Science.gov

Sample records for adequate internal reliability

  1. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  2. Evaluating the Reliability of Selected School-Based Indices of Adequate Reading Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the stability (i.e., 4-month and 12-month test-retest reliability) of six selected school-based indices of adequate reading progress. The total sampling frame included between 3970 and 5655 schools depending on the index and research question. Each school had at least 40 second-grade students that had complete Oral…

  3. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  4. Reliability Analyses for the ADSI: Test-Retest and Internal Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, M. J.; Gurdineer, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on two separate studies of reliability of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI), test-retest and internal consistency analyses. The ADSI has shown adequate validity, although reliability has not been established. Methods: Study 1: Students were recruited from two undergraduate courses (N = 29).…

  5. The Effects of Participation Rate on the Internal Reliability of Peer Nomination Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Babcock, Ben; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2013-01-01

    Although low participation rates have historically been considered problematic in peer nomination research, some researchers have recently argued that small proportions of participants can, in fact, provide adequate sociometric data. The current study used a classical measurement perspective to investigate the internal reliability (Cronbach's…

  6. How rich is Australia's minerals endowment and is it adequate to sustain a major role in meeting international demand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Dr Ian Lambert, Geoscience Australia and Secretary General 34th International Geological Congress Australia has comparative advantages in production of mineral commodities compared to most other countries. These stem from its rich and diverse mineral endowment; availability of regional scale (pre-competitive) geoscience information to lower the risks of exploration; advances in exploration, mining and processing technologies; skilled work force; generally benign physical conditions; and low population density. Building on these strengths, Australia is a major producer and exporter of a wide range of mineral and energy commodities to global markets. Given that demand for most major commodities is likely to continue, and that there will be growing markets for some other commodities, Australia needs to have a strategic view of what is likely to be available for mining. Further, Australia (and the world) needs to be attuned to issues that need to be faced in meeting international demand for commodities in the long term. This presentation outlines how Australia's national minerals inventory is compiled. It discusses trends for Australia's identified mineral resources for major commodities, and how these compare with other major mining nations. It then considers some significant issues in relation to sustaining a strong mining sector - in the medium to long term this requires a strategic approach to achieve goals such as more effective/lower risk exploration particularly in greenfields regions; well-Informed decisions on mining proposals; ongoing significant improvements in efficiencies of energy, water and land use.

  7. "Rassling the Hog": The Influence of Correlated Item Error on Internal Consistency, Classical Reliability, and Congeneric Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucke, Joseph F.

    2005-01-01

    The properties of internal consistency (alpha), classical reliability (rho), and congeneric reliability (omega) for a composite test with correlated item error are analytically investigated. Possible sources of correlated item error are contextual effects, item bundles, and item models that ignore additional attributes or higher-order attributes.…

  8. The memory failures of everyday questionnaire (MFE): internal consistency and reliability.

    PubMed

    Montejo Carrasco, Pedro; Montenegro, Peña Mercedes; Sueiro, Manuel J

    2012-07-01

    The Memory Failures of Everyday Questionnaire (MFE) is one of the most widely-used instruments to assess memory failures in daily life. The original scale has nine response options, making it difficult to apply; we created a three-point scale (0-1-2) with response choices that make it easier to administer. We examined the two versions' equivalence in a sample of 193 participants between 19 and 64 years of age. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the version we propose were also computed in a sample of 113 people. Several indicators attest to the two forms' equivalence: the correlation between the items' means (r = .94; p < .001) and the order of the items' frequencies (r = .92; p < .001). However, the correlation between global scores on the two forms was not very high (r = .67; p < .001). The results indicate this new version has adequate reliability and internal consistency (r(xx) = .83; p < .001; alpha = .83; p < .001) equivalent to those of the MFE 1-9. The MFE 0-2 provides a brief, simple evaluation, so we recommend it for use in clinical practice as well as research.

  9. Interrater reliability of the international consensus definition of drug-resistant epilepsy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-ting; Wong, Irina S M; Kwan, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the interrater reliability of the consensus definition of drug-resistant epilepsy proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy. According to the definition framework, outcome of each antiepileptic drug (AED) trial was categorized as "seizure freedom" or "treatment failure." This level 1 assessment was used to determine the level 2 classification, which defined drug-resistant epilepsy as the failure of adequate trials of two or more AED schedules to achieve sustained seizure freedom. Two raters classified treatment outcomes of 150 patients independently. The patients had received a total of 428 trials of AEDs. Categorization of level 1 outcome to individual AED trials by the raters was consistent in 413 (96.5%). For the level 2 classification of drug-resistant or drug-responsive epilepsy, there was absolute agreement between the raters in 141 patients (94%), with a κ index of 0.91 (P<0.001). The definition appeared to have a high degree of interrater reliability in this setting.

  10. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  11. Reliability of internal prediction/estimation and its application. I. Adaptive action selection reflecting reliability of value function.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Takano, Mitsuo

    2004-09-01

    This article proposes an adaptive action-selection method for a model-free reinforcement learning system, based on the concept of the 'reliability of internal prediction/estimation'. This concept is realized using an internal variable, called the Reliability Index (RI), which estimates the accuracy of the internal estimator. We define this index for a value function of a temporal difference learning system and substitute it for the temperature parameter of the Boltzmann action-selection rule. Accordingly, the weight of exploratory actions adaptively changes depending on the uncertainty of the prediction. We use this idea for tabular and weighted-sum type value functions. Moreover, we use the RI to adjust the learning coefficient in addition to the temperature parameter, meaning that the reliability becomes a general basis for meta-learning. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the behavior of the proposed method. The RI-based Q-learning system demonstrated its features when the adaptive learning coefficient and large RI-discount rate (which indicate how the RI values of future states are reflected in the RI value of the current state) were introduced. Statistical tests confirmed that the algorithm spent more time exploring in the initial phase of learning, but accelerated learning from the midpoint of learning. It is also shown that the proposed method does not work well with the actor-critic models. The limitations of the proposed method and its relationship to relevant research are discussed. PMID:15312837

  12. Very fast, highly reliable, suboptimal Kalman filter with internal reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.

    1980-06-01

    The equations of the suboptimal, recursive Kalman-Bucy filter algorithm were analyzed for a process with linear, stationary equations of evolution and observation. A breadboard model of the recursive filter system was built, using analog circuits in order to reduce the period between observations (from 0.5 msec to 15 microsec), although incurring a slight reduction in calculation precision (2 %). Active triplex redundancy was also built in. Analog circuit diagrams for each of the filters, and for three possible architectures (series, parallel, series-parallel), are given. Diagrams of the detection and breakdown localization circuitry that commands the reconfiguration are shown. Failure mode effect analysis allows for calculation of predicted reliability. Experimentally measured performance of the analog calculation circuits is assessed.

  13. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support: analyses of internal reliability, measurement invariance, and correlates across gender.

    PubMed

    Osman, Augustine; Lamis, Dorian A; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined estimates of internal consistency reliability, measurement invariance, and differential correlates of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS; Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) in samples of undergraduate men (n = 270) and women (n = 340). The MSPSS is designed to assess 3 sources of perceived social support: family, friends, and significant others. The participants ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M(age) = 19.60, SD = 1.4 years). First, composite scale reliability and coefficient omega methods provided adequate estimates of internal consistency reliability for the original MSPSS total and subscale scores. Second, results of multiple-groups invariance confirmatory factor analysis provided support for configural and metric invariance. Partial measurement invariance was attained for scalar and strict measurement invariance across men and women. Additionally, given the high correlations among the first-order factors, we conducted multiple-groups bifactor item response theory (bifactor-IRT) analysis to evaluate further the performances of the individual MSPSS items across gender. Support for the bifactor model was strong. Third, we conducted a series of simultaneous regression analyses to identify potential correlates of the social support construct for women and men.

  14. Internal Consistency, Retest Reliability, and their Implications For Personality Scale Validity

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Kurtz, John E.; Yamagata, Shinji; Terracciano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We examined data (N = 34,108) on the differential reliability and validity of facet scales from the NEO Inventories. We evaluated the extent to which (a) psychometric properties of facet scales are generalizable across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement; and (b) validity criteria are associated with different forms of reliability. Composite estimates of facet scale stability, heritability, and cross-observer validity were broadly generalizable. Two estimates of retest reliability were independent predictors of the three validity criteria; none of three estimates of internal consistency was. Available evidence suggests the same pattern of results for other personality inventories. Internal consistency of scales can be useful as a check on data quality, but appears to be of limited utility for evaluating the potential validity of developed scales, and it should not be used as a substitute for retest reliability. Further research on the nature and determinants of retest reliability is needed. PMID:20435807

  15. Evaluation of Dimensionality in the Assessment of Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha and Omega Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…

  16. Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…

  17. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  18. The reliability and internal consistency of the motivation rating scale and the general trait rating scale.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C B

    1977-01-01

    The Motivation Rating Scale (MRS) and General Trait Rating (GTRS) Scales have been proposed as methods for assessing personality traits of athletes. The scales are easily accessible and are proposed for use as coaching tools. A coach's form and athlete's form of each test was administered to 149 male and female varsity high school basketball players and their coaches in eight different states. Means and standard deviations for all variables as well as test-retest reliability coefficients, trait inter-correlations, correlations between test forms, and Alpha coefficients were calculated. Results suggest that each of the four scales was independent of the others, with the coach's form of the MRS showing reasonable reliability and reasonable internal consistency for selected traits. There is some indication that "trait generalization" among coaches may inflate the test-retest reliability of the coach's form of the MRS. No convincing evidence is presented to support the notion that any of the four scales measure the traits the scales are purported to measure.

  19. Reliability of a New Clinical Instrument for Measuring Internal and External Glenohumeral Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfeld, Thomas N.; Fleckenstein, Cassie M.; Levy, Martin S.; Grood, Edward S.; Frush, Todd J.; Parameswaran, A. Dushi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The shoulder plays a critical role in many overhead athletic activities. Several studies have shown alterations in shoulder range of motion (ROM) in the dominant shoulder of overhead athletes and correlation with significantly increased risk of injury to the shoulder and elbow. The purpose of this study was to measure isolated glenohumeral joint internal/external rotation (IR/ER) to determine inter- and intraobserver reliability of a new clinical device. Hypothesis: (1) Inter- and intraobserver reliability would exceed 90% for measures of glenohumeral joint IR, ER, and total arc of motion; (2) the dominant arm would exhibit significantly increased ER, significantly decreased IR, and no difference in total arc of motion compared with the nondominant shoulder; and (3) a significant difference exists in total arc between male and female patients. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Thirty-seven subjects (mean age, 23 years; range, 13-54 years) were tested by 2 orthopaedic surgeons. A single test consisted of 1 arc of motion from neutral to external rotation to internal rotation and back to neutral within preset torque limits. Each examiner performed 3 tests on the dominant and nondominant shoulders. Each examiner completed 2 installations. Results: Testing reliability demonstrated that neither trial, installation, nor observer were significant sources of variation. The maximum standard deviation was 1.3° for total arc of motion and less than 2° for most other measurements. Dominant arm ER was significantly greater than nondominant arm ER (P = 0.02), and dominant arm IR was significantly less than nondominant arm IR (P = 0.00). Mean total rotation was 162°, with no significant differences in total rotation between dominant and nondominant arms (P = 0.34). Mean total arc of motion was 45° greater in female subjects. Differences in total arc of motion between male and female subjects was statistically significant (P < 0

  20. Illustrative presentation of some basic concepts of network internal reliability with comments as regards engineering surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2016-06-01

    The paper integrates some earlier and the recent findings of the author in the area of network internal reliability and presents a consistent system of concepts in this respect. The concepts of outlier detection and outlier identification linked directly with the global model test and the outlier tests respectively, are shown as a basis for the concepts such as outlier detectability and outlier identifiability. Also, a four level classification of gross errors expressed in a form of a tree-diagram is presented including perceptible and imperceptible errors, detectable and undetectable errors and identifiable and unidentifiable errors. Their properties are given mainly in a descriptive way, deliberately limiting rigorous mathematical formulas to a necessary minimum. Understanding of different types of gross errors is useful in analyzing the results of the outlier detection and identification procedures as well as in designing the networks to make them duly robust to observation gross errors. It is of special importance for engineering surveys where quite often low-redundancy networks are used. Main objective of the paper is to demonstrate a clear and consistent system of basic concepts related to network internal reliability.

  1. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  2. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  3. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part I, parameter uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential in internal dose assessments and radiation risk analysis for the public, occupational workers, and patients exposed to radionuclides. In this paper, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part of the study published here, the uncertainty sources of the model parameters for zirconium (Zr), developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), were identified and analyzed. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the biokinetic experimental measurement performed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU) for developing a new biokinetic model of Zr was analyzed according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, published by the International Organization for Standardization. The confidence interval and distribution of model parameters of the ICRP and HMGU Zr biokinetic models were evaluated. As a result of computer biokinetic modelings, the mean, standard uncertainty, and confidence interval of model prediction calculated based on the model parameter uncertainty were presented and compared to the plasma clearance and urinary excretion measured after intravenous administration. It was shown that for the most important compartment, the plasma, the uncertainty evaluated for the HMGU model was much smaller than that for the ICRP model; that phenomenon was observed for other organs and tissues as well. The uncertainty of the integral of the radioactivity of Zr up to 50 y calculated by the HMGU model after ingestion by adult members of the public was shown to be smaller by a factor of two than that of the ICRP model. It was also shown that the distribution type of the model parameter strongly influences the model prediction, and the correlation of the model input parameters affects the model prediction to a

  4. Designing for Reliability and Robustness in International Space Station Exercise Countermeasures Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Svetlik, Randall; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of microgravity on the human body have become far better understood, as have the exercise countermeasures. Through use of a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices, today's astronauts and cosmonauts are able to partially counter the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength that otherwise might occur during their missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2000, the ISS has employed a variety of exercise equipment used as countermeasures to these risks. Providing reliable and available exercise systems has presented significant challenges due to the unique environment. In solving these, lessons have been learned that can inform development of future systems.

  5. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part II, parameter sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential for the assessment of internal doses and a radiation risk analysis for the public and occupational workers exposed to radionuclides. In the present study, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. In the first part of the paper, the parameter uncertainty was analyzed for two biokinetic models of zirconium (Zr); one was reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and one was developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU). In the second part of the paper, the parameter uncertainties and distributions of the Zr biokinetic models evaluated in Part I are used as the model inputs for identifying the most influential parameters in the models. Furthermore, the most influential model parameter on the integral of the radioactivity of Zr over 50 y in source organs after ingestion was identified. The results of the systemic HMGU Zr model showed that over the first 10 d, the parameters of transfer rates between blood and other soft tissues have the largest influence on the content of Zr in the blood and the daily urinary excretion; however, after day 1,000, the transfer rate from bone to blood becomes dominant. For the retention in bone, the transfer rate from blood to bone surfaces has the most influence out to the endpoint of the simulation; the transfer rate from blood to the upper larger intestine contributes a lot in the later days; i.e., after day 300. The alimentary tract absorption factor (fA) influences mostly the integral of radioactivity of Zr in most source organs after ingestion.

  6. Reliable differentiation of Meyerozyma guilliermondii from Meyerozyma caribbica by internal transcribed spacer restriction fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meyerozyma guilliermondii (anamorph Candida guilliermondii) and Meyerozyma caribbica (anamorph Candida fermentati) are closely related species of the genetically heterogenous M. guilliermondii complex. Conventional phenotypic methods frequently misidentify the species within this complex and also with other species of the Saccharomycotina CTG clade. Even the long-established sequencing of large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene remains ambiguous. We also faced similar problem during identification of yeast isolates of M. guilliermondii complex from indigenous bamboo shoot fermentation in North East India. There is a need for development of reliable and accurate identification methods for these closely related species because of their increasing importance as emerging infectious yeasts and associated biotechnological attributes. Results We targeted the highly variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and identified seven restriction enzymes through in silico analysis for differentiating M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Fifty five isolates of M. guilliermondii complex which could not be delineated into species-specific taxonomic ranks by API 20 C AUX and LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 sequencing were subjected to ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis. TaqI ITS-RFLP distinctly differentiated the isolates into M. guilliermondii (47 isolates) and M. caribbica (08 isolates) with reproducible species-specific patterns similar to the in silico prediction. The reliability of this method was validated by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing, mitochondrial DNA RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Conclusions We herein described a reliable ITS-RFLP method for distinct differentiation of frequently misidentified M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Even though in silico analysis differentiated other closely related species of M. guilliermondii complex from the above two species, it is yet to be confirmed by in vitro analysis using reference

  7. Seeking realistic upper-bounds for internal reliability of systems with uncorrelated observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2014-06-01

    From the theory of reliability it follows that the greater the observational redundancy in a network, the higher is its level of internal reliability. However, taking into account physical nature of the measurement process one may notice that the planned additional observations may increase the number of potential gross errors in a network, not raising the internal reliability to the theoretically expected degree. Hence, it is necessary to set realistic limits for a sufficient number of observations in a network. An attempt to provide principles for finding such limits is undertaken in the present paper. An empirically obtained formula (Adamczewski 2003) called there the law of gross errors, determining the chances that a certain number of gross errors may occur in a network, was taken as a starting point in the analysis. With the aid of an auxiliary formula derived on the basis of the Gaussian law, the Adamczewski formula was modified to become an explicit function of the number of observations in a network. This made it possible to construct tools necessary for the analysis and finally, to formulate the guidelines for determining the upper-bounds for internal reliability indices. Since the Adamczewski formula was obtained for classical networks, the guidelines should be considered as an introductory proposal requiring verification with reference to modern measuring techniques. Z teorii niezawodności wynika, że im większy jest nadmiar obserwacyjny w sieci, tym wyższy poziom jej niezawodności wewnętrznej. Biorąc jednakże pod uwagę fi zykalną naturę procesu pomiaru można zauważyć, że projektowane dodatkowe obserwacje mogą zwiększyć liczbę potencjalnych błędów grubych w sieci, nie podnosząc niezawodności wewnętrznej do oczekiwanego według teorii poziomu. Niezbędne jest zatem ustalenie realistycznych poziomów górnych dla liczby obserwacji w sieci. W niniejszym artykule podjęta jest próba sformułowania zasad ustalania takich poziom

  8. Toward More Adequate Quantitative Instructional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Sets an agenda for improving instructional research conducted with classical quantitative experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Includes guidelines regarding the role of a social perspective, adequate conceptual and operational definition, quality instrumentation, control of threats to internal and external validity, and the use of…

  9. Reliability of Measurement of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation, External Rotation, and Total Arc of Motion in 3 Test Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kevern, Mark A.; Beecher, Michael; Rao, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletes who participate in throwing and racket sports consistently demonstrate adaptive changes in glenohumeral-joint internal and external rotation in the dominant arm. Measurements of these motions have demonstrated excellent intrarater and poor interrater reliability. Objective: To determine intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and standard error of measurement for shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion using an inclinometer in 3 testing procedures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball and softball athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic department. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight players participated in the study. Shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion were measured by 2 investigators in 3 test positions. The standard supine position was compared with a side-lying test position, as well as a supine test position without examiner overpressure. Results: Excellent intrarater reliability was noted for all 3 test positions and ranges of motion, with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Results for interrater reliability were less favorable. Reliability for internal rotation was highest in the side-lying position (0.68) and reliability for external rotation and total arc was highest in the supine-without-overpressure position (0.774 and 0.713, respectively). The supine-with-overpressure position yielded the lowest interrater reliability results in all positions. The side-lying position had the most consistent results, with very little variation among intraclass correlation coefficient values for the various test positions. Conclusions: The results of our study clearly indicate that the side-lying test procedure is of equal or greater value than the traditional supine-with-overpressure method. PMID:25188316

  10. Psychometric Inferences from a Meta-Analysis of Reliability and Internal Consistency Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Juan; Suero, Manuel; Gambara, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the reliability of the scores from a specific test, also called reliability generalization, allows the quantitative synthesis of its properties from a set of studies. It is usually assumed that part of the variation in the reliability coefficients is due to some unknown and implicit mechanism that restricts and biases the…

  11. Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

  12. Connection Between Internal Structural Stresses of the Ist and the IInd kind and Operational Reliability of the Boiler Heating Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Lyudmila; Tabakaev, Roman; Tashlykov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander; Zyubanov, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents new approaches to solving problems of forecasting the life of heating surface of boilers, based on an analysis of internal structural stresses of the first and second kind that could affect the intragranular and intergranular strength and reliability of the pipeline in continuous operation by making it work without damage by preventing the disclosure of zone cracks.

  13. Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Research Settings: Last 7-Day Self-Administered Long Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan S.; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the last 7-day long form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003) and to examine the construct validity for the measure in a research setting. Participants were 151 male (n = 52) and female (n = 99) university students (M age = 24.15 years, SD = 5.01)…

  14. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  15. Effect of clinically discriminating, evidence-based checklist items on the reliability of scores from an Internal Medicine residency OSCE.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Vijay J; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving learners are more likely to use. The purpose of this study was to determine if limiting checklist items to clinically discriminating items and/or adding missing evidence-based items improved score reliability in an Internal Medicine residency OSCE. Six internists reviewed the traditional checklists of four OSCE stations classifying items as clinically discriminating or non-discriminating. Two independent reviewers augmented checklists with missing evidence-based items. We used generalizability theory to calculate overall reliability of faculty observer checklist scores from 45 first and second-year residents and predict how many 10-item stations would be required to reach a Phi coefficient of 0.8. Removing clinically non-discriminating items from the traditional checklist did not affect the number of stations (15) required to reach a Phi of 0.8 with 10 items. Focusing the checklist on only evidence-based clinically discriminating items increased test score reliability, needing 11 stations instead of 15 to reach 0.8; adding missing evidence-based clinically discriminating items to the traditional checklist modestly improved reliability (needing 14 instead of 15 stations). Checklists composed of evidence-based clinically discriminating items improved the reliability of checklist scores and reduced the number of stations needed for acceptable reliability. Educators should give preference to evidence-based items over non-evidence-based items when developing OSCE checklists.

  16. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  17. The International AIDS Questionnaire-English Version (IAQ-E): Assessing the Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Hughes, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    In order to address HIV infection among college students, a comprehensive measure is needed that can be used with samples from culturally diverse populations. Therefore, this paper assessed the reliability and validity of an HIV/AIDS questionnaire that measures fours dimensions of HIV/AIDS awareness--factual knowledge, prejudice, personal risk,…

  18. Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Assessing Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Marshall, Alison L.; Craig, Cora; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The single most commonly reported physical activity in public health surveys is walking. As evidence accumulates that walking is important for preventing weight gain and reducing the risk of diabetes, there is increased need to capture this behavior in a valid and reliable manner. Although the disadvantages of a self-report methodology are well…

  19. An Application-Based Discussion of Construct Validity and Internal Consistency Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.; Campbell, Kathleen T.

    Several techniques for conducting studies of measurement integrity are explained and illustrated using a heuristic data set from a study of teachers' participation in decision making (D. L. Taylor, 1991). The sample consisted of 637 teachers. It is emphasized that validity and reliability are characteristics of data, and do not inure to tests as…

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Language Version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients receiving treatment for benign prostate hyperplasia may have persistent storage symptoms. There has been increasing debate on the precision and accuracy of the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaires over other questionnaires in evaluating all the complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to perform the validity and reliability analysis of the Turkish version of the Internatinal Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Male LUTS (ICIQ-MLUTS). Methods: Linguistic validation was studied (i.e., translation and back translation). Intelligibility was completed between October 2013 and November 2013. Data was collected between November 2013 and March 2014. The stability and reliability of the form were measured with the Cronbach test. Results: In total, 117 male patients were included in the study. At the first visit, the mean age of the patients was 59 years (range, 18–84 years). For reliability, the Cronbach alpha value was 0.798, demonstrating the internal consistency of the form (r>0.7). The internal consistency of each question was examined separately and found to be over 0.7. For the evaluation of test-retest reliability, the test was administered to 116 patients for a second time with an interval of 2–4 weeks. The first and second test scores for each question were found to be correlated (r=0.741). Conclusions: ICIQ-MLUTS is a new questionnaire, which can be used for evaluating male LUTS in Turkey. We believe that the Turkish version of the ICIQ-MLUTS is an important breakthrough in our country. PMID:27377949

  1. New International Program to Asses the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-01-25

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of the PARENT is to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks (PWSCC) and applying the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

  2. New international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components. The goals of PARENT are to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks and apply the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

  3. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of an instrumented functional reaching task using wireless electromyographic sensors.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Wang, Edward; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the electromyographic and accelerometric data sampled from the prime movers of the dominant arm during an antigravity, within-arm's length stand-reaching task without trunk restraint. Ten healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions, approximately 7-10days apart. During each session, subjects performed 15 trials of both a flexion- and an abduction-reaching task. Surface EMG and acceleration using wireless sensors were sampled from the anterior and middle deltoid. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, k) and standard error of measurements (SEM) for electromyographic reaction time, burst duration and normalized amplitude along with peak acceleration. Results indicated high degrees of inter-trial and test-retest reliability for flexion (Cronbach's α range=0.92-0.99; ICC range=0.82-0.92) as well as abduction (Cronbach's α range=0.94-0.99; ICC range=0.81-0.94) reaching. The SEM associated with response variables for flexion and abduction ranged from 1.55-3.26% and 3.33-3.95% of means, respectively. Findings from this study revealed that electromyographic and accelerometric data collected from prime movers of the arm during the relatively functional stand-reaching task were highly reproducible. Given its high reliability and portability, the proposed test could have applications in clinical and laboratory settings to quantify upper limb function.

