavior, inv...

  8. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  9. International Collusive Action in World Markets for Nonfuel Minerals: Market Structure and Methods of Marketing Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-25

    effect in taxation is evident in the international nonfuel mining industry as well as in petroleum. Also, governments have acquired sufficient control...urgently in need of foreign exchange income. Third, the high overhead costs in the mining industry and the large debt service constrain producing countries

  10. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  11. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  12. 25 CFR 543.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for audit and accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accounting? 543.23 Section 543.23 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.23 What are the... SICS, the gaming operation should review, and consider incorporating, other external standards such...

  13. 25 CFR 543.24 - What are the minimum internal control standards for auditing revenue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... auditing revenue? 543.24 Section 543.24 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.24 What are the...) noted by the Class II gaming system for cashless transactions in and out, electronic funds transfer...

  14. 25 CFR 543.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for lines of credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of credit? 543.15 Section 543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.15 What are the.... (b) Establishment of lines of credit policy. (1) If a gaming operation extends lines of...

  15. 25 CFR 543.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for lines of credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of credit? 543.15 Section 543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.15 What are the.... (b) Establishment of lines of credit policy. (1) If a gaming operation extends lines of...

  16. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  17. Brain mechanisms for predictive control by switching internal models: implications for higher-order cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Imamizu, Hiroshi; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-07-01

    Humans can guide their actions toward the realization of their intentions. Flexible, rapid and precise realization of intentions and goals relies on the brain learning to control its actions on external objects and to predict the consequences of this control. Neural mechanisms that mimic the input-output properties of our own body and other objects can be used to support prediction and control, and such mechanisms are called internal models. We first summarize functional neuroimaging, behavioral and computational studies of the brain mechanisms related to acquisition, modular organization, and the predictive switching of internal models mainly for tool use. These mechanisms support predictive control and flexible switching of intentional actions. We then review recent studies demonstrating that internal models are crucial for the execution of not only immediate actions but also higher-order cognitive functions, including optimization of behaviors toward long-term goals, social interactions based on prediction of others' actions and mental states, and language processing. These studies suggest that a concept of internal models can consistently explain the neural mechanisms and computational principles needed for fundamental sensorimotor functions as well as higher-order cognitive functions.

  18. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  19. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 327 - Internal Management Control Review Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal Management Control Review Checklist B Appendix B to Part 327 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 327, App. B...

  1. An up-link power control for demand assignment International Business Satellite Communications Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio

    Up-link power control (UPC) is one of the essential technologies to provide efficient satellite communication systems operated at frequency bands above 10 GHz. A simple and cost-effective UPC scheme applicable to a demand assignment international business satellite communications system has been developed. This paper presents the UPC scheme, including the hardware implementation and its performance.

  2. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. 23.46 Section 23.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT General and Uniform Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements §...

  3. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. 23.46 Section 23.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT General and Uniform Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements §...

  4. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. 23.46 Section 23.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT General and Uniform Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements §...

  5. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. 23.46 Section 23.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT General and Uniform Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements §...

  6. 12 CFR 620.3 - Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting. 620.3 Section 620.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DISCLOSURE TO SHAREHOLDERS General § 620.3 Accuracy of reports and assessment of...

  7. Experimental Control and Threats to Internal Validity of Concurrent and Nonconcurrent Multiple Baseline Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.

    2007-01-01

    Single-case research designs are often applied within school psychology. This article provides a critical review of the scientific merit of both concurrent and nonconcurrent multiple baseline (MB) designs, relative to their capacity to assess threats of internal validity and establish experimental control. Distinctions are established between AB…

  8. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro

    2014-12-10

    The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  9. 17 CFR 240.17i-4 - Internal risk management control system requirements for supervised investment bank holding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17i-4 Internal risk management control system...) As part of its internal risk management control system, a supervised investment bank holding company... control system requirements for supervised investment bank holding companies. 240.17i-4 Section...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17i-4 - Internal risk management control system requirements for supervised investment bank holding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17i-4 Internal risk management control system...) As part of its internal risk management control system, a supervised investment bank holding company... control system requirements for supervised investment bank holding companies. 240.17i-4 Section...

  11. Education Financial Management: Weak Internal Controls Led to Instances of Fraud and Other Improper Payments. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calbom, Linda M.

    This report to Congressional Requesters is concerned with internal control problems found in the U.S. Department of Education. Significant internal control weaknesses in the U.S. Department of Education's payment processes and poor physical control over its computer assets made the department vulnerable to (and in some cases resulted in) fraud,…

  12. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  13. Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R

    2006-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity.

  14. Internal versus external locus of control: an analysis of music populations.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Clifford K; Goins, Wayne E

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between locus of control and chosen field of music specialization. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was designed to assess the construct of locus of control and reinforcement, which is defined as the perception of a connection between one's action and its consequences; the version of the scale used in this study was specifically developed and validated for use with college-aged students by Nowicki (2000). This scale was administered to four separate college-aged groups: music therapy majors, music education majors, applied music majors, and nonmusic majors who also had previous music background and were currently enrolled in a formal college music performance organization. Results indicated that there were indeed, differences among these populations with music therapy majors evidencing a significantly lower internal locus of control. Music education majors and nonmajors evidenced a greater internal level and were not significantly different from each other, yet both were significantly different from the music therapy majors. Music performance majors were also significantly lower in internal control compared to the music education and nonmusic majors, but they were not significantly different from the music therapy majors. This entire line of research has a long history and seems advisable to continue with all music populations, especially potential music therapists in order to investigate those aspects of self-perception that may help or hinder therapeutic effectiveness.

  15. Model Predictive Control of the Current Profile and the Internal Energy of DIII-D Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauret, M.; Wehner, W.; Schuster, E.

    2015-11-01

    For efficient and stable operation of tokamak plasmas it is important that the current density profile and the internal energy are jointly controlled by using the available heating and current-drive (H&CD) sources. The proposed approach is a version of nonlinear model predictive control in which the input set is restricted in size by the possible combinations of the H&CD on/off states. The controller uses real-time predictions over a receding-time horizon of both the current density profile (nonlinear partial differential equation) and the internal energy (nonlinear ordinary differential equation) evolutions. At every time instant the effect of every possible combination of H&CD sources on the current profile and internal energy is evaluated over the chosen time horizon. The combination that leads to the best result, which is assessed by a user-defined cost function, is then applied up until the next time instant. Simulations results based on a control-oriented transport code illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 & DE-SC0010661.

  16. The structures and the role of an international agency for the control of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupuy, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Legal questions involved in the liability of a proposed agency which would control internationally owned satellites for monitoring worldwide compliance with arms control agreements are discussed. Difficulties in acquiring the signed consent of all the relevant nations, and guaranteeing satisfactory compliance with the terms of such an agreement are noted. Additional problems to be solved comprise the construction of the ground based facilities and the satellites, the funding for the venture, and the reconciliation of the functions of the proposed agency with the sovereignty of individual states. The agency would gather, treat, and format data for signatories of arms control agreements and provide technical assistance in crisis conditions. It is concluded that the existence and functioning of the agency would reduce the amount of classified information and would consequently reduce the level of international tensions.

  17. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The assembly complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) s ystem for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of compo nents and subsystems in both the U.S. and International partner eleme nts which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Hum idity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detect ion and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. D ue to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems , beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase thr ough measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the current on-orbit U.S. ECLS syste m hardware is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics. ..

  18. An international track wheelchair with a center of gravity directional controller.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A

    1989-01-01

    An international track wheelchair (ITWC) with a center of gravity directional controller (COGDC) is described in this paper. The rules for international track competition disallow devices designed solely for steering. Equipment has been disqualified for having steering handles, crown compensators, and other lever systems. However, the rules do allow tie-rod linkage and the use of springs for dampening caster flutter. The chair described in this paper exploits the physical properties of wheeled vehicles to achieve directional control on the track. This controller is effective, because turning is only required in one direction. Three such track wheelchairs have been developed and were used at the Paralympics in Seoul, Korea, in October of 1988.

