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Sample records for adequate internal reliability

  1. Comparability and Reliability Considerations of Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Kimberly S.; Maiti, Tapabrata; Dass, Sarat C.; Lim, Chae Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an estimate of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) that will allow for reliable and valid comparisons among student subgroups, schools, and districts. A shrinkage-type estimator of AYP using the Bayesian framework is described. Using simulated data, the performance of the Bayes estimator will be compared to…

  2. Reliability Analyses for the ADSI: Test-Retest and Internal Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, M. J.; Gurdineer, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on two separate studies of reliability of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI), test-retest and internal consistency analyses. The ADSI has shown adequate validity, although reliability has not been established. Methods: Study 1: Students were recruited from two undergraduate courses (N = 29).…

  3. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Is "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP) Feasible, Valid, Reliable, and Fair? Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires standards-based accountability for school districts and schools receiving Title I funds. A major component of this policy is to report whether districts and schools are making "adequate yearly progress" (AYP) based on their performance goals. This paper raises questions for rural schools using the…

  4. Internal Consistency Reliabilities for 14 Computer Attitude Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Examines the internal consistency reliabilities for 14 previously-published computer attitude scales based on responses from preservice teachers, practicing K-12 teachers, and teacher educators. Describes the Teachers' Attitude toward Computers Questionnaire (TAC) that included 32 subscales. (LRW)

  5. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  6. "Rassling the Hog": The Influence of Correlated Item Error on Internal Consistency, Classical Reliability, and Congeneric Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucke, Joseph F.

    2005-01-01

    The properties of internal consistency (alpha), classical reliability (rho), and congeneric reliability (omega) for a composite test with correlated item error are analytically investigated. Possible sources of correlated item error are contextual effects, item bundles, and item models that ignore additional attributes or higher-order attributes.…

  7. How rich is Australia's minerals endowment and is it adequate to sustain a major role in meeting international demand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    Dr Ian Lambert, Geoscience Australia and Secretary General 34th International Geological Congress Australia has comparative advantages in production of mineral commodities compared to most other countries. These stem from its rich and diverse mineral endowment; availability of regional scale (pre-competitive) geoscience information to lower the risks of exploration; advances in exploration, mining and processing technologies; skilled work force; generally benign physical conditions; and low population density. Building on these strengths, Australia is a major producer and exporter of a wide range of mineral and energy commodities to global markets. Given that demand for most major commodities is likely to continue, and that there will be growing markets for some other commodities, Australia needs to have a strategic view of what is likely to be available for mining. Further, Australia (and the world) needs to be attuned to issues that need to be faced in meeting international demand for commodities in the long term. This presentation outlines how Australia's national minerals inventory is compiled. It discusses trends for Australia's identified mineral resources for major commodities, and how these compare with other major mining nations. It then considers some significant issues in relation to sustaining a strong mining sector - in the medium to long term this requires a strategic approach to achieve goals such as more effective/lower risk exploration particularly in greenfields regions; well-Informed decisions on mining proposals; ongoing significant improvements in efficiencies of energy, water and land use.

  8. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  9. Impact of Rabies Vaccination History on Attainment of an Adequate Antibody Titre Among Dogs Tested for International Travel Certification, Israel - 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, B; Taylor, N; Dveres, N; Rotblat, S; Spero, Ż; Lankau, E W; Maki, J

    2016-12-02

    Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification. Having received only one previous rabies vaccination and a longer duration since the most recent vaccination was received were primary risk factors for not achieving an adequate rabies virus neutralizing antibody titre for travel certification. These risk factors had stronger effects in younger animals, but were consistent for dogs of all ages. In particular, these findings reiterate the importance of administering at least two rabies vaccinations (the primo vaccination and subsequent booster) to ensure population-level protection against rabies in dogs globally.

  10. Internal consistency reliability of the WISC-IV among primary school students'.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Bartels, Jared M

    2009-06-01

    Internal consistency reliabilities of the WISC-IV subtest and index scores were estimated for a sample of 76 primary school students from a small Midwestern community. Means for age and Full Scale IQ were 8.2 yr. (SD = 23) and 110.5 (SD = 11.7), respectively. Internal consistency reliabilities were compared with those for the WISC-IV standardization sample of 200. The range of reliabilities for the subtests was from .76 for Picture Concepts to .94 for Arithmetic and from .92 for Perceptual Reasoning Index to .96 for Verbal Comprehension Index and Full Scale IQ. The Full Scale IQ internal consistency reliability is comparable to that of the standardization sample. However, in all but one instance the reliabilities were greater than those of the normative sample.

  11. Evaluation of Dimensionality in the Assessment of Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha and Omega Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…

  12. Internal Consistency Reliability of the Self-Report Antisocial Process Screening Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…

  13. International Headache Society classification: interobserver reliability in the diagnosis of primary headaches.

    PubMed

    Granella, F; D'Alessandro, R; Manzoni, G C; Cerbo, R; Colucci D'Amato, C; Pini, L A; Savi, L; Zanferrari, C; Nappi, G

    1994-02-01

    We assessed interobserver reliability of the International Headache Society (IHS) classification for diagnosis of primary headaches. The study was performed on 103 patients consecutively seen at two Headache Centres. Each patient was given a structured interview recorded on videotape. Four experienced clinicians then reviewed the interviews separately and made a diagnosis of headache according to IHS criteria at the one- and two-digit levels. At both the one- and the two-digit level the agreement was substantial (Kappa = 0.74 and 0.65, respectively). The analysis of reliability for each of nine items necessary for diagnosis showed an agreement ranging from substantial (Kappa = 0.69) to almost perfect (Kappa = 0.89). Our results indicate that the IHS classification has a good reliability for the diagnosis of primary headaches at the one- and two-digit levels.

  14. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  15. To transfer or not to transfer? Evidence from validity and reliability tests for international transfers of non-market adaptation benefits in river basins.

    PubMed

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios

    2016-10-28

    The attempt to design cost-effective adaptation policies incorporating non-market values to inhibit climate change impacts on water resources may increase the interest in applying the Benefit Transfer method. Benefit Transfer is a practical way to consider non-market values using functions and estimates acquired through primary valuation methods from other sites. Among the primary methods, Choice Experiments appear to particularly accommodate Benefit Transfer. Nevertheless, validity and reliability of international value transfers obtained from Choice Experiments have not been adequately examined. To this end, two identical Choice Experiments were conducted in Greece and Italy in the context of river services adaptation, testing validity and reliability of Benefit Transfer. The application of validity and reliability tests for different types of transfers is supportive for the use of Benefit Transfer, at least for the value transfer types. In particular the reliability of value transfer was higher when income adjustments were taken into account. Overall, Benefit Transfer can be attentively considered to evaluate cost-effective adaptation policies across countries experiencing similar climate change trends. The latter gains more importance given that an international Benefit Transfer setting as regards the non-market benefits of adaptation to climate change for river services is absent in the relevant literature.

  16. Reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy for detecting internal voids in structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of 100 MHz scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting internal voids in sintered specimens of silicon nitride and silicon carbide was evaluated. The specimens contained artificially implanted voids and were positioned at depths ranging up to 2 mm below the specimen surface. Detection probability of 0.90 at a 0.95 confidence level was determined as a function of material, void diameter, and void depth. The statistical results presented for void detectability indicate some of the strengths and limitations of SLAM as a nondestructive evaluation technique for structural ceramics.