  4. Reliable LC-MS quantitative glycomics using iGlycoMab stable isotope labeled glycans as internal standards.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiyue; Tello, Nadia; Harvey, Alex; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Glycans have numerous functions in various biological processes and participate in the progress of diseases. Reliable quantitative glycomic profiling techniques could contribute to the understanding of the biological functions of glycans, and lead to the discovery of potential glycan biomarkers for diseases. Although LC-MS is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative glycomics, the variation of ionization efficiency and MS intensity bias are influencing quantitation reliability. Internal standards can be utilized for glycomic quantitation by MS-based methods to reduce variability. In this study, we used stable isotope labeled IgG2b monoclonal antibody, iGlycoMab, as an internal standard to reduce potential for errors and to reduce variabililty due to sample digestion, derivatization, and fluctuation of nanoESI efficiency in the LC-MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans released from model glycoproteins, human blood serum, and breast cancer cell line. We observed an unanticipated degradation of isotope labeled glycans, tracked a source of such degradation, and optimized a sample preparation protocol to minimize degradation of the internal standard glycans. All results indicated the effectiveness of using iGlycoMab to minimize errors originating from sample handling and instruments. PMID:26913967

  5. Reporting Error and Reliability to Test-Takers: An International Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jenny; Wheater, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This review examined a range of approaches internationally to the reporting of assessment results for individual students, with a particular focus on how results are represented, the level of detail reported and the steps taken to quantify, report and explain error and uncertainty in the results' reports or certificates given to students in a…

  6. Practices in Adequate Structural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  7. Practices in adequate structural design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  8. Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Maynard K.; Downs, Robert E.; King, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

  9. Development of a New Valid, Reliable, and Internationally Applicable Assessment Tool of Residents’ Competence in Ophthalmic Surgery (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Golnik, C.; Beaver, Hilary; Gauba, Vinod; Lee, Andrew G.; Mayorga, Eduardo; Palis, Gabriela; Saleh, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the validity and reliability of a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery. Changing paradigms of ophthalmic education in the United States have influenced worldwide ophthalmic education and necessitated new methods of assessing resident competence. Accordingly, a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery (phacoemulsification) that could be applicable internationally was developed. We hypothesize that this instrument is valid and reliable. Methods: A panel of six international content experts adapted a previously published tool for assessing phacoemulsification. The tool (called the International Council of Ophthalmology’s Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric, or ICO-OSCAR:phaco) was reviewed by 12 international content experts for their constructive comments, which were incorporated to ensure content validity. Ten expert cataract surgery teachers then graded six recorded phacoemulsification surgeries with the ICO-OSCAR:phaco to investigate inter-rater reliability. Results: The coefficient alpha statistic (a measure of reliability/internal consistency) for the ICO-OSCAR:phaco as a whole was 0.92, and 17 of its 20 dimensions had alpha coefficients greater than 0.70. Conclusions: The ICO-OSCAR:phaco is a valid and reliable assessment tool that could be applied internationally to satisfy the global need of new instruments to comply with emerging trends in ophthalmic education. A toolbox of similar surgical competency assessment tools is being developed. PMID:24072944

  10. The inter-rater reliability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health set for spinal cord injury nursing.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Xie, Sumei; Li, Yun; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yingmin; Gao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has potential to be used as a clinical assessment instrument directly. However, difficulty in operationalizing the ICF qualifiers has led to unsatisfactory inter-rater reliability of ICF instruments in previous studies. The ICF set for spinal cord injury (SCI) nursing contains a group of categories that can reflect the functioning of SCI patients from the perspective of nurses. The aim of this study was to explore the inter-rater reliability of the ICF set for SCI nursing. Detailed measuring guidelines were prepared for each category of the ICF set. Two trained nurses then used the ICF set to independently rate 40 SCI patients within the first 3 days after their admission. The results showed that the percentage of the observed agreement between the nurses ranged from 42.5 to 100% (median 75%, interquartile range 62.5-87.5%). The weighted κ ranged from -0.03 to 1.00 (median 0.68, interquartile range 0.45-0.84). A total of 50 categories (79.4%) showed weighted κ greater than 0.4 and 39 categories (61.9%) had weighted κ greater than 0.6. The medians of the weighted κ for the body functions, body structures, activity and participation and environmental factors components were 0.6, 0.64, 0.84, and 0.11, respectively. This study indicated that the inter-rater reliability of the ICF set for SCI nursing was acceptable. Establishment of detailed measuring guidelines could help reduce the differences between raters. Simpler and clearer measuring guidelines are recommended and the definitions of some categories need to be clarified in future studies. PMID:27171607

  11. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, B; Salazar, A; Dueñas, M; Torres, L M; Mico, J A; Failde, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001); HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001) and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001); MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001); and the physical (0.49, p < .001) and mental components (0.55, p < .001) of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  12. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, B.; Salazar, A.; Dueñas, M.; Torres, L. M.; Mico, J. A.; Failde, I.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the “Test Your Memory” (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001); HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001) and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001); MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001); and the physical (0.49, p < .001) and mental components (0.55, p < .001) of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations. PMID:27119165

  13. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, B; Salazar, A; Dueñas, M; Torres, L M; Mico, J A; Failde, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001); HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001) and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001); MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001); and the physical (0.49, p < .001) and mental components (0.55, p < .001) of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations. PMID:27119165

  14. Investigating the links of internal and external reliability with the system conditionality in Gauss-Markov models with uncorrelated observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between internal response-based reliability and conditionality is investigated for Gauss-Markov (GM) models with uncorrelated observations. The models with design matrices of full rank and of incomplete rank are taken into consideration. The formulas based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the design matrix are derived which clearly indicate that the investigated concepts are independent of each other. The methods are presented of constructing for a given design matrix the matrices equivalent with respect to internal response-based reliability as well as the matrices equivalent with respect to conditionality. To analyze conditionality of GM models, in general being inconsistent systems, a substitute for condition number commonly used in numerical linear algebra is developed, called a pseudo-condition^number. Also on the basis of the SVD a formula for external reliability is proposed, being the 2-norm of a vector of parameter distortions induced by minimal detectable error in a particular observation. For systems with equal nonzero singular values of the design matrix, the formula can be expressed in terms of the index of internal response-based reliability and the pseudo-condition^number. With these measures appearing in explicit form, the formula shows, although only for the above specific systems, the character of the impact of internal response-based reliability and conditionality of the model upon its external reliability. Proofs for complementary properties concerning the pseudo-condition^number and the 2-norm of parameter distortions in systems with minimal constraints are given in the Appendices. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theory. Badany jest związek między niezawodnością wewnętrzną bazującą na odpowiedziach modelu a uwarunkowaniem układu dla modeli Gaussa-Markova z obserwacjami nieskorelowanymi. Rozpatrywane są przy tym modele z macierzami projektu pełnego i niepełnego rzędu. Wzory wyprowadzone

  15. 34 CFR 85.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate evidence. 85.900 Section 85.900 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient to support...

  16. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  17. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  18. 12 CFR 380.52 - Adequate protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate protection. 380.52 Section 380.52... ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY Receivership Administrative Claims Process § 380.52 Adequate protection. (a... interest of a claimant, the receiver shall provide adequate protection by any of the following means:...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  20. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  1. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  2. An Empirical Demonstration of the Stability of the Maximized Correlation as an Internal-Consistency Reliability Estimate for Tests of Small Item Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Edwin E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Maximized correlation as an internal reliability estimate for tests with few items was investigated. An actual sampling distribution of maximum correlation--"r" max--was empirically derived from 100 samples of 50 cases each from Rorschach test data and compared with those of alpha and an odd/even split, using 2,020 Rorschach protocols. (SLD)

  3. Measuring the New Indices of Religious Orientation at the Cathedral Carol Service: Internal Consistency and Reliability among a Distinctively Wide Ranging Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David

    2012-01-01

    The New Indices of Religious Orientation (NIRO) proposed and tested by Francis have been found in later studies to satisfy the requirements for internal reliability among samples where there are comparatively high levels of religious activity, and usually of predominantly older adults. The present study takes a sample of 393 individuals who…

  4. Effect of Clinically Discriminating, Evidence-Based Checklist Items on the Reliability of Scores from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Vijay J.; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving…

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid real-time quaking-induced conversion is a robust and reliable test for sporadic creutzfeldt-jakob disease: An international study.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Lynne I; Poleggi, Anna; Poggiolini, Ilaria; Suardi, Silvia; Grznarova, Katarina; Shi, Song; de Vil, Bart; Sarros, Shannon; Satoh, Katsuya; Cheng, Keding; Cramm, Maria; Fairfoul, Graham; Schmitz, Matthias; Zerr, Inga; Cras, Patrick; Equestre, Michele; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Knox, David; Collins, Steven; Haïk, Stéphane; Parchi, Piero; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Green, Alison

    2016-07-01

    Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) has been proposed as a sensitive diagnostic test for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; however, before this assay can be introduced into clinical practice, its reliability and reproducibility need to be demonstrated. Two international ring trials were undertaken in which a set of 25 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analyzed by a total of 11 different centers using a range of recombinant prion protein substrates and instrumentation. The results show almost complete concordance between the centers and demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a suitably reliable and robust technique for clinical practice. Ann Neurol 2016;80:160-165. PMID:27130376

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid real‐time quaking‐induced conversion is a robust and reliable test for sporadic creutzfeldt–jakob disease: An international study

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Lynne I.; Poleggi, Anna; Poggiolini, Ilaria; Suardi, Silvia; Grznarova, Katarina; Shi, Song; de Vil, Bart; Sarros, Shannon; Satoh, Katsuya; Cheng, Keding; Cramm, Maria; Fairfoul, Graham; Schmitz, Matthias; Zerr, Inga; Cras, Patrick; Equestre, Michele; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Knox, David; Collins, Steven; Haïk, Stéphane; Parchi, Piero; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Real‐time quaking‐induced conversion (RT‐QuIC) has been proposed as a sensitive diagnostic test for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease; however, before this assay can be introduced into clinical practice, its reliability and reproducibility need to be demonstrated. Two international ring trials were undertaken in which a set of 25 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analyzed by a total of 11 different centers using a range of recombinant prion protein substrates and instrumentation. The results show almost complete concordance between the centers and demonstrate that RT‐QuIC is a suitably reliable and robust technique for clinical practice. Ann Neurol 2016;80:160–165 PMID:27130376

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid real-time quaking-induced conversion is a robust and reliable test for sporadic creutzfeldt-jakob disease: An international study.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Lynne I; Poleggi, Anna; Poggiolini, Ilaria; Suardi, Silvia; Grznarova, Katarina; Shi, Song; de Vil, Bart; Sarros, Shannon; Satoh, Katsuya; Cheng, Keding; Cramm, Maria; Fairfoul, Graham; Schmitz, Matthias; Zerr, Inga; Cras, Patrick; Equestre, Michele; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Knox, David; Collins, Steven; Haïk, Stéphane; Parchi, Piero; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Green, Alison

    2016-07-01

    Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) has been proposed as a sensitive diagnostic test for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; however, before this assay can be introduced into clinical practice, its reliability and reproducibility need to be demonstrated. Two international ring trials were undertaken in which a set of 25 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analyzed by a total of 11 different centers using a range of recombinant prion protein substrates and instrumentation. The results show almost complete concordance between the centers and demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a suitably reliable and robust technique for clinical practice. Ann Neurol 2016;80:160-165.

  8. Reliability (internal consistency) of the job content questionnaire on job stress among office workers of a multinational company in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Maizura, Husna; Masilamani, Retneswari; Aris, Tahir

    2009-04-01

    This small, cross-sectional study assessed the reliability of 3 scales from the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ)-decision latitude, psychological job demand, and social support-in a group of office workers in a multinational company in Kuala Lumpur. A universal sample of 30 white-collar workers from a department of the company self-administered the English version of the JCQ comprising 21 core items selected from the full recommended version of 49 items on-site. Reliability (internal consistency) was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each scale. Corrected item-total correlation was presented for each and every item. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for decision latitude (.76) and social support (.79) but slightly lower for psychological job demand (.64). Values for all item-total correlations for all 3 scales were greater than .3. In conclusion, this study suggests that the JCQ is a reliable scale for assessing job stress in this group of workers.

  9. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  10. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and predictive validity for a Likert-based version of the Sources of occupational stress-14 (SOOS-14) scale.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Flynn, Elisa J; Carpenter, Grace Stephanie J; Cammarata, Claire M; Leto, Frank; Ostiguy, William J; Kamholz, Barbara W; Zimering, Rose T; Gulliver, Suzy B

    2015-08-30

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a Likert-based version of the Sources of Occupational Stress-14 (SOOS-14) scale. Internal consistency for the SOOS-14 ranged from 0.78-0.84, whereas three-month test-retest reliability was 0.51. In addition, SOOS-14 scores were prospectively associated with symptoms of PTSD and depression at a three-month follow-up assessment. PMID:26073282

  11. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  12. [The reliability of reliability].

    PubMed

    Blancas Espejo, A

    1991-01-01

    The author critically analyzes an article by Rodolfo Corona Vazquez that questions the reliability of the preliminary results of the Eleventh Census of Population and Housing, conducted in Mexico in March 1990. The need to define what constitutes "reliability" for preliminary results is stressed. PMID:12317739

  13. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  14. Small Rural Schools CAN Have Adequate Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustaunau, Martha

    The small rural school's foremost and largest problem is providing an adequate curriculum for students in a changing world. Often the small district cannot or is not willing to pay the per-pupil cost of curriculum specialists, specialized courses using expensive equipment no more than one period a day, and remodeled rooms to accommodate new…

  15. An Adequate Education Defined. Fastback 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Davis, E. E. (Gene)

    Court decisions historically have dealt with educational equity; now they are helping to establish "adequacy" as a standard in education. Legislatures, however, have been slow to enact remedies. One debate over education adequacy, though, is settled: Schools are not financed at an adequate level. This fastback is divided into three sections.…

  16. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  17. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale with Elementary Age English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Connor, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We report findings of a validation study exploring the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994) for use with English learners (ELs) attending a large suburban elementary school. First, we explored the reliability of the SRSS by examining internal consistency, with results indicating adequate internal consistency (0.83). Second, we…

  18. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) in community-dwelling older persons.

    PubMed

    Ulus, Yasemin; Durmus, Dilek; Akyol, Yesim; Terzi, Yuksel; Bilgici, Ayhan; Kuru, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The FES-I is a questionnaire which was developed to assess fear of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of a Turkish language version of the FES-I in Turkish older people. The study sample included 70 volunteers with an age range of 65-81. To assess the test-retest reliability of the Turkish FES-I, questionnaire was applied again 10-15 days after the first interview (interclass correlation: ICC). FES-I was compared with The Modified Barthel Index (MBI), the timed up and go test (TUG), and The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for construct validity. Cronbach's alpha (α) was used to evaluate the internal consistency. The internal structure of the FES-I was examined by factor analysis. ROC plots were used to define cut-point for the FES-I scales. Cronbach's α of the Turkish FES-I was 0.94 and the individual item ICC ranged from 0.97 to 0.99. The Turkish FES-I total scores were correlated with TUG positively, and MBI, and BBS negatively. The cut-off score to differentiate between persons with fear of falling and persons without fear of falling was 24 points. It was found that the Turkish version of the FES-I was a reliable and valid measure of fear of falling in Turkish older people.

  19. Quality of Life among Persons with HIV/AIDS in Iran: Internal Reliability and Validity of an International Instrument and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Pedram; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Saeidi, Behtash; Esmaeeli Djavid, Gholamreza; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboube; Paydary, Koosha; Kheirandish, Parastoo; Foroughi, Mahsa; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Mohraz, Minoo; McFarland, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study on 191 HIV/AIDS patient was to prepare the first Persian translation of complete WHOQOL-HIV instrument, evaluate its reliability and validity, and apply it to determine quality of life and its associated factors in Tehran, Iran. Student's t-test was used to compare quality of life between groups. Mean Cronbach's α of facets in all six domains of instrument were more than 0.6 indicating good reliability. Item/total corrected correlations coefficients had a lower limit of more than 0.5 in all facets except for association between energy and fatigue facet and physical domain. Compared to younger participants, patients older than 35 years had significantly lower scores in overall quality of life (P = 0.003), social relationships (P = 0.021), and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs (P = 0.024). Unemployed patients had significantly lower scores in overall quality of life (P = 0.01), level of independence (P = 0.004), and environment (P = 0.001) compared to employed participants. This study demonstrated that the standard, complete WHOQOL-HIV 120 instrument translated into Farsi and evaluated among Iranian participants provides a reliable and valid basis for future research on quality of life for HIV and other patients in Iran. PMID:22292116

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Sensory Component of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hales, M.; Biros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 1982, the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) has been used to classify sensation of spinal cord injury (SCI) through pinprick and light touch scores. The absence of proprioception, pain, and temperature within this scale creates questions about its validity and accuracy. Objectives: To assess whether the sensory component of the ISNCSCI represents a reliable and valid measure of classification of SCI. Methods: A systematic review of studies examining the reliability and validity of the sensory component of the ISNCSCI published between 1982 and February 2013 was conducted. The electronic databases MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PEDro, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. A secondary search of reference lists was also completed. Chosen articles were assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine hierarchy of evidence and critically appraised using the McMasters Critical Review Form. A statistical analysis was conducted to investigate the variability of the results given by reliability studies. Results: Twelve studies were identified: 9 reviewed reliability and 3 reviewed validity. All studies demonstrated low levels of evidence and moderate critical appraisal scores. The majority of the articles (~67%; 6/9) assessing the reliability suggested that training was positively associated with better posttest results. The results of the 3 studies that assessed the validity of the ISNCSCI scale were confounding. Conclusions: Due to the low to moderate quality of the current literature, the sensory component of the ISNCSCI requires further revision and investigation if it is to be a useful tool in clinical trials. PMID:26363591

  1. Internal consistency reliability and construct validity of an Arabic translation of the shortened form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2004-04-01

    A sample of 480 (246 boys and 234 girls) students in Grade 11 in the United Arab Emirates completed an Arabic version of the shortened form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales. A factor analysis of the intercorrelations of responses to 51 items indicated the same general factors as in the original study. Internal consistency estimates of the reliability of scores on the total scale and on each scale for the short form were acceptable, with coefficients alpha ranging from .72 to .89.

  2. Internal Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity of the Attitude toward Muslim Proximity Index (AMPI): A Measure of Social Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    The Attitude toward Muslim Proximity Index (AMPI) is a six-item scale that uses tolerance to different degrees of social distance to assess prejudice towards Muslims. It was tested on 1777 teenage school children from northern England who indicated their religion as either "Christian" or "no religion", and demonstrated good internal reliability…

  3. Can There Be Reliability without "Reliability?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An "Educational Researcher" article by Pamela Moss (1994) asks the title question, "Can there be validity without reliability?" Yes, she answers, if by reliability one means "consistency among independent observations intended as interchangeable" (Moss, 1994, p. 7), quantified by internal consistency indices such as KR-20 coefficients and…

  4. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  5. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  6. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  7. Reliability and Construct Validity of Scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory: A Measure of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…

  8. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  9. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  10. Selection and reliability of internal reference genes for quantitative PCR verification of transcriptomics during the differentiation process of porcine adult mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to find highly reliable internal-control genes (ICGs) for normalization of qPCR data from porcine adult mesenchymal stem cells induced to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Methods Stem cells were acquired from subcutaneous back fat and bone marrow of three castrated Yorkshire crossbred male pigs. Adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells (ADSCs and BMSCs) were cultured in vitro with specific osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation medium for 4 weeks. Total RNA was extract for microarray (13,000 oligonucleotides) and qPCR analyses. Microarray data were used to uncover the most stably expressed genes (that is, potential ICGs). Co-regulation among potential ICGs was evaluated with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. qPCR was performed on the non-coregulated ICGs candidates and on specific osteogenic (COL1A1) and adipogenic (DBI) genes. geNorm was used to uncover the most reliable ICGs by using qPCR data and the optimal number of ICGs to be used to calculate the normalization factor. Results Microarray data analysis revealed 27 potential ICGs. Among those, 10 genes without known co-regulation were selected to perform qPCR. geNorm performed on qPCR data uncovered high stability in expression ratio among the selected ICGs. However, especially reliable normalization was obtained by geometric mean of NSUN5, TIMM17B, and VPS4A. The effect of normalization, assessed on specific osteogenic (COL1A1) and adipogenic (DBI) genes, was apparent for the adipogenic and less apparent for the osteogenic differentiation. Conclusions The combination of microarray data and pairwise gene analysis allowed identification of novel and highly reliable ICGs for qPCR data normalization of adult porcine stem cells induced to differentiate to adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. PMID:20504288

  11. Examining the reliability and validity of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, long form (IPAQ-LF) in Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Bello, Umar M; Philemon, Saratu T; Aliyu, Habeeb N; Majidadi, Rebecca W; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the reliability and an aspect of validity of a modified version of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-LF) in Nigeria. Design Cross-sectional study, examining the reliability and construct validity of the Hausa IPAQ-LF compared with anthropometric and biological variables. Setting Metropolitan Maiduguri, the capital city of Borno State in Nigeria. Participants 180 Nigerian adults (50% women) with a mean age of 35.6 (SD=10.3) years, recruited from neighbourhoods with diverse socioeconomic status and walkability. Outcome measures Domains (domestic physical activity (PA), occupational PA, leisure-time PA, active transportation and sitting time) and intensities of PA (vigorous, moderate and walking) were measured with the Hausa IPAQ-LF on two different occasions, 8 days apart. Outcomes for construct validity were measured body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results The Hausa IPAQ-LF demonstrated good test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC>75) for total PA (ICC=0.79, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.82), occupational PA (ICC=0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.82), active transportation (ICC=0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.87) and vigorous intensity activities (ICC=0.82, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.87). Reliability was substantially higher for total PA (ICC=0.80), occupational PA (ICC=0.78), leisure-time PA (ICC=0.75) and active transportation (ICC=0.80) in men than in women, but domestic PA (ICC=0.38) and sitting time (ICC=0.71) demonstrated more substantial reliability coefficients in women than in men. For the construct validity, domestic PA was significantly related mainly with SBP (r=−0.27) and DBP (r=−0.17), and leisure-time PA and total PA were significantly related only with SBP (r=−0.16) and BMI (r=−0.29), respectively. Similarly, moderate-intensity PA was mainly related with SBP (r=−0.16, p<0.05) and DBP (r=−0.21, p<0.01), but vigorous-intensity PA was only

  12. Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Fatigue of Reactor Components (MRP-46): PWR Materials Reliability Program (PWRMRP)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    This report contains information presented at the First International Conference on Fatigue of Reactor Components held July 31-August 2, 2000, in Napa, California. The conference--sponsored by EPRI, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency/Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (OECD NEA/CSNI), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC)--provided a forum for the technical discussion of fatigue issues that affect the integrity and operation of light water reactor components. Approximately 90 fatigue experts, representing 12 countries, participated in the conference. Strong representation was shown by nuclear operators, vendors, regulatory agencies, research and development organizations, and other experts.

  13. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  14. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  15. The Internal Restlessness Scale: Performance of College Students with and without ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Iwaszuk, Wendy; Fulton, Katie; Ollerton, Micha; Beatty, Noelle; Fouts, Hillary; Schepman, Stephen; Greenlaw, Corey

    2003-01-01

    A study explored the construct of mental restlessness in 20 college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Internal Restlessness Scale (IRS). Students with ADHD reported significantly higher ratings of internal restlessness. The IRS appears to have adequate test-retest reliability and a four-factor…

  16. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events. PMID:25976848

  17. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events.