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  1. Plasma Vertical Control with Internal and External Coils in Nest Step Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Jun

    2000-11-03

    Vertical stability and control are examined for a tokamak configuration intended to be a generic representation of next step devices. Vertical stability calculations show that a critical resistive wall location can be determined for realistic structures, and that the introduction of small amounts of low resistivity material to an all steel structure can significantly reduce the vertical instability growth rate. Vertical control simulations show that internal control coils require significantly less feedback power than external coils, and that low resistivity materials can allow very low feedback powers or coils to be located externally with reasonable feedback powers.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMAs 1 and 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodologies utilized for the PMAs.

  3. International Space Station Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Verification for Node 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem design. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Element Verification methodologies for nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem operations utilized during the Qualification phase.

  4. Nonlinear Attitude Control of Planar Structures in Space Using Only Internal Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    An attitude control strategy for maneuvers of an interconnection of planar bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques and that torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero. The control strategy utilizes the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. Large angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is summarized.

  5. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postma, Barry Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This thesis discusses application of a robust constrained optimization approach to control design to develop an Auto Balancing Controller (ABC) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants. The Performance objective is to minimize the translational response of the centrifuge rotor due to a fixed worst-case rotor imbalance. The robustness constraints are posed with respect to parametric uncertainty in the plant. The proposed approach to control design allows for both of these objectives to be handled within the framework of constrained optimization. The resulting controller achieves acceptable performance and robustness characteristics.

  6. Designing an international policy and legal framework for the control of emerging infectious diseases: first steps.

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, B. J.; Kimball, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    As the pace of emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases quickens, the International Health Regulations, which have served as the legal and policy framework of epidemic control for 45 years, are being revised by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this article, we review the recent history, legal construction, and application of these regulations and related international treaty-based sanitary measures, especially the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, and the history of applying the regulations in the maritime and aviation industries. This review indicates that revision efforts should address 1) the limited scope of disease syndromes (and reporters of these syndromes) now in the regulations and 2) the mismatch between multisectoral factors causing disease emergence and the single agency (WHO) administering the regulations. The revised regulations should expand the scope of reporting and simultaneously broaden international agency coordination. PMID:9126439

  7. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  8. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  9. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  10. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  11. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  12. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  13. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  14. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  15. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  16. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  17. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  18. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  19. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  20. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  2. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  4. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  7. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  8. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  9. Development of a versatile and stable internal control system for RT-qPCR assays.

    PubMed

    Felder, Eva; Wölfel, Roman

    2014-11-01

    RT-qPCR, an established method for the detection of RNA viruses, requires internal RNA controls for the correct interpretation of PCR results. Robust and versatile RT-PCR controls can be achieved for example by packaging RNA into a virus-derived protein shell. In this study a MS2-based internal control system was developed, that allows stable and universal packing of different RNAs into non-infectious, non-lytic MS2-based viral like particles (VLPs). Two competitive internal controls for a hantavirus assay and a Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) assay were cloned for the expression of VLPs. The expression of VLPs containing the RNA of interest could be induced with arabinose in Escherichia coli. The VLPs proved to be temperature resistant and could be frozen and thawed several times without degradation. Distinction of IC RNA from the target RNA was facilitated by a clear shift in the melting temperature or by specific hybridization signals. Furthermore, target and IC PCR amplification could be easily distinguished by their size in gel-electrophoretic analyses. Limits of detection were determined, demonstrating that the application of the IC did not reduce the sensitivity of the target RT-qPCR reactions. The system can be adapted to nearly any required sequence, resulting in a highly flexible method with broad range applications.

  10. International tobacco control: a focus group study of U.S. anti-tobacco activists.

    PubMed

    David, S; DeJong, W; Resnick, N

    2001-01-01

    Massachusetts tobacco control activists participated in focus groups to explore their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding international tobacco control. Initially, each of three focus groups ranked this issue at or near the bottom of important tobacco control issues. Participants ranked ten message concepts for their ability to motivate politically active Americans to contact a government representative about international tobacco issues. The top four message concepts dealt with deliberate marketing of cigarettes to children, dramatic increases in global mortality due to smoking, American hypocrisy in being the world's largest tobacco exporter, and use of overseas profits to finance youth-oriented marketing in the U.S. The rankings revealed little initial concern about U.S. diplomatic pressure to force foreign nations to open up their markets to American tobacco products. Yet during the subsequent discussion this was among the message concepts the generated the most outrage. This suggests that international tobacco control issues would resonate among U.S. opinion leaders once the facts were presented to them through a media advocacy campaign.

  11. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  12. Technical Consultation of the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Cooling Water Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Rotter, Hank A.; Easton, Myriam; Lince, Jeffrey; Park, Woonsup; Stewart, Thomas; Speckman, Donna; Dexter, Stephen; Kelly, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) coolant exhibited unexpected chemical changes during the first year of on-orbit operation following the launch and activation in February 2001. The coolant pH dropped from 9.3 to below the minimum specification limit of 9.0, and re-equilibrated between 8.3 and 8.5. This drop in coolant pH was shown to be the result of permeation of CO2 from the cabin into the coolant via Teflon flexible hoses which created carbonic acid in the fluid. This unexpected diffusion was the result of having a cabin CO2 partial pressure higher than the ground partial pressure (average 4.0 mmHg vs. less than 0.2 mmHg). This drop in pH was followed by a concurrent increasing coolant nickel concentration. No other metal ions were observed in the coolant and based on previous tests, the source of nickel ion was thought to be the boron nickel (BNi) braze intermetallics used in the construction of HXs and cold plates. Specifically, BNi2 braze alloy was used for the IATCS IFHX and BNi3 braze alloy was used for the IATCS Airlock Servicing and Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) HX and cold plates. Given the failure criticality of the HXs, a Corrosion Team was established by the IATCS CWG to determine the impact of the nickel corrosion on hardware performance life.

  13. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  14. Informing efficient randomised controlled trials: exploration of challenges in developing progression criteria for internal pilot studies

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Paula R; Gamble, Carrol; O'Connell Francischetto, Elaine; Metcalfe, Chris; Davidson, Peter; Williams, Hywel; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Designing studies with an internal pilot phase may optimise the use of pilot work to inform more efficient randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Careful selection of preagreed decision or ‘progression’ criteria at the juncture between the internal pilot and main trial phases provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the likely success of the main trial and optimise its design or, if necessary, to make the decision not to proceed with the main trial. Guidance on the appropriate selection and application of progression criteria is, however, lacking. This paper outlines the key issues to consider in the optimal development and review of operational progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase. Design A structured literature review and exploration of stakeholders' opinions at a Medical Research Council (MRC) Hubs for Trials Methodology Research workshop. Key stakeholders included triallists, methodologists, statisticians and funders. Results There is considerable variation in the use of progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase, although 3 common issues predominate: trial recruitment, protocol adherence and outcome data. Detailed and systematic reporting around the decision-making process for stopping, amending or proceeding to a main trial is uncommon, which may hamper understanding in the research community about the appropriate and optimal use of RCTs with an internal pilot phase. 10 top tips for the development, use and reporting of progression criteria for internal pilot studies are presented. Conclusions Systematic and transparent reporting of the design, results and evaluation of internal pilot trials in the literature should be encouraged in order to facilitate understanding in the research community and to inform future trials. PMID:28213598