  17. Reliability of a New Clinical Instrument for Measuring Internal and External Glenohumeral Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfeld, Thomas N.; Fleckenstein, Cassie M.; Levy, Martin S.; Grood, Edward S.; Frush, Todd J.; Parameswaran, A. Dushi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The shoulder plays a critical role in many overhead athletic activities. Several studies have shown alterations in shoulder range of motion (ROM) in the dominant shoulder of overhead athletes and correlation with significantly increased risk of injury to the shoulder and elbow. The purpose of this study was to measure isolated glenohumeral joint internal/external rotation (IR/ER) to determine inter- and intraobserver reliability of a new clinical device. Hypothesis: (1) Inter- and intraobserver reliability would exceed 90% for measures of glenohumeral joint IR, ER, and total arc of motion; (2) the dominant arm would exhibit significantly increased ER, significantly decreased IR, and no difference in total arc of motion compared with the nondominant shoulder; and (3) a significant difference exists in total arc between male and female patients. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Thirty-seven subjects (mean age, 23 years; range, 13-54 years) were tested by 2 orthopaedic surgeons. A single test consisted of 1 arc of motion from neutral to external rotation to internal rotation and back to neutral within preset torque limits. Each examiner performed 3 tests on the dominant and nondominant shoulders. Each examiner completed 2 installations. Results: Testing reliability demonstrated that neither trial, installation, nor observer were significant sources of variation. The maximum standard deviation was 1.3° for total arc of motion and less than 2° for most other measurements. Dominant arm ER was significantly greater than nondominant arm ER (P = 0.02), and dominant arm IR was significantly less than nondominant arm IR (P = 0.00). Mean total rotation was 162°, with no significant differences in total rotation between dominant and nondominant arms (P = 0.34). Mean total arc of motion was 45° greater in female subjects. Differences in total arc of motion between male and female subjects was statistically significant (P < 0

  18. Illustrative presentation of some basic concepts of network internal reliability with comments as regards engineering surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2016-06-01

    The paper integrates some earlier and the recent findings of the author in the area of network internal reliability and presents a consistent system of concepts in this respect. The concepts of outlier detection and outlier identification linked directly with the global model test and the outlier tests respectively, are shown as a basis for the concepts such as outlier detectability and outlier identifiability. Also, a four level classification of gross errors expressed in a form of a tree-diagram is presented including perceptible and imperceptible errors, detectable and undetectable errors and identifiable and unidentifiable errors. Their properties are given mainly in a descriptive way, deliberately limiting rigorous mathematical formulas to a necessary minimum. Understanding of different types of gross errors is useful in analyzing the results of the outlier detection and identification procedures as well as in designing the networks to make them duly robust to observation gross errors. It is of special importance for engineering surveys where quite often low-redundancy networks are used. Main objective of the paper is to demonstrate a clear and consistent system of basic concepts related to network internal reliability.

  19. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  20. The Turkish Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Internal States Scale

    PubMed Central

    MAÇKALI, Zeynep; AKKAYA, Cengiz; AYDEMİR, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Internal State Scale (ISS) was developed to simultaneously assess manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder. In the present study, the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of ISS (ISS-TR) were examined. The present study aimed to present the psychometric properties of this scale. Methods The sample consisted of 200 outpatients with bipolar disorder and 49 healthy controls. Participants completed the Turkish Internal State Scale (ISS-TR), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Results Reliability analyses revealed that the Cronbach alfa coefficient of ISS was 0.88 for the whole sample. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.78. Two factors emerged as a result of factor analysis: “mania” and “depression-well-being.” Test–retest correlations were determined for the mania subscale as r=0.654, p<0.01 and for the depression-well-being subscale as r=0.356, p<0.01. The correlations between BPRS and both subscales were quite high. The correlation between HDRS and the depression-well-being subscale was higher (r=0.475) than that between HDRS and the mania subscale, whereas the correlation between YMRS and the mania subscale was higher (r=0.818) than that between YMRS and the depression-well-being subscale. It was seen that ISS could discriminate between the clinical and healthy control samples. In addition, it was observed that the mania subscale predicted a manic period more strongly, while the depression-well-being subscale predicted a depressive period better. Conclusion ISS is a valid and reliable scale that can be used to simultaneously assess manic and depressive symptoms. It is thought that ISS will be useful in the recognition of prodromal symptoms and in the process of maintenance treatment. PMID:28373798

  1. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  2. Designing for Reliability and Robustness in International Space Station Exercise Countermeasures Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Cherice; Svetlik, Randall; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of microgravity on the human body have become far better understood, as have the exercise countermeasures. Through use of a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices, today's astronauts and cosmonauts are able to partially counter the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength that otherwise might occur during their missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2000, the ISS has employed a variety of exercise equipment used as countermeasures to these risks. Providing reliable and available exercise systems has presented significant challenges due to the unique environment. In solving these, lessons have been learned that can inform development of future systems.

  3. Preliminary reliability and internal consistency of the Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition.

    PubMed

    Rispin, Karen; Dittmer, Melanie; McLean, Jessica; Wee, Joy

    2017-01-19

    Wheelchair durability and maintenance condition are key factors of wheelchair function. Durability studies done with double drum and drop testers, although valuable, do not perfectly imitate conditions of use. Durability may be harvested from clinical records; however, these may be inconsistent because protocols for recording information differ from place to place. Wheelchair professionals with several years of experience often develop a good eye for wheelchair maintenance condition. The Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition (WCQc) was developed as a professional report questionnaire to provide data specifically on the maintenance condition of a wheelchair. The goal of this study was to obtain preliminary test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the WCQc. Participants were a convenience sample of wheelchair professionals who self-reported more than two years' of wheelchair experience, and completed the WCQc on the same wheelchair twice. Results indicated preliminary reliability and internal consistency for domain related questions and the entire questionnaire. Implications for rehabilitation The WCQc, if administered routinely at regular intervals, can be used to monitor wheelchair condition and alert users and health professionals about the need for repair or replacement. The WCQc is not difficult to use, making early monitoring for wear or damage more feasible. The earlier a tool can detect need for maintenance, the higher likelihood that appropriate measures may be employed in a timely fashion to maximize the overall durability of wheelchairs and minimize clinical complications. Keeping wheelchairs appropriately maintained allows users to minimize effort expended when using them, and maximize their function. It also lowers the risk of injury due to component failure. When assessing groups of similar wheelchairs, organizations involved in funding wheelchairs can use data from the WCQc to make purchase decisions based on durability, and

  4. Reliable differentiation of Meyerozyma guilliermondii from Meyerozyma caribbica by internal transcribed spacer restriction fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meyerozyma guilliermondii (anamorph Candida guilliermondii) and Meyerozyma caribbica (anamorph Candida fermentati) are closely related species of the genetically heterogenous M. guilliermondii complex. Conventional phenotypic methods frequently misidentify the species within this complex and also with other species of the Saccharomycotina CTG clade. Even the long-established sequencing of large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene remains ambiguous. We also faced similar problem during identification of yeast isolates of M. guilliermondii complex from indigenous bamboo shoot fermentation in North East India. There is a need for development of reliable and accurate identification methods for these closely related species because of their increasing importance as emerging infectious yeasts and associated biotechnological attributes. Results We targeted the highly variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and identified seven restriction enzymes through in silico analysis for differentiating M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Fifty five isolates of M. guilliermondii complex which could not be delineated into species-specific taxonomic ranks by API 20 C AUX and LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 sequencing were subjected to ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis. TaqI ITS-RFLP distinctly differentiated the isolates into M. guilliermondii (47 isolates) and M. caribbica (08 isolates) with reproducible species-specific patterns similar to the in silico prediction. The reliability of this method was validated by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing, mitochondrial DNA RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Conclusions We herein described a reliable ITS-RFLP method for distinct differentiation of frequently misidentified M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Even though in silico analysis differentiated other closely related species of M. guilliermondii complex from the above two species, it is yet to be confirmed by in vitro analysis using reference

  5. Seeking realistic upper-bounds for internal reliability of systems with uncorrelated observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2014-06-01