  18. Reliable Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children for Adequate Hospital Infection Control Management

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Susanne; Nadal, David; Stroehle, Angelika; Bossart, Walter

    2001-01-01

    By using a rapid test for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection (Abbott TestPack RSV), a number of patients were observed, showing repeatedly positive results over a period of up to 10 weeks. A prospective study was initiated to compare the rapid test with an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) protocol for detection of RSV serotypes A and B. Only respiratory samples from children exhibiting the prolonged presence of RSV (≥5 days) as determined by the rapid test were considered. A total of 134 specimens from 24 children was investigated by antigen capture EIA and nested RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR as the reference method, we determined the RSV rapid test to have a specificity of 63% and a sensitivity of 66% and the antigen capture EIA to have a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 69% for acute-phase samples and the homologous virus serotype A. In 7 (29%) of 24 patients, the positive results of the RSV rapid test could not be confirmed by either nested RT-PCR or antigen capture EIA. In these seven patients a variety of other respiratory viruses were detected. For general screening the RSV rapid test was found to be a reasonable tool to get quick results. However, its lack of specificity in some patients requires confirmation by additional tests to rule out false-positive results and/or detection of other respiratory viruses. PMID:11526141

  19. Validity and Reliability of the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory: An Exploration of Shame, Isolation, and Discrimination in Smokers with Mental Health Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; Cataldo PhD, Janine K.; Orozco, Nicholas; Lisha, Nadra E.; Hickman, Norval; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives De-normalization of smoking as a public health strategy may create shame and isolation in vulnerable groups unable to quit. To examine the nature and impact of smoking stigma, we developed the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory (ISSI), tested its validity and reliability, and explored factors that may contribute to smoking stigma. Methods We evaluated the ISSI in a sample of smokers with mental health diagnoses (N=956), using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and assessed construct validity. Results Results reduced the ISSI to 8 items with three subscales: smoking self-stigma related to shame, felt stigma related to social isolation, and discrimination experiences. Discrimination was the most commonly endorsed of the three subscales. A multivariate generalized linear model predicted 21-30% of the variance in the smoking stigma subscales. Self-stigma was greatest among those intending to quit; felt stigma was highest among those experiencing stigma in other domains, namely ethnicity and mental illness-based; and smoking-related discrimination was highest among women, Caucasians, and those with more education. Discussion and Conclusion Smoking stigma may compound stigma experiences in other areas. Aspects of smoking stigma in the domains of shame, isolation, and discrimination related to modeled stigma responses, particularly readiness to quit and cigarette addiction and was found to be more salient for groups where tobacco use is least prevalent. Scientific Significance The ISSI measure is useful for quantifying smoking-related stigma in multiple domains. PMID:25930661

  20. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  1. Quantifying variability within water samples: the need for adequate subsampling.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Irvine, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of the concentration of nutrients and other substances in waterbodies is an essential requirement for supporting effective management and legislation. Owing primarily to logistic and financial constraints, however, national and regional agencies responsible for monitoring surface waters tend to quantify chemical indicators of water quality using a single sample from each waterbody, thus largely ignoring spatial variability. We show here that total sample variability, which comprises both analytical variability and within-sample heterogeneity, of a number of important chemical indicators of water quality (chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, soluble molybdate-reactive phosphorus and dissolved inorganic nitrogen) varies significantly both over time and among determinands, and can be extremely high. Within-sample heterogeneity, whose mean contribution to total sample variability ranged between 62% and 100%, was significantly higher in samples taken from rivers compared with those from lakes, and was shown to be reduced by filtration. Our results show clearly that neither a single sample, nor even two sub-samples from that sample is adequate for the reliable, and statistically robust, detection of changes in the quality of surface waters. We recommend strongly that, in situations where it is practicable to take only a single sample from a waterbody, a minimum of three sub-samples are analysed from that sample for robust quantification of both the concentrations of determinands and total sample variability. PMID:17706740

  2. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  3. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment. PMID:26068436

  4. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  5. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  6. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  7. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  8. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  10. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  11. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  12. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  13. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  14. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  15. 34 CFR 200.20 - Making adequate yearly progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making adequate yearly progress. 200.20 Section 200.20... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.20 Making... State data system; (vi) Include, as separate factors in determining whether schools are making AYP for...

  16. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  18. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  19. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  20. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  1. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  2. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  3. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  4. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  9. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Capitalizing An Sbic § 107.200 Adequate capital...

  10. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  11. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  12. 7 CFR 4290.200 - Adequate capital for RBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for RBICs. 4290.200 Section 4290.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Capitalizing A Rbic § 4290.200 Adequate capital for RBICs. You must meet...

  13. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  14. Increasing reliability of gas-air systems of piston and combined internal combustion engines by improving thermal and mechanic flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodov, Yu. M.; Grigor'ev, N. I.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Plotnikov, L. V.; Shestakov, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Results of experimental study of thermal and mechanical characteristics of gas exchange flow in piston and combined engines are presented. Ways for improving intake and exhaust processes to increase reliability of gas-air engine systems are proposed.

  15. [Validity and reliability of a scale to assess self-efficacy for physical activity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Borges, Rossana Arruda; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Meurer, Simone Teresinha; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the confirmatory factor validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in a sample of 118 elderly (78% women) from 60 to 90 years of age. Mplus 6.1 was used to evaluate the confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and temporal stability. The original scale consisted of five items with dichotomous answers (yes/no), independently for walking and moderate and vigorous physical activity. The analysis excluded the item related to confidence in performing physical activities when on vacation. Two constructs were identified, called "self-efficacy for walking" and "self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous physical activity", with a factor load ≥ 0.50. Internal consistency was adequate both for walking (> 0.70) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (> 0.80), and temporal stability was adequate for all the items. In conclusion, the self-efficacy scale for physical activity showed adequate validity, reliability, and internal consistency for evaluating this construct in elderly Brazilians.

  16. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  17. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy P.; Harris, Pamela J.; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Cox, Meredith; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    We report findings of an exploratory validation study of a revised instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE). The SRSS-IE was modified to include seven additional items reflecting characteristics of internalizing behaviors, with proposed items generated from the current literature base, review of…

  18. An Independent Assessment of the Internal Reliability of the "Bilston and Ettingshall Sure Start (BESS) Speech and Language Therapy Two Year Developmental Check"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Patel, Reena; Sallah, David K.

    2009-01-01

    Speech and language difficulties in British pre-school children from disadvantaged backgrounds have become increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Consequently, there has been a growing demand for a British standardised speech and language screening tool that is reliable and valid. In 2000, to fulfil the need of an appropriate tool that could…

  19. Reliability and validity of television food advertising questionnaire in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zalma, Abdul Razak; Safiah, Md Yusof; Ajau, Danis; Khairil Anuar, Md Isa

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40*, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95**, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren.

  20. Reliability and validity of television food advertising questionnaire in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zalma, Abdul Razak; Safiah, Md Yusof; Ajau, Danis; Khairil Anuar, Md Isa

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40*, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95**, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren. PMID:24150531

  1. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale: Assessment of Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Kekecs, Zoltán; Bowers, Juliette; Johnson, Alisa; Kendrick, Cassie; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Measuring hypnotizability is an integral part of hypnosis research and is also relevant for predicting effectiveness of hypnosis-based therapies. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) was designed to meet the needs of modern hypnosis research and clinical practice. Reliability, validity, and normative data were explored by subjecting 230 participants to the EHS and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C). The EHS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (α = .78), its items showed good discriminating ability, and scores of the two scales were highly correlated (ρ = .86). Results indicate that the EHS is a reliable and valid tool to assess hypnotizability. Further research is needed to establish its role as a surrogate for the SHSS:C. PMID:27267674

  2. Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    RELAV, a NASA-developed computer program, enables Systems Control Technology, Inc. (SCT) to predict performance of aircraft subsystems. RELAV provides a system level evaluation of a technology. Systems, the mechanism of a landing gear for example, are first described as a set of components performing a specific function. RELAV analyzes the total system and the individual subsystem probabilities to predict success probability, and reliability. This information is then translated into operational support and maintenance requirements. SCT provides research and development services in support of government contracts.

  3. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Carter, Erik W.; Lambert, Warren E.; Jenkins, Abbie B.

    2013-01-01

    We reported findings of an exploratory validation study of a revised universal screening instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale--Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) for use with middle school students. Tested initially for use with elementary-age students, the SRSS-IE was adapted to include seven additional items reflecting…

  4. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation Rates.…

  5. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  6. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  7. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  8. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  9. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate exploration plan. 970.404...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of...

  10. Adequate Schools and Inadequate Education: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    To illustrate his claim that schools generally do a remarkably good job of schooling while the society makes inadequate use of other means to educate young people, the author presents a case history of a young American (identified pseudonymously as "Brad") whose schooling was adequate but whose education was not. Brad, jobless and homeless,…

  11. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan,...

  12. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  13. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  14. New PCR-based open reading frame typing method for easy, rapid, and reliable identification of Acinetobacter baumannii international epidemic clones without performing multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Hosoba, Eriko; Matsui, Mari; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance issues have become a global health concern. The rapid identification of multidrug-resistant microbes, which depends on microbial genomic information, is essential for overcoming growing antimicrobial resistance challenges. However, genotyping methods, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), for identifying international epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii are not easily performed as routine tests in ordinary clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel genotyping method that can be performed in ordinary microbiology laboratories. Several open reading frames (ORFs) specific to certain bacterial genetic lineages or species, together with their unique distribution patterns on the chromosomes showing a good correlation with the results of MLST, were selected in A. baumannii and other Acinetobacter spp. by comparing their genomic data. The distribution patterns of the ORFs were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis after multiplex PCR amplification and digitized. A. baumannii sequence types (STs) corresponding to international clones I and II were successfully discriminated from other STs and Acinetobacter species by detecting the distribution patterns of their ORFs using the multiplex PCR developed here. Since bacterial STs can be easily expressed as digitized numeric data with plus (+) expressed as 1 and minus (-) expressed as 0, the results of the method can be easily compared with those obtained by different tests or laboratories. This PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method can easily and rapidly identify international epidemic clones of A. baumannii and differentiate this microbe from other Acinetobacter spp. Since this POT method is easy enough to be performed even in ordinary clinical laboratories, it would also contribute to daily infection control measures and surveillance.

  15. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  16. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    PubMed

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed.

  17. Commingled Samples: A Neglected Source of Bias in Reliability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Reliability is a property of test scores from individuals who have been sampled from a well-defined population. Reliability indices, such as coefficient and related formulas for internal consistency reliability (KR-20, Hoyt's reliability), yield lower bound reliability estimates when (a) subjects have been sampled from a single population and when…

  18. (Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CRDO))

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J

    1987-04-21

    One of the primary goals of the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is to be an international focal point for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) data. During FY-1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Specific Memorandum of Agreement (SMA) with Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) regarding cooperative data exchange efforts. This agreement was CREDO's first step toward internationalization and represented an initial realization of the previously mentioned goal. DOE's interest in further internationalization of the CREDO system was the primary motivation for the traveler's attendance at the Reliability '87 conference.

  19. One-year test-retest reliability of a Japanese web-based version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for major depression in a working population.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Haruki; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the one-year test-retest reliability and the demographic correlates of a self-administered web-based depression section of the World Health Organization-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) in a working population. Overall, 1060 out of all employees (N = 1279) from a manufacturing company in Japan responded to two web-based surveys of depression of the WHO-CIDI within a one-year interval in 2009 and 2010. The concordance between lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder on two occasions was calculated as percent agreement (%), Gwet's AC1 , and Yule's Q indicators were compared by gender, age, education, and marital status. For the total sample, percent agreement was 94%, AC1 was 0.93, and Yule's Q was 0.82. The concordance rate was low (0.15) among those who were diagnosed at either time or both times. The concordance differed significantly across education and marital status. While the agreement indicators were relatively high, consistent with previous reports based on face-to-face interviews conducted within a shorter interval, the low stability of positive cases may challenge the accuracy of lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder using a web version of the WHO-CIDI. Education and marital status might affect the test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24677699

  20. Osteoarthritis Classification Scales: Interobserver Reliability and Arthroscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rick W.; Ross, James R.; Haas, Amanda K.; Huston, Laura J.; Garofoli, Elizabeth A.; Harris, David; Patel, Kushal; Pearson, David; Schutzman, Jake; Tarabichi, Majd; Ying, David; Albright, John P.; Allen, Christina R.; Amendola, Annunziato; Anderson, Allen F.; Andrish, Jack T.; Annunziata, Christopher C.; Arciero, Robert A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Baker, Champ L.; Bartolozzi, Arthur R.; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bechler, Jeffery R.; Berg, Jeffrey H.; Bernas, Geoffrey A.; Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Brophy, Robert H.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Butler V, J. Brad; Campbell, John D.; Carpenter, James E.; Cole, Brian J.; Cooper, Daniel E.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Cox, Charles L.; Creighton, R. Alexander; Dahm, Diane L.; David, Tal S.; DeBerardino, Thomas M.; Dunn, Warren R.; Flanigan, David C.; Frederick, Robert W.; Ganley, Theodore J.; Gatt, Charles J.; Gecha, Steven R.; Giffin, James Robert; Hame, Sharon L.; Hannafin, Jo A.; Harner, Christopher D.; Harris, Norman Lindsay; Hechtman, Keith S.; Hershman, Elliott B.; Hoellrich, Rudolf G.; Hosea, Timothy M.; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Kamath, Ganesh V.; Klootwyk, Thomas E.; Lantz, Brett A.; Levy, Bruce A.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Maiers, G. Peter; Mann, Barton; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; Mathien, Gregory M.; McAllister, David R.; McCarty, Eric C.; McCormack, Robert G.; Miller, Bruce S.; Nissen, Carl W.; O’Neill, Daniel F.; Owens, LTC Brett D.; Parker, Richard D.; Purnell, Mark L.; Ramappa, Arun J.; Rauh, Michael A.; Rettig, Arthur; Sekiya, Jon K.; Shea, Kevin G.; Sherman, Orrin H.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spang, Jeffrey T.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Stuart, Michael J.; Svoboda, LTC Steven J.; Taft, Timothy N.; Tenuta, COL Joachim J.; Tingstad, Edwin M.; Vidal, Armando F.; Viskontas, Darius G.; White, Richard A.; Williams, James S.; Wolcott, Michelle L.; Wolf, Brian R.; York, James J.; Carey, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is commonly diagnosed and monitored with radiography. However, the reliability of radiographic classification systems for osteoarthritis and the correlation of these classifications with the actual degree of confirmed degeneration of the articular cartilage of the tibiofemoral joint have not been adequately studied. Methods: As the Multicenter ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Revision Study (MARS) Group, we conducted a multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing revision surgery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We followed 632 patients who underwent radiographic evaluation of the knee (an anteroposterior weight-bearing radiograph, a posteroanterior weight-bearing radiograph made with the knee in 45° of flexion [Rosenberg radiograph], or both) and arthroscopic evaluation of the articular surfaces. Three blinded examiners independently graded radiographic findings according to six commonly used systems—the Kellgren-Lawrence, International Knee Documentation Committee, Fairbank, Brandt et al., Ahlbäck, and Jäger-Wirth classifications. Interobserver reliability was assessed with use of the intraclass correlation coefficient. The association between radiographic classification and arthroscopic findings of tibiofemoral chondral disease was assessed with use of the Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: Overall, 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had higher interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.65) compared with anteroposterior radiographs (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.56). Similarly, the 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had higher correlation with arthroscopic findings of chondral disease (Spearman rho = 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.39) compared with anteroposterior radiographs (Spearman rho = 0.29; 95

  1. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Proulx, W R; Heaney, R

    1999-09-01

    To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.

  2. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects. PMID:15016248

  3. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  4. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  5. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  6. International Lead Zinc Research Organization-sponsored field-data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. A.; Moseley, P. T.; Butler, P. C.

    The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project with the following aims: to characterize relationships between valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; to establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; to identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; to identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; to recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. In the first phase of this project, ILZRO has contracted with Energetics to identify and survey manufacturers and users of VRLA batteries for stationary applications (including electric utilities, telecommunications companies, and government facilities). The confidential survey is collecting the service conditions of specific applications and performance records for specific VRLA technologies. From the data collected, Energetics is constructing a database of the service histories and analyzing the data to determine trends in performance for particular technologies in specific service conditions. ILZRO plans to make the final report of the analysis and a version of the database (that contains no proprietary information) available to ILZRO members, participants in the survey, and participants in a follow-on workshop for stakeholders in VRLA reliability. This paper presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users, discusses the analytic approach, presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that have emerged in the early analysis of the data, and previews the functionality of the database being constructed.

  7. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed.

  8. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. PMID:25622226

  9. Are women with psychosis receiving adequate cervical cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Devon; Polsky, Jane; Lofters, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the rates of cervical cancer screening among female patients with psychosis compared with similar patients without psychosis, as an indicator of the quality of primary preventive health care. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study using medical records between November 1, 2004, and November 1, 2007. SETTING Two urban family medicine clinics associated with an academic hospital in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of female patients with and without psychosis between the ages of 20 and 69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of Papanicolaou tests in a 3-year period. RESULTS Charts for 51 female patients with psychosis and 118 female patients without psychosis were reviewed. Of those women with psychosis, 62.7% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 19.6% with bipolar disorder, 17.6% with schizoaffective disorder, and 29.4% with other psychotic disorders. Women in both groups were similar in age, rate of comorbidities, and number of full physical examinations. Women with psychosis were significantly more likely to smoke (P < .0001), to have more primary care appointments (P = .035), and to miss appointments (P = .0002) than women without psychosis. After adjustment for age, other psychiatric illnesses, number of physical examinations, number of missed appointments, and having a gynecologist, women with psychosis were significantly less likely to have had a Pap test in the previous 3 years compared with women without psychosis (47.1% vs 73.7%, respectively; odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.58). CONCLUSION Women with psychosis are more than 5 times less likely to receive adequate Pap screening compared with the general population despite their increased rates of smoking and increased number of primary care visits. PMID:20393098

  10. Relating design and environmental variables to reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolarik, William J.; Landers, Thomas L.

    The combination of space application and nuclear power source demands high reliability hardware. The possibilities of failure, either an inability to provide power or a catastrophic accident, must be minimized. Nuclear power experiences on the ground have led to highly sophisticated probabilistic risk assessment procedures, most of which require quantitative information to adequately assess such risks. In the area of hardware risk analysis, reliability information plays a key role. One of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island experience is that thorough analyses of critical components are essential. Nuclear grade equipment shows some reliability advantages over commercial. However, no statistically significant difference has been found. A recent study pertaining to spacecraft electronics reliability, examined some 2500 malfunctions on more than 300 aircraft. The study classified the equipment failures into seven general categories. Design deficiencies and lack of environmental protection accounted for about half of all failures. Within each class, limited reliability modeling was performed using a Weibull failure model.

  11. Reliability model generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

  12. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  13. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  14. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  15. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) for Research; Obtaining Adequate Sample Yield

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrea M.; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G.; Wright, Angela D.; Wright, Adam K. A.; Fullerton, Duncan G.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques. PMID:24686157

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for research; obtaining adequate sample yield.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrea M; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G; Wright, Angela D; Wright, Adam K A; Fullerton, Duncan G; Gordon, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques.

  17. [Validity and reliability of the work ability index (WAI) in nurses' work].

    PubMed

    Silva Junior, Sérgio Henrique Almeida da; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2011-06-01

    This article assesses the validity and reliability of the work ability index (WAI) for 1,436 nurses in three public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study estimated the dimensional validity by means of exploratory factor analysis, as well as correlational validity, relating WAI to theoretically relevant constructs. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency analysis, using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Factor analysis indicated a two-dimensional structure explaining 52.8% of the accumulated variance for the principal components and 42% for the principal axes. The theoretical hypotheses for the construct's validity were confirmed, with direct and significant correlation between the WAI and the reward, control, and self-rated health scores; an inverse and significant correlation with the scale on need for recovery after work, minor psychological disorders, effort, over-commitment, and demand. In conclusion, the WAI showed adequate psychometric properties. PMID:21710005

  18. Measuring the Reliability of Picture Story Exercises like the TAT

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Nicole; Kreuzpointner, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    As frequently reported, psychometric assessments on Picture Story Exercises, especially variations of the Thematic Apperception Test, mostly reveal inadequate scores for internal consistency. We demonstrate that the reason for this apparent shortcoming is not caused by the coding system itself but from the incorrect use of internal consistency coefficients, especially Cronbach’s α. This problem could be eliminated by using the category-scores as items instead of the picture-scores. In addition to a theoretical explanation we prove mathematically why the use of category-scores produces an adequate internal consistency estimation and examine our idea empirically with the origin data set of the Thematic Apperception Test by Heckhausen and two additional data sets. We found generally higher values when using the category-scores as items instead of picture-scores. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, the estimated reliability is also superior to each category within a picture as item measuring. When comparing our suggestion with a multifaceted Rasch-model we provide evidence that our procedure better fits the underlying principles of PSE. PMID:24348902

  19. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  20. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  1. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings. PMID:27390401

  2. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings. PMID:27390401

  3. HELIOS Critical Design Review: Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoehr, H. C.; Herholz, J.; Prem, H.; Mann, D.; Reichert, L.; Rupp, W.; Campbell, D.; Boettger, H.; Zerwes, G.; Kurvin, C.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents Helios Critical Design Review Reliability form October 16-20, 1972. The topics include: 1) Reliability Requirement; 2) Reliability Apportionment; 3) Failure Rates; 4) Reliability Assessment; 5) Reliability Block Diagram; and 5) Reliability Information Sheet.

  4. Business of reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  5. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  6. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  7. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  8. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  9. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  10. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  11. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... Preserve Snowmachine (snowmobile) Operations § 13.960 Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? The superintendent will determine when snow cover is adequate for snowmachine use. The superintendent will follow...

  12. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  13. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  14. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care. PMID:17288503

  15. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  16. Reliability in aposematic signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In light of recent work, we will expand on the role and variability of aposematic signals. The focus of this review will be the concepts of reliability and honesty in aposematic signaling. We claim that reliable signaling can solve the problem of aposematic evolution, and that variability in reliability can shed light on the complexity of aposematic systems. PMID:20539774

  17. Viking Lander reliability program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilny, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Viking Lander reliability program is reviewed with attention given to the development of the reliability program requirements, reliability program management, documents evaluation, failure modes evaluation, production variation control, failure reporting and correction, and the parts program. Lander hardware failures which have occurred during the mission are listed.

  18. Reliability as Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Reliability consists of both important social and scientific values and methods for evidencing those values, though in practice methods are often conflated with the values. With the two distinctly understood, a reliability argument can be made that articulates the particular reliability values most relevant to the particular measurement situation…

  19. Reliability model generator specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Mccann, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The Reliability Model Generator (RMG), a program which produces reliability models from block diagrams for ASSIST, the interface for the reliability evaluation tool SURE is described. An account is given of motivation for RMG and the implemented algorithms are discussed. The appendices contain the algorithms and two detailed traces of examples.