  15. Minnowbrook VI: 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaGraff, John E.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Gostelow, J. Paul; Glauser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: Flow Physics and control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (not in TOC...starts on pg13); Breaking CFD Bottlenecks in Gas-Turbine Flow-Path Design; Streamwise Vortices on the Convex Surfaces of Circular Cylinders and Turbomachinery Blading; DNS and Embedded DNS as Tools for Investigating Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena in Turbines; Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade; Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows; Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions; Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows; Global Instability on Laminar Separation Bubbles-Revisited; Very Large-Scale Motions in Smooth and Rough Wall Boundary Layers; Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer With Localized Roughness; Active Control of Open Cavities; Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Need for Flow Physics and Control With Applications Involving Aero-Optics and Weapon Bay Cavities; Some Issues Related to Integrating Active Flow Control With Flight Control; Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements; Reduction of Unsteady Forcing in a Vaned, Contra-Rotating Transonic Turbine Configuration; Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface; Controlling Separation in Turbomachines; Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets; Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows; Study and Control of Flow Past Disk, and Circular and Rectangular Cylinders Aligned in the Flow; Periodic Forcing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Wake; Control of Vortex Breakdown in Critical Swirl Regime Using Azimuthal Forcing; External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group; Boundary Layers, Transitions and Separation; Efficiency Considerations in Low Pressure Turbines; Summary of Conference; and Final Plenary Session

  16. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  17. 77 FR 12598 - Notice Correction; A Multi-Center International Hospital-Based Case-Control Study of Lymphoma in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...-Based Case-Control Study of Lymphoma in Asia (AsiaLymph) (NCI) The Federal Register notice published on... international hospital-based case-control study of lymphoma in Asia (AsiaLymph) (NCI)'' was submitted with...

  18. Development of PCR internal controls for DNA profiling with the AmpFℓSTR® SGM Plus® amplification kit.

    PubMed

    Nathalie, Zahra; Hadi, Sibte; Goodwin, William

    2012-09-01

    Forensic DNA profiling uses a series of commercial kits that co-amplify several loci in one reaction; the products of the PCR are fluorescently labelled and analysed using CE. Before CE, an aliquot of the PCR is mixed with formamide and an internal lane size standard. Using the SGM Plus amplification kit, we have developed two internal non-amplified controls of 80 bp and 380 bp that are labelled with ROX fluorescent dye and added to the PCR. Combined with two internal amplification controls of 90 bp and 410 bp, they provide additional controls for the PCR, electrokinetic injection, and CE and also function as an internal size standard.

  19. Discussions about Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families: Links with Family Engagement, Warmth, & Control

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Rueter, Martha A.; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Discussions about racial and ethnic differences may allow international, transracial adoptive families to construct multiracial and/or multiethnic family identities. However, little is known about the ways family communication influences how discussions about racial and ethnic differences occur. This study examined associations between observed family communication constructs, including engagement, warmth, and control, and how adoptive families discuss racial and ethnic differences using a sample of families with adolescent-aged children adopted internationally from South Korea (N = 111 families, 222 adolescents). Using data collected during mid-adolescence and again during late adolescence, higher levels of maternal control and positive adolescent engagement were independently associated with a greater likelihood that family members acknowledged the importance of racial and ethnic differences and constructed a multiracial and/or multiethnic family identity. Adolescent engagement was also related to a greater likelihood that family members disagreed about the importance of racial and ethnic differences, and did not build a cohesive identity about differences. PMID:26648791

  20. Control Outcomes and Exposures for Improving Internal Validity of Nonrandomized Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dusetzina, Stacie B; Brookhart, M Alan; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Control outcomes and exposures can improve internal validity of nonrandomized studies by assessing residual bias in effect estimates. Control outcomes are those expected to have no treatment effect or the opposite effect of the primary outcome. Control exposures are treatments expected to have no effect on the primary outcome. We review examples of control outcomes and exposures from prior studies and provide recommendations for conducting and reporting these analyses. Data Sources and Study Design Review in Google Scholar and Medline of research studies employing control outcomes or exposures. We abstracted publication year, control outcome, control exposure, primary outcome, primary exposure, control outcome/exposure effect, proposed source of bias, and causal criteria. Principal Findings There is inconsistent terminology for these concepts, making study identification challenging. Six of 11 studies found null associations between treatments and negative control outcomes/exposures, providing greater confidence that the primary study findings were not biased. Five studies found unexpected associations, suggesting bias in the primary association. Conclusions The rigor of nonrandomized studies can be improved with inclusion of control outcomes and exposures for bias detection. Given ongoing concern about clinical and policy inferences from nonrandomized studies, we recommend adoption of these measurement tools. PMID:25598384

  1. Standardization of Negative Controls in Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry: Recommendations From the International Ad Hoc Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Torlakovic, Emina E.; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B.; Swanson, Paul E.; Taylor, Clive R.; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide “best practice recommendations” for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on “fit-for-use” principles. PMID:24714041

  2. Joint Design Method Based on Internal Structure of 2DOF Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubai, Kazuhiro

    In many cases, control system design is formulated as minimization of some prescribed closed loop performance reflecting a control requirement. Since the closed loop performance is a function of a controlled plant and a controller, the model identification and controller design must interact with each other. This motivates us to consider the model identification and controller design simultaneously. However, most of the previous joint design methods are not applicable to unstable plants because the identified plant model is usually used as the design parameter, i.e. a weighting function in the controller design. On the other hand, we have analyzed the internal structure of 2DOF control system using coprime factorization on RH∞ and shown that two free parameters, K and Q ∈ RH∞, specify tracking performance and feedback performance, respectively. Also, Tay et al. have proposed a parameterization of the plant dynamics by switching the role of the controlled plant and controller, and introduced a free parameter R ∈ RH∞. In this paper, we propose a new joint design strategy based on the identification of R and the design of Q. Since the identified plant parameter R is always stable, the proposed joint design strategy can be applied to wider class than the conventional joint design methods. Moreover, it is known that R is well approximated as a less order model than the plant itself. This leads to the advantage in designing Q with less order. Finally, the usefulness of the proposed method is verified by some simulations and experiments.

  3. Standardization of negative controls in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: recommendations from the international ad hoc expert panel.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Francis, Glenn; Garratt, John; Gilks, Blake; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Ibrahim, Merdol; Miller, Rodney; Nielsen, Søren; Petcu, Eugen B; Swanson, Paul E; Taylor, Clive R; Vyberg, Mogens

    2014-04-01

    Standardization of controls, both positive and negative controls, is needed for diagnostic immunohistochemistry (dIHC). The use of IHC-negative controls, irrespective of type, although well established, is not standardized. As such, the relevance and applicability of negative controls continues to challenge both pathologists and laboratory budgets. Despite the clear theoretical notion that appropriate controls serve to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the dIHC test, it remains unclear which types of positive and negative controls are applicable and/or useful in day-to-day clinical practice. There is a perceived need to provide "best practice recommendations" for the use of negative controls. This perception is driven not only by logistics and cost issues, but also by increased pressure for accurate IHC testing, especially when IHC is performed for predictive markers, the number of which is rising as personalized medicine continues to develop. Herein, an international ad hoc expert panel reviews classification of negative controls relevant to clinical practice, proposes standard terminology for negative controls, considers the total evidence of IHC specificity that is available to pathologists, and develops a set of recommendations for the use of negative controls in dIHC based on "fit-for-use" principles.

  4. An Analysis of Internal Controls for DoD Contract Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    conditions (CA-11), 37 times in Manage contractor payment process (CA-8), and 33 times in Determine Contract Type/ Incentive (SP-5). Table 2 presents...and evaluate the results. 6.3% 1.6% 0.0% 0.0% 2.2% 2.7% MA-2 Management should remediate identified internal control deficiencies on a timely basis... MANAGEMENT December 2015 By: Daisuke Hidaka Jared L. Owen Advisors: Juanita M. Rendon Rene G. Rendon Approved for public

  5. Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey: Waves 1, 2 and 3.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changbao; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Feng, Guoze; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the methods of sampling design and data collection of Wave 1, 2 and 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, with major focus on longitudinal features of the study. Key measures of quality of the survey data, such as retention rates and final sample sizes, are presented. Sample replenishment procedures are outlined, including the addition of a new city, Kunming, at Wave 3. Methods for constructing the longitudinal and cross-sectional survey weights are briefly described.