    From the theory of reliability it follows that the greater the observational redundancy in a network, the higher is its level of internal reliability. However, taking into account physical nature of the measurement process one may notice that the planned additional observations may increase the number of potential gross errors in a network, not raising the internal reliability to the theoretically expected degree. Hence, it is necessary to set realistic limits for a sufficient number of observations in a network. An attempt to provide principles for finding such limits is undertaken in the present paper. An empirically obtained formula (Adamczewski 2003) called there the law of gross errors, determining the chances that a certain number of gross errors may occur in a network, was taken as a starting point in the analysis. With the aid of an auxiliary formula derived on the basis of the Gaussian law, the Adamczewski formula was modified to become an explicit function of the number of observations in a network. This made it possible to construct tools necessary for the analysis and finally, to formulate the guidelines for determining the upper-bounds for internal reliability indices. Since the Adamczewski formula was obtained for classical networks, the guidelines should be considered as an introductory proposal requiring verification with reference to modern measuring techniques. Z teorii niezawodności wynika, że im większy jest nadmiar obserwacyjny w sieci, tym wyższy poziom jej niezawodności wewnętrznej. Biorąc jednakże pod uwagę fi zykalną naturę procesu pomiaru można zauważyć, że projektowane dodatkowe obserwacje mogą zwiększyć liczbę potencjalnych błędów grubych w sieci, nie podnosząc niezawodności wewnętrznej do oczekiwanego według teorii poziomu. Niezbędne jest zatem ustalenie realistycznych poziomów górnych dla liczby obserwacji w sieci. W niniejszym artykule podjęta jest próba sformułowania zasad ustalania takich poziom

  6. Assessing the reliability of thermography to infer internal body temperatures of lizards.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Frederico M; Carretero, Miguel A; Silva, Francisco; Sannolo, Marco

    2016-12-01

    For many years lizard thermal ecology studies have relied on the use of contact thermometry to obtain internal body temperature (Tb) of the animals. However, with progressing technology, an interest grew in using new, less invasive methods, such as InfraRed (IR) pyrometry and thermography, to infer Tb of reptiles. Nonetheless few studies have tested the reliability of these new tools. The present study tested the use of IR cameras as a non-invasive tool to infer Tb of lizards, using three differently body-sized lacertid species (Podarcis virescens, Lacerta schreiberi and Timon lepidus). Given the occurrence of regional heterothermy, we pairwise compared thermography readings of six body parts (snout, eye, head, dorsal, hind limb, tail base) to cloacal temperature (measured by a thermometer-associated thermocouple probe) commonly employed to measure Tb in field and lab studies. The results showed moderate to strong correlations (R(2)=0.84-0.99) between all body parts and cloacal temperature. However, despite the readings on the tail base showed the strongest correlation in all three species, it was the eye where the absolute values and pattern of temperature change most consistently followed the cloacal measurements. Hence, we concluded that the eye would be the body location whose IR camera readings more closely approximate that of the animal's internal environment. Alternatively, other body parts can be used, provided that a careful calibration is carried out. We provide guidelines for future research using thermography to infer Tb of lizards.

  7. Internal Consistency, Test–Retest Reliability and Measurement Error of the Self-Report Version of the Social Skills Rating System in a Sample of Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test–retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID). PMID:24040116

  8. Reliability of Measurement of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation, External Rotation, and Total Arc of Motion in 3 Test Positions

    PubMed Central

    Kevern, Mark A.; Beecher, Michael; Rao, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletes who participate in throwing and racket sports consistently demonstrate adaptive changes in glenohumeral-joint internal and external rotation in the dominant arm. Measurements of these motions have demonstrated excellent intrarater and poor interrater reliability. Objective: To determine intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and standard error of measurement for shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion using an inclinometer in 3 testing procedures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball and softball athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic department. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight players participated in the study. Shoulder internal rotation, external rotation, and total arc of motion were measured by 2 investigators in 3 test positions. The standard supine position was compared with a side-lying test position, as well as a supine test position without examiner overpressure. Results: Excellent intrarater reliability was noted for all 3 test positions and ranges of motion, with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Results for interrater reliability were less favorable. Reliability for internal rotation was highest in the side-lying position (0.68) and reliability for external rotation and total arc was highest in the supine-without-overpressure position (0.774 and 0.713, respectively). The supine-with-overpressure position yielded the lowest interrater reliability results in all positions. The side-lying position had the most consistent results, with very little variation among intraclass correlation coefficient values for the various test positions. Conclusions: The results of our study clearly indicate that the side-lying test procedure is of equal or greater value than the traditional supine-with-overpressure method. PMID:25188316

  9. Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

  10. Connection Between Internal Structural Stresses of the Ist and the IInd kind and Operational Reliability of the Boiler Heating Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Lyudmila; Tabakaev, Roman; Tashlykov, Alexander; Zavorin, Alexander; Zyubanov, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents new approaches to solving problems of forecasting the life of heating surface of boilers, based on an analysis of internal structural stresses of the first and second kind that could affect the intragranular and intergranular strength and reliability of the pipeline in continuous operation by making it work without damage by preventing the disclosure of zone cracks.

  11. The Growth of the International Baccalaureate[R] Diploma Program: Concerns about the Consistency and Reliability of the Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2011-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate[R] (IB) world, known as "the IB World," is doubling in size every five years. The IB has become a complex educational product, but offers high levels of consistency and reliability in terms of delivery and assessment. However, since late 2008, a number of concerns have been raised about the quality and manageability…

  12. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Cobb measurement by chiropractic interns using digital evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Cracknell, Jesse; Lawson, Douglas M.; Taylor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It is important to create a body of evidence surrounding the reliability of certain diagnostic criteria. While the reliability of the Cobb measurement is well established with various licensed health care professionals, this study aims to determine the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Cobb Measurement among chiropractic interns. Methods: Fourteen chiropractic interns analyzed 10 pre-selected digital spinal radiographs on a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) in two separate rounds of observation. The participants indicated their choice of end vertebra and Cobb Measurement in each round of observation. Agreement on vertebral levels selected was estimated using percentage agreement. Intra-observer reliability was estimated using the Pearson r correlation coefficient, and inter-observer correlation was estimated using the Inter-Class Coefficient (ICC). Results: The range of percentage agreement on vertebral level selection was 0.36 – 0.79. The Pearson r correlation coefficient for round 1 and round 2 was 0.79. The ICC (3,1) was 0.79 (round 1), and 0.70 (round 2). Conclusion: Less than optimal agreement on end vertebrae selection was found between observers. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the Cobb Measurement was ‘excellent’ (round 1) and ‘good’ (round 2). PMID:26500360

  13. Estimation of Internal Consistency Reliability When Test Parts Vary in Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating a test's reliability often requires dividing it into 3 or more unequal parts, which causes violation of the tau equivalence assumption of Cronbach's alpha. This article presents a criterion for abandoning alpha and an approach for computing a more appropriate estimate of reliability, the Gilmer-Feldt coefficient. (Author)

  14. Comments Concerning the Appropriate Use of Formulas for Estimating the Internal-Consistency Reliability of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuder, Frederic

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are made for the appropriate use and identification of traditional Kuder-Richardson formulas for the estimation of reliability. "Alpha" should be used for reliabilities estimated for tests or scales composed of items yielding scores distributed on more than two points. (SLD)

  15. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  16. Alpha, Dimension-Free, and Model-Based Internal Consistency Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    As pointed out by Sijtsma ("in press"), coefficient alpha is inappropriate as a single summary of the internal consistency of a composite score. Better estimators of internal consistency are available. In addition to those mentioned by Sijtsma, an old dimension-free coefficient and structural equation model based coefficients are…

  17. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Assessing Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Marshall, Alison L.; Craig, Cora; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The single most commonly reported physical activity in public health surveys is walking. As evidence accumulates that walking is important for preventing weight gain and reducing the risk of diabetes, there is increased need to capture this behavior in a valid and reliable manner. Although the disadvantages of a self-report methodology are well…

  19. The International AIDS Questionnaire-English Version (IAQ-E): Assessing the Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Hughes, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    In order to address HIV infection among college students, a comprehensive measure is needed that can be used with samples from culturally diverse populations. Therefore, this paper assessed the reliability and validity of an HIV/AIDS questionnaire that measures fours dimensions of HIV/AIDS awareness--factual knowledge, prejudice, personal risk,…