  20. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Malay Version of the Perceived Stress Scale among Malaysian Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Sulaiman, Nik Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) is a validated and reliable instrument to measure global levels of perceived stress. This study aims to assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the Malay version of the PSS-10 for use among medical students. Methods: The original English version of the PSS-10 was translated and back-translated into Malay language. The Malay version was distributed to 242 Bachelor of Medical Science students in a private university in Malaysia. Test–retest reliability was assessed in 70 students. An exploratory principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Reliability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: All 242 students participated in the initial questionnaire study (validity and factor structure), and 70 students participated in the test–retest reliability of the study. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors that accounted for 57.8% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the 2 factors were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. The reliability test showed an ICC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.89). Conclusion: The Malay version of the PSS-10 showed adequate psychometric properties. It is a useful instrument for measuring stress among medical students in Malaysia. PMID:23785249

  1. Are population pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic models adequately evaluated? A survey of the literature from 2002 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Karl; Dartois, Céline; Comets, Emmanuelle; Lemenuel-Diot, Annabelle; Laveille, Christian; Tranchand, Brigitte; Girard, Pascal; Laffont, Céline M.; Mentré, France

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Model evaluation is an important issue in population analyses. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all population PK and/or PD analyses published between 2002 and 2004 to survey the current methods used to evaluate a model and to assess whether those models were adequately evaluated. Methods We selected 324 papers in MEDLINE using defined keywords and built a data abstraction form (DAF) composed of a checklist of items to extract the relevant information from these articles with respect to model evaluation. In the DAF, evaluation methods were divided into 3 subsections: basic internal methods (goodness-of-fit plots [GOF], uncertainty in parameter estimates and model sensitivity), advanced internal methods (data splitting, resampling techniques and Monte Carlo simulations) and external model evaluation. Results Basic internal evaluation was the most frequently described method in the reports: 65% of the models involved GOF evaluation. Standard errors or confidence intervals were reported for 50% of fixed effects but only 22% of random effects. Advanced internal methods were used in approximately 25% of models: data splitting was more often used than bootstrap and cross-validation; simulations were used in 6% of models to evaluate models by visual predictive check or by posterior predictive check. External evaluation was performed in only 7% of models. Conclusions Using the subjective synthesis of model evaluation for each paper, we judged models to be adequately evaluated in 28% of PK models and 26% of PD models. Basic internal evaluation was preferred to more advanced methods, probably because the former are performed easily with most software. We also noticed that when the aim of modelling was predictive, advanced internal methods or more stringent methods were more often used. PMID:17328581

  2. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)

  3. Validity and reliability of clinical tests for assessing hip passive stiffness.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Viviane Otoni do Carmo; de Araújo, Vanessa Lara; Souza, Thales Rezende; Gonçalves, Gabriela Gomes Pavan; Ocarino, Juliana de Melo; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Inadequate levels of hip passive joint stiffness have been associated with the occurrence of movement dysfunction, development of pathologies and reduction in performance. Clinical tests, designed to evaluate hip joint stiffness, may allow the identification of improper stiffness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity as well as the intra- and inter-examiners reliabilities of clinical measures used to assess hip passive stiffness during internal rotation. Fifteen healthy participants were subjected to test-retest evaluations by two examiners. Two clinical measures were performed: 'position of first detectable resistance' and 'change in passive resistance torque'. The results of these tests were compared to the passive stiffness measured with an isokinetic dynamometer (gold standard measure). A significant correlation was found between the stiffness measured with the isokinetic dynamometer and the clinical measures of 'position of first detectable resistance' (r=-0.85 to -0.86, p<0.001) and 'change in passive resistance torque' (r=0.78 to 0.84, p≤0.001). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for intra- and inter-examiners reliabilities varied from 0.95 to 0.99. Thus, the results demonstrated that the clinical measures have adequate validity and reliability for obtaining information on hip passive stiffness during internal rotation. PMID:21212014

  4. Reliability and validity of the Danish version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI).

    PubMed

    Reiss, Neele; Krampen, Dorothea; Christoffersen, Peter; Bach, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Schema modes are conceptualized as different parts of oneself, related to specific emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. They are a central concept in schema therapy for personality pathology and other chronic psychiatric disorders. Prior research confirms the factorial validity of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI), an instrument to assess schema modes. This study presents an evaluation of the Danish version of the SMI, including reliability and validity analyses. Psychometric properties, such as factor structure, internal reliability, as well as intercorrelations between subscales were assessed. This was done on the basis of a mixed Danish sample (N = 657; M age = 29.32 years; range = 18-66 years; 78.5% females) composed of 266 clinical and 391 nonclinical adult participants. Results indicated model fit for the 14-factor structure of the SMI and adequate to excellent internal reliabilities of the 14 subscales (Cronbach's α =.74-.96). Furthermore, the SMI scales differentiated between clinical and nonclinical participants as theoretically predicted. These findings imply that the SMI is a sound instrument to measure the schema mode model in a Danish setting, both for clinical and research purposes, and in particular for assessment prior to schema therapy.

  5. On the reliability of microvariability tests in quasars

    SciTech Connect

    De Diego, José A.

    2014-11-01

    Microvariations probe the physics and internal structure of quasars. Unpredictability and small flux variations make this phenomenon elusive and difficult to detect. Variance-based probes such as the C and F tests, or a combination of both, are popular methods to compare the light curves of the quasar and a comparison star. Recently, detection claims in some studies have depended on the agreement of the results of the C and F tests, or of two instances of the F-test, for rejecting the non-variation null hypothesis. However, the C-test is a non-reliable statistical procedure, the F-test is not robust, and the combination of tests with concurrent results is anything but a straightforward methodology. A priori power analysis calculations and post hoc analysis of Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement for the analysis of variance test to detect microvariations as well as the limitations of the F-test. Additionally, the combined tests yield correlated probabilities that make the assessment of statistical significance unworkable. However, it is possible to include data from several field stars to enhance the power in a single F-test, increasing the reliability of the statistical analysis. This would be the preferred methodology when several comparison stars are available. An example using two stars and the enhanced F-test is presented. These results show the importance of using adequate methodologies and avoiding inappropriate procedures that can jeopardize microvariability detections. Power analysis and Monte Carlo simulations are useful tools for research planning, as they can demonstrate the robustness and reliability of different research approaches.

  6. The Validity and reliability of the Comprehensive Home Environment Survey (CHES).

    PubMed

    Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L; Hart, Michael H; Serrano, Elena L; McFerren, Mary M; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Few comprehensive measures exist to assess contributors to childhood obesity within the home, specifically among low-income populations. The current study describes the modification and psychometric testing of the Comprehensive Home Environment Survey (CHES), an inclusive measure of the home food, physical activity, and media environment related to childhood obesity. The items were tested for content relevance by an expert panel and piloted in the priority population. The CHES was administered to low-income parents of children 5 to 17 years (N = 150), including a subsample of parents a second time and additional caregivers to establish test-retest and interrater reliabilities. Children older than 9 years (n = 95), as well as parents (N = 150) completed concurrent assessments of diet and physical activity behaviors (predictive validity). Analyses and item trimming resulted in 18 subscales and a total score, which displayed adequate internal consistency (α = .74-.92) and high test-retest reliability (r ≥ .73, ps < .01) and interrater reliability (r ≥ .42, ps < .01). The CHES score and a validated screener for the home environment were correlated (r = .37, p < .01; concurrent validity). CHES subscales were significantly correlated with behavioral measures (r = -.20-.55, p < .05; predictive validity). The CHES shows promise as a valid/reliable assessment of the home environment related to childhood obesity, including healthy diet and physical activity.

  7. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  8. Human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach.

  9. Reliability of fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  10. Operational safety reliability research

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant.

  11. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  12. Fifteen-Minute Comprehensive Alcohol Risk Survey: Reliability and Validity Across American Indian and White Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Bethany J; Garrett, Brady A; Molina, Mildred Maldonado; Boyd, Misty L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American Indians (AIs) suffer from significant alcohol-related health disparities, and increased risk begins early. This study examined the reliability and validity of measures to be used in a preventive intervention trial. Reliability and validity across racial/ethnic subgroups are crucial to evaluate intervention effectiveness and promote culturally appropriate evidence-based practice. Method: To assess reliability and validity, we used three baseline surveys of high school students participating in a preventive intervention trial within the jurisdictional service area of the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. The 15-minute alcohol risk survey included 16 multi-item scales and one composite score measuring key proximal, primary, and moderating variables. Forty-four percent of the students indicated that they were AI (of whom 82% were Cherokee), including 23% who reported being AI only (n = 435) and 18% both AI and White (n = 352). Forty-seven percent reported being White only (n = 901). Results: Scales were adequately reliable for the full sample and across race/ethnicity defined by AI, AI/White, and White subgroups. Among the full sample, all scales had acceptable internal consistency, with minor variation across race/ethnicity. All scales had extensive to exemplary test–retest reliability and showed minimal variation across race/ethnicity. The eight proximal and two primary outcome scales were each significantly associated with the frequency of alcohol use during the past month in both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal models, providing support for both criterion validity and predictive validity. For most scales, interpretation of the strength of association and statistical significance did not differ between the racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: The results support the reliability and validity of scales of a brief questionnaire measuring risk and protective factors for alcohol use among AI adolescents, primarily members of the

  13. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  14. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky's State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional--"all of its parts and parcels". The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including:…

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  18. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  19. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  20. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate...

  1. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  2. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  3. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated by another Federal agency. 152.20 Section 152.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides... has determined, in accordance with FIFRA sec. 25(b)(1), that they are adequately regulated by...

  4. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  5. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  6. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  7. Estimating and comparing the reliability of a suite of workplace-based assessments: an obstetrics and gynaecology setting.

    PubMed

    Homer, Matt; Setna, Zeryab; Jha, Vikram; Higham, Jenny; Roberts, Trudie; Boursicot, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on a study that compares estimates of the reliability of a suite of workplace based assessment forms as employed to formatively assess the progress of trainee obstetricians and gynaecologists. The use of such forms of assessment is growing nationally and internationally in many specialties, but there is little research evidence on comparisons by procedure/competency and form-type across an entire specialty. Generalisability theory combined with a multilevel modelling approach is used to estimate variance components, G-coefficients and standard errors of measurement across 13 procedures and three form-types (mini-CEX, OSATS and CbD). The main finding is that there are wide variations in the estimates of reliability across the forms, and that therefore the guidance on assessment within the specialty does not always allow for enough forms per trainee to ensure that the levels of reliability of the process is adequate. There is, however, little evidence that reliability varies systematically by form-type. Methodologically, the problems of accurately estimating reliability in these contexts through the calculation of variance components and, crucially, their associated standard errors are considered. The importance of the use of appropriate methods in such calculations is emphasised, and the unavoidable limitations of research in naturalistic settings are discussed.

  8. Bayesian methods in reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  9. Using standard nomenclature to adequately name transgenes, knockout gene alleles and any mutation associated to a genetically modified mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Lluís; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2011-04-01

    Mice provide an unlimited source of animal models to study mammalian gene function and human diseases. The powerful genetic modification toolbox existing for the mouse genome enables the creation of, literally, thousands of genetically modified mouse strains, carrying spontaneous or induced mutations, transgenes or knock-out/knock-in alleles which, in addition, can exist in hundreds of different genetic backgrounds. Such an immense diversity of individuals needs to be adequately annotated, to ensure that the most relevant information is kept associated with the name of each mouse line, and hence, the scientific community can correctly interpret and benefit from the reported animal model. Therefore, rules and guidelines for correctly naming genes, alleles and mouse strains are required. The Mouse Genome Informatics Database is the authoritative source of official names for mouse genes, alleles, and strains. Nomenclature follows the rules and guidelines established by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. Herewith, both from the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT) and from the scientific journal Transgenic Research, we would like to encourage all our colleagues to adhere and follow adequately the standard nomenclature rules when describing mouse models. The entire scientific community using genetically modified mice in experiments will benefit.

  10. The Internal Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  11. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  12. Thinking Clearly about Reliability: More Critical Corrections Regarding the Rorschach Comprehensive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Replies to Wood et al. and documents limitations of their conclusions about the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS), supporting Meyer's own meta-analysis, which finds adequate interrater reliability for the CS. (SLD)

  13. Validity and Reliability of a Scale Assessing Attitudes toward Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In a study involving 50 undergraduate and graduate education students the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale was found to have a large first factor with adequate reliability. There was a low correlation between knowledge and ATMS scores, although knowledge was more strongly related to classroom acceptance of exceptional students. (CL)

  14. 75 FR 16913 - Transmission Relay Loadability Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...\\ Transmission Relay Loadability Reliability Standard, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 74 FR 35830 (Jul. 21, 2009... adequately address the Commission's underlying concern or goal as efficiently and effectively as the... meet this goal, the Commission stated that the process for identifying critical 100 kV-200...

  15. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  16. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  17. The Need for Domestic Violence Laws with Adequate Legal and Social Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmons, Willa M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for comprehensive domestic violence programs that include medical, legal, economic, psychological, and child care services. Although most states have family violence legislation, more work is needed to adequately implement these programs. (Author/JAC)

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2016-07-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3) is a recently published revision of a visual perceptual test from the United States, frequently used by occupational therapists. It is important that tests have adequate documented reliability and validity and are evaluated in cross-cultural contexts. The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the DTVP-3 when completed by a group of Australian participants. Thirty-nine typically developing children 6-8 years of age completed the DTVP-3 and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - 6th edition (VMI-6). The internal consistency of the DVTP-3 was assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficients and the DTVP-3's convergent validity was examined by correlating it with the VMI-6 and its two supplementary tests. The five DTVP-3 subscales' Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.60 to.80 while its three composite indexes had coefficients all at the.80 level. The VMI-6 was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground and Visual Closure subscales and the Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index (MRVPI). The VMI-6 Visual Perception Supplementary Test was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground, Visual Closure, Form Constancy, MRVPI, and General Visual Perception Index. The DTVP-3 exhibited acceptable levels of internal consistency and moderate levels of convergent validity with the VMI-6 when completed by a group of Australian children.

  19. Validity and Reliability of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3).

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2016-07-01

    The Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Third Edition (DTVP-3) is a recently published revision of a visual perceptual test from the United States, frequently used by occupational therapists. It is important that tests have adequate documented reliability and validity and are evaluated in cross-cultural contexts. The purpose of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the DTVP-3 when completed by a group of Australian participants. Thirty-nine typically developing children 6-8 years of age completed the DTVP-3 and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - 6th edition (VMI-6). The internal consistency of the DVTP-3 was assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficients and the DTVP-3's convergent validity was examined by correlating it with the VMI-6 and its two supplementary tests. The five DTVP-3 subscales' Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.60 to.80 while its three composite indexes had coefficients all at the.80 level. The VMI-6 was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground and Visual Closure subscales and the Motor-Reduced Visual Perception Index (MRVPI). The VMI-6 Visual Perception Supplementary Test was significantly correlated with the DTVP-3 Figure Ground, Visual Closure, Form Constancy, MRVPI, and General Visual Perception Index. The DTVP-3 exhibited acceptable levels of internal consistency and moderate levels of convergent validity with the VMI-6 when completed by a group of Australian children. PMID:26913939

  20. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  1. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    to support activities to develop and share information among industry and regulatory participants about critical resources and practices. The toolkit has been developed by investigating the status of indices and definitions, surveying utility organizations on information sharing, and preparing summaries of reliability standards and monitoring requirements--the issues, needs, work under way, existing standards, practices and guidelines--for the following three classifications: (1) terms and definitions of reliability; (2) power quality standards, guidelines, and measurements; and (3) activities and organizations developing and sharing information on distribution reliability. As these synopses of reliability measurement practices are provided, it must be noted that an economic penalty may be associated with requiring too high a reliability level from the distribution system for all customers. It may be appropriate for the distribution system to supply only some base, generally accepted level of reliability. This base level would be adequate for the majority of customers. Users who need a higher level may find it economical to supply using distributed energy resources (DER) and other local solutions to reliability and power quality needs. Local solutions implemented by the customer may be the most cost-effective method for addressing the more stringent needs of a digital economy. These local solutions include energy storage, small distributed generators, and microgrids. This report also considers the market's role in addressing reliability issues and requirements. The customer's needs are discussed in view of issues such as power quality requirements of digital electronic equipment, the cost of outages, the cost of storage and new infrastructure, and natural gas prices. The market role in addressing these issues and requirements is explored. The economic considerations associated with the reliability issues are discussed, as well as the levels at which these economic

  2. Revised dyadic adjustment scale as a reliable tool for assessment of quality of marital relationship in patients on long-term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Tavallaii, Seyed Abbas

    2009-10-01

    Although the revised dyadic adjustment scale (RDAS) has been widely used as an indicator of the quality of marital relationship, no report is available on the reliability of this measure in patients on hemodialysis. We examined the internal consistency of the RDAS in a group of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. A translated Persian version of the RDAS was self-administered to 135 patients. The internal consistency of the RDAS was tested using the Chronbach alpha coefficient which was 0.898, 0.683, 0.779, 0.827, and 0.836 for the RDAS total score and the dyadic consensus, affective expression, dyadic satisfaction, and dyadic cohesion subdomains, respectively. All of the Chronbach alpha scores were higher in patients with higher income and education level. Using the RDAS to examine marital relationship quality in patients on hemodialysis, the total score and almost all subscores except for dyadic consensus had adequate internal consistency.

  3. Statistical modelling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    During the six-month period from 1 April 1991 to 30 September 1991 the following research papers in statistical modeling of software reliability appeared: (1) A Nonparametric Software Reliability Growth Model; (2) On the Use and the Performance of Software Reliability Growth Models; (3) Research and Development Issues in Software Reliability Engineering; (4) Special Issues on Software; and (5) Software Reliability and Safety.

  4. Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, D. Phillip

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.

  5. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  6. Proposed reliability cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  7. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in older persons – from pathophysiology to adequate intervention: a review and summary of an international expert meeting

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Rainer; Dziewas, Rainer; Beck, Anne Marie; Clavé, Pere; Hamdy, Shaheen; Heppner, Hans Juergen; Langmore, Susan; Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Martino, Rosemary; Pluschinski, Petra; Rösler, Alexander; Shaker, Reza; Warnecke, Tobias; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Volkert, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a highly prevalent and growing condition in the older population. Although OD may cause very severe complications, it is often not detected, explored, and treated. Older patients are frequently unaware of their swallowing dysfunction which is one of the reasons why the consequences of OD, ie, aspiration, dehydration, and malnutrition, are regularly not attributed to dysphagia. Older patients are particularly vulnerable to dysphagia because multiple age-related changes increase the risk of dysphagia. Physicians in charge of older patients should be aware that malnutrition, dehydration, and pneumonia are frequently caused by (unrecognized) dysphagia. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in the case of silent aspiration. In addition to numerous screening tools, videofluoroscopy was the traditional gold standard of diagnosing OD. Recently, the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is increasingly utilized because it has several advantages. Besides making a diagnosis, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is applied to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic maneuvers and texture modification of food and liquids. In addition to swallowing training and nutritional interventions, newer rehabilitation approaches of stimulation techniques are showing promise and may significantly impact future treatment strategies. PMID:26966356

  8. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in older persons - from pathophysiology to adequate intervention: a review and summary of an international expert meeting.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Rainer; Dziewas, Rainer; Beck, Anne Marie; Clavé, Pere; Hamdy, Shaheen; Heppner, Hans Juergen; Langmore, Susan; Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Martino, Rosemary; Pluschinski, Petra; Rösler, Alexander; Shaker, Reza; Warnecke, Tobias; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Volkert, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a highly prevalent and growing condition in the older population. Although OD may cause very severe complications, it is often not detected, explored, and treated. Older patients are frequently unaware of their swallowing dysfunction which is one of the reasons why the consequences of OD, ie, aspiration, dehydration, and malnutrition, are regularly not attributed to dysphagia. Older patients are particularly vulnerable to dysphagia because multiple age-related changes increase the risk of dysphagia. Physicians in charge of older patients should be aware that malnutrition, dehydration, and pneumonia are frequently caused by (unrecognized) dysphagia. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in the case of silent aspiration. In addition to numerous screening tools, videofluoroscopy was the traditional gold standard of diagnosing OD. Recently, the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is increasingly utilized because it has several advantages. Besides making a diagnosis, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is applied to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic maneuvers and texture modification of food and liquids. In addition to swallowing training and nutritional interventions, newer rehabilitation approaches of stimulation techniques are showing promise and may significantly impact future treatment strategies. PMID:26966356

  9. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in older persons - from pathophysiology to adequate intervention: a review and summary of an international expert meeting.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Rainer; Dziewas, Rainer; Beck, Anne Marie; Clavé, Pere; Hamdy, Shaheen; Heppner, Hans Juergen; Langmore, Susan; Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Martino, Rosemary; Pluschinski, Petra; Rösler, Alexander; Shaker, Reza; Warnecke, Tobias; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Volkert, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a highly prevalent and growing condition in the older population. Although OD may cause very severe complications, it is often not detected, explored, and treated. Older patients are frequently unaware of their swallowing dysfunction which is one of the reasons why the consequences of OD, ie, aspiration, dehydration, and malnutrition, are regularly not attributed to dysphagia. Older patients are particularly vulnerable to dysphagia because multiple age-related changes increase the risk of dysphagia. Physicians in charge of older patients should be aware that malnutrition, dehydration, and pneumonia are frequently caused by (unrecognized) dysphagia. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in the case of silent aspiration. In addition to numerous screening tools, videofluoroscopy was the traditional gold standard of diagnosing OD. Recently, the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is increasingly utilized because it has several advantages. Besides making a diagnosis, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is applied to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic maneuvers and texture modification of food and liquids. In addition to swallowing training and nutritional interventions, newer rehabilitation approaches of stimulation techniques are showing promise and may significantly impact future treatment strategies.

  10. Software reliability perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry; Shen, Wenhui

    1987-01-01

    Software which is used in life critical functions must be known to be highly reliable before installation. This requires a strong testing program to estimate the reliability, since neither formal methods, software engineering nor fault tolerant methods can guarantee perfection. Prior to the final testing software goes through a debugging period and many models have been developed to try to estimate reliability from the debugging data. However, the existing models are poorly validated and often give poor performance. This paper emphasizes the fact that part of their failures can be attributed to the random nature of the debugging data given to these models as input, and it poses the problem of correcting this defect as an area of future research.

  11. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  12. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  13. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  14. Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale in the Assessment of Plantarflexor Muscle Spasticity in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, S. C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This attempt to determine the reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale for assessing the severity of muscle spasticity for ankle plantarflexors in 30 patients with traumatic brain injury concluded that the reliability was minimally adequate to support the scale's continued use. Interrater reliability was less than that previously reported for…

  15. Patient acceptance of adequately filled breast implants using the tilt test.

    PubMed

    Tebbetts, J B

    2000-07-01

    Adequate fill of any breast implant, regardless of shell characteristics, shape, or filler material, is important to prevent implant shell wrinkling, folding, or collapse that could potentially decrease the life of the implant. Implant shell life is a major factor that affects reoperation rates. The greater the necessity of reoperations, regardless of implant type, the greater the rate of local complications, necessitating additional surgery with additional risks and costs to patients. Palpable shell folding, visible wrinkling or rippling, palpable shifts of filler material, sloshing, and compromised aesthetic results can result from an under-filled implant. Any of these complications can necessitate reoperations with increased risks and costs to patients. This is a study of 609 consecutive patients from January of 1993 to December of 1998 who were given detailed preoperative informed consent and a choice of implant shape and type and who chose the increased firmness associated with an implant that is adequately filled to pass the tilt test. This study addresses two questions: (1) Will patients accept the increased firmness of an implant that is filled to pass the tilt test? and (2) Is adequate fill by the tilt test useful clinically to help reduce the incidence of postoperative rippling, wrinkling, and spontaneous deflation in saline implants? Patients were followed by postoperative examinations and questionnaires. No patient requested implant replacement to a softer implant postoperatively, and no reoperations were performed for visible rippling or wrinkling. The spontaneous deflation rate over this 6-year period was 9 of 1218 implants, or 0.739 percent. If patients will accept more firmness with an adequately filled implant, regardless of the filler material, surgeons might worry less about recommending an adequately filled implant to patients, and manufacturers might feel more comfortable producing adequately filled implants and redefining fill volumes for

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  17. Materials reliability issues in microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.R. ); Yost, F.G. ); Ho, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of a MRS symposium on materials reliability in microelectronics. Topics include: electromigration; stress effects on reliability; stress and packaging; metallization; device, oxide and dielectric reliability; new investigative techniques; and corrosion.

  18. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  19. Quantifying Human Performance Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askren, William B.; Regulinski, Thaddeus L.

    Human performance reliability for tasks in the time-space continuous domain is defined and a general mathematical model presented. The human performance measurement terms time-to-error and time-to-error-correction are defined. The model and measurement terms are tested using laboratory vigilance and manual control tasks. Error and error-correction…

  20. Grid reliability management tools

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Martinez, C.; Dyer, J.; Budhraja, V.

    2000-10-01

    To summarize, Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) is engaged in a multi-year program of public interest R&D to develop and prototype software tools that will enhance system reliability during the transition to competitive markets. The core philosophy embedded in the design of these tools is the recognition that in the future reliability will be provided through market operations, not the decisions of central planners. Embracing this philosophy calls for tools that: (1) Recognize that the game has moved from modeling machine and engineering analysis to simulating markets to understand the impacts on reliability (and vice versa); (2) Provide real-time data and support information transparency toward enhancing the ability of operators and market participants to quickly grasp, analyze, and act effectively on information; (3) Allow operators, in particular, to measure, monitor, assess, and predict both system performance as well as the performance of market participants; and (4) Allow rapid incorporation of the latest sensing, data communication, computing, visualization, and algorithmic techniques and technologies.