  6. Internal Controls Over DoD Cash and Other Monetary Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    payments be made by electronic fund transfer ( EFT ) except as specified in section 208.4, “ Waivers .” A waiver could be granted when the political...financial, or communications infrastructure in a foreign country does not support payment by EFT . A waiver could also be granted when an agency’s need...Internal Controls Over DoD Cash and Other Monetary Assets Report No. D-2009-062 March 25, 2009 Report Documentation Page Form

  7. Foreign Banks: Internal Control and Audit Weaknesses in U.S. Branches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    In September 1995, Daiwa Bank, one of the largest multinational banks in the world, reported to the Federal Reserve that it had incurred losses...to trade illegally and to hide the activities and resulting losses. The Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board said that before the losses were reported...the Federal Reserve had noted, but had not fully appreciated, the seriousness of some of the branch’s weaknesses in internal control. One reason for

  8. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control... percentage of the handle. (b) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate.... In case of computer failure between the pari-mutuel book and the hub, no tickets shall be...

  9. Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Effects Involving an Expert System Designed as a Learning Tool for Internal Control Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Mary Jane

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of internal control is a consideration in all financial statement audits, as stressed by the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. According to this statement, "the auditor should obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit" (Accounting Standards Board, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, an…

  10. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player...

  11. 25 CFR 543.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player tracking systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gaming promotions and player tracking systems? 543.12 Section 543.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING § 543.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming promotions and player...

  12. Internal Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced 3-Part or 4-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. Methods We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. Results: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD −0.51, 95% CI: −7.25 to 6.22, P = 0.88, I2 = 0%). Conclusions Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or nonoperative

  13. Update in the methodology of the chronic stress paradigm: internal control matters.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Couch, Yvonne; Kholod, Natalia; Boyks, Marco; Malin, Dmitry; Leprince, Pierre; Steinbusch, Harry Mw

    2011-04-27

    To date, the reliability of induction of a depressive-like state using chronic stress models is confronted by many methodological limitations. We believe that the modifications to the stress paradigm in mice proposed herein allow some of these limitations to be overcome. Here, we discuss a variant of the standard stress paradigm, which results in anhedonia. This anhedonic state was defined by a decrease in sucrose preference that was not exhibited by all animals. As such, we propose the use of non-anhedonic, stressed mice as an internal control in experimental mouse models of depression. The application of an internal control for the effects of stress, along with optimized behavioural testing, can enable the analysis of biological correlates of stress-induced anhedonia versus the consequences of stress alone in a chronic-stress depression model. This is illustrated, for instance, by distinct physiological and molecular profiles in anhedonic and non-anhedonic groups subjected to stress. These results argue for the use of a subgroup of individuals who are negative for the induction of a depressive phenotype during experimental paradigms of depression as an internal control, for more refined modeling of this disorder in animals.

  14. Update in the methodology of the chronic stress paradigm: internal control matters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To date, the reliability of induction of a depressive-like state using chronic stress models is confronted by many methodological limitations. We believe that the modifications to the stress paradigm in mice proposed herein allow some of these limitations to be overcome. Here, we discuss a variant of the standard stress paradigm, which results in anhedonia. This anhedonic state was defined by a decrease in sucrose preference that was not exhibited by all animals. As such, we propose the use of non-anhedonic, stressed mice as an internal control in experimental mouse models of depression. The application of an internal control for the effects of stress, along with optimized behavioural testing, can enable the analysis of biological correlates of stress-induced anhedonia versus the consequences of stress alone in a chronic-stress depression model. This is illustrated, for instance, by distinct physiological and molecular profiles in anhedonic and non-anhedonic groups subjected to stress. These results argue for the use of a subgroup of individuals who are negative for the induction of a depressive phenotype during experimental paradigms of depression as an internal control, for more refined modeling of this disorder in animals. PMID:21524310

  15. Internal voltage control of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells: Feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of internal voltage regulation of fuel cell systems. Two methods were tested. In one, reactant partial pressure was used as the voltage control parameter and in the other reactant total pressure was used for control. Both techniques were breadboarded and tested on a single alkaline-electrolyte fuel cell. Both methods were found to be possible forms of regulation, however, of the two the total pressure technique would be more efficient, simpler to apply and would provide better transient characteristics.

  16. Audit of the internal control structure of the Department of Energy`s Working Capital Fund

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-08

    The Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development of the Committee on Appropriations, in its report dated July 16, 1996, approved the implementation of a Working Capital Fund (Fund) at the U.S. Department of Energy. The Subcommittee also directed the Office of Inspector General to conduct periodic audits of the Fund. This audit was conducted to determine if the Department established an effective system of controls over the Fund. The specific objectives were to determine if internal controls were sufficient to ensure that appropriate costs were allocated in a reasonable and unbiased manner and in a way what was consistent with the expectations established by the Congress.

  17. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship: lessons for international surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Regan, C M; McCann, B; Syed, Q; Christie, P; Joseph, C; Colligan, J; McGaffin, A

    2003-06-01

    A sporadic case of Legionnaires' disease was linked to travel on a cruise ship. Investigation identified two further cases of Legionnaires' Disease and one case of non-pneumonic Legionella infection. An Incident Team confirmed the source to be the ship's water system and control measures were instituted that included pasteurisation, super chlorination and chlorine dioxide dosing. The Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC), through the European Surveillance Scheme for Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease, identified three previous cases associated with the same ship's water system including one fatality. Lessons for the international surveillance and control of Legionnaires' disease on cruise ships are discussed.

  18. Change is possible: the history of the international drug control regime and implications for future policymaking.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article, based upon an extensive literature review, reconstructs and analyzes the parallel evolution of the international drug control regime and the world opiate market, assessing the impact of the former on the latter until the rise of present-day mass markets. It shows that, since its inception, the regime has focused almost entirely on matters of supply. However, that focus has not always meant "prohibition"; until 1961, the key principle of the regime was "regulation." Given the different forms drug control policy has taken in the past, the authors conclude it may be amenable to new forms in the future.

  19. Control model for dampening hand vibrations using information of internal and external coordinates.

    PubMed

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a control mechanism that dampens hand vibrations. Here, we propose a control method with two components to suppress hand vibrations. The first is a passive suppression method that lowers the joint stiffness to passively dampen the hand vibrations. The second is an active suppression method that adjusts an equilibrium point based on skyhook control to actively dampen the hand vibrations. In a simulation experiment, we applied these two methods to dampen hand vibrations during the shoulder's horizontal oscillation. We also conducted a measurement experiment wherein a subject's shoulder was sinusoidally oscillated by a platform that generated horizontal oscillations. The results of the measurement experiments showed that the jerk of each part of the arm in a task using a cup filled with water was smaller than the shoulder jerk and that in a task with a cup filled with stones was larger than the shoulder jerk. Moreover, the amplitude of the hand trajectory in both horizontal and vertical directions was smaller in a task using a cup filled with water than in a task using a cup filled with stones. The results of the measurement experiments were accurately reproduced by the active suppression method based on skyhook control. These results suggest that humans dampen hand vibrations by controlling the equilibrium point through the information of the external workspace and the internal body state rather than by lowering joint stiffness only by using internal information.