  20. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of an instrumented functional reaching task using wireless electromyographic sensors.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Wang, Edward; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the electromyographic and accelerometric data sampled from the prime movers of the dominant arm during an antigravity, within-arm's length stand-reaching task without trunk restraint. Ten healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions, approximately 7-10days apart. During each session, subjects performed 15 trials of both a flexion- and an abduction-reaching task. Surface EMG and acceleration using wireless sensors were sampled from the anterior and middle deltoid. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, k) and standard error of measurements (SEM) for electromyographic reaction time, burst duration and normalized amplitude along with peak acceleration. Results indicated high degrees of inter-trial and test-retest reliability for flexion (Cronbach's α range=0.92-0.99; ICC range=0.82-0.92) as well as abduction (Cronbach's α range=0.94-0.99; ICC range=0.81-0.94) reaching. The SEM associated with response variables for flexion and abduction ranged from 1.55-3.26% and 3.33-3.95% of means, respectively. Findings from this study revealed that electromyographic and accelerometric data collected from prime movers of the arm during the relatively functional stand-reaching task were highly reproducible. Given its high reliability and portability, the proposed test could have applications in clinical and laboratory settings to quantify upper limb function.

  1. New International Program to Asses the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT)

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Csontos, Aladar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-01-25

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) to follow on from the successful Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of the PARENT is to conduct a confirmatory assessment of the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting and sizing primary water stress corrosion cracks (PWSCC) and applying the lessons learned from PINC to a series of round-robin tests. These open and blind round-robin tests will comprise a new set of typical pressure boundary components including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations. Open round-robin tests will engage research and industry teams worldwide to investigate and demonstrate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and size flaws with a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin tests will utilize various testing organizations, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from relatively easy to very difficult for detection and sizing. Blind and open round-robin testing started in late 2011 and early 2012, respectively. This paper will present the work scope with reports on progress, NDE methods evaluated, and project timeline for PARENT.

  2. Reliability of forced internal rotation and active internal rotation to assess lateral instability of the biceps pulley

    PubMed Central

    ARRIGONI, PAOLO; ROSE, GIACOMO DELLE; D’AMBROSI, RICCARDO; ROTUNDO, GIORGIO; CAMPAGNA, VINCENZO; PIRANI, PIERGIORGIO; PANASCÌ, MANLIO; PETRICCIOLI, DARIO; BERTONE, CELESTE; GRASSO, ANDREA; LATTE, CARMINE; COSTA, ALBERTO; VIOLA, GINO; DE GIORGI, SILVANA; PANELLA, ANTONELLO; PADUA, ROBERTO; BECCARINI, ALESSANDRO; SALCHER, BARBARA; OLIVIERI, MATTEO; MUGNAINI, MARCO; PANNONE, ANTONELLO; CEOLDO, CHIARA; LONGO, UMILE GIUSEPPE; DENARO, VINCENZO; CERCIELLO, SIMONE; PANNI, ALFREDO SCHIAVONE; AVANZI, PAOLO; ZORZI, CLAUDIO; RAGONE, VINCENZA; CASTAGNA, ALESSANDRO; RANDELLI, PIETRO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between positive painful forced internal rotation (FIR) and lateral pulley instability in the presence of a pre-diagnosed posterosuperior cuff tear. The same investigation was conducted for painful active internal rotation (AIR). Methods a multicenter prospective study was conducted in a series of patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic posterosuperior cuff repair. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) was administered. The VAS score at rest, DASH score, and presence/absence of pain on FIR and AIR were recorded and their relationships with lesions of the lateral pulley, cuff tear patterns and shape of lesions were analyzed. Results the study population consisted of 115 patients (mean age: 55.1 years) recruited from 12 centers. The dominant arm was affected in 72 cases (62.6%). The average anteroposterior extension of the lesion was 1.61 cm. The mean preoperative VAS and DASH scores were 6.1 and 41.8, respectively. FIR and AIR were positive in 94 (81.7%) and 85 (73.9%) cases, respectively. The lateral pulley was compromised in 50 cases (43.4%). Cuff tears were partial articular in 35 patients (30.4%), complete in 61 (53%), and partial bursal in 19 (16.5%). No statistical correlation between positive FIR or AIR and lateral pulley lesions was detected. Positive FIR and AIR were statistically associated with complete lesions. Negative FIR was associated with the presence of partial articular tears. Conclusions painful FIR in the presence of a postero-superior cuff tear does not indicate lateral pulley instability. When a cuff tear is suspected, positive FIR and AIR are suggestive of full-thickness tear patterns while a negative FIR suggests a partial articular lesion. Level of evidence: level I, validating cohort study with good reference standards. PMID:26151035

  3. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale: Reliability, Internal Structure, and Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Richards, Gary E.

    The construct validity of responses to the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) was evaluated in two sets of analyses. First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and an analysis of variance model adapted from multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) research, were used to examine the internal structure of the TSCS responses. Second, MTMM analyses…

  4. Development and Validation of the "Student Internalizing Behavior Screener": Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Rasetshwane, Kutlo B.; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie; Dart, Evan H.; Collins, Tai A.; Sprague, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Students with internalizing behavior patterns are often overlooked and underserved in schools, which is problematic in that they are at risk for a host of negative outcomes. As a result, there is a need for universal screening procedures to proactively detect students with these behavior patterns and to provide them with early, ongoing supports.…

  5. Creating a reliable and valid blueprint for the internal medicine clerkship evaluation.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kevin; Lemaire, Jane; Coderre, Sylvain

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to design an examination blueprint for the Internal Medicine clerkship rotation that is congruent with both the learning objectives and delivered learning experiences and reflects the perceived importance of clinical presentations from both the students' and clinicians' perspectives. In this cross-sectional study 11 specialists in General Internal Medicine (GIM) and 11 clinical clerks at the University of Calgary were asked to score each of the 47 clinical presentations in the Internal Medicine clerkship rotation for 'impact' and 'frequency'. These attributes were used to provide an estimate of the relative importance of each clinical presentation. Statistical tests used were the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Kappa statistic. Multi-attribute utility theory was applied to assess the best way of combining the variables of 'impact' and 'frequency'. The correlation between clerks and GIM specialists was 0.85 for the impact score and 0.86 for the frequency score (p < 0.001 for both). Corresponding Kappa values were 0.71 and 0.82, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Combining impact and frequency as a multiplicative function produced a distribution that was positively skewed towards common, high impact presentations such as chest pain. We have created an examination blueprint that provides a realistic and objective measure of the relative importance of clinical presentations. Such a blueprint provides both face validity and content validity to the evaluation process.

  6. An International Round-Robin Test of NDE Reliability for PWSCC

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, George J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moyer, Carol E.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe the round robin tests that have been designed and are being conducted in the international program. Participants in the PINC have offered more than 30 test blocks for use in round-robin tests of NDE effectiveness. The test blocks have more than 130 flaws in nickel-base weld metal that are intended to simulate PWSCC in a variety of component geometries. NDE techniques representative of current in-service inspections are being applied, along with emerging NDE approaches.

  7. International perspectives on antiretroviral resistance. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance assays: methodology, reliability, and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Demeter, L; Haubrich, R

    2001-03-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic resistance assays-methods to measure the susceptibility of HIV to drug therapy-are becoming widely available to clinicians for use in aiding long-term antiretroviral treatment planning. Phenotypic tests assess the actual response of a patient's viral isolate to individual antiretroviral drugs in culture, and genotypic tests sequence viral DNA, providing an inferred measure of resistance based on the evaluator's knowledge of established HIV-1 genetic mutational patterns for resistance to antiretroviral drugs. These tests, when used as intended, can provide information useful in planning successful antiretroviral regimens. Both types of assays have been shown to provide reliable and reproducible measures of resistance, with certain caveats: accuracy depends on the experience of the interpreter and laboratory; results from the available tests are not interchangeable, and clinically relevant thresholds of resistance have not been fully defined. Because of pharmacokinetic and cross-resistance issues, the extrapolation of single-drug data to combination regimens is difficult to accomplish and must be pooled with treatment and viral load history to best identify effective subsequent treatment regimens. This article describes the experience to date establishing the efficacy, accuracy, reproducibility, and limitations of the phenotypic and genotypic resistance assays used today.