  1. Software reliability report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry

    1991-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Unfortunately, the models appear to be unable to account for the random nature of the data. If the same code is debugged multiple times and one of the models is used to make predictions, intolerable variance is observed in the resulting reliability predictions. It is believed that data replication can remove this variance in lab type situations and that it is less than scientific to talk about validating a software reliability model without considering replication. It is also believed that data replication may prove to be cost effective in the real world, thus the research centered on verification of the need for replication and on methodologies for generating replicated data in a cost effective manner. The context of the debugging graph was pursued by simulation and experimentation. Simulation was done for the Basic model and the Log-Poisson model. Reasonable values of the parameters were assigned and used to generate simulated data which is then processed by the models in order to determine limitations on their accuracy. These experiments exploit the existing software and program specimens which are in AIR-LAB to measure the performance of reliability models.

  2. Reliable solar cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Magney, G.K.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the activities of SERVE, a Christian relief and development agency, to introduce solar ovens to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. It has provided 5,000 solar cookers since 1984. The experience has demonstrated the potential of the technology and the need for a durable and reliable product. Common complaints about the cookers are discussed and the ideal cooker is described.

  3. Reliability of Seven Measures of Social Intelligence in a Sample of Adolescents with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Jane L.; Nettelbeck, Ted

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the reliability of 7 measures assessing social cognitive variables hypothesized to define social intelligence, with a total of 125 adolescents with mental retardation, found high to very high interrater reliability coefficients; moderate to very high internal reliabilities; and moderate to high test-retest reliabilities. (Author/DB)

  4. Validity and reliability of an Arabic version of the state-trait anxiety inventory in a Saudi dental setting

    PubMed Central

    Bahammam, Maha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To test the psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic version of the state trait anxiety-form Y (STAI-Y) in Saudi adult dental patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the published Arabic version of the STAI-Y was evaluated by 2 experienced bilingual professionals for its compatibility with Saudi culture and revised prior to testing. Three hundred and eighty-seven patients attending dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, King Abdullah University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the study. The Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of anxiety were used to assess the concurrent criterion validity. Results: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.989) for state and trait subscales. Factor analysis indicated unidimensionality of the scale. Correlations between STAI-Y scores and both MDAS and VAS scores indicated strong concurrent criterion validity. Discriminant validity was supported by the findings that higher anxiety levels were present among females as opposed to males, younger individuals as compared to older individuals, and patients who do not visit the dentist unless they have a need as opposed to more frequent visitors to the dental office. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y has an adequate internal consistency reliability, generally similar to that reported in the international literature, suggesting it is appropriate for assessing dental anxiety in Arabic speaking populations. PMID:27279514

  5. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  6. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  7. Validity and Reliability of the School Physical Activity Environment Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to establish the factor validity of the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Robertson-Wilson, Levesque, & Holden, 2007) using confirmatory factor analysis procedures. Another goal was to establish internal reliability and test-retest reliability. The confirmatory factor analysis results…

  8. Variability and Prediction of Measurement Error in Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Scores: A Reliability Generalization Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robin K.; Hwang, Dae-Yeop

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI; D. Kolb, 1976). Results for 34 studies indicate that internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities for LSI scores fluctuate considerably and contribute to deleterious cumulative measurement error. (SLD)

  9. Reliability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of photovoltaic modules, four categories of known array failure and degradation mechanisms are discussed, and target reliability allocations have been developed within each category based on the available technology and the life-cycle-cost requirements of future large-scale terrestrial applications. Cell-level failure mechanisms associated with open-circuiting or short-circuiting of individual solar cells generally arise from cell cracking or the fatigue of cell-to-cell interconnects. Power degradation mechanisms considered include gradual power loss in cells, light-induced effects, and module optical degradation. Module-level failure mechanisms and life-limiting wear-out mechanisms are also explored.

  10. Reliability and durability problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojtsov, B. V.; Kondrashov, V. Z.

    The papers presented in this volume focus on methods for determining the stress-strain state of structures and machines and evaluating their reliability and service life. Specific topics discussed include a method for estimating the service life of thin-sheet automotive structures, stressed state at the tip of small cracks in anisotropic plates under biaxial tension, evaluation of the elastic-dissipative characteristics of joints by vibrational diagnostics methods, and calculation of the reliability of ceramic structures for arbitrary long-term loading programs. Papers are also presented on the effect of prior plastic deformation on fatigue damage kinetics, axisymmetric and local deformation of cylindrical parts during finishing-hardening treatments, and adhesion of polymers to diffusion coatings on steels.

  11. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  12. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  13. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  14. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  15. ATLAS reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, R.R.

    1995-09-01

    Key elements of the 36 MJ ATLAS capacitor bank have been evaluated for individual probabilities of failure. These have been combined to estimate system reliability which is to be greater than 95% on each experimental shot. This analysis utilizes Weibull or Weibull-like distributions with increasing probability of failure with the number of shots. For transmission line insulation, a minimum thickness is obtained and for the railgaps, a method for obtaining a maintenance interval from forthcoming life tests is suggested.

  16. Compact, Reliable EEPROM Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2010-01-01

    A compact, reliable controller for an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) has been developed specifically for a space-flight application. The design may be adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for reliability in general and, in particular, for prevention of inadvertent writing of data in EEPROM cells. Inadvertent writes pose risks of loss of reliability in the original space-flight application and could pose such risks in other applications. Prior EEPROM controllers are large and complex and do not provide all reasonable protections (in many cases, few or no protections) against inadvertent writes. In contrast, the present controller provides several layers of protection against inadvertent writes. The controller also incorporates a write-time monitor, enabling determination of trends in the performance of an EEPROM through all phases of testing. The controller has been designed as an integral subsystem of a system that includes not only the controller and the controlled EEPROM aboard a spacecraft but also computers in a ground control station, relatively simple onboard support circuitry, and an onboard communication subsystem that utilizes the MIL-STD-1553B protocol. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD- 1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) The intent was to both maximize reliability while minimizing the size and complexity of onboard circuitry. In operation, control of the EEPROM is effected via the ground computers, the MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem, and the onboard support circuitry, all of which, in combination, provide the multiple layers of protection against inadvertent writes. There is no controller software, unlike in many prior EEPROM controllers; software can be a major contributor to unreliability, particularly in fault

  17. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  18. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  19. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph...

  20. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  1. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  2. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  3. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  4. Performance Effects of Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    As the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law moves through the reauthorization process, it is important to understand the basic performance impacts of its central structure of accountability. In this paper, I examine the effects of failure to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under NCLB on subsequent student math and reading performance at the school…

  5. Determining Adequate Yearly Progress in a State Performance or Proficiency Index Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview regarding how several states use a performance or proficiency index in their determination of adequate yearly progress (AYP) under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Typically, indexes are based on one of two weighting schemes: (1) either they weight academic performance levels--also…

  6. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  7. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  8. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  9. [Factors associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate fruit and vegetable intake and identify associated factors among schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 4,964 students from public and private schools in eight districts in the State, analyzing socioeconomic and anthropometric data and dietary intake. Adequate fruit and vegetable intake was defined as five or more servings per day. Poisson regression was performed to test associations between fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables (p < 0.05). Adequate intake was found in 2.7% of children, while 26.6% of the sample did not consume any fruits and vegetables. In the analysis of the association between independent variables and adequate fruit and vegetable intake in the total sample, only geographic region (residents in western Santa Catarina) and consumption of candy were significantly associated. In the stratified analysis by sex, for boys, only geographic region was associated, while among girls, region and candy consumption were significantly associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The findings indicate the need for specific strategies in the school community to improve fruit and vegetable intake by schoolchildren.

  10. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  11. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  12. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  13. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  14. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels are Adequately Controlled High cholesterol can double a ... with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Click on legends ...

  15. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  16. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  17. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  18. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  19. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in…

  20. What Is the Cost of an Adequate Vermont High School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Access to an adequate education has been widely considered an undeniable right since Chief Justice Warren stated in his landmark decision that "Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments...it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an…

  1. Calculating and Reducing Errors Associated with the Evaluation of Adequate Yearly Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    In the Spring, 1996, issue of "CRESST Line," E. Baker and R. Linn commented that, in efforts to measure the progress of schools, "the fluctuations due to differences in the students themselves could conceal differences in instructional effects." This is particularly true in the context of the evaluation of adequate yearly progress required by…

  2. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provide for a variable rate of interest. For purposes of the adequate interest test under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, if a section 467 rental agreement provides for variable interest, the rental... date as the issue date) for the variable rates called for by the rental agreement. For purposes of...

  4. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  5. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  6. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  7. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  8. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  9. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  10. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  11. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  12. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  13. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian...

  14. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  15. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  16. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  17. Data Used in Quantified Reliability Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana; Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Kahn, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Data is the crux to developing quantitative risk and reliability models, without the data there is no quantification. The means to find and identify reliability data or failure numbers to quantify fault tree models during conceptual and design phases is often the quagmire that precludes early decision makers consideration of potential risk drivers that will influence design. The analyst tasked with addressing a system or product reliability depends on the availability of data. But, where is does that data come from and what does it really apply to? Commercial industries, government agencies, and other international sources might have available data similar to what you are looking for. In general, internal and external technical reports and data based on similar and dissimilar equipment is often the first and only place checked. A common philosophy is "I have a number - that is good enough". But, is it? Have you ever considered the difference in reported data from various federal datasets and technical reports when compared to similar sources from national and/or international datasets? Just how well does your data compare? Understanding how the reported data was derived, and interpreting the information and details associated with the data is as important as the data itself.

  18. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing

  19. Blade reliability collaborative :

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  20. The puzzling reliability of the Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Rosenfield, Steven; Dedic, Helena; Dahan, Ariel; Reshef, Orad

    2011-09-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has influenced the development of many research-based pedagogies. However, no data exists on the FCI's internal consistency or test-retest reliability. The FCI was administered twice to one hundred students during the first week of classes in an electricity and magnetism course with no review of mechanics between test administrations. High Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient values, which estimate the average correlation of scores obtained on all possible halves of the test, suggest strong internal consistency. However, 31% of the responses changed from test to retest, suggesting weak reliability for individual questions. A chi-square analysis shows that change in responses was neither consistent nor completely random. The puzzling conclusion is that although individual FCI responses are not reliable, the FCI total score is highly reliable.

  1. Fault Tree Reliability Analysis and Design-for-reliability

    1998-05-05

    WinR provides a fault tree analysis capability for performing systems reliability and design-for-reliability analyses. The package includes capabilities for sensitivity and uncertainity analysis, field failure data analysis, and optimization.

  2. On Component Reliability and System Reliability for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Sampson, Michael J.; Hodson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to address the basics, the limitations and the relationship between component reliability and system reliability through a study of flight computing architectures and related avionics components for NASA future missions. Component reliability analysis and system reliability analysis need to be evaluated at the same time, and the limitations of each analysis and the relationship between the two analyses need to be understood.

  3. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  4. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it. PMID:15260028

  5. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-08-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme-under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness-as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  6. Improve relief valve reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on careful evaluation of safety relief valves and their service conditions which can improve reliability and permit more time between testing. Some factors that aid in getting long-run results are: Use of valves suitable for service, Attention to design of the relieving system (including use of block valves) and Close attention to repair procedures. Use these procedures for each installation, applying good engineering practices. The Clean Air Act of 1990 and other legislation limiting allowable fugitive emissions in a hydrocarbon processing plant will greatly impact safety relief valve installations. Normal leakage rate from a relief valve will require that it be connected to a closed vent system connected to a recovery or control device. Tying the outlet of an existing valve into a header system can cause accelerated corrosion and operating difficulties. Reliability of many existing safety relief valves may be compromised when they are connected to an outlet header without following good engineering practices. The law has been enacted but all the rules have not been promulgated.

  7. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  8. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  9. Reliable Entanglement Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan; Gittsovich, Oleg; Donohue, John; Lavoie, Jonathan; Resch, Kevin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    Entanglement plays a central role in quantum protocols. It is therefore important to be able to verify the presence of entanglement in physical systems from experimental data. In the evaluation of these data, the proper treatment of statistical effects requires special attention, as one can never claim to have verified the presence of entanglement with certainty. Recently increased attention has been paid to the development of proper frameworks to pose and to answer these type of questions. In this work, we apply recent results by Christandl and Renner on reliable quantum state tomography to construct a reliable entanglement verification procedure based on the concept of confidence regions. The statements made do not require the specification of a prior distribution nor the assumption of an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) source of states. Moreover, we develop efficient numerical tools that are necessary to employ this approach in practice, rendering the procedure ready to be employed in current experiments. We demonstrate this fact by analyzing the data of an experiment where photonic entangled two-photon states were generated and whose entanglement is verified with the use of an accessible nonlinear witness.

  10. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  11. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  12. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  13. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  14. Bioelement effects on thyroid gland in children living in iodine-adequate territory.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Anatoly L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Koubassov, Roman V

    2007-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a primary pathology of thyroid gland and critical medico social problem in many countries. A dominant cause of endemic goitre is iodine deficiency. However, besides primary iodine deficiency, the goitre may probably develop due to effects of other bioelement imbalances, essential to thyroid function maintenance. Here we studied 44 cases of endemic goitre in prepubertal children (7-10 y.o.) living in iodine-adequate territory. Thyroid volume was estimated by ultrasonometry. Main bioelements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Pb, Se, Si, Zn) were determined in hair samples by ICP-OES/ICP-MS method. Relationships between hair content of bioelements and thyroid gland size were estimated by multiple regressions. The regression model revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Cr, Si, Mn contents. However, the actual factor of thyroid gland increase was only Si excess in organism. Significant negative relations of thyroid volume were revealed with I, Mg, Zn, Se, Co and Cd. In spite of this, the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increasing were I, Co, Mg and Se deficiency. Total bioelement contribution in thyroid impairment was estimated as 24%. Thus, it was suggested that endemic goitre in iodine-adequate territory can be formed by bioelement imbalances, namely Si excess and Co, Mg, Se shortage as well as endogenous I deficiency in spite of iodine-adequate environment.

  15. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  16. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  17. An adequate Fe nutritional status of maize suppresses infection and biotrophic growth of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanghua; Albarouki, Emad; Lingam, Brahmasivasenkar; Deising, Holger B; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant pathogens as well as for their host plants. As Fe plays a central role in pathogen virulence, most plants have evolved Fe-withholding strategies to reduce Fe availability to pathogens. On the other hand, plants need Fe for an oxidative burst in their basal defense response against pathogens. To investigate how the plant Fe nutritional status affects plant tolerance to a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, we employed the maize-Colletotrichum graminicola pathosystem. Fungal infection progressed rapidly via biotrophic to necrotrophic growth in Fe-deficient leaves, while an adequate Fe nutritional status suppressed the formation of infection structures of C. graminicola already during the early biotrophic growth phase. As indicated by Prussian blue and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining, the retarding effect of an adequate Fe nutritional status on fungal development coincided temporally and spatially with the recruitment of Fe to infection sites and a local production of H2 O2 . A similar coincidence between local Fe and H2 O2 accumulation was found in a parallel approach employing C. graminicola mutants affected in Fe acquisition and differing in virulence. These results indicate that an adequate Fe nutritional status delays and partially suppresses the fungal infection process and the biotrophic growth phase of C. graminicola, most likely via the recruitment of free Fe to the fungal infection site for a timely oxidative burst.

  18. Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale.

    PubMed

    Cole, Brenda S; Hopkins, Clare M; Tisak, John; Steel, Jennifer L; Carr, Brian I

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an instrument designed to assess spiritual transformations following a diagnosis of cancer-the Spiritual Transformation Scale (STS). The instrument was administering to 253 people diagnosed with cancer within the previous 2 years. Two underlying factors emerged (spiritual growth (SG) and spiritual decline (SD)) with adequate internal reliability (alpha = 0.98 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.85 and 0.73, respectively). Validity was supported by correlations between SG and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) Positive Affect Subscale (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). SD was associated with higher scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and PANAS-Negative Affect Subscale (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and lower scores on the PANAS-Positive Affect Subscale (r = -0.23, p < 0.001), and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = -0.30, p < 0.001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the subscales uniquely predicted adjustment beyond related constructs (intrinsic religiousness, spiritual coping, and general post-traumatic growth). The results indicate that the STS is psychometrically sound, with SG predicting better, and SD predicting poorer, mental and spiritual well-being following a diagnosis of cancer. PMID:17458862

  19. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  20. Making Reliability Arguments in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Giron, Tilia

    2006-01-01

    Reliability methodology needs to evolve as validity has done into an argument supported by theory and empirical evidence. Nowhere is the inadequacy of current methods more visible than in classroom assessment. Reliability arguments would also permit additional methodologies for evidencing reliability in classrooms. It would liberalize methodology…

  1. Factor reliability into load management

    SciTech Connect

    Feight, G.R.

    1983-07-01

    Hardware reliability is a major factor to consider when selecting a direct-load-control system. The author outlines a method of estimating present-value costs associated with system reliability. He points out that small differences in receiver reliability make a significant difference in owning cost. 4 figures.

  2. Optimum Reliability of Gain Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, K. K.; Gupta, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a mathematical treatment to findings of Zimmerman and Williams and establishes a minimum reliability for gain scores when the pretest and posttest have equal reliabilities and equal standard deviations. It discusses the behavior of the reliability of gain scores in terms of variations in other test parameters. (Author/LMO)

  3. Recent advances in computational structural reliability analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, Harry R.; Torng, Tony Y.; Riha, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of structural reliability analysis is to determine the probability that the structure will adequately perform its intended function when operating under the given environmental conditions. Thus, the notion of reliability admits the possibility of failure. Given the fact that many different modes of failure are usually possible, achievement of this goal is a formidable task, especially for large, complex structural systems. The traditional (deterministic) design methodology attempts to assure reliability by the application of safety factors and conservative assumptions. However, the safety factor approach lacks a quantitative basis in that the level of reliability is never known and usually results in overly conservative designs because of compounding conservatisms. Furthermore, problem parameters that control the reliability are not identified, nor their importance evaluated. A summary of recent advances in computational structural reliability assessment is presented. A significant level of activity in the research and development community was seen recently, much of which was directed towards the prediction of failure probabilities for single mode failures. The focus is to present some early results and demonstrations of advanced reliability methods applied to structural system problems. This includes structures that can fail as a result of multiple component failures (e.g., a redundant truss), or structural components that may fail due to multiple interacting failure modes (e.g., excessive deflection, resonate vibration, or creep rupture). From these results, some observations and recommendations are made with regard to future research needs.

  4. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory and its most commonly employed subscales (Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction) and the Eating Attitudes Test as a way to better identify those characteristics that might impact score reliability. Methods Published studies that used these measures were coded based on their reporting of reliability information and additional study characteristics that might influence score reliability. Results Score reliability estimates were included in 26.15% of studies using the EDI and 36.28% of studies using the EAT. Mean Cronbach’s alphas for the EDI (total score = .91; subscales = .75 to .89), EAT-40 (total score = .81) and EAT-26 (total score = .86; subscales = .56 to .80) suggested variability in estimated internal consistency. Whereas some EDI subscales exhibited higher score reliability in clinical eating disorder samples than in nonclinical samples, other subscales did not exhibit these differences. Score reliability information for the EAT was primarily reported for nonclinical samples, making it difficult to characterize the effect of type of sample on these measures. However, there was a tendency for mean score reliability to be higher in the adult (vs. adolescent) samples and in female (vs. male) samples. Conclusions Overall, this study highlights the importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency during every test administration because reliability is affected by characteristics of the participants being examined. PMID:24764530

  5. Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The lunar science notwithstanding rather numerous researches of the last 50 years still debates some important issues. Three of them concern an origin of mascons, the deepest but low ferruginous South Pole-Aitken depression, a strange character of the frequency-crater size curve. Prevailing approaches are mainly based on impacts having made the present geomorphology of the Moon. However practically are ignored the fact of antipodality of basins and marea, a complex character of the frequency-crater size curve obviously implying an involvement of different sources and reasons responsible for crater formation. Attempts to find impactor sources in various sometimes very remote parts of the Solar system are too artificial, besides they do not explain very intensive, like lunar cratering of Mercury. Saturation of the lunar surface by ~70-km diameter craters is very strange for random impacts from any source; to find a time interval for this saturation is difficult if not possible because it affects formations of various ages. Lunar basins and marea completely contradict to a classical frequency- crater size curve. Their presumed ( and measured) different ages make dubious existence of one specialized impactor source. So, if one accepts an impact process as the only process responsible for cratering (ring forms development) then the real mess in crater statistics and timing never will be overcome. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] examined by many planets and satellites of the Solar system proved to be real. In a case of the Moon it can help in answering the above questions. First of all it should be admitted that the complex lunar crater (ring forms) statistics is due to a superposition and mixing of two main processes (a minor involvement of volcanic features is also present): impacts and wave

  6. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  7. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  8. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  9. Thrombography reveals thrombin generation potential continues to deteriorate following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery despite adequate hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond K; Sleep, Joseph R; Visner, Allison J; Raasch, David J; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Torloni, Antonio S; Arabia, Francisco A

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways of the hemostatic system converge when prothrombin is converted to thrombin. The ability to generate an adequate thrombin burst is the most central aspect of the coagulation cascade. The thrombin-generating potential in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be indicative of their hemostatic status. In this report, thrombography, a unique technique for directly measuring the potential of patients' blood samples to generate adequate thrombin bursts, is used to characterize the coagulopathic profile in post-CPB patients. Post-CPB hemostasis is typically achieved with protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation and occasionally supplemented with blood product component transfusions. In this pilot study, platelet poor plasma samples were derived from 11 primary cardiac surgery patients at five time points: prior to CPB, immediately post-protamine, upon arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU), 3 hours post-ICU admission, and 24 hours after ICU arrival. Thrombography revealed that the Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) was not different between [Baseline] and [PostProtamine] but proceeded to deteriorate in the immediate postoperative period. At the [3HourPostICU] time point, the ETP was significantly lower than the [Baseline] values, 1233 +/- 591 versus 595 +/- 379 nM.min (mean +/- SD; n=9, p < .005), despite continued adequacy of hemostasis. ETPs returned to baseline values the day after surgery. Transfusions received, conventional blood coagulation testing results, and blood loss volumes are also presented. Despite adequate hemostasis, thrombography reveals an underlying coagulopathic process that could put some cardiac surgical patients at risk for postoperative bleeding. Thrombography is a novel technique that could be developed into a useful tool for perfusionists and physicians to identify coagulopathies and optimize blood management following CPB. PMID:21449230

  10. Chronic leg ulcer: does a patient always get a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment?

    PubMed

    Mooij, Michael C; Huisman, Laurens C

    2016-03-01

    Patients with chronic leg ulcers have severely impaired quality of life and account for a high percentage of annual healthcare costs. To establish the cause of a chronic leg ulcer, referral to a center with a multidisciplinary team of professionals is often necessary. Treating the underlying cause diminishes healing time and reduces costs. In venous leg ulcers adequate compression therapy is still a problem. It can be improved by training the professionals with pressure measuring devices. A perfect fitting of elastic stockings is important to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. In most cases, custom-made stockings are the best choice for this purpose. PMID:26916772

  11. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  12. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  13. Developing an adequate "pneumatraumatology": understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Duane R

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions and systematic theology are primary resources for chaplains and congregational pastors who care for victims of physical trauma. Yet these resources may not be adequate to address the spiritual impacts of trauma. This article proposes a preliminary "pneumatraumatology," drawing on early Christian asceticism and Buddhist mysticism to describe one way of understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury. It also suggests possible responses to these impacts informed by narrative/constructionist perspectives and Breggemann's understanding of the dimensions of spiritual transformation in the Hebrew Bible.

  14. Optimal detection pinhole for lowering speckle noise while maintaining adequate optical sectioning in confocal reflectance microscopes.

    PubMed

    Glazowski, Christopher; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-08-01

    Coherent speckle influences the resulting image when narrow spectral line-width and single spatial mode illumination are used, though these are the same light-source properties that provide the best radiance-to-cost ratio. However, a suitable size of the detection pinhole can be chosen to maintain adequate optical sectioning while making the probability density of the speckle noise more normal and reducing its effect. The result is a qualitatively better image with improved contrast, which is easier to read. With theoretical statistics and experimental results, we show that the detection pinhole size is a fundamental parameter for designing imaging systems for use in turbid media.

  15. Analytical enhancement of automotive sensory system reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; King, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    The technical issues that must be addressed to assure reliable sensor systems include the following: validation (is the sensor properly functioning and/or has the component/system deteriorated); failure accommodation (can the system adequately function with a degraded sensor); and system diagnostics (what has failed, what probabilities of missed positives and false positives are acceptable and is real-time on-board response needed). Clearly, the essential activity is the development of sensors to meet the accuracy and reliability requirements in the anticipated operational environment of a vehicle over it`s useful life. However, it is equally important that the data generated by these sensors be processed to extract the information needed to assure that the sensors and the systems they are monitoring and/or controlling remain within their intended operating specifications. The purpose of this paper is to report on an analytical method used to address the above technical issues and to illustrate particular applications of this method.