  20. Throttle control linkage for internal combustion engines and method of set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, S.S.; Williams, N.E.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes throttle control linkage for an internal combustion engine having a pivotally-mounted injector lever for movement between a first predetermined position and a second predetermined position to control a fuel injector pump; It comprises: a throttle control lever mounted for movement between a first predetermined position and a second predetermined position; a pivotally-mounted bellcrank having an arcuate slot formed therein; first linkage means operatively connected between the arcuate slot and the pivotally-mounted injector lever; the arcuate slot formed along a predetermined radius from the connection of the second linkage means on the pivotally-mounted injector lever when the throttle control lever and the pivotally-mounted injector lever are positioned in the first predetermined position.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, Yevgeny

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  2. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  3. Report of the international workshop on quality control of monthly climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) cosponsored an international quality control workshop for monthly climate data, October 5--6, 1993, at NCDC. About 40 scientists from around the world participated. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and compare various quality control methods and to draft recommendations concerning the most successful systems. The near-term goal to improve quality control of CLIMAT messages for the NCDC/WMO publication Monthly Climatic Data for the World was sucessfully met. An electronic bulletin board was established to post errors and corrections. Improved communications among Global Telecommunication System hubs will be implemented. Advanced quality control algorithms were discussed and improvements were suggested. Further data exchanges were arranged.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    SciTech Connect

    Somov, Yevgeny

    2014-12-10

    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  5. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  6. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non-smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre-specified, theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first-ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy-specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC.

  7. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944

  8. Unhappy with internal corporate search? : learn tips and tricks for building a controlled vocabulary ontology.

    SciTech Connect

    Arpin, Bettina Karin Schimanski; Jones, Brian S.; Bemesderfer, Joy; Ralph, Mark E.; Miller, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    Are your employees unhappy with internal corporate search? Frequent complaints include: too many results to sift through; results are unrelated/outdated; employees aren't sure which terms to search for. One way to improve intranet search is to implement a controlled vocabulary ontology. Employing this takes the guess work out of searching, makes search efficient and precise, educates employees about the lingo used within the corporation, and allows employees to contribute to the corpus of terms. It promotes internal corporate search to rival its superior sibling, internet search. We will cover our experiences, lessons learned, and conclusions from implementing a controlled vocabulary ontology at Sandia National Laboratories. The work focuses on construction of this ontology from the content perspective and the technical perspective. We'll discuss the following: (1) The tool we used to build a polyhierarchical taxonomy; (2) Examples of two methods of indexing the content: traditional 'back of the book' and folksonomy word-mapping; (3) Tips on how to build future search capabilities while building the basic controlled vocabulary; (4) How to implement the controlled vocabulary as an ontology that mimics Google's search suggestions; (5) Making the user experience more interactive and intuitive; and (6) Sorting suggestions based on preferred, alternate and related terms using SPARQL queries. In summary, future improvements will be presented, including permitting end-users to add, edit and remove terms, and filtering on different subject domains.

  9. Managing Complexity - Developing the Node Control Software For The International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald B.

    2000-01-01

    On December 4th, 1998 at 3:36 AM STS-88 (the space shuttle Endeavor) was launched with the "Node 1 Unity Module" in its payload bay. After working on the Space Station program for a very long time, that launch was one of the most beautiful sights I had ever seen! As the Shuttle proceeded to rendezvous with the Russian American module know as Zarya, I returned to Houston quickly to start monitoring the activation of the software I had spent the last 3 years working on. The FGB module (also known as "Zarya"), was grappled by the shuttle robotic arm, and connected to the Unity module. Crewmembers then hooked up the power and data connections between Zarya and Unity. On December 7th, 1998 at 9:49 PM CST the Node Control Software was activated. On December 15th, 1998, the Node-l/Zarya "cornerstone" of the International Space Station was left on-orbit. The Node Control Software (NCS) is the first software flown by NASA for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS Program is considered the most complex international engineering effort ever undertaken. At last count some 18 countries are active partners in this global venture. NCS has performed all of its intended functions on orbit, over 200 miles above us. I'll be describing how we built the NCS software.

  10. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  11. [Internal audit in medical laboratory: what means of control for an effective audit process?].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Chianéa, Denis; Dedome, Emmanuel; Sanmartin, Nancy; Bugier, Sarah; Linard, Cyril; Foissaud, Vincent; Vest, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the French Accreditation Committee (COFRAC) visit for initial certification of our medical laboratory, our direction evaluated its quality management system (QMS) and all its technical activities. This evaluation was performed owing an internal audit. This audit was outsourced. Auditors had an expertise in audit, a whole knowledge of biological standards and were independent. Several nonconformities were identified at that time, including a lack of control of several steps of the internal audit process. Hence, necessary corrective actions were taken in order to meet the requirements of standards, in particular, the formalization of all stages, from the audit program, to the implementation, review and follow-up of the corrective actions taken, and also the implementation of the resources needed to carry out audits in a pre-established timing. To ensure an optimum control of each step, the main concepts of risk management were applied: process approach, root cause analysis, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). After a critical analysis of our practices, this methodology allowed us to define our "internal audit" process, then to formalize it and to follow it up, with a whole documentary system.

  12. Internal disinhibition predicts 5‐year weight regain in the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. G.; Niemeier, H.; Wing, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Maintenance of weight loss remains elusive for most individuals. One potential innovative target is internal disinhibition (ID) or the tendency to eat in response to negative thoughts, feelings or physical sensations. Individuals high on ID do worse on average in standard behavioural treatment programmes, and recent studies suggest that disinhibition could play a significant role in weight regain. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to examine whether ID was associated with weight change over 5 years of follow‐up in the National Weight Control Registry, a registry of individuals who have successfully lost weight and maintained it. Methods From the National Weight Control Registry, 5,320 participants were examined across 5 years. Weight data were gathered annually. The disinhibition subscale of the Eating Inventory was used to calculate internal disinhibition and External Disinhibition (ED) and was collected at baseline, year 1, year 3 and year 5. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the weight loss maintained across follow‐up years 1 to 5 using ID and ED as baseline and prospective predictors. Results Internal disinhibition predicted weight regain in all analyses. ED interacted with ID, such that individuals who were high on ID showed greater weight regain if they were also higher on ED. Conclusions The ID scale could be a useful screening measure for risk of weight regain, given its brevity. Improved psychological coping could be a useful target for maintenance or booster interventions. PMID:27812382

  13. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  14. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  15. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  16. Recent Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas removal performance and operational lifetime of the gas trap have been affected by contamination in the ITCS coolant. However, the gas trap has performed flawlessly with regard to its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. This paper discusses on-orbit events over the course of the last year related to the performance and functioning of the gas trap.

  17. Output Containment Control of Linear Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems Using Internal Model Principle.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L; Davoudi, Ali

    2017-01-04

    This paper studies the output containment control of linear heterogeneous multi-agent systems, where the system dynamics and even the state dimensions can generally be different. Since the states can have different dimensions, standard results from state containment control do not apply. Therefore, the control objective is to guarantee the convergence of the output of each follower to the dynamic convex hull spanned by the outputs of leaders. This can be achieved by making certain output containment errors go to zero asymptotically. Based on this formulation, two different control protocols, namely, full-state feedback and static output-feedback, are designed based on internal model principles. Sufficient local conditions for the existence of the proposed control protocols are developed in terms of stabilizing the local followers' dynamics and satisfying a certain H∞ criterion. Unified design procedures to solve the proposed two control protocols are presented by formulation and solution of certain local state-feedback and static output-feedback problems, respectively. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed control protocols.

  18. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleines, H.; Sarkadi, J.; Zwoll, K.; Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Seyfarth, H.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.

    2006-05-01

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  19. International Space Station Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment: Effects of Flywheel Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    The Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment is currently under development for the International Space Station; two counter-rotating flywheels will be levitated with magnetic bearings and placed in vacuum housings. The primary objective of the experiment is to store and discharge energy, in combination with existing batteries, into the electrical power system. The secondary objective is to use the flywheels to exert torque on the Station; a simple torque profile has been designed so that the Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes will be assisted in maintaining torque equilibrium attitude. Two energy storage contingencies could result in the inadvertent application of torque by the flywheels to the Station: an emergency shutdown of one flywheel rotor while the other remains spinning, and energy storage with only one rotor instead of the counterrotating pair. Analysis of these two contingencies shows that attitude control and the microgravity environment will not be adversely affected.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Emergency Response Verification for Node 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 Emergency Response capability, which includes nominal and off-nominal FDS operation, off nominal ACS operation, and off-nominal THC operation. These subsystems provide the capability to help aid the crew members during an emergency cabin depressurization, a toxic spill, or a fire. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Node 1 ECLS Element Verification methodologies for operation of the Node 1 Emergency Response hardware operations utilized during the Qualification phase.