  8. Reliable Quantitative SERS Analysis Facilitated by Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Embedded Internal Standards.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Lin, Xuan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Li, Chaoyu; Lin, Haixin; Huang, Jingtao; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Guokun; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhong, Qiling; Ren, Bin

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative analysis is a great challenge in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Core-molecule-shell nanoparticles with two components in the molecular layer, a framework molecule to form the shell, and a probe molecule as a Raman internal standard, were rationally designed for quantitative SERS analysis. The signal of the embedded Raman probe provides effective feedback to correct the fluctuation of samples and measuring conditions. Meanwhile, target molecules with different affinities can be adsorbed onto the shell. The quantitative analysis of target molecules over a large concentration range has been demonstrated with a linear response of the relative SERS intensity versus the surface coverage, which has not been achieved by conventional SERS methods.

  9. Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Maynard K.; Downs, Robert E.; King, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

  10. Development of a New Valid, Reliable, and Internationally Applicable Assessment Tool of Residents’ Competence in Ophthalmic Surgery (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Golnik, C.; Beaver, Hilary; Gauba, Vinod; Lee, Andrew G.; Mayorga, Eduardo; Palis, Gabriela; Saleh, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the validity and reliability of a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery. Changing paradigms of ophthalmic education in the United States have influenced worldwide ophthalmic education and necessitated new methods of assessing resident competence. Accordingly, a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery (phacoemulsification) that could be applicable internationally was developed. We hypothesize that this instrument is valid and reliable. Methods: A panel of six international content experts adapted a previously published tool for assessing phacoemulsification. The tool (called the International Council of Ophthalmology’s Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric, or ICO-OSCAR:phaco) was reviewed by 12 international content experts for their constructive comments, which were incorporated to ensure content validity. Ten expert cataract surgery teachers then graded six recorded phacoemulsification surgeries with the ICO-OSCAR:phaco to investigate inter-rater reliability. Results: The coefficient alpha statistic (a measure of reliability/internal consistency) for the ICO-OSCAR:phaco as a whole was 0.92, and 17 of its 20 dimensions had alpha coefficients greater than 0.70. Conclusions: The ICO-OSCAR:phaco is a valid and reliable assessment tool that could be applied internationally to satisfy the global need of new instruments to comply with emerging trends in ophthalmic education. A toolbox of similar surgical competency assessment tools is being developed. PMID:24072944

  11. Practices in Adequate Structural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural design and verification of space vehicles and space systems is a very tricky and awe inspiring business, particularly for manned missions. Failures in the missions with loss of life is devastating personally and nationally. The scope of the problem is driven by high performance requirements which push state-of-the-art technologies, creating high sensitivites to small variations and uncertainties. Insurance of safe, reliable flight dictates the use of sound principles, procedures, analysis, and testing. Many of those principles which were refocused by the Space Shuttle Challenger (51-L) accident on January 26, 1986, and the activities conducted to insure safe shuttle reflights are discussed. The emphasis will be focused on engineering, while recognizing that project and project management are also key to success.

  12. THE COMPOSITE INTERNATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW (CIDI): ITS RELIABILITY AND APPLICABILITY IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF NORTHERN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Jugal; Kapoor, Vinay; Reddaiah, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    To study the reliability and applicability of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a rural community of India, a two steps sampling procedure was adopted, Step I: A clinical diagnosis based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-Ill-Revised (DSM-IIIR) criteria was administered to 218 persons aged 18-60 years who consulted the Primary Health Centre (PHC); Step II: Of these persons, 71 were selected for detailed examination with the CIDI Hindi version in their home environment. The current diagnoses produced by the CIDI (scored two ways DSM-III-R and ICD-10) were evaluated against the DSM-III-R clinical diagnoses. The kappa values were 0.43 and 0.64. The likelihood ratios of positive CIDI-DSM-III-R and CIDI-ICD-10 were found to be 13.11 and 17.23; the specificity rates were 95.4% in each; the positive predictive values were 96.6% and 97.4% and the sensitivity rates were 59.2% and 77.5%. A significant longer time was faken for coding one CIDI. Only 8% of the 71 CIDI interviewed required more than one sitting. 96% of those interviewed were receptive for future interviews with CIDI. The study findings emphasize the good reliability and acceptability of the CIDI in a rural community of India. PMID:21430810

  13. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the 5-item Duke University Religion Index

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Hanhui; WANG, Zhizhong; PHILLIPS, Michael R.; SUN, Yanli; CHENG, Hui G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) is a widely-used 5-item scale assessing religiosity. Aim Assess the internal consistency, reliability, and factor structure of the revised Chinese version of DUREL. Methods Using probability proportionate to size (PPS) methods we randomly identified 3981 households with eligible occupants in 20 primary sampling sites in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, a province in northwest China in which 34% of the population are Muslims of the Hui ethnic group. In 3054 households a screening interview was completed and an adult family member was randomly selected; 2425 respondents completed the survey (including the DUREL) and 188 randomly selected individuals repeated the survey an average of 2.5 days later. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) of the 5 items in the full sample was 0.90; it ranged from 0.70 to 0.90 in various subgroups of subjects stratified by ethnicity, urban versus rural residence, and above versus below median education. The test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) for the total score in the full sample was 0.87; it ranged from 0.63 to 0.90 in the different subgroups of subjects. Exploratory factor analysis in a random half of the sample identified a single factor (eigen value=4.21) that explained 84% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis in the second half of the sample confirmed the unidimensional model; the model fit measures of the one-factor model using the 5 item scores as observed variables were acceptable (comparative fit index [CFI] and Tucker-Lewis index [TLI]>0.99; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.105; χ2 =70.49, df=5), but the model fit improved after adding the correlation between items 1 and 2 (that assess organized and personal religious activities, respectively) as a sixth observed variable(CFI and TLI>0.99; RMSEA=0.046; χ2 =14.32, df=4). Conclusion The Chinese version of the DUREL is a reliable and valid measure of

  14. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  15. Explanation and Use of the Rio 2011 Colposcopy Nomenclature of the IFCPC (International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy): Comments on the general colposcopic assessment of the uterine cervix: adequate/inadequate; squamocolumnar junction; transformation zone.

    PubMed

    Quaas, J; Reich, O; Küppers, V

    2014-12-01

    In July 2012 the IFCPC adopted a revised terminology for colposcopic examinations of the uterine cervix. In 2012, the Boards of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kolposkopie (AGK - Austrian Society of Colposcopy), the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kolposkopie und Zervixpathologie (AGKOL - Swiss Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kolposkopie und Zervixpathologie (AGCPC - German Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology) accepted the validity of the 2011 IFCPC nomenclature and recommended its use in general clinical practice across German-speaking countries. The revised nomenclature was devised so that examiners can evaluate colposcopic criteria according to a specific scheme. At the start of the examination, the examiner must assess whether the colposcopy is representative or not. 1. Can the examination be classed as adequate or inadequate (reasons must be given)? 2. How would you describe the visibility of the squamocolumnar junction and categorize the transformation zone? Below we discuss some aspects of this general assessment as outlined in the nomenclature which were found to require further clarification for general practice.

  16. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  18. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  19. Effect of Clinically Discriminating, Evidence-Based Checklist Items on the Reliability of Scores from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Vijay J.; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving…

  20. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate...