  16. Testing the Validity and Reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among Sexually Abused Girls in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Lynn T. M.; Murray, Laura K.; Kane, Jeremy C.; Skavenski van Wyk, Stephanie; Chomba, Elwyn; Cohen, Judith; Imasiku, Mwiya; Semrau, Katherine; Unick, Jay; Bolton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study is to test the validity and reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among traumatized girls in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods The Shame Questionnaire was validated through both classical test and item response theory methods. Internal reliability, criterion validity and construct validity were examined among a sample of 325 female children living in Zambia. Sub-analyses were conducted to examine differences in construct validity among girls who reported sexual abuse and girls who did not. Results All girls in the sample were sexually abused, but only 61.5% endorsed or reported that sexual abuse had occurred. Internal consistency was very good among the sample with alpha = .87. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a significant difference of mean Shame Questionnaire scores between girls who experienced 0–1 trauma events and more than one traumatic event, with higher mean Shame Questionnaire scores among girls who had more than one traumatic event (p = .004 for 0–1 compared to 2 and 3 events and p = .016 for 0–1 compared to 4+ events). Girls who reported a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse had a significantly higher mean Shame Questionnaire score than girls who did not report a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse (p<.0001). There was no significant difference in mean Shame Questionnaire score between girls who reported a sexual abuse history and girls who did not. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model of the Shame Questionnaire, with an experience of shame dimension and an active outcomes of shame dimension. Item response theory analysis indicated adequate overall item fit. Results also indicate potential differences in construct validity between girls who did and did not endorse sexual abuse. Conclusions This study suggests the general utility of the Shame Questionnaire among Zambian girls and demonstrates the need for more psychometric studies in low and middle income

  17. Reliability Generalization of Scores on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Harp, Diane; Jung, Woo Sik

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C. Spielberger, 1983) by reviewing and classifying 816 research articles. Average reliability coefficients were acceptable for both internal consistency and test-retest reliability, but variation was present among the estimates. Other differences are discussed.…

  18. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  19. Optimal Implementations for Reliable Circadian Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are acquired through evolution to increase the chances for survival through synchronizing with the daylight cycle. Reliable synchronization is realized through two trade-off properties: regularity to keep time precisely, and entrainability to synchronize the internal time with daylight. We find by using a phase model with multiple inputs that achieving the maximal limit of regularity and entrainability entails many inherent features of the circadian mechanism. At the molecular level, we demonstrate the role sharing of two light inputs, phase advance and delay, as is well observed in mammals. At the behavioral level, the optimal phase-response curve inevitably contains a dead zone, a time during which light pulses neither advance nor delay the clock. We reproduce the results of phase-controlling experiments entrained by two types of periodic light pulses. Our results indicate that circadian clocks are designed optimally for reliable clockwork through evolution.

  20. Validity and reliability of the Portuguese version of Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Campos, J A D B; Carrascosa, A C; Maroco, J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) (Portuguese version). Face and content validity of the Portuguese version were performed. To assess reproducibility of the data gathered with MFIQ, it was applied to 62 individuals who completed the questionnaire on two occasions. Validity and reliability of the data gathered with MFIQ were evaluated in a sample of 249 patients. Construct-related validity was assessed through factorial validity (by means of a confirmatory factor analysis), and convergent and discriminant validities were assessed, respectively, by the average variance extracted (AVE), composite reliability (CC) and bivariate correlations between factors. The internal consistency was estimated by the standardised Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α) and reproducibility by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). All the items of MFIQ showed content validity. Reproducibility was excellent in both the 'functional capacity' dimension (D1) (ICC(D1) =0·895, 95% CI=0·832 to 0·935) and the 'feeding' dimension (D2) (ICC(D2) =0·825, 95% CI= 0·726 to 0·891). Items 1, 2, 6 and 7 of D1 had factor weights below the desired cut-off (0·5), and overall fit of the original bifactorial structure of the MFIQ was poor [(confirmatory fit index) CFI= 0·850, (goodness of fit index) GFI= 0·781, (root mean square error of approximation) RMSEA= 0·118]. Thus, these items were excluded, and the new, reduced version of the MFIQ showed good fit (CFI=0·933, GFI=0·879, RMSEA=0·099). The convergent validity was adequate (AVE≥0·5, CC≥0·7) for both factors. However, their discriminant validity was low (AVE(D1) = 0·51 and AVE(D2) = 0·66 <ρ(2) (D1D2) =0·70). The internal consistency was excellent (α(D1) =0·874; α(D2) =0·918). The Portuguese version of the reduced MFIQ produced data with good validity and reliability.

  1. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  2. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  3. Reliability of cause of death coding: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Antini, Carmen; Rajs, Danuta; Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Mondaca, Boris Andrés Lucero; Heiss, Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the agreement of nosologic coding of cardiovascular causes of death between a Chilean coder and one in the United States, in a stratified random sample of death certificates of persons aged ≥ 60, issued in 2008 in the Valparaíso and Metropolitan regions, Chile. All causes of death were converted to ICD-10 codes in parallel by both coders. Concordance was analyzed with inter-coder agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient by level of specification ICD-10 code for the underlying cause and the total causes of death coding. Inter-coder agreement was 76.4% for all causes of death and 80.6% for the underlying cause (agreement at the four-digit level), with differences by the level of specification of the ICD-10 code, by line of the death certificate, and by number of causes of death per certificate. Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.68-0.84) for the underlying cause and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.74-0.77) for the total causes of death. In conclusion, causes of death coding and inter-coder agreement for cardiovascular diseases in two regions of Chile are comparable to an external benchmark and with reports from other countries.

  4. The Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version Test of Mobile Phone Dependency (TMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Farokhzad, Pegah; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; Baba Reisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sanaz; Farshchi, Mojtaba; Khoda Karami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid; Sepasi, Neda; Alavi, Samaneh Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: ‎‏ ‏Despite the fact that ‎the mobile phone has become a ‎pervasive technology of our time, ‎little research has been done on ‎mobile dependency. A valid and ‎reliable assessment instrument ‎corresponding to the Persian ‎culture is essential. This study ‎aimed to describe the ‎construction and validation of the ‎Persian version of TMD (Test of ‎Mobile phone Dependency) to ‎assess the addictive use of ‎mobile phone.‎ Methods: This was a cross-‎sectional study, for which data ‎were collected from 350 students ‎who were studying at Tehran ‎universities. Sampling method ‎was quota sampling. The ‎participants anonymously ‎completed the demographic ‎questionnaire, and CPDQ as a ‎valid questionnaire and gold ‎standard. Finally, clinical ‎interview [based on DSM-IV-TR] ‎was performed. To analyze the ‎data, concurrent validity, factor ‎analysis, internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbachα), split half; test-retest ‎and ROC Curve by SPSS18 ‎Software were used.‎ Results: As a result of the ‎reliability analysis and factor ‎analysis by principal component ‎and Varimax rotation, three ‎factors (“salient”, “preoccupation” ‎and “Spend a lot of time and ‎money”) for both male and ‎female participants were ‎extracted. Internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbach's alpha) of the TMD ‎was .92 (Cronbach alpha of the ‎factors is .88, .82, and .84, ‎respectively). The test-retest ‎correlation of the TMD was ‎‎.56.The best cut off point for this ‎questionnaire (TMD) is 38.‎ Conclusion: The TMD proved to ‎have an acceptable internal ‎consistency with adequate factor ‎models to assess the extent of ‎problems caused by the "misuse" ‎of the mobile phone in the ‎Iranian society. Therefore, it can ‎be concluded that the Persian ‎version of the test was reliable ‎and valid; however, further ‎analysis is needed.‎ PMID:27006671

  5. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  6. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  7. Accuracy and reliability of China's energy statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, Jonathan E.

    2001-09-14

    Many observers have raised doubts about the accuracy and reliability of China's energy statistics, which show an unprecedented decline in recent years, while reported economic growth has remained strong. This paper explores the internal consistency of China's energy statistics from 1990 to 2000, coverage and reporting issues, and the state of the statistical reporting system. Available information suggests that, while energy statistics were probably relatively good in the early 1990s, their quality has declined since the mid-1990s. China's energy statistics should be treated as a starting point for analysis, and explicit judgments regarding ranges of uncertainty should accompany any conclusions.

  8. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. PMID:25407084

  9. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  10. Availability and Reliability Issues for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Himel, T.; Nelson, J.; Phinney, N.; Ross, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-27

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will be the largest most complicated accelerator ever built. For this reason extensive work is being done early in the design phase to ensure that it will be reliable enough. This includes gathering failure mode data from existing accelerators and simulating the failures and repair times of the ILC. This simulation has been written in a general fashion using MATLAB and could be used for other accelerators. Results from the simulation tool have been used in making some of the major ILC design decisions and an unavailability budget has been developed.

  11. Dietary intake of nutrients with adequate intake values in the dietary reference intakes for Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takizawa, Asuka; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nakade, Makiko; Imai, Eri; Kondo, Akiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    The Adequate Intake (AI) values in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (DRIs-J) 2010 were mainly determined based on the median intakes from 2 y of pooled data (2005-2006) from the National Health and Nutrition Survey-Japan (NHNS-J). However, it remains unclear whether 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J are appropriate for evaluating the intake of the population. To clarify the differences in nutrient intakes determined from 2 and 7 y of pooled data, we analyzed selected nutrient intake levels by sex and age groups using NHNS-J data. Intake data were obtained from 64,624 individuals (age: ≥1 y; 47.4% men) who completed a semi-weighed 1-d household dietary record that was part of the NHNS-J conducted annually in Japan from 2003 to 2009. There were no large differences between the median intakes calculated from 2 or 7 y of pooled data for n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, pantothenic acid, potassium, or phosphorus. When the AI values and median intakes were compared, there was no large difference in the values for n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, pantothenic acid, or phosphorus. Conversely, the AI values for vitamin D and potassium differed from the median intakes of these nutrients for specific sex and age groups, because values were not based on NHNS-J data. Our results indicate that 2 y of pooled data from the NHNS-J adequately reflect the population's intake, and that the current system for determination of AI values will be applicable for future revisions.

  12. Intersection of race/ethnicity and gender in depression care: screening, access, and minimally adequate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Cook, Benjamin; Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Alegria, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to understand the interaction of race/ethnicity and gender in depression screening, any mental health care, and adequate care. Methods 2010–2012 electronic health records data of adult primary care patients from a New England urban health care system was used (n = 65,079). Multivariate logit regression models were used to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, gender, and other covariates with depression screening, any depression care among those screened positive, and adequate depression care among users. Secondly, disparities were evaluated by race/ethnicity and gender and incorporated differences due to insurance, marital status, and area-level SES measures. Findings Black and Asian males and females were less likely to be screened for depression compared to their white counterparts, while Latino males and females were more likely to be screened. Among those that screened PHQ-9>10, black males and females, Latino males, and Asian males and females were less likely to receive any mental health care than their white counterparts. The black-white disparity in screening was greater for females compared to males. The Latino-white disparity for any mental health care and adequacy of care was greater for males compared to females. Conclusions Our approach underscores the importance of identifying disparities at each step of depression care by both race/ethnicity and gender. Targeting certain groups in specific stages of care would be more effective (i.e., screening of black females, any mental health care and adequacy of care for Latino males) than a blanket approach to disparities reduction. PMID:25727113

  13. Are the Psychological Needs of Adolescent Survivors of Pediatric Cancer Adequately Identified and Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930

  14. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  15. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  16. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  17. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  18. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  19. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  20. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  1. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  2. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  3. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  4. International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion*

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633

  5. Stirling Convertor Fasteners Reliability Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor; Kovacevich, Tiodor; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Onboard Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) being developed for NASA s deep-space science and exploration missions require reliable operation for up to 14 years and beyond. Stirling power conversion is a candidate for use in an RPS because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced inventory of radioactive material. Structural fasteners are responsible to maintain structural integrity of the Stirling power convertor, which is critical to ensure reliable performance during the entire mission. Design of fasteners involve variables related to the fabrication, manufacturing, behavior of fasteners and joining parts material, structural geometry of the joining components, size and spacing of fasteners, mission loads, boundary conditions, etc. These variables have inherent uncertainties, which need to be accounted for in the reliability assessment. This paper describes these uncertainties along with a methodology to quantify the reliability, and provides results of the analysis in terms of quantified reliability and sensitivity of Stirling power conversion reliability to the design variables. Quantification of the reliability includes both structural and functional aspects of the joining components. Based on the results, the paper also describes guidelines to improve the reliability and verification testing.

  6. Issues in Modeling System Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Annis, Chuck; Booker, Jane; Robinson, David; Sues, Rob

    2002-10-01

    This paper discusses various issues in modeling system reliability. The topics include: 1) Statistical formalisms versus pragmatic numerics; 2) Language; 3) Statistical methods versus reliability-based design methods; 4) Professional bias; and 5) Real issues that need to be identified and resolved prior to certifying designs. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  7. Avionics design for reliability bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A bibliography with abstracts was presented in support of AGARD lecture series No. 81. The following areas were covered: (1) program management, (2) design for high reliability, (3) selection of components and parts, (4) environment consideration, (5) reliable packaging, (6) life cycle cost, and (7) case histories.

  8. Practices in adequate structural design. [of space vehicles and space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the guidelines for safe and reliable space vehicle design, especially in the structural engineering area, which have been formulated by NASA in the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986. Illustrative examples are presented from state-of-the-art, performance-driven hardware whose design ineluctably gives rise to a high sensitivity to small variations and uncertainties. It is recommended that such hardware be designed with a view to easy inspectability and manufacturability, with emphasis on the role played in system structures by fracture mechanics. Static and dynamic coupling effects must be precluded wherever possible.

  9. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  10. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  11. Statistical modeling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    This working paper discusses the statistical simulation part of a controlled software development experiment being conducted under the direction of the System Validation Methods Branch, Information Systems Division, NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment uses guidance and control software (GCS) aboard a fictitious planetary landing spacecraft: real-time control software operating on a transient mission. Software execution is simulated to study the statistical aspects of reliability and other failure characteristics of the software during development, testing, and random usage. Quantification of software reliability is a major goal. Various reliability concepts are discussed. Experiments are described for performing simulations and collecting appropriate simulated software performance and failure data. This data is then used to make statistical inferences about the quality of the software development and verification processes as well as inferences about the reliability of software versions and reliability growth under random testing and debugging.

  12. Adequate Selection of a Therapeutic Site Enables Efficient Development of Collateral Vessels in Angiogenic Treatment With Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Masaru; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Ayako; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of angiogenic mechanisms to promote development of collateral vessels is considered promising for the treatment of peripheral arterial diseases. Collateral vessels generally develop from preexisting arteriolar connections, bypassing the diseased artery. We speculated that induction of angiogenic mechanisms should be directed to such arteriolar connections to achieve efficient collateral development. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis using autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells in the rabbit model of chronic limb ischemia. Methods and Results The left femoral artery was excised to induce limb ischemia in male rabbits. In this model, arteriolar connections in the left coccygeofemoral muscle tend to develop into collateral vessels, although this transformation is insufficient to alleviate the limb ischemia. In contrast, arteriolar connections in the closely located adductor muscle do not readily develop into collateral vessels. At 21 days after ischemia initiation, a sufficient number of automononuclear cells were selectively injected in the left coccygeofemoral muscle (coccygeo group) or left adductor muscle (adductor group). Evaluation of calf blood pressure ratios, blood flow in the left internal iliac artery, and angiographic scores at day 28 after injection revealed that collateral development and improvement of limb ischemia were significantly more efficient in the coccygeo group than in the adductor group. Morphometric analysis of the coccygeofemoral muscle at day 14 showed similar results. Conclusions Specific delivery of mononuclear cells to the coccygeofemoral but not the adductor muscle effectively improves collateral circulation in the rabbit model of limb ischemia and suggests that adequate site selection can facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26370447

  13. Evaluating reliability of WSN with sleep/wake-up interfering nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) (singular and plural of acronyms are spelled the same) is a distributed system composed of autonomous sensor nodes wireless connected and randomly scattered into a geographical area to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Adequate techniques and strategies are required to manage a WSN so that it works properly, observing specific quantities and metrics to evaluate the WSN operational conditions. Among them, one of the most important is the reliability. Considering a WSN as a system composed of sensor nodes the system reliability approach can be applied, thus expressing the WSN reliability in terms of its nodes' reliability. More specifically, since often standby power management policies are applied at node level and interferences among nodes may arise, a WSN can be considered as a dynamic system. In this article we therefore consider the WSN reliability evaluation problem from the dynamic system reliability perspective. Static-structural interactions are specified by the WSN topology. Sleep/wake-up standby policies and interferences due to wireless communications can be instead considered as dynamic aspects. Thus, in order to represent and to evaluate the WSN reliability, we use dynamic reliability block diagrams and Petri nets. The proposed technique allows to overcome the limits of Markov models when considering non-linear discharge processes, since they cannot adequately represent the aging processes. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique, we investigate some specific WSN network topologies, providing guidelines for their representation and evaluation.

  14. Are specialist certification examinations a reliable measure of physician competence?

    PubMed

    Burch, V C; Norman, G R; Schmidt, H G; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2008-11-01

    High stakes postgraduate specialist certification examinations have considerable implications for the future careers of examinees. Medical colleges and professional boards have a social and professional responsibility to ensure their fitness for purpose. To date there is a paucity of published data about the reliability of specialist certification examinations and objective methods for improvement. Such data are needed to improve current assessment practices and sustain the international credibility of specialist certification processes. To determine the component and composite reliability of the Fellowship examination of the College of Physicians of South Africa, and identify strategies for further improvement, generalizability and multivariate generalizability theory were used to estimate the reliability of examination subcomponents and the overall reliability of the composite examination. Decision studies were used to identify strategies for improving the composition of the examination. Reliability coefficients of the component subtests ranged from 0.58 to 0.64. The composite reliability of the examination was 0.72. This could be increased to 0.8 by weighting all test components equally or increasing the number of patient encounters in the clinical component of the examination. Correlations between examination components were high, suggesting that similar parameters of competence were being assessed. This composite certification examination, if equally weighted, achieved an overall reliability sufficient for high stakes examination purposes. Increasing the weighting of the clinical component decreased the reliability. This could be rectified by increasing the number of patient encounters in the examination. Practical ways of achieving this are suggested.

  15. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    SciTech Connect

    Morzinski, Jerome; Anderson - Cook, Christine M; Klamann, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  16. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy Monotherapy is not Adequate for Management of Staghorn Renal Calculi.

    PubMed

    Koko, Abdelmoniem K; Onuora, Vincent C; Al Turki, Mohammed A; Mesbed, Ahmed H; Al Jawini, Nasser A

    2003-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1999 a total of 186 patients with staghorn renal stones were treated in our unit. Of them, 76 patients were managed by extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) alone using a third generation Siemen's Lithostar Plus lithotriptor. Sixty-one of these patients who completed a follow-up of 41 months formed the subjects of this study. ESWL was done after routine stenting of the affected side in all cases except one. The mean number of ESWL sessions was 5.2, delivering an average 15,940 shocks per patient. The average hospital stay was 21.68 days and the duration of the treatment was 1-41 months (mean 6.75 months). Significant complications occurred in 35 patients (57.4%) eight of whom sustained multiple significant complications. A total of 162 auxiliary procedures were used in conjunction with ESWL and in the management of complications. The stone free rate at three months was 18%, but rose by the end of the treatment period (41 months) to 63.9%. Our study indicates that ESWL monotherapy is associated with high morbidity rates, high rates of unplanned invasive procedures as well as prolonged treatment periods and hospitalization. Thus, ESWL monotherapy is not adequate for the management of staghorn calculi.

  17. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  18. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  19. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  20. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  1. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Erica T.; Buendia-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Tack, Ivan; Klein, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm) threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort. PMID:25866433

  2. Household-level technologies to improve the availability and preparation of adequate and safe complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Patience; Tomkins, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Plant-based complementary foods are the main source of nutrients for many young children in developing countries. They may, however, present problems in providing nutritionally adequate and safe diets for older infants and young children. The high starch content leads to low-nutrient diets that are bulky and dense, with high levels of antinutritive factors such as phytates, tannins, lectins, and enzyme inhibitors. Phytates impair mineral bioavailability, lectins interfere with intestinal structure, and enzyme inhibitors inhibit digestive enzymes. In addition, there is often microbial contamination, which leads to diarrhea, growth-faltering, and impaired development, and the presence of chemical contaminants may lead to neurological disease and goiter. The fact that some fruits containing carotenoids are only available seasonally contributes to the vulnerability of children receiving predominantly plant-based diets. Traditional household food technologies have been used for centuries to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods. These include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. While modern communities tend to reject these technologies in favor of more convenient fast-food preparations, there is now a resurgence of interest in older technologies as a possible means of improving the quality and safety of complementary foods when the basic diet cannot be changed for economic reasons. This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of these traditional processes at the household or community level, as well as the gaps in research, so that more effective policies and programs can be implemented to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods.

  3. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management.

  4. Neurocysticercosis, familial cerebral cavernomas and intracranial calcifications: differential diagnosis for adequate management.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Domingues, Flavio Sampaio; Frossard, João Thiago; Lopes, Selva Paraguassu; Souza, Jorge Marcondes de

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an endemic disease and important public health problem in some areas of the World and epilepsy is the most common neurological manifestation. Multiple intracranial lesions, commonly calcified, are seen on cranial computed tomography (CT) in the chronic phase of the disease and considered one of the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the test that better depicts the different stages of the intracranial cysts but does not show clearly calcified lesions. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), also known as cerebral cavernomas, are frequent vascular malformations of the brain, better demonstrated by MRI and have also epilepsy as the main form of clinical presentation. When occurring in the familial form, cerebral cavernomas typically present with multiple lesions throughout the brain and, very often, with foci of calcifications in the lesions when submitted to the CT imaging. In the countries, and geographic areas, where NCC is established as an endemic health problem and neuroimaging screening is done by CT scan, it will be important to consider the differential diagnosis between the two diseases due to the differences in adequate management. PMID:27332076

  5. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  6. Evaluation of catheter-manometer systems for adequate intravascular blood pressure measurements in small animals.

    PubMed

    Idvall, J; Aronsen, K F; Lindström, K; Ulmsten, U

    1977-09-30

    Various catheter-manometer systems possible for intravascular blood pressure measurments on rats have been elaborated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Using a pressure-step calibrator, it was observed from in vitro studies that microtransducers had superior frequency response compared to conventional transducers. Of the catheters tested, Pe-90 tapered to a 40 mm tip with an inner diameter of 0.3 mm had the best frequency response as judged from fall and settling times. Because of the damping effect, tapering increased fall time to 1.8 ms, which was still quite acceptable. By the same token settling time was minimized to 22.4 ms. With a special calculation method the theoretical percentile fault of the recordings was estimated to be 9.66%. When the measurement error was calculated from the actual in vivo recordings, it was found to be no more than 2.7%. These results show that the technique described is adequate for continuous intravascular blood pressure recordings on small animals. Finally it is emphasized that careful handling of the catheters and avoidance of stopcocks and air bubbles are essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible values. PMID:928971

  7. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  8. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  9. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  10. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  11. Reliability analysis of interdependent lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limiao, Zhang; Daqing, Li; Pengju, Qin; Bowen, Fu; Yinan, Jiang; Zio, Enrico; Rui, Kang

    2016-06-01

    Network reliability analysis has drawn much attention recently due to the risks of catastrophic damage in networked infrastructures. These infrastructures are dependent on each other as a result of various interactions. However, most of the reliability analyses of these interdependent networks do not consider spatial constraints, which are found important for robustness of infrastructures including power grid and transport systems. Here we study the reliability properties of interdependent lattices with different ranges of spatial constraints. Our study shows that interdependent lattices with strong spatial constraints are more resilient than interdependent Erdös-Rényi networks. There exists an intermediate range of spatial constraints, at which the interdependent lattices have minimal resilience.

  12. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmuson, D. M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems.