  1. Role of the international organisation for animal health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE) in the control of foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Vallat, B

    2002-10-01

    The author describes activities conducted by the International Organisation for Animal Health (OIE: Office International des Epizooties) to control foot and mouth disease (FMD) world-wide. These activities fall within the framework of the principal missions of the OIE. The first of these missions is the collection and dissemination of epidemiological information and of scientific knowledge on animal diseases, the socio-economic or disease implications of which can be particularly serious. The implementation of the measures required to control the disease and to protect countries threatened by FMD depends on the quality and rapidity of the transmission of this information. The co-ordination of studies, research and control programmes against FMD is equally important for the OIE. This work is based, in particular, on work conducted by the OlE foot and mouth disease and other epizootics Commission. OIE Member Countries not only have access to the most recent data on the diagnosis, surveillance and control of FMD but also have recourse to the official recognition procedure for disease-free status provided by this Commission. Finally, through the standardisation of health recommendations, diagnostic tests, manufacture protocols and the control of biological products, made available by the OIE International Animal Health Code Commission in regard to the former and by the OIE Standards Commission in regard to the latter, the OIE provides the reference for international trade in animals and animal products, and is recognised in this role by the World Trade Organization.

  2. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  3. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  4. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  5. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  6. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  8. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  9. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  10. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  11. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  12. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  13. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  14. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  15. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... displays; (3) Test and verify an internal communication plan to provide adequate means for manual operation... communication under the operator's emergency response procedures; (4) Training that will provide a controller...

  16. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... displays; (3) Test and verify an internal communication plan to provide adequate means for manual operation... communication under the operator's emergency response procedures; (4) Training that will provide a controller...

  17. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... displays; (3) Test and verify an internal communication plan to provide adequate means for manual operation... communication under the operator's emergency response procedures; (4) Training that will provide a controller...

  18. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  19. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  20. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  1. Exploring valid internal-control genes in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiaceae) during stress response conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenlei; Wu, Xiaojie; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; He, Linwen; Wei, Yifan; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2014-07-01

    To screen the stable expression genes related to the stress (strong light, dehydration and temperature shock) we applied Absolute real-time PCR technology to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species responding the stress conditions in the intertidal. Absolute real-time PCR technology was applied to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species in stress responding. According to the results of photosynthesis parameters, we observed that Y(II) and F v/ F m were significantly affected when stress was imposed on the thalli of P orphyra yezoensis, but underwent almost completely recovered under normal conditions, which were collected for the following experiments. Then three samples, which were treated with different grade stresses combined with salinity, irradiation and temperature, were collected. The transcription numbers of seven constitutive expression genes in above samples were determined after RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Finally, a general insight into the selection of internal control genes during stress response was obtained. We found that there were no obvious effects in terms of salinity stress (at salinity 90) on transcription of most genes used in the study. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene had the highest expression level, varying remarkably among different tested groups. RPS8 expression showed a high irregular variance between samples. GAPDH presented comparatively stable expression and could thus be selected as the internal control. EF-1α showed stable expression during the series of multiple-stress tests. Our research provided available references for the selection of internal control genes for transcripts determination of P. yezoensis.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  4. A Nanostructured Composites Thermal Switch Controls Internal and External Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C.; VanBlarcom, Shelly L.; Kwasnik, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses a thin layer of composite material, made from nano scale particles of nickel and Teflon, placed within a battery cell as a layer within the anode and/or the cathode. There it conducts electrons at room temperature, then switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material layer controls excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect

  5. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  8. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2006 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2006 and February 2007. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  10. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  11. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

  12. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  13. IPUMS-International Statistical Disclosure Controls: 159 Census Microdata Samples in Dissemination, 100+ in Preparation

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matt

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, a revolution has occurred in access to census microdata for social and behavioral research. More than 325 million person records (55 countries, 159 samples) representing two-thirds of the world’s population are now readily available to bona fide researchers from the IPUMS-International website: www.ipums.org/international hosted by the Minnesota Population Center. Confidentialized extracts are disseminated on a restricted access basis at no cost to bona fide researchers. Over the next five years, from the microdata already entrusted by National Statistical Office-owners, the database will encompass more than 80 percent of the world’s population (85 countries, ~100 additional datasets) with priority given to samples from the 2010 round of censuses. A profile of the most frequently used samples and variables is described from 64,248 requests for microdata extracts. The development of privacy protection standards by National Statistical Offices, international organizations and academic experts is fundamental to eliciting world-wide cooperation and, thus, to the success of the IPUMS initiative. This paper summarizes the legal, administrative and technical underpinnings of the project, including statistical disclosure controls, as well as the conclusions of a lengthy on-site review by the former Australian Statistician, Mr. Dennis Trewin.

  14. Internal Structure Analysis of a Tobacco Control Network on the U.S.-México Border.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Cabriales, José Alonso; Taylor, Thom; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon; Kelly, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco control (TC) networks (in which multiple agencies collaborate) are essential components within comprehensive TC efforts. The aim of this study was to assess the internal coalition outcomes hierarchy model (via the Internal Coalition Effectiveness [ICE] scale) in the present sample. Participants (members of a TC Network on the U.S.-México border; independent Waves 1 [N = 30] and 2 [N = 33; at a 1-year subsequent assessment]) completed a background questionnaire and an adapted version of the ICE scale. Mean values for ICE subscales suggested a strong enthusiasm of Network members and recognition of the importance of a cohesive social vision, employment of efficient practices, a need for improved and maintained knowledge/training, and stable social relationships among members. However, no significant differences were observed between data waves in the ICE subscales, multivariate analysis of variance: λ = .97, F(4, 43) = 0.31, p > .86. Considering a multifaceted assessment may enhance the understanding of the dynamics and strengths of the Network. Finally, including an assessment of the leadership's perspective regarding internal coalition outcome hierarchy model constructs to compare them with members' perspective is warranted.

  15. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  16. Recent advances in controlling the internal and external properties of self-assembling cyclic peptide nanotubes and dimers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, N; Amorín, M; Granja, J R

    2017-04-04

    One of the most powerful strategies for the preparation of nanotubes is based on the stacking of flat-shaped cyclic peptide components. This strategy allows precise control of the nanotube internal diameter, the external properties and, more recently, the structural characterisitics of the internal cavity. The recent advances in these technologies and the applications of the resulting materials are described.

  17. 78 FR 18664 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Delegation to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To Concur With the Secretary of Defense Authorization of Activities of the Office of Security Cooperation in Iraq By virtue of... International Security, to the extent authorized by law, the authority to concur with a Secretary of...

  18. Fuel supply control method for internal combustion engines after starting in hot state

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, A.; Wazaki, Y.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a method of controlling the supply of fuel to an internal combustion engine, including the steps of effecting after-start fuel increasing control wherein an initial value of a fuel increment is set to a value dependent upon a temperature of the engine upon generation of a predetermined control signal immediately after the start of the engine, the fuel increment is progressively decreased from the set initial value in synchronism with subsequent generation of the predetermined control signal, and a fuel quantity corrected by the progressively decreased fuel increment is supplied to the engine, and effecting air-fuel ratio feedback control, which is executed on condition that a predetermined feedback control condition is fulfilled after the start of the engine, wherein a correction coefficient has a value thereof set to a value dependent upon the concentration of an ingredient in exhaust gases emitted from the engine, sensed by sensor means arranged in an exhaust system of the engine, and a fuel quantity corrected by the set correction coefficient is supplied to the engine, the improvement comprising the steps of: (a) setting the initial value of the fuel increment to smaller values as the temperature of the engine is higher; (b) setting the initial value of the fuel increment to a predetermined lower limit if the initial value set depending upon the temperature of the engine is smaller than the predetermined lower limit; and (c) effecting the air-fuel ratio feedback control by correcting a fuel quantity to be supplied to the engine by the fuel increment together with the correction coefficient insofar as the predetermined feedback control condition is fulfilled, when the temperature of the engine is higher than a predetermined value at the start of the engine.