  1. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of isometric shoulder extensor and internal rotator strength measurements performed using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Awatani, Takenori; Morikita, Ikuhiro; Shinohara, Junji; Mori, Seigo; Nariai, Miki; Tatsumi, Yasutaka; Nagata, Akinori; Koshiba, Hiroya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measurement of extensor strength in the maximum shoulder abducted position and internal rotator strength in the 90° abducted and the 90° external rotated position using a hand-held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy volunteers (12 male; mean ± SD: age 19.0 ± 1.1 years) participated in the study. The examiners were two students who had nonclinical experience with a hand-held dynamometer measurement. The examiners and participants were blinded to measurement results by the recorder. Participants in the prone position were instructed to hold the contraction against the ground reaction force, and peak isometric force was recorded using the hand-held dynamometer on the floor. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] The intra- and inter-rater reliability data were found to be "almost perfect". [Conclusion] This study investigated intra- and inter-rater reliability and reveald high reliability. Thus, the measurement method used in the present study can evaluate muscle strength by a simple measurement technique.

  2. Internal and Temporal Reliability Estimates for Informant Ratings of Personality Using the NEO PI-R and IAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, John E.; Lee, Patricia A.; Sherker, Jennifer L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the internal consistency and temporal stability of informant ratings from the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) (P. Costa and R. McRae, 1992) and the Interpersonal Adjective Scale (IAS) (J. Wiggins, 1995) through ratings by 109 undergraduates of well-known adult targets. The estimates of internal consistency and temporal…

  3. Adequate mathematical modelling of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.

    2012-04-01

    In environmental observations and laboratory visualization both large scale flow components like currents, jets, vortices, waves and a fine structure are registered (different examples are given). The conventional mathematical modeling both analytical and numerical is directed mostly on description of energetically important flow components. The role of a fine structures is still remains obscured. A variety of existing models makes it difficult to choose the most adequate and to estimate mutual assessment of their degree of correspondence. The goal of the talk is to give scrutiny analysis of kinematics and dynamics of flows. A difference between the concept of "motion" as transformation of vector space into itself with a distance conservation and the concept of "flow" as displacement and rotation of deformable "fluid particles" is underlined. Basic physical quantities of the flow that are density, momentum, energy (entropy) and admixture concentration are selected as physical parameters defined by the fundamental set which includes differential D'Alembert, Navier-Stokes, Fourier's and/or Fick's equations and closing equation of state. All of them are observable and independent. Calculations of continuous Lie groups shown that only the fundamental set is characterized by the ten-parametric Galilelian groups reflecting based principles of mechanics. Presented analysis demonstrates that conventionally used approximations dramatically change the symmetries of the governing equations sets which leads to their incompatibility or even degeneration. The fundamental set is analyzed taking into account condition of compatibility. A high order of the set indicated on complex structure of complete solutions corresponding to physical structure of real flows. Analytical solutions of a number problems including flows induced by diffusion on topography, generation of the periodic internal waves a compact sources in week-dissipative media as well as numerical solutions of the same

  4. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale with Elementary Age English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Connor, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We report findings of a validation study exploring the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994) for use with English learners (ELs) attending a large suburban elementary school. First, we explored the reliability of the SRSS by examining internal consistency, with results indicating adequate internal consistency (0.83). Second, we…

  5. Protecting Our Assets: Internal Control Principles in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert

    1997-01-01

    Discusses financial and physical asset protection in libraries based on principles of internal control. Elements of internal control are explained: reliable personnel; physical safeguarding of assets; separation of duties; adequate documentation; independent checks; proper procedures and authorizations; and bonding, job rotation, and enforced…

  6. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Spanish children aged 9-12 years.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V; García-Hermoso, A; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Ortega, F B

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to examine (a) the construct validity and reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in children; and (b) the association of both self-reported and measured fitness with cardiometabolic risk. Cross-sectional study in 1145 Spanish children (9-12 years). We measured body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, insulin, and fitness level (reported and measured). A validated cardiometabolic syndrome index was used. An age- and sex-matched sample of 245 children originally not included in the study sample fulfilled IFIS twice for reliability purposes. IFIS was able to correctly classify children according to their measured fitness levels (analysis of covariance, adjusted for sex and age was used). Test-retest reliability of IFIS items was also good, i.e., average weighted Kappa = 0.70. Our data also suggest that both measured and reported cardiorespiratory, and speed and agility fitness were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, such as adiposity and a cardiometabolic syndrome risk score. The associations for muscular fitness (both reported and measured) differed depending on how it was expressed (i.e., absolute vs relative terms). Our findings suggest that self-reported fitness, as assessed by IFIS, is a valid, reliable, and health-related measure, and it can be a good alternative at population level when physical fitness cannot be measured.

  7. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  8. Daily life dialogue assessment in psychiatric care-face validity and inter-rater reliability of a tool based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Catrin; Åström, Sture; Kauffeldt, Anders; Carlström, Eric

    2013-12-01

    This article describes the development of an assessment tool based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) adapted to a psychiatric nursing context where both the patient and the nurse assess the patient's ability to participate in various spheres of life. The aim was to test psychometric properties, focusing on face validity and inter-rater reliability. Three Swedish expert groups participated. Analysis of inter-rater reliability was conducted through simulated patient cases. The results of an unweighted kappa value of 0.38, a linear weighted kappa value of 0.65 and a quadratic weighted kappa value of 0.73 were considered as acceptable when using simulated patient cases.

  9. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Sensory Component of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hales, M.; Biros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 1982, the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) has been used to classify sensation of spinal cord injury (SCI) through pinprick and light touch scores. The absence of proprioception, pain, and temperature within this scale creates questions about its validity and accuracy. Objectives: To assess whether the sensory component of the ISNCSCI represents a reliable and valid measure of classification of SCI. Methods: A systematic review of studies examining the reliability and validity of the sensory component of the ISNCSCI published between 1982 and February 2013 was conducted. The electronic databases MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PEDro, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. A secondary search of reference lists was also completed. Chosen articles were assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine hierarchy of evidence and critically appraised using the McMasters Critical Review Form. A statistical analysis was conducted to investigate the variability of the results given by reliability studies. Results: Twelve studies were identified: 9 reviewed reliability and 3 reviewed validity. All studies demonstrated low levels of evidence and moderate critical appraisal scores. The majority of the articles (~67%; 6/9) assessing the reliability suggested that training was positively associated with better posttest results. The results of the 3 studies that assessed the validity of the ISNCSCI scale were confounding. Conclusions: Due to the low to moderate quality of the current literature, the sensory component of the ISNCSCI requires further revision and investigation if it is to be a useful tool in clinical trials. PMID:26363591

  11. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  12. Can There Be Reliability without "Reliability?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An "Educational Researcher" article by Pamela Moss (1994) asks the title question, "Can there be validity without reliability?" Yes, she answers, if by reliability one means "consistency among independent observations intended as interchangeable" (Moss, 1994, p. 7), quantified by internal consistency indices such as…

  13. Reliability of the UCLA Loneliness Scale in opiate dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Britton, Peter C; Conner, Kenneth R

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the self-report University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale (UCLA LS; Russell, 1996) in methadone maintenance patients at an urban university hospital. A diverse sample of 117 patient volunteers completed a standardized interview that included the UCLA LS. A total of 67 participants returned after a minimum of 14 days for a follow-up session to complete an identical assessment but with a different researcher. We examined internal consistency and test-retest reliability in the total sample and in groups stratified by gender, race, ethnicity, and education. Across strata, the UCLA LS showed adequate to high internal consistency and good to excellent test-retest reliability. The UCLA LS was highly correlated with a measure of perceived belonging, supporting criterion validity. Findings support the use of the UCLA LS with methadone maintenance patients.