  13. Internationally adopted children: a new challenge for pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, F; Accomando, S; Porcari, V

    2006-02-01

    Children adopted from abroad by Italian families have increased during the last years. Since 2001 to 2004 they have been more than 10,000, mainly from Eastern Europe, and all indications suggest that they will continue to increase. Most of the internationally adopted children reside in orphanage before adoption where they may experience malnutrition, exposure to infectious diseases, environmental deprivation, neglect. Moreover, their pre-adoptive records are scarcely reliable and their immunization status is not always adequate. The most common long-term problems of internationally adopted children concern developmental and scholastic delay especially if they come from a long and severely deprived institutional setting, precocious puberty and, during adolescence, depressive disorders as well as antisocial behaviours. Inter-country adopted children are at increased risk for health and social problems and have to be recognized as a group of subjects requiring special medical attentions. Specialized centres for internationally adopted children where they could receive medical evaluations upon arrival and a prolonged health follow-up should be set up. PMID:16541007

  14. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Online Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale (OCLAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of students' attitudes towards online cooperative learning is an important issue, which has not been studied adequately. In the literature, there are few scales to measure the attitude towards online cooperative learning for which validity and reliability have been proven. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude…

  15. [Psychometric properties of a scale: internal consistency].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi C

    2008-01-01

    Internal consistency reliability is the degree of correlation between a scale's items. Internal consistency is calculated by Kuder-Richardson's formula 20 for dichotomous choices and Cronbach's alpha for polytomous items. 0.70 to 0.90 internal consistency is acceptable. 5-25 participants are needed for each item when computing the internal consistency of a twenty-item scale. Internal consistency varies according to population and then it is necessary to report it always that scale is used. PMID:19360231

  16. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  17. Failure Analysis for Improved Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sood, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Outline: Section 1 - What is reliability and root cause? Section 2 - Overview of failure mechanisms. Section 3 - Failure analysis techniques (1. Non destructive analysis techniques, 2. Destructive Analysis, 3. Materials Characterization). Section 4 - Summary and Closure

  18. An experiment in software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.; Pierce, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a software reliability experiment conducted in a controlled laboratory setting are reported. The experiment was undertaken to gather data on software failures and is one in a series of experiments being pursued by the Fault Tolerant Systems Branch of NASA Langley Research Center to find a means of credibly performing reliability evaluations of flight control software. The experiment tests a small sample of implementations of radar tracking software having ultra-reliability requirements and uses n-version programming for error detection, and repetitive run modeling for failure and fault rate estimation. The experiment results agree with those of Nagel and Skrivan in that the program error rates suggest an approximate log-linear pattern and the individual faults occurred with significantly different error rates. Additional analysis of the experimental data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults. This phenomenon may provide one explanation for software reliability decay.

  19. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  20. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People... is adequate to limit potential contamination by Cryptosporidium oocysts. The adequacy of the...

  1. The Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory: Development, Reliability, and Initial Validation of a New Scale for Assessing Criminal Thinking in a Japanese Offender Population.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Kaori; Takeda, Fumi; Nagata, Yuko; Suzuki, Junko; Monma, Takafumi; Asanuma, Tohru

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 116 Japanese men who had been placed under parole/probationary supervision or released from prison, the present study examined standardization, reliability, and validation of the Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory (JCTI) that was based on the short form of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), a self-rating instrument designed to evaluate cognitive patterns specific to criminal conduct. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that four dimensions adequately captured the structure of the JCTI, and the resultant 17-item JCTI demonstrated high internal consistency. Compared with the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), the JCTI showed a favorable pattern of criterion-related validity. Prior criminal environment and drug abuse as the most recent offense also significantly correlated with the JCTI total score. Overall, the JCTI possesses an important implication for offender rehabilitation as it identifies relevant cognitive targets and assesses offender progress.

  2. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  3. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  4. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  5. Do Foley Catheters Adequately Drain the Bladder? Evidence from CT Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Avulova, Svetlana; Li, Valery J.; Khusid, Johnathan A.; Choi, Woo S.; Weiss, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomo-graphic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube: V=(ϖ/6)*(L*W*H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. PMID:26200550

  6. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  7. When are studies adequate for regulatory purposes? View of one regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, M

    1981-01-01

    The question of adequacy of studies for regulatory purposes has been debated for years. Nine questions need answers to determine adequacy: (1) Does the study deal with a defined problem or a defined segment of it? (2) Do the study data justify the conclusions drawn? (3) Were appropriate statistical analyses used? Is there evidence of bias versus objectivity in the collection or analysis of data? (4) Does the study support, supplement (or complement) or refute information in the literature? Is the study truly new information? (5) Does the study conform to the Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG) guidelines for documentation of Epidemiologic Studies? (6) Does the study stand up to peer review? (7) Have other investigators been able to confirm the findings by duplicating the study? (8) Is the study acceptable or can it be made acceptable for publication in a reputable scientific journal? (9) Is the problem of such magnitude or significance that regulation is required? Because there is no such thing as a risk-free environment or absolute safety and there is no definitive "yes" answer to each of the questions, the regulated would hope--yes, insist--that the regulators exercise judgement with great skill in promulgation of rules or regulations. The application of safety factors and the determination of acceptable levels of risk should be social decisions. A discussion of instances where the "regulated" believes that studies have not been adequate, or others habe been ignored, or misinterpreted for regulatory purposes in included.A method of settling controversial questions to eliminate the litigation route is proposed. Judgment which is so often eliminated by regulation needs to find its way back into the regulatory process. The regulated recognize the need for regulations. However, when these regulations are based on less than good scientific judgment, harm will be done to the regulatory process itself in the long run. PMID:7333262

  8. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  9. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    PubMed

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  10. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to 100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  11. The adequate stimulus for avian short latency vestibular responses to linear translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.; Colbert, S.

    1998-01-01

    Transient linear acceleration stimuli have been shown to elicit eighth nerve vestibular compound action potentials in birds and mammals. The present study was undertaken to better define the nature of the adequate stimulus for neurons generating the response in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). In particular, the study evaluated the question of whether the neurons studied are most sensitive to the maximum level of linear acceleration achieved or to the rate of change in acceleration (da/dt, or jerk). To do this, vestibular response thresholds were measured as a function of stimulus onset slope. Traditional computer signal averaging was used to record responses to pulsed linear acceleration stimuli. Stimulus onset slope was systematically varied. Acceleration thresholds decreased with increasing stimulus onset slope (decreasing stimulus rise time). When stimuli were expressed in units of jerk (g/ms), thresholds were virtually constant for all stimulus rise times. Moreover, stimuli having identical jerk magnitudes but widely varying peak acceleration levels produced virtually identical responses. Vestibular response thresholds, latencies and amplitudes appear to be determined strictly by stimulus jerk magnitudes. Stimulus attributes such as peak acceleration or rise time alone do not provide sufficient information to predict response parameter quantities. Indeed, the major response parameters were shown to be virtually independent of peak acceleration levels or rise time when these stimulus features were isolated and considered separately. It is concluded that the neurons generating short latency vestibular evoked potentials do so as "jerk encoders" in the chicken. Primary afferents classified as "irregular", and which traditionally fall into the broad category of "dynamic" or "phasic" neurons, would seem to be the most likely candidates for the neural generators of short latency vestibular compound action potentials.

  12. [Bone and joint diseases in children. Adequate calcium intake and dietary habit especially breakfast in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kodama, Momoko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Childhood and adolescence are important periods for body growth. Calcium is one of the critical dietary factors especially for bone growth. Although recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of calcium has been determined higher in Dietary reference intakes for Japanese, 2010, calcium intake of Japanese children and adolescent are not necessarily adequate. Furthermore, breakfast skippers in this period tend to increase. So, it is very important to acquire an adequate dietary habit from childhood and adolescent. PMID:20513944

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Alcohol Consequences Expectations Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob; Usdan, Stuart; Mays, Darren; Weitzel, Jessica Aungst; Cremeens, Jennifer; Martin, Ryan J.; Borba, Christina; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the reliability and validity of a new measure of alcohol outcome expectations for college students, the Alcohol Consequences Expectations Scale (ACES). Methods: College students (N = 169) completed the ACES and several other measures. Results: Results support the existence of 5 internally consistent subscales. Additionally,…

  14. Reliability and Plasticity of Response Inhibition and Interference Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wostmann, Nicola M.; Aichert, Desiree S.; Costa, Anna; Rubia, Katya; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the internal reliability, temporal stability and plasticity of commonly used measures of inhibition-related functions. Stop-signal, go/no-go, antisaccade, Simon, Eriksen flanker, Stroop and Continuous Performance tasks were administered twice to 23 healthy participants over a period of approximately 11 weeks in order to…

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), 28 youth aged 6 to 17 years with Tourette's syndrome (TS) participated in the study. Data included clinician reports of tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) severity, parent reports of tics, internalizing and externalizing problems, and child reports…

  16. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor analysis…

  17. The Role of Reliability in Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    1986-01-01

    These analyses suggest that if a criterion-referenced test had a reliability (defined in terms of internal consistency) below 0.5, a simple a priori procedure would provide better estimates of students' universe scores than would individual observed scores. (Author/LMO)

  18. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  19. The reliability of the pass/fail decision for assessments comprised of multiple components

    PubMed Central

    Möltner, Andreas; Tımbıl, Sevgi; Jünger, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The decision having the most serious consequences for a student taking an assessment is the one to pass or fail that student. For this reason, the reliability of the pass/fail decision must be determined for high quality assessments, just as the measurement reliability of the point values. Assessments in a particular subject (graded course credit) are often composed of multiple components that must be passed independently of each other. When “conjunctively” combining separate pass/fail decisions, as with other complex decision rules for passing, adequate methods of analysis are necessary for estimating the accuracy and consistency of these classifications. To date, very few papers have addressed this issue; a generally applicable procedure was published by Douglas and Mislevy in 2010. Using the example of an assessment comprised of several parts that must be passed separately, this study analyzes the reliability underlying the decision to pass or fail students and discusses the impact of an improved method for identifying those who do not fulfill the minimum requirements. Method: The accuracy and consistency of the decision to pass or fail an examinee in the subject cluster Internal Medicine/General Medicine/Clinical Chemistry at the University of Heidelberg’s Faculty of Medicine was investigated. This cluster requires students to separately pass three components (two written exams and an OSCE), whereby students may reattempt to pass each component twice. Our analysis was carried out using the method described by Douglas and Mislevy. Results: Frequently, when complex logical connections exist between the individual pass/fail decisions in the case of low failure rates, only a very low reliability for the overall decision to grant graded course credit can be achieved, even if high reliabilities exist for the various components. For the example analyzed here, the classification accuracy and consistency when conjunctively combining the three individual

  20. The mindfulness-based relapse prevention adherence and competence scale: development, interrater reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Neharika; Collin, Susan; Bowen, Sarah; Hsu, Sharon; Grow, Joel; Douglass, Anne; Marlatt, G Alan

    2010-07-01

    The present study describes the development of the Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention Adherence and Competence Scale (MBRP-AC), a measure of treatment integrity for mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP). MBRP is a newly developed treatment integrating core aspects of relapse prevention with mindfulness practices. The MBRP-AC was developed in the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of MBRP efficacy and consists of two sections: Adherence (adherence to individual components of MBRP and discussion of key concepts) and Competence (ratings of therapist style/approach and performance). Audio recordings from 44 randomly selected group treatment sessions (50%) were rated by independent raters for therapist adherence and competence in the RCT. Findings evinced high interrater reliability for all treatment adherence and competence ratings, and adequate internal consistency for Therapist Style/Approach and Therapist Performance summary scales. Ratings on the MBRP-AC suggested that therapists in the recent RCT adhered to protocol, discussed key concepts in each session, and demonstrated the intended style and competence in treatment delivery. Finally, overall ratings on the Adherence section were positively related to changes in mindfulness over the course of the treatment.

  1. Reliability-Based Electronics Shielding Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; O'Neill, P. J.; Zang, T. A.; Pandolf, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2007-01-01

    Shielding design on large human-rated systems allows minimization of radiation impact on electronic systems. Shielding design tools require adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and adequate follow-up on final design evaluation.

  2. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Crosby, John, IV; Haycock, Ken; Oh, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following international reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Trends and Issues in Library and Information Services in Canada, 1998. (AEF)

  3. Too Reliable to Be True? Response Bias as a Potential Source of Inflation in Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaire Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Eyal; Gamliel, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    When respondents answer paper-and-pencil (PP) questionnaires, they sometimes modify their responses to correspond to previously answered items. As a result, this response bias might artificially inflate the reliability of PP questionnaires. We compared the internal consistency of PP questionnaires to computerized questionnaires that presented a…

  4. Polyphenol oxidase activity as a potential intrinsic index of adequate thermal pasteurization of apple cider.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Ingham, B H; Ingham, S C

    2004-05-01

    In response to increasing concerns about microbial safety of apple cider, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated treatment of cider sufficient for a 5-log reduction of the target pathogen. Pasteurization has been suggested as the treatment most likely to achieve a 5-log reduction, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the target pathogen. Regulators and processors need a reliable method for verifying pasteurization, and apple cider polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was studied as a potential intrinsic index for thermal pasteurization. The effect of pasteurization conditions and apple cider properties on PPO activity and survival of three pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) was studied using a Box-Behnken response surface design. Factors considered in the design were pasteurization conditions, i.e., hold temperature (60, 68, and 76 degrees C), preheat time (10, 20, 30 s), and hold time (0, 15, 30 s), pH, and sugar content ((o)Brix) of apple cider. Response surface contour plots were constructed to illustrate the effect of these factors on PPO activity and pathogen survival. Reduction in PPO activity of at least 50% was equivalent to a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes for cider at pH 3.7 and 12.5 (o)Brix. Further studies, however, are needed to verify the relationship between PPO activity and pathogen reduction in cider with various pH and (o)Brix values.

  5. Shoulder Arthroscopy Does Not Adequately Visualize Pathology of the Long Head of Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Saithna, Adnan; Longo, Alison; Leiter, Jeff; Old, Jason; MacDonald, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulling the long head of the biceps tendon into the joint at arthroscopy is a common method for evaluation of tendinopathic lesions. However, the rate of missed diagnoses when using this technique is reported to be as high as 30% to 50%. Hypothesis: Tendon excursion achieved using a standard arthroscopic probe does not allow adequate visualization of extra-articular sites of predilection of tendinopathy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Seven forequarter amputation cadaveric specimens were evaluated. The biceps tendon was tagged to mark the intra-articular length and the maximum excursions achieved using a probe and a grasper in both beach-chair and lateral positions. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance to compare means. Results: The mean intra-articular and extra-articular lengths of the tendons were 23.9 and 82.3 mm, respectively. The length of tendon that could be visualized by pulling it into the joint with a probe through the anterior midglenoid portal was not significantly different when using either lateral decubitus (mean ± SD, 29.9 ± 3.89 mm; 95% CI, 25.7-34 mm) or beach-chair positions (32.7 ± 4.23 mm; 95% CI, 28.6-36.8 mm). The maximum length of the overall tendon visualized in any specimen using a standard technique was 37 mm. Although there was a trend to greater excursion using a grasper through the same portal, this was not statistically significant. However, using a grasper through the anterosuperior portal gave a significantly greater mean excursion than any other technique (46.7 ± 4.31 mm; 95% CI, 42.6-50.8 mm), but this still failed to allow evaluation of Denard zone C. Conclusion: Pulling the tendon into the joint with a probe via an anterior portal does not allow visualization of distal sites of predilection of pathology. Surgeons should be aware that this technique is inadequate and can result in missed diagnoses. Clinical Relevance: This study demonstrates that glenohumeral

  6. Reliability of the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale during toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Eric A; Houck, Gail M; Kindermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The quality of the maternal-child feeding interaction has been proposed to be an important contributor to a child's being overweight, yet assessment of this proposition has been hindered by a lack of age-appropriate instrumentation. The primary aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale (NCAFS) if extended to use during toddlerhood. A longitudinal design was used to assess NCAFS reliability at 12, 24, and 36 months. The NCAFS was used to code videotaped feeding observations of 116 mother-toddler dyads collected as part of a larger study examining mother-child interactions and adaptations of toddlers. Reliability was explored through the assessment of interrater reliability, internal consistency of the various subscales and the scale as a whole, and stability of the scale measurements over time. At each age, interrater reliability was generally quite good whereas the NCAFS' internal consistency was low. Maternal contributions to feeding interaction quality were stable over time but dyadic and child contributions were not. The lower internal consistency estimates were likely due to relatively low levels of variance among the dyads within each age. Another probable contributor to diminished internal consistency was the attrition of several behavior items due to zero variance. Possible explanations for this restriction of variance and several approaches for improving the NCAFS internal consistency during toddlerhood are considered. With revision, the NCAFS could be useful in assessment of feeding interaction quality during the transition to toddlerhood when issues of control and autonomy become increasingly prominent.

  7. Measurement, estimation, and prediction of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, H.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative indices of software reliability are defined, and application of three important indices is indicated: (1) reliability measurement, (2) reliability estimation, and (3) reliability prediction. State of the art techniques for each of these procedures are presented together with considerations of data acquisition. Failure classifications and other documentation for comprehensive software reliability evaluation are described.

  8. Three Canted Radiator Panels to Provide Adequate Cooling for Instruments on Slewing Spacecraft in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Certain free-flying spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) or payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) are required to slew to point the telescopes at targets. Instrument detectors and electronics require cooling. Traditionally a planar thermal radiator is used. The temperature of such a radiator varies significantly when the spacecraft slews because its view factors to space vary significantly. Also for payloads on the ISS, solar impingement on the radiator is possible. These thermal adversities could lead to inadequate cooling for the instrument. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes three canted radiator panels to mitigate this problem. It increases the overall radiator view factor to cold space and reduces the overall solar or albedo flux absorbed per unit area of the radiator.

  9. Reliability Analysis of Penetration Systems Using Nondeterministic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    FIELD JR.,RICHARD V.; PAEZ,THOMAS L.; RED-HORSE,JOHN R.

    1999-10-27

    Device penetration into media such as metal and soil is an application of some engineering interest. Often, these devices contain internal components and it is of paramount importance that all significant components survive the severe environment that accompanies the penetration event. In addition, the system must be robust to perturbations in its operating environment, some of which exhibit behavior which can only be quantified to within some level of uncertainty. In the analysis discussed herein, methods to address the reliability of internal components for a specific application system are discussed. The shock response spectrum (SRS) is utilized in conjunction with the Advanced Mean Value (AMV) and Response Surface methods to make probabilistic statements regarding the predicted reliability of internal components. Monte Carlo simulation methods are also explored.

  10. Electronics reliability and measurement technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A summary is presented of the Electronics Reliability and Measurement Technology Workshop. The meeting examined the U.S. electronics industry with particular focus on reliability and state-of-the-art technology. A general consensus of the approximately 75 attendees was that "the U.S. electronics industries are facing a crisis that may threaten their existence". The workshop had specific objectives to discuss mechanisms to improve areas such as reliability, yield, and performance while reducing failure rates, delivery times, and cost. The findings of the workshop addressed various aspects of the industry from wafers to parts to assemblies. Key problem areas that were singled out for attention are identified, and action items necessary to accomplish their resolution are recommended.

  11. Reliability model for planetary gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Paridon, C. A.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    A reliability model is presented for planetary gear trains in which the ring gear is fixed, the Sun gear is the input, and the planet arm is the output. The input and output shafts are coaxial and the input and output torques are assumed to be coaxial with these shafts. Thrust and side loading are neglected. This type of gear train is commonly used in main rotor transmissions for helicopters and in other applications which require high reductions in speed. The reliability model is based on the Weibull distribution of the individual reliabilities of the transmission components. The transmission's basic dynamic capacity is defined as the input torque which may be applied for one million input rotations of the Sun gear. Load and life are related by a power law. The load life exponent and basic dynamic capacity are developed as functions of the component capacities.

  12. Longitudinal Adjustment Trajectories of International Students and Their Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the course of adjustment of international students has not been adequately tested and only one study to date has examined multiple trajectories of international students' adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of…

  13. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise shall establish adequate and efficient internal controls...

  14. A Review of Score Reliability: Contemporary Thinking on Reliability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    2004-01-01

    Bruce Thompson's edited volume begins with a basic principle, one might call it a basic truth, "reliability is a property that applies to scores, and not immutably across all conceivable uses everywhere of a given measure." (p. 3). The author claims that this principle is little known and-or little understood. While that is an arguable point, the…

  15. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  16. Designing magnetic systems for reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Designing magnetic system is an iterative process in which the requirements are set, a design is developed, materials and manufacturing processes are defined, interrelationships with the various elements of the system are established, engineering analyses are performed, and fault modes and effects are studied. Reliability requires that all elements of the design process, from the seemingly most straightforward such as utilities connection design and implementation, to the most sophisticated such as advanced finite element analyses, receives a balanced and appropriate level of attention. D.B. Montgomery's study of magnet failures has shown that the predominance of magnet failures tend not to be in the most intensively engineered areas, but are associated with insulation, leads, ad unanticipated conditions. TFTR, JET, JT-60, and PBX are all major tokamaks which have suffered loss of reliability due to water leaks. Similarly the majority of causes of loss of magnet reliability at PPPL has not been in the sophisticated areas of the design but are due to difficulties associated with coolant connections, bus connections, and external structural connections. Looking towards the future, the major next-devices such as BPX and ITER are most costly and complex than any of their predecessors and are pressing the bounds of operating levels, materials, and fabrication. Emphasis on reliability is a must as the fusion program enters a phase where there are fewer, but very costly devices with the goal of reaching a reactor prototype stage in the next two or three decades. This paper reviews some of the magnet reliability issues which PPPL has faced over the years the lessons learned from them, and magnet design and fabrication practices which have been found to contribute to magnet reliability.

  17. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B.

    1995-07-01

    As the first stage in examining the mechanical reliability of protective surface oxides, the behavior of alumina scales formed on iron-aluminum alloys during high-temperature cyclic oxidation was characterized in terms of damage and spallation tendencies. Scales were thermally grown on specimens of three iron-aluminum composition using a series of exposures to air at 1000{degrees}C. Gravimetric data and microscopy revealed substantially better integrity and adhesion of the scales grown on an alloy containing zirconium. The use of polished (rather than just ground) specimens resulted in scales that were more suitable for subsequent characterization of mechanical reliability.

  18. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  19. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. ); Majumdar, D. )

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  20. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system`s reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  1. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems is presented. This particular application is for a solar cell power system demonstration project designed to provide electric power requirements for remote villages. The techniques utilized involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  2. Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No resilience scale has been validated in Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 10-item CD-RISC in a sample of Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Design: Observational prospective multicenter study. Sample: Patients with diagnoses of fibromyalgia recruited from primary care settings (N = 208). Instruments: In addition to sociodemographic data, the following questionnaires were administered: Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS), the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (10-item CD-RISC), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results Regarding construct validity, the factor solution in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered adequate, so the KMO test had a value of 0.91, and the Barlett’s test of sphericity was significant (χ2 = 852.8; gl = 45; p < 0.001). Only one factor showed an eigenvalue greater than 1, and it explained 50.4% of the variance. PCA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) results did not show significant differences between groups. The 10-item CD-RISC scale demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.89 for a six-week interval). The 10-item CD-RISC score was significantly correlated with all of the other psychometric instruments in the expected direction, except for the PVAS (−0.115; p = 0.113). Conclusions Our study confirms that the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC shows, in patients with fibromyalgia, acceptable psychometric properties, with a high level of reliability and validity. PMID:24484847

  3. Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tsunehiko; Yamada, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised is one of the most widely used measures of individual differences for the emotion of disgust. It consists of 2 subscales: disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the revised Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale. Japanese participants (N = 1067) completed the scale as well as the Padua Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affective Schedule. The participants were divided into 3 samples: Sample 1 (n = 481, mean age = 23.05, 186 males and 295 females); Sample 2 (n = 492, mean age = 20.27, 243 males and 249 females); and Sample 3 (n = 94, mean age = 22.68, 35 males and 58 females). We combined Samples 1 and 2 (n = 973, mean age = 21.66, 429 males and 544 females), and then created 2 subsamples to ensure the mutual independence of the samples used for two different factor analyses: subsample 1 (n = 486, mean age = 21.86, 199 male and 287 female) for exploratory factor analysis and subsample 2 (n = 487, mean age = 21.40, 230 male and 257 female) for confirmatory factor analysis. We examined test-retest reliability using Sample 3, and construct validity using Samples 1, 2, and the combined sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the item-factor structure of the Japanese Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised was identical to the English version. Moreover, the scale showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity for empirical support as provided by correlational analyses. Results revealed adequate psychometric properties of the scale. This study provided the first examples of empirical support for the DPSS-R-J. PMID:27732659

  4. MR Scanner Systems Should Be Adequately Characterized in Diffusion-MRI of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Marco; Sghedoni, Roberto; Iacconi, Chiara; Iori, Mauro; Traino, Antonio Claudio; Guerrisi, Maria; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Diciotti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Breast imaging represents a relatively recent and promising field of application of quantitative diffusion-MRI techniques. In view of the importance of guaranteeing and assessing its reliability in clinical as well as research settings, the aim of this study was to specifically characterize how the main MR scanner system-related factors affect quantitative measurements in diffusion-MRI of the breast. In particular, phantom acquisitions were performed on three 1.5 T MR scanner systems by different manufacturers, all equipped with a dedicated multi-channel breast coil as well as acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast. We assessed the accuracy, inter-scan and inter-scanner reproducibility of the mean apparent diffusion coefficient measured along the main orthogonal directions () as well as of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI)-derived mean diffusivity (MD) measurements. Additionally, we estimated spatial non-uniformity of (NU) and MD (NUMD) maps. We showed that the signal-to-noise ratio as well as overall calibration of high strength diffusion gradients system in typical acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast varied across MR scanner systems, introducing systematic bias in the measurements of diffusion indices. While and MD values were not appreciably different from each other, they substantially varied across MR scanner systems. The mean of the accuracies of measured and MD was in the range [−2.3%,11.9%], and the mean of the coefficients of variation for and MD measurements across MR scanner systems was 6.8%. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of both and MD was < 1%, while NU and NUMD values were <4%. Our results highlight that MR scanner system-related factors can substantially affect quantitative diffusion-MRI of the breast. Therefore, a specific quality control program for assessing and monitoring the performance of MR scanner systems for diffusion-MRI of the breast is

  5. Spontaneous reports of primarily suspected herbal hepatotoxicity by Pelargonium sidoides: was causality adequately ascertained?