  19. Solutions for VOC and HAPS control on natural gas fired internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.Z.; Sleigh, S.; Cotherman, R.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas fired stationary internal combustion engines (IC engines) emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as part of their normal operations. VOC and HAP emissions are coming under increased scrutiny with the advent of such Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 regulations as Title I`s Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT), Title III`s Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) and Title V`s Operating Permit Program (Title V). In addition, many states are imposing more stringent emission limits on these sources. These emissions may also contribute to the reportable chemicals from the total facility under SARA Title III. Numerous facilities nationwide are interested in reducing these emissions in order to comply with current requirements, to opt out of requirements or to reduce reportable chemicals. This paper will examine the source of these emissions, and discuss combustion control technologies and system operating flexibility, end-of-pipe control technologies, and system tuning opportunities which have the potential to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from IC engines. Data will be presented on potential emission reduction efficiencies achievable using the various control options. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  1. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Transactions are recorded adequately to permit proper reporting of gaming revenue and of fees and taxes, and to... patron. (g) For payouts by wide-area progressive gaming machine systems, a gaming operation may...

  2. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  3. Statistical tools and control of internal lubricant content of inhalation grade HPMC capsules during manufacture.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Guillermo; Díez, Fernando; Gassó, María T; Jones, Brian E; Martín-Portugués, Rafael; Ramiro-Aparicio, Juan

    2016-04-30

    The internal lubricant content (ILC) of inhalation grade HPMC capsules is a key factor to ensure good powder release when the patient inhales a medicine from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Powder release from capsules has been shown to be influenced by the ILC. The characteristics used to measure this are the emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. In addition the ILC level is critical for capsule shell manufacture because it is an essential part of the process that cannot work without it. An experiment has been applied to the manufacture of inhalation capsules with the required ILC. A full factorial model was used to identify the controlling factors and from this a linear model has been proposed to improve control of the process.

  4. Results from Testing Crew-Controlled Surface Telerobotics on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria; Schreckenghost, Debra; Pacis, Estrellina; Fong, Terrence; Kalar, Donald; Beutter, Brent

    2014-01-01

    During Summer 2013, the Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center conducted a series of tests to examine how astronauts in the International Space Station (ISS) can remotely operate a planetary rover. The tests simulated portions of a proposed lunar mission, in which an astronaut in lunar orbit would remotely operate a planetary rover to deploy a radio telescope on the lunar far side. Over the course of Expedition 36, three ISS astronauts remotely operated the NASA "K10" planetary rover in an analogue lunar terrain located at the NASA Ames Research Center in California. The astronauts used a "Space Station Computer" (crew laptop), a combination of supervisory control (command sequencing) and manual control (discrete commanding), and Ku-band data communications to command and monitor K10 for 11 hours. In this paper, we present and analyze test results, summarize user feedback, and describe directions for future research.

  5. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2012-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling Carbon Dioxide (CO2) partial pressure in the habitable vehicle environment is a critical part of operations on the International Space Station (ISS). On the United States segment of ISS, CO2 levels are primarily controlled by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA). There are two CDRAs on ISS; one in the United States Laboratory module, and one in the Node3 module. CDRA has been through several significant operational issues, performance issues and subsequent re-design of various components, primarily involving the Desiccant Adsorbent Bed (DAB) assembly and Air Selector Valves (ASV). This paper will focus on significant operational and performance issues experienced by the CDRA team from 2008-2012.

  6. Control superstructure of rigid polyelectrolytes in oppositely charged hydrogels via programmed internal stress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Riku; Wu, Zi Liang; Arifuzzaman, Md; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-08-08

    Biomacromolecules usually form complex superstructures in natural biotissues, such as different alignments of collagen fibres in articular cartilages, for multifunctionalities. Inspired by nature, there are efforts towards developing multiscale ordered structures in hydrogels (recognized as one of the best candidates of soft biotissues). However, creating complex superstructures in gels are hardly realized because of the absence of effective approaches to control the localized molecular orientation. Here we introduce a method to create various superstructures of rigid polyanions in polycationic hydrogels. The control of localized orientation of rigid molecules, which are sensitive to the internal stress field of the gel, is achieved by tuning the swelling mismatch between masked and unmasked regions of the photolithographic patterned gel. Furthermore, we develop a double network structure to toughen the hydrogels with programmed superstructures, which deform reversibly under large strain. This work presents a promising pathway to develop superstructures in hydrogels and should shed light on designing biomimetic materials with intricate molecular alignments.

  7. Guidelines for Analysis of Communicable Disease Control Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 1: Communicable Diseases Control Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, James

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this first of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with planning and evaluation of communicable disease control programs. The first…

  8. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  9. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yujing; Oh, Julia L.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.

  10. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance

    PubMed Central

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  11. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  12. Expanding the Navy’s Managers Internal Control Program’s (MICP) Capability to Prepare for External Financial Audits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    NAVY’S MANAGERS’ INTERNAL CONTROL PROGRAM’S (MICP) CAPABILITY TO PREPARE FOR EXTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDITS by Jonathan P. Pagnucco June 2015...CONTROL PROGRAM’S (MICP) CAPABILITY TO PREPARE FOR EXTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDITS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan P. Pagnucco 7. PERFORMING...Navy program into compliance and provide a tool for internal assessment that may aid commands as they prepare for external financial audits . 14

  13. Solar array pointing control for the International Space Station electrical power subsystem to optimize power delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    Precise orientation control of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS) photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays is required for a number of reasons, including the optimization of power delivery to ISS system loads and payloads. To maximize power generation and delivery in general, the PV arrays are pointed directly at the sun with some allowance for inaccuracies in determination of where to point and in the actuation of pointing the PV arrays. Control of PV array orientation in this sun pointing mode is performed automatically by onboard hardware and software. During certain conditions, maximum power cannot be generated in automatic sun tracking mode due to shadowing of the PV arrays cast by other ISS structures, primarily adjacent PV arrays. In order to maximize the power generated, the PV arrays must be pointed away from the ideal sun pointing targets to reduce the amount of shadowing. The amount of off-pointing to maximize power is a function of many parameters such as the physical configuration of the ISS structures during the assembly timeframe, the solar beta angle and vehicle attitude. Thus the off-pointing cannot be controlled automatically and must be determined by ground operators. This paper presents an overview of ISS PV array orientation control, PV array power performance under shadowed and off-pointing conditions, and a methodology to maximize power under those same conditions.

  14. Hinge Moments of Sealed-Internal-Balance Arrangements for Control Surfaces I : Theoretical Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Harry E.; Erwin, Mary A.

    1945-01-01

    The results of a theoretical analysis of the hinge-moment characteristics of various sealed-internal-balance arrangements for control surfaces are presented. The analysis considered overhands sealed to various types of wing structure by flexible seals spanning gaps of various widths or sealed to the wing structure by a flexible system of linked plates. Leakage was not considered; the seal was assumed to extend the full spanwise length of the control surface. The effect of the developed width of the flexible seal and of the geometry of the structure to which the seal was anchored was investigated, as well as the effect of the gap width that is sealed. The results of the investigation indicated that the most nearly linear control-surface hinge-moment characteristics can probably be obtained from a flexible seal over a narrow gap (about 0.1 of the overhang chord), which is so installed that the motion of the seal is restricted to a region behind the point of attachment of the seal to the wing structure. Control-surface hinge moments that tend to be high at large deflections and low or overbalanced at small deflections will result if a very narrow seal is used.