  14. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  15. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  16. Reliability and Construct Validity of Scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory: A Measure of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…

  17. Reliable detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis by using multiplex qPCR including internal controls for nucleic acid extraction and amplification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several pathogens could seriously affect public health if not recognized timely. To reduce the impact of such highly pathogenic micro-organisms, rapid and accurate diagnostic tools are needed for their detection in various samples, including environmental samples. Results Multiplex real-time PCRs were designed for rapid and reliable detection of three major pathogens that have the potential to cause high morbidity and mortality in humans: B. anthracis, F. tularensis and Y. pestis. The developed assays detect three pathogen-specific targets, including at least one chromosomal target, and one target from B. thuringiensis which is used as an internal control for nucleic acid extraction from refractory spores as well as successful DNA amplification. Validation of the PCRs showed a high analytical sensitivity, specificity and coverage of diverse pathogen strains. Conclusions The multiplex qPCR assays that were developed allow the rapid detection of 3 pathogen-specific targets simultaneously, without compromising sensitivity. The application of B. thuringiensis spores as internal controls further reduces false negative results. This ensures highly reliable detection, while template consumption and laboratory effort are kept at a minimum PMID:21143837

  18. Making sense of ambiguity: evaluation in internal reliability and face validity of the SF 36 questionnaire in women presenting with menorrhagia.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, C; Peto, V; Coulter, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the face validity and internal reliability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire in women presenting with menorrhagia. DESIGN--Postal survey of women recruited by their general practitioners followed by interviews of a selected subsample. PATIENTS--348 women who had consulted their general practitioner with excessive menstrual bleeding and completed questionnaires after treatment. 49 women selected from this group were interviewed in depth about their health status, and requested to complete the SF 36 questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES--Subjective accounts of functioning and wellbeing as measured by the eight scales of the SF 36 questionnaire. RESULTS--Data from the postal survey indicated that the ¿general health perceptions¿ and ¿mental health¿ scales of the SF 36 questionnaire had lower internal reliability coefficients than documented elsewhere. In the follow up interviews several questions on the SF 36 questionnaire were commented on as inappropriate or difficult to answer for patients with heavy menstrual bleeding. CONCLUSIONS--Some questions on the SF 36 questionnaire were difficult to answer for this group of patients. Such problems can adversely effect the validity of the measure. It is suggested that comments of patients upon measures such as the SF 36 questionnaire could both determine the appropriateness of such measures for given studies and influence questionnaire design. PMID:10157276

  19. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  20. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  1. Using Multitheory Model of Health Behavior Change to Predict Adequate Sleep Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Nahar, Vinayak K

    The purpose of this article was to use the multitheory model of health behavior change in predicting adequate sleep behavior in college students. A valid and reliable survey was administered in a cross-sectional design (n = 151). For initiation of adequate sleep behavior, the construct of behavioral confidence (P < .001) was found to be significant and accounted for 24.4% of the variance. For sustenance of adequate sleep behavior, changes in social environment (P < .02), emotional transformation (P < .001), and practice for change (P < .001) were significant and accounted for 34.2% of the variance.

  2. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L.The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg.In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L.

  3. Serum thyroglobulin reference intervals in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jie; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Li, Yongze; Teng, Xiaochun; Fan, Chenling; Liu, Aihua; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Chao; Weng, Jianping; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors. A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination. Serum Tg, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), Tg antibody (TgAb), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were measured. Reference groups were established on the basis of TSH levels: 0.5 to 2.0 and 0.27 to 4.2 mIU/L. The Tg RIs for Guangzhou and Nanjing were 1.6 to 30.0 and 1.9 to 25.8 ng/mL, respectively. No significant differences in Tg were found between genders or among different reference groups. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that TgAb, thyroid volume, goiter, gender, age, and TSH levels were correlated with Tg. In adults from regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake, we found that Tg may be a suitable marker of iodine status; gender-specific Tg RI was unnecessary; there was no difference between Tg RIs in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake; and the TSH criterion for selecting the Tg reference population could follow the local TSH reference rather than 0.5 to 2.0 mIU/L. PMID:27902589

  4. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  5. Evaluation of the reliability and validity of the Medical Outcomes Study sleep scale in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy during an international clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Viala-Danten, Muriel; Martin, Susan; Guillemin, Isabelle; Hays, Ron D

    2008-01-01

    Background Sleep is an important element of functioning and well-being. The Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-Sleep) includes 12 items assessing sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, somnolence, quantity of sleep, snoring, and awakening short of breath or with a headache. A sleep problems index, grouping items from each of the former domains, is also available. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of MOS-Sleep Scale in a painful diabetic peripheral neuropathic population based on a clinical trial conducted in six countries. Methods Clinical data and health-related quality of life data were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of follow-up. Overall, 396 patients were included in the analysis. Psychometric properties of the MOS-Sleep were assessed in the overall population and per country when the sample size was sufficient. Internal consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha; the structure of the instrument was assessed by verifying item convergent and discriminant criteria; construct validity was evaluated by examining the relationships between MOS-Sleep scores and sleep interference and pain scores, and SF-36 scores; effect-sizes were used to assess the MOS-Sleep responsiveness. The study was conducted in compliance with United States Food and Drug Administration regulations for informed consent and protection of patient rights. Results Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.71 to 0.81 for the multi-item dimensions and the sleep problems index. Item convergent and discriminant criteria were satisfied with item-scale correlations for hypothesized dimensions higher than 0.40 and tending to exceed the correlations of items with other dimensions, respectively. Taken individually, German, Polish and English language versions had good internal consistency reliability and dimension structure. Construct validity was supported with lower sleep adequacy score and greater sleep problems index scores associated with measures of sleep interference and

  6. The reliability of an education-related self-efficacy scale for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Harris, Meredith; Gladman, Beverley; Hennessy, Nicole; Lloyd, Chris; Mowry, Bryan; Waghorn, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the reliability of the Education-related Self Efficacy Scale (ESS-40), a measure of self-efficacy at a core task level designed for people with psychiatric disabilities. Sixty community residents with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. The ESS-40 was administered twice via telephone interview. Short cycle test-retest reliability was very good for the total score and most items. The measure demonstrated signs of a coherent internal structure, adequate face validity, good client acceptability, and promising utility. The reliability evidence supports its use in community mental health services and in psychiatric rehabilitation settings. Sensitivity and predictive validity require further investigation.

  7. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events.

  8. Reliable Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children for Adequate Hospital Infection Control Management

    PubMed Central

    Abels, Susanne; Nadal, David; Stroehle, Angelika; Bossart, Walter

    2001-01-01

    By using a rapid test for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection (Abbott TestPack RSV), a number of patients were observed, showing repeatedly positive results over a period of up to 10 weeks. A prospective study was initiated to compare the rapid test with an antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a nested reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) protocol for detection of RSV serotypes A and B. Only respiratory samples from children exhibiting the prolonged presence of RSV (≥5 days) as determined by the rapid test were considered. A total of 134 specimens from 24 children was investigated by antigen capture EIA and nested RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR as the reference method, we determined the RSV rapid test to have a specificity of 63% and a sensitivity of 66% and the antigen capture EIA to have a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 69% for acute-phase samples and the homologous virus serotype A. In 7 (29%) of 24 patients, the positive results of the RSV rapid test could not be confirmed by either nested RT-PCR or antigen capture EIA. In these seven patients a variety of other respiratory viruses were detected. For general screening the RSV rapid test was found to be a reasonable tool to get quick results. However, its lack of specificity in some patients requires confirmation by additional tests to rule out false-positive results and/or detection of other respiratory viruses. PMID:11526141

  9. Reliability and Validity of the SE-HEPA: Examining Physical Activity- and Healthy Eating-Specific Self-Efficacy among a Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael M.; Burns, Leonard G.; Whitaker, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity measure (SE-HEPA) for preadolescents. Method. The reliability of the measure was examined to determine if the internal consistency of the measure was adequate (i.e., [alpha]s greater than 0.70). Next, in an…

  10. Increasing reliability of gas-air systems of piston and combined internal combustion engines by improving thermal and mechanic flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodov, Yu. M.; Grigor'ev, N. I.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Plotnikov, L. V.; Shestakov, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Results of experimental study of thermal and mechanical characteristics of gas exchange flow in piston and combined engines are presented. Ways for improving intake and exhaust processes to increase reliability of gas-air engine systems are proposed.