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Spontaneous reports of primarily assumed hepatotoxicity in connection with the use of Pelargonium sidoides (PS) have been interpreted by the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (DCGMA) as showing some hepatotoxic potential of PS used to treat common cold and other respiratory tract infections. Causality for PS was assessed using the liver specific, structured, quantitative, and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). In none of the 15 cases was there a highly probable or probable causality for PS. Analysis revealed confounding factors such as numerous final diagnoses unrelated to PS and poor data quality in virtually all cases. In only a minority of the cases were data provided to consider even common other diseases of the liver. For instance, biliary tract imaging data were available in only 3 patients; data to exclude virus infections by hepatitis A-C were provided in 4 cases and by CMV and EBV in 1 case, whereas HSV and VZV virus infections remained unconsidered. Thus, convincing evidence is lacking that PS was a potential hepatotoxin in the analyzed cases.

  6. Ultraviolet and short wavelength visible light exposure: why ultraviolet protection alone is not adequate.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Alan W; Citek, Karl; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The danger of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both the natural environment and artificial occupational settings has long been recognized by national and international standards committees and worker safety agencies. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that protection from UV exposure is not enough. Unprotected exposure to the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum, termed the "blue light hazard", is gaining acceptance as a true risk to long-term visual health. Global standards and experts in the field are now warning that those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with high impact resistant lenses that provide 100% UV filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. The Skin Cancer Foundation has endorsed certain sunglasses as "product[s]...effective [as] UV filter[s] for the eyes and surrounding skin". However, such endorsement does not necessarily mean that the eyewear meets all the protective needs for outdoor use. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision, available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features.

  7. Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Sutomo, Sumengen

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of water problems faces nations and individuals around the world. These problems include international and regional disputes over water, water scarcity and contamination,unsustainable use of groundwater, ecological degradation,and the threat of climate change. At the heart of the world's water problems, however, is the failure to provide even the most basic water services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure. In 2000, the World Health Organization reported about regularly monitoring access to water and sanitation of 89%of the world's population, in which about 1.1 billion people lacked access to "improved water supply" and more than 2.4 billion lacked access to "improved sanitation". The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades.The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia.

  8. Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi; Sutomo, Sumengen

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of water problems faces nations and individuals around the world. These problems include international and regional disputes over water, water scarcity and contamination,unsustainable use of groundwater, ecological degradation,and the threat of climate change. At the heart of the world's water problems, however, is the failure to provide even the most basic water services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure. In 2000, the World Health Organization reported about regularly monitoring access to water and sanitation of 89%of the world's population, in which about 1.1 billion people lacked access to "improved water supply" and more than 2.4 billion lacked access to "improved sanitation". The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades.The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia. PMID:23095182

  9. Wanted: A Solid, Reliable PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses PC reliability, one of the most pressing issues regarding computers. Nearly a quarter century after the introduction of the first IBM PC and the outset of the personal computer revolution, PCs have largely become commodities, with little differentiating one brand from another in terms of capability and performance. Most of…

  10. Web Awards: Are They Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Nancy; McKnight, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    School library media specialists recommend quality Web sites to children based on evaluations and Web awards. This article examines three types of Web awards and who grants them, suggests ways to determine their reliability, and discusses specific award sites. Includes a bibliography of Web sites. (PEN)

  11. Becoming a high reliability organization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft carriers, electrical power grids, and wildland firefighting, though seemingly different, are exemplars of high reliability organizations (HROs) - organizations that have the potential for catastrophic failure yet engage in nearly error-free performance. HROs commit to safety at the highest level and adopt a special approach to its pursuit. High reliability organizing has been studied and discussed for some time in other industries and is receiving increasing attention in health care, particularly in high-risk settings like the intensive care unit (ICU). The essence of high reliability organizing is a set of principles that enable organizations to focus attention on emergent problems and to deploy the right set of resources to address those problems. HROs behave in ways that sometimes seem counterintuitive - they do not try to hide failures but rather celebrate them as windows into the health of the system, they seek out problems, they avoid focusing on just one aspect of work and are able to see how all the parts of work fit together, they expect unexpected events and develop the capability to manage them, and they defer decision making to local frontline experts who are empowered to solve problems. Given the complexity of patient care in the ICU, the potential for medical error, and the particular sensitivity of critically ill patients to harm, high reliability organizing principles hold promise for improving ICU patient care. PMID:22188677

  12. The Reliability of College Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  13. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B

    1996-10-01

    This proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the ninth PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Sheraton Denver West Hotel on September 4--6, 1996. This years workshop included presentations from 25 speakers and had over 100 attendees. All of the presentations that were given are included in this proceedings. Topics of the papers included: defining service lifetime and developing models for PV module lifetime; examining and determining failure and degradation mechanisms in PV modules; combining IEEE/IEC/UL testing procedures; AC module performance and reliability testing; inverter reliability/qualification testing; standardization of utility interconnect requirements for PV systems; need activities to separate variables by testing individual components of PV systems (e.g. cells, modules, batteries, inverters,charge controllers) for individual reliability and then test them in actual system configurations; more results reported from field experience on modules, inverters, batteries, and charge controllers from field deployed PV systems; and system certification and standardized testing for stand-alone and grid-tied systems.

  14. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  15. Becoming a high reliability organization.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Marlys K; Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Miller, Melissa A; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft carriers, electrical power grids, and wildland firefighting, though seemingly different, are exemplars of high reliability organizations (HROs)--organizations that have the potential for catastrophic failure yet engage in nearly error-free performance. HROs commit to safety at the highest level and adopt a special approach to its pursuit. High reliability organizing has been studied and discussed for some time in other industries and is receiving increasing attention in health care, particularly in high-risk settings like the intensive care unit (ICU). The essence of high reliability organizing is a set of principles that enable organizations to focus attention on emergent problems and to deploy the right set of resources to address those problems. HROs behave in ways that sometimes seem counterintuitive--they do not try to hide failures but rather celebrate them as windows into the health of the system, they seek out problems, they avoid focusing on just one aspect of work and are able to see how all the parts of work fit together, they expect unexpected events and develop the capability to manage them, and they defer decision making to local frontline experts who are empowered to solve problems. Given the complexity of patient care in the ICU, the potential for medical error, and the particular sensitivity of critically ill patients to harm, high reliability organizing principles hold promise for improving ICU patient care.

  16. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  17. Biomedical engineer: an international job.

    PubMed

    Crolet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineer is an international job for several reasons and it means that the knowledge of at least one foreign language is a necessity. A geographical and structural analysis of the biomedical sector concludes to the teaching of a second foreign language. But in spite of the presence of adequate means, it is not possible for us for the moment to set up such a teaching. This paper presents the solution we have chosen in the framework of Erasmus exchanges.

  18. Compound estimation procedures in reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Ron

    1990-01-01

    At NASA, components and subsystems of components in the Space Shuttle and Space Station generally go through a number of redesign stages. While data on failures for various design stages are sometimes available, the classical procedures for evaluating reliability only utilize the failure data on the present design stage of the component or subsystem. Often, few or no failures have been recorded on the present design stage. Previously, Bayesian estimators for the reliability of a single component, conditioned on the failure data for the present design, were developed. These new estimators permit NASA to evaluate the reliability, even when few or no failures have been recorded. Point estimates for the latter evaluation were not possible with the classical procedures. Since different design stages of a component (or subsystem) generally have a good deal in common, the development of new statistical procedures for evaluating the reliability, which consider the entire failure record for all design stages, has great intuitive appeal. A typical subsystem consists of a number of different components and each component has evolved through a number of redesign stages. The present investigations considered compound estimation procedures and related models. Such models permit the statistical consideration of all design stages of each component and thus incorporate all the available failure data to obtain estimates for the reliability of the present version of the component (or subsystem). A number of models were considered to estimate the reliability of a component conditioned on its total failure history from two design stages. It was determined that reliability estimators for the present design stage, conditioned on the complete failure history for two design stages have lower risk than the corresponding estimators conditioned only on the most recent design failure data. Several models were explored and preliminary models involving bivariate Poisson distribution and the

  19. [Functional restoration--it depends on an adequate mixture of treatment].

    PubMed

    Pfingsten, M

    2001-12-01

    impairment as well as physical variables (mobility, strength) have limited predictive value. Return to work and pain reduction are much better predicted by length of absence from work, application for pension, and the patients' disability in daily-life activities. In the last five years another important variable of success has been identified: avoidance behavior has been suspected to be a major contributor to the initiation and maintenance of chronic low back pain. The perpetuation of avoidance behavior beyond normal healing time subsequently leads to negative consequences such as "disuse syndrome", which is associated with physical deconditioning, sick role behavior, psychosocial withdrawal and negative affect. Accordingly, fear-avoidance beliefs were strongly related to absenteeism from work due to back pain and were the best predictors of therapy outcome in 300 acute low back pain patients. In a prospective study on 87 patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) we demonstrated that fear-avoidance beliefs were the strongest predictors of return to work after a functional restoration treatment program. Although nonspecific mechanisms such as emotional disturbance, helplessness, pain anticipation, disability, and job circumstances could be identified as influencing the chronic pain process, we have to remember that long-lasting experience of pain is usually a very individual process in which several conditions may work together in a unique combination. Treatment procedures must consider this variability by focusing on general mechanisms, as well as on individual conditions and deficits. FR treatment strongly depends on behavioral principles that rule the whole therapeutic process: Adequate information is necessary to overcome unhelpful beliefs; information has to be related to the patients' daily experiences and their mental capability to understand them. Pacing, goal-setting, graded exposure with exercise quotas and permanent feedback as well as contingent motivation

  20. [Functional restoration--it depends on an adequate mixture of treatment].

    PubMed

    Pfingsten, M

    2001-12-01

    impairment as well as physical variables (mobility, strength) have limited predictive value. Return to work and pain reduction are much better predicted by length of absence from work, application for pension, and the patients' disability in daily-life activities. In the last five years another important variable of success has been identified: avoidance behavior has been suspected to be a major contributor to the initiation and maintenance of chronic low back pain. The perpetuation of avoidance behavior beyond normal healing time subsequently leads to negative consequences such as "disuse syndrome", which is associated with physical deconditioning, sick role behavior, psychosocial withdrawal and negative affect. Accordingly, fear-avoidance beliefs were strongly related to absenteeism from work due to back pain and were the best predictors of therapy outcome in 300 acute low back pain patients. In a prospective study on 87 patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) we demonstrated that fear-avoidance beliefs were the strongest predictors of return to work after a functional restoration treatment program. Although nonspecific mechanisms such as emotional disturbance, helplessness, pain anticipation, disability, and job circumstances could be identified as influencing the chronic pain process, we have to remember that long-lasting experience of pain is usually a very individual process in which several conditions may work together in a unique combination. Treatment procedures must consider this variability by focusing on general mechanisms, as well as on individual conditions and deficits. FR treatment strongly depends on behavioral principles that rule the whole therapeutic process: Adequate information is necessary to overcome unhelpful beliefs; information has to be related to the patients' daily experiences and their mental capability to understand them. Pacing, goal-setting, graded exposure with exercise quotas and permanent feedback as well as contingent motivation

  1. Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Three not adequately understood lunar phenomena investigated by the wave planetology G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The lunar science notwithstanding rather numerous researches of the last 50 years still debates some important issues. Three of them concern an origin of mascons, the deepest but low ferruginous South Pole-Aitken depression, a strange character of the frequency-crater size curve. Prevailing approaches are mainly based on impacts having made the present geomorphology of the Moon. However practically are ignored the fact of antipodality of basins and marea, a complex character of the frequency-crater size curve obviously implying an involvement of different sources and reasons responsible for crater formation. Attempts to find impactor sources in various sometimes very remote parts of the Solar system are too artificial, besides they do not explain very intensive, like lunar cratering of Mercury. Saturation of the lunar surface by ~70-km diameter craters is very strange for random impacts from any source; to find a time interval for this saturation is difficult if not possible because it affects formations of various ages. Lunar basins and marea completely contradict to a classical frequency- crater size curve. Their presumed ( and measured) different ages make dubious existence of one specialized impactor source. So, if one accepts an impact process as the only process responsible for cratering (ring forms development) then the real mess in crater statistics and timing never will be overcome. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] examined by many planets and satellites of the Solar system proved to be real. In a case of the Moon it can help in answering the above questions. First of all it should be admitted that the complex lunar crater (ring forms) statistics is due to a superposition and mixing of two main processes (a minor involvement of volcanic features is also present): impacts and wave

  2. Crystalline-silicon photovoltaics summary module design and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the design and reliability of solar modules was described. Design requirements involved 14 different considerations, including residential building and material electrical codes, wind-loading, hail impact, operating temperature levels, module flammability, and interfaces for both the array structure and the operation of the system. Reliability research involved in diverse investigations including glass-fracture strength, soiling levels, electrochemical corrosion, and bypass-diode qualification tests. Based on these internationally recognized studies, performance assessments, and failure analyses, the Flat-plate Solar Array Project in its 11-year duration served to nuture the development of 45 different solar module designs from 15 PV manufacturers.

  3. Determining which automatic digital blood pressure device performs adequately: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Y; Heneghan, C; Stevens, R; McManus, R J; Ward, A; Perera, R; Thompson, M; Tarassenko, L; Mant, D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically examine the proportion of accurate readings attained by automatic digital blood pressure (BP) devices in published validation studies. We included studies of automatic digital BP devices using recognized protocols. We summarized the data as mean and s.d. of differences between measured and observed BP, and proportion of measurements within 5 mm Hg. We included 79 articles (10 783 participants) reporting 113 studies from 22 different countries. Overall, 25/31 (81%), 37/41 (90%) and 34/35 (97%) devices passed the relevant protocols [BHS, AAMI and ESH international protocol (ESH-IP), respectively]. For devices that passed the BHS protocol, the proportion of measured values within 5 mm Hg of the observed value ranged from 60 to 86% (AAMI protocol 47–94% and ESH-IP 54–89%). The results for the same device varied significantly when a different protocol was used (Omron HEM-907 80% of readings were within 5 mm Hg using the AAMI protocol compared with 62% with the ESH-IP). Even devices with a mean difference of zero show high variation: a device with 74% of BP measurements within 5 mm Hg would require six further BP measurements to reduce variation to 95% of readings within 5 mm Hg. Current protocols for validating BP monitors give no guarantee of accuracy in clinical practice. Devices may pass even the most rigorous protocol with as few as 60% of readings within 5 mm Hg of the observed value. Multiple readings are essential to provide clinicians and patients with accurate information on which to base diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:20376077

  4. Power Quality and Reliability Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, John O.

    2001-01-01

    One area where universities and industry can link is in the area of power systems reliability and quality - key concepts in the commercial, industrial and public sector engineering environments. Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) has established a collaborative relationship with the University of'Texas at Arlington (UTA), NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), and EP&C Engineering and Technology Group (EP&C) a small disadvantage business that specializes in power quality and engineering services. The primary goal of this collaboration is to facilitate the development and implementation of a Strategic Integrated power/Systems Reliability and Curriculum Enhancement Program. The objectives of first phase of this work are: (a) to develop a course in power quality and reliability, (b) to use the campus of Prairie View A&M University as a laboratory for the study of systems reliability and quality issues, (c) to provide students with NASA/EPC shadowing and Internship experience. In this work, a course, titled "Reliability Analysis of Electrical Facilities" was developed and taught for two semesters. About thirty seven has benefited directly from this course. A laboratory accompanying the course was also developed. Four facilities at Prairie View A&M University were surveyed. Some tests that were performed are (i) earth-ground testing, (ii) voltage, amperage and harmonics of various panels in the buildings, (iii) checking the wire sizes to see if they were the right size for the load that they were carrying, (iv) vibration tests to test the status of the engines or chillers and water pumps, (v) infrared testing to the test arcing or misfiring of electrical or mechanical systems.

  5. Reliability and Validity of Outcome Expectancy-Related Measures in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Liu, Yuanlong; Lodewyk, Ken; Zhang, Tao; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of outcome likelihood, outcome value, and outcome expectancy using data collected from students in secondary school physical education classes. Dependent measures were examined for construct, concurrent, and predictive validity, as well as internal and temporal reliability. The…

  6. A Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha for the Maslach Burnout Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Denna L.; Vassar, Matt; Worley, Jody A.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize internal consistency reliability for the subscale scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The authors addressed three research questions: (a) What is the mean subscale score reliability for the MBI across studies? (b) What factors are associated with observed variance in MBI subscale score…

  7. Study on the Validity and Reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Deniz, M. Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ). The sample consisted of 650 university students. The structural validity of the MDMQ, as well as correlations among its sub-scales, measure-bound validity, internal consistency, item total correlations and test-retest reliability coefficients…

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Confidence (EPIC) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach, Nancy M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Williams, Jack I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity of the evidence-based practice confidence (EPIC) scale were evaluated among physical therapists (PTs) in clinical practice. Methods: A longitudinal mail survey was conducted. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach's alpha…

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Reliability Coefficients in Second Language Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke; Derrick, Deirdre J.

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring internal validity in quantitative research requires, among other conditions, reliable instrumentation. Unfortunately, however, second language (L2) researchers often fail to report and even more often fail to interpret reliability estimates beyond generic benchmarks for acceptability. As a means to guide interpretations of such estimates,…

  10. Evaluating the Reliability of a Detailed Analytic Scoring Rubric for Foreign Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The demand for valid and reliable methods of assessing second and foreign language writing has grown in significance in recent years. One such method is the timed writing test which has a central place in many testing contexts internationally. The reliability of this test method is heavily influenced by the scoring procedures, including the rating…

  11. Adequate margin definition for scanned particle therapy in the incidence of intrafractional motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, Antje-Christin; Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Antony; Mori, Shininchiro

    2013-09-01

    Advanced 4D dose calculations (4DDCs) for scanned particle therapy show that in the incidence of motion, it is insufficient to use target contours defined on one reference CT phase. ICRU Report 62 (ICRU 1999 ICRU Report 62 (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)) advises that variations in size, shape and position of CTVs relative to anatomic reference points have to be considered for internal target volumes (ITVs). In addition to geometrical margin adaption, changes of water equivalent path length have to be considered for particle therapy. Different ITV concepts have been applied to six representative patients (liver and lung indications) based on 4DCT. Geometrical ITVs (gITV) were calculated by combining deformed CTVs over all motion phases. To take into account path length changes, range adapted ITVs (raITV) were established as the union of range adapted CTVs in all phases. For gated delivery, gat_gITVs and gat_raITVs were calculated. Extensive 4DDCs have been performed for two exemplary patients to illustrate that neither re-scanning nor gating can sufficiently compensate for motion effects if no appropriate margins are employed and to evaluate the effectiveness of gITVs and raITVs. CTVs significantly differ from gITVs and raITVs in size (up to a factor 2 in volume). But also raITVs and gITVs differ significantly in size and are spatially displaced, particularly for lung patients. raITVs show a strong field dependence in shape. All volumes are reduced in size when gating is applied and considered during margin adaption. 4D dose distributions show big improvements when gITV or raITV are used compared to CTVs. However, the use of either gITVs or raITVs do not result in significant differences. If raITVs are used, slightly better target coverage is gained at the cost of more healthy tissue exposure. Our results emphasize that adapted target volumes have to be used for scanned particle therapy in the presence of motion. However, even though gITVs and raITVs differ significantly in

  12. Generalizability theory reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement in universal screening.

    PubMed

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A; Mercer, Sterett H; Thomas, Erin L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African American students, 17% Hispanic students, 8% Asian students, and 3% of students identified as 2 or more races. Of the sample, 8% were English Language Learners and 6% were students receiving special education. Three WE-CBM probes were administered for 7 min each at 3 time points across 1 year. Writing samples were scored for commonly used WE-CBM metrics (e.g., correct minus incorrect word sequences; CIWS). Results suggest that nearly half the variance in WE-CBM is related to unsystematic error and that conventional screening procedures (i.e., the use of one 3-min sample) do not yield scores with adequate reliability for relative or absolute decisions about student performance. In most grades, three 3-min writing samples (or 2 longer duration samples) were required for adequate reliability for relative decisions, and three 7-min writing samples would not yield adequate reliability for relative decisions about within-year student growth. Implications and recommendations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322656

  13. Assuring Electronics Reliability: What Could and Should Be Done Differently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    The following “ ten commandments” for the predicted and quantified reliability of aerospace electronic, and photonic products are addressed and discussed: 1) The best product is the best compromise between the needs for reliability, cost effectiveness and time-to-market; 2) Reliability cannot be low, need not be higher than necessary, but has to be adequate for a particular product; 3) When reliability is imperative, ability to quantify it is a must, especially if optimization is considered; 4) One cannot design a product with quantified, optimized and assured reliability by limiting the effort to the highly accelerated life testing (HALT) that does not quantify reliability; 5) Reliability is conceived at the design stage and should be taken care of, first of all, at this stage, when a “ genetically healthy” product should be created; reliability evaluations and assurances cannot be delayed until the product is fabricated and shipped to the customer, i.e., cannot be left to the prognostics-and-health-monitoring/managing (PHM) stage; it is too late at this stage to change the design or the materials for improved reliability; that is why, when reliability is imperative, users re-qualify parts to assess their lifetime and use redundancy to build a highly reliable system out of insufficiently reliable components; 6) Design, fabrication, qualification and PHM efforts should consider and be specific for particular products and their most likely actual or at least anticipated application(s); 7) Probabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) is an effective means for improving the state-of-the-art in the field: nothing is perfect, and the difference between an unreliable product and a robust one is “ merely” the probability of failure (PoF); 8) Highly cost-effective and highly focused failure oriented accelerated testing (FOAT) geared to a particular pre-determined reliability model and aimed at understanding the physics of failure- anticipated by this model is an

  14. 21 CFR 1.283 - What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice? 1.283 Section 1.283 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Imported Food Consequences § 1.283 What happens to food that is imported or offered for import...

  15. 21 CFR 1.283 - What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens to food that is imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice? 1.283 Section 1.283 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Imported Food Consequences § 1.283 What happens to food that is imported or offered for import...

  16. 23 CFR 669.13 - Effect of failure to certify or to adequately obtain proof-of-payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of failure to certify or to adequately obtain proof-of-payment. 669.13 Section 669.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF HEAVY VEHICLE USE TAX § 669.13 Effect of...

  17. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintained in a secured room with a locking door. (3) Access to and use of a system of records shall be...) Access to areas where a system of records is stored will be limited to those persons whose duties require... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to...

  18. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintained in a secured room with a locking door. (3) Access to and use of a system of records shall be...) Access to areas where a system of records is stored will be limited to those persons whose duties require... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to...

  19. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintained in a secured room with a locking door. (3) Access to and use of a system of records shall be...) Access to areas where a system of records is stored will be limited to those persons whose duties require... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to...

  20. Adequate Funding of Education Programs for At-Risk Children: An Econometric Application of Research-Based Cost Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Wall, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the adequacy of funding for public schools, specifically with regard to the provision of programs for at-risk children. Of particular concern is the determination of realistic, research-based costs of adequately funded programs. This article has three basic parts: the definition and measurement…