  15. Duffing revisited: phase-shift control and internal resonance in self-sustained oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Sebastián I.; Zanette, Damián H.

    2016-01-01

    We address two aspects of the dynamics of the forced Duffing oscillator which are relevant to the technology of micromechanical devices and, at the same time, have intrinsic significance to the field of nonlinear oscillating systems. First, we study the stability of periodic motion when the phase shift between the external force and the oscillation is controlled - contrary to the standard case, where the control parameter is the frequency of the force. Phase-shift control is the operational configuration under which self-sustained oscillators - and, in particular, micromechanical oscillators - provide a frequency reference useful for time keeping. We show that, contrary to the standard forced Duffing oscillator, under phase-shift control oscillations are stable over the whole resonance curve, and provide analytical approximate expressions for the time dependence of the oscillation amplitude and frequency during transients. Second, we analyze a model for the internal resonance between the main Duffing oscillation mode and a higher-harmonic mode of a vibrating solid bar clamped at its two ends. We focus on the stabilization of the oscillation frequency when the resonance takes place, and present preliminary experimental results that illustrate the phenomenon. This synchronization process has been proposed to counteract the undesirable frequency-amplitude interdependence in nonlinear time-keeping micromechanical devices. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file and one gif file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2015-60517-3

  16. Reactive arthritis in relation to internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Bodil; Holmlund, Anders; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah; Rosén, Annika

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if reactive arthritis was involved in the aetiology of chronic closed lock of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by looking for bacterial antigens in the synovial membrane of the TMJ, and by studying the antibody serology and carriage of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 in patients with chronic closed lock. Patients with reciprocal clicking and healthy subjects acted as controls. We studied a total of 43 consecutive patients, 15 with chronic closed lock, 13 with reciprocal clicking, and 15 healthy controls with no internal derangements of the TMJ. Venous blood samples were collected from all subjects for measurement of concentrations of HLA tissue antigen and serology against Chlamydia trachomatis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Samples of synovial tissue from patients with closed lock and reciprocal clicking were obtained during discectomy and divided into two pieces, the first of which was tested by strand displacement amplification for the presence of C trachomatis, and the second of which was analysed for the presence of species-specific bacterial DNA using 16s rRNA pan-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of antibodies against M pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. or Y enterocolitica. No patient had antibodies towards C trachomatis or C jejuni. We found no bacterial DNA in the synovial fluid from any patient. The HLA B27 antigen was present in 2/15 subjects in both the closed lock and control groups, and none in the reciprocal clicking group. In conclusion, reactive arthritis does not seem to be the mechanism of internal derangement of the TMJ.

  17. [1986-2006: 20 years of failed international policy to control AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2007-10-01

    Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations involved in fighting AIDS in Africa have been wrong for 20 years. Despite this failure that was publicly avowed for the first time by a high UNAIDS official in Brazzaville in March 2006, the international community continues to propose a strategy based exclusively on organizational and financial solutions for a highly complex human tragedy that requires a much more comprehensive, coordinated public health approach. Organization of the fight against AIDS has taken many forms over the period between 1986 and 2006. The WHO Global Programme against AIDS program initiated only five years after the beginning of the epidemic in the United States was followed ten years later by the joint United Nations program named UNAIDS. The period between 2000 and 2006 saw a growing number of worldwide initiatives outside the framework of the United Nations. With programs based on cooperation of bilateral agencies, the European Commission, and the World Bank with expert technical agencies and civilian representatives, the whole international community felt that they were "in the driver's seat ". However analysis of the strategy deployed against AIDS during this period shows a shift from "total emphasis on prevention" (1986-1996) to "total emphasis on ARV treatment" (1996-2006). This shift occurred with no assessment of the benefits of the previous strategy for the main users, i.e., the populations of Africa and health care officials. Financial pledges have considerably increased in the context of global public partnerships such as the Global Fund against HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, with no change in the overall strategic vision to control the pandemic. There has been a total lack of planning and leadership in controlling the pandemic. Even though we failed to treat 3 million people before the end of 2005 within the framework of the "3x5" initiative despite the availability of ARV in Africa since 1998, WHO called for

  18. PREFACE: 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja Syed, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    The 1st International Conference on Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies (ICSICCST-2013), took place in Karachi, Pakistan, from 24-26 June 2013. It was organized by Indus University, Karachi, in collaboration with HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi. More than 80 abstracts were submitted to the conference and were double blind-reviewed by an international scientific committee. The topics of the Conference were: Video, Image & Voice Sensing Sensing for Industry, Environment, and Health Automation and Controls Laser Sensors and Systems Displays for Innovative Applications Emerging Technologies Unmanned, Robotic, and Layered Systems Sensing for Defense, Homeland Security, and Law Enforcement The title of the conference, 'Sensing for Industry, Control, Communication & Security Technologies' is very apt in capturing the main issues facing the industry of Pakistan and the world. We believe the sensing industry, particularly in Pakistan, is currently at a critical juncture of its development. The future of the industry will depend on how the industry players choose to respond to the challenge of global competition and opportunities arising from strong growth in the Asian region for which we are pleased to note that the conference covered a comprehensive spectrum of issues with an international perspective. This will certainly assist industry players to make informed decisions in shaping the future of the industry. The conference gathered qualified researchers from developed countries like USA, UK, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, China, South Korea and Malaysia etc whose expertise resulting from the research can be drawn upon to build an exploitable area of new technology that has potential Defense, Homeland Security, and Military applicability. More than 250 researchers/students attended the event and made the event great success as the turnout was 100%. An exceptional line-up of speakers spoke at the occasion. We want

  19. Birth and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms moderate the link between infant attention control and internalizing problems in toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2014-05-01

    Attention control plays an important role in the development of internalizing symptoms in children. We explored the degree to which infants' genetic and environmentally based risk moderated the link between attention control and internalizing problems during toddlerhood. These associations were examined within a prospective adoption design, enabling the disentanglement of genetic and environmental risk for internalizing problems. Attention control in adopted infants was observed during periods of distress at age 9 months. Birth parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of genetic risk, while adoptive parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of environmental risk. Adoptive mothers and fathers reported on children's internalizing problems when children were 18 and 27 months old. Greater attention control in infancy appeared to mitigate genetically based risk for internalizing problems during toddlerhood when children were raised by adoptive parents who were low in anxiety. Findings suggest that for genetically susceptible children who are raised in low-risk environments, attention control may provide a protective factor against developing internalizing problems across early life.

  20. Facilitation of internal locus of control in adolescent alcoholics through a brief biofeedback-assisted autogenic relaxation training procedure.

    PubMed

    Sharp, C; Hurford, D P; Allison, J; Sparks, R; Cameron, B P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if autogenic relaxation training facilitated through biofeedback promotes an increase in internal levels of locus of control. The participants were residents of two Southwest Missouri alcohol treatment centers and ranged in age from 18 to 21 years. Treatment and control groups were compared on their responses on the Drinking Related Locus of Control Scale (DRIE) and fingertip temperature pre- and posttraining. The training was effective in teaching autogenic relaxation as demonstrated by increased fingertip temperature for the treatment group posttraining, while no differences were observed for the control group. Most importantly, the treatment group was not only significantly more internal in their locus of control after training but were also significantly more internal than the control group posttraining. Given that alcoholics are significantly more external in their locus of control than nonalcoholics, and that an internal locus of control implies an individual's belief that he or she has control and is responsible for his or her behavior, autogenic relaxation facilitated through biofeedback may be a very important component in therapeutic intervention for adolescent alcoholics.