  11. [Validity and reliability of a scale to assess self-efficacy for physical activity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Borges, Rossana Arruda; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Meurer, Simone Teresinha; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the confirmatory factor validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in a sample of 118 elderly (78% women) from 60 to 90 years of age. Mplus 6.1 was used to evaluate the confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and temporal stability. The original scale consisted of five items with dichotomous answers (yes/no), independently for walking and moderate and vigorous physical activity. The analysis excluded the item related to confidence in performing physical activities when on vacation. Two constructs were identified, called "self-efficacy for walking" and "self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous physical activity", with a factor load ≥ 0.50. Internal consistency was adequate both for walking (> 0.70) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (> 0.80), and temporal stability was adequate for all the items. In conclusion, the self-efficacy scale for physical activity showed adequate validity, reliability, and internal consistency for evaluating this construct in elderly Brazilians.

  12. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  13. Person Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, James

    1977-01-01

    Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

  14. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  15. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of...

  16. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo Ndebele's…

  17. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  18. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  19. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  20. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  1. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  2. 40 CFR 51.354 - Adequate tools and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adequate tools and resources. 51.354... Requirements § 51.354 Adequate tools and resources. (a) Administrative resources. The program shall maintain the administrative resources necessary to perform all of the program functions including...

  3. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  4. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  5. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  6. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  7. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  8. 21 CFR 201.5 - Drugs; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs; adequate directions for use. 201.5 Section 201.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.5 Drugs; adequate directions for use....

  9. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy P.; Harris, Pamela J.; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Cox, Meredith; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    We report findings of an exploratory validation study of a revised instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE). The SRSS-IE was modified to include seven additional items reflecting characteristics of internalizing behaviors, with proposed items generated from the current literature base, review of…

  10. Reliability and factorial validity of the Observer Alexithymia Scale-Chinese translation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuqiao; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Haviland, Mark G

    2005-03-30

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a Chinese translation of the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS-C) and evaluate its reliability and factorial validity. The original English-version of the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS) was translated into Chinese and given to 468 Chinese undergraduate students. Students were asked to rate a person (other than themselves) whom they knew well (e.g., a parent, sibling, another relative, or friend). We evaluated internal consistency, test-retest and inter-rater reliability, and factorial validity. Average OAS-C scores were slightly higher than, but comparable to, OAS scores in the normative samples (English-speaking/nonclinical). The OAS-C showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.84, and the mean inter-item correlation coefficient was 0.14), good stability (test-retest reliability with a 2-week interval was 0.90), and inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.78). Moreover, the OAS five-factor model (Distant, Uninsightful, Somatizing, Humorless, and Rigid) was confirmed: incremental fit index=0.905, comparative fit index=0.904, and root mean square error of approximation=0.086; each represented an adequate model fit. The OAS-C appears to be a reliable and valid observer-rated alexithymia measure. We recommend that researchers collect both self- and observer-rated alexithymia data and, when possible, obtain observer reports from more than one person.

  11. Internal Consistency and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) Rating Scale When Used by Teachers and Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Sheng, Yanyan; Chitiyo, Morgan; Brandt, Rachel C.; Howe, Abigail P.

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable emphasis on indirect functional behavior assessments in school settings. However, little research has evaluated the reliability of these methods to identify behavioral function. One indirect measure, the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale, has yet to be extensively studied in school settings, though…

  12. An Independent Assessment of the Internal Reliability of the "Bilston and Ettingshall Sure Start (BESS) Speech and Language Therapy Two Year Developmental Check"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Patel, Reena; Sallah, David K.

    2009-01-01

    Speech and language difficulties in British pre-school children from disadvantaged backgrounds have become increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Consequently, there has been a growing demand for a British standardised speech and language screening tool that is reliable and valid. In 2000, to fulfil the need of an appropriate tool that could…

  13. Reliability and validity of television food advertising questionnaire in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zalma, Abdul Razak; Safiah, Md Yusof; Ajau, Danis; Khairil Anuar, Md Isa

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40*, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95**, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren.

  14. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (10/14/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadben,. Director, to Nancy Wrona and Dennis Smith informing them that Maricopa County's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2003 MAGCO Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  15. Region 6: Texas Adequate Letter (4/16/2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality determined 2021 motor vehicle emission budgets for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for Beaumont/Port Arthur area adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  16. Region 2: New Jersey Adequate Letter (5/23/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 22, 2002 letter from EPA to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection determined 2007 and 2014 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mobile Source Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal

  17. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (10/29/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  18. Region 1: New Hampshire Adequate Letter (8/12/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This July 9, 2008 letter from EPA to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, determined the 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the Federal Register (FR).

  19. Region 8: Colorado Adequate Letter (1/20/2004)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Greeleys' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes and will be announced in the FR.

  20. Region 8: Utah Adequate Letter (6/10/2005)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Utah Department of Environmental Quality determined Salt Lake Citys' and Ogdens' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  1. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  2. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  3. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  4. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  5. 15 CFR 970.404 - Adequate exploration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.404 Adequate exploration plan. Before he may certify an application, the Administrator must...

  6. Region 6: New Mexico Adequate Letter (8/21/2003)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Carl Edlund, Director, to Alfredo Santistevan regarding MVEB's contained in the latest revision to the Albuquerque Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plan (SIP) are adequate for transportation conformity purposes.

  7. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  8. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  9. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  10. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records..., by degaussing or by overwriting with the appropriate security software, in accordance...

  13. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... require access to and use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect... with the appropriate security software, in accordance with regulations of the Archivist of the...

  14. Region 9: Nevada Adequate Letter (3/30/2006)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Deborah Jordan, Director, to Leo M. Drozdoff regarding Nevada's motor vehicle emissions budgets in the 2005 Truckee Meadows CO Redesignation Request and Maintenance Plan are adequate for transportation conformity decisions.

  15. On Adequate Comparisons of Antenna Phase Center Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen, S.; Kersten, T.

    2013-12-01

    One important part for ensuring the high quality of the International GNSS Service's (IGS) products is the collection and publication of receiver - and satellite antenna phase center variations (PCV). The PCV are crucial for global and regional networks, since they introduce a global scale factor of up to 16ppb or changes in the height component with an amount of up to 10cm, respectively. Furthermore, antenna phase center variations are also important for precise orbit determination, navigation and positioning of mobile platforms, like e.g. the GOCE and GRACE gravity missions, or for the accurate Precise Point Positioning (PPP) processing. Using the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), Baire et al. (2012) showed that individual PCV values have a significant impact on the geodetic positioning. The statements are further supported by studies of Steigenberger et al. (2013) where the impact of PCV for local-ties are analysed. Currently, there are five calibration institutions including the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE) contributing to the IGS PCV file. Different approaches like field calibrations and anechoic chamber measurements are in use. Additionally, the computation and parameterization of the PCV are completely different within the methods. Therefore, every new approach has to pass a benchmark test in order to ensure that variations of PCV values of an identical antenna obtained from different methods are as consistent as possible. Since the number of approaches to obtain these PCV values rises with the number of calibration institutions, there is the necessity for an adequate comparison concept, taking into account not only the numerical values but also stochastic information and computational issues of the determined PCVs. This is of special importance, since the majority of calibrated receiver antennas published by the IGS origin from absolute field calibrations based on the Hannover Concept, Wübbena et al. (2000). In this contribution, a concept for the adequate

  16. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  17. Proceedings of the International Congress (12th), Corrosion Control for Low-Cost Reliability, Held in Houston, Texas on September 19 -24, 1993. Volume 1. Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-24

    New York City. Dr. Greco enlisted the assistance of Frank La Que, Mars Fontana, and Herb Uhlig in contracting internationaily known corrosion...Frank La Que, Mars Fontana and Herb Uhlig in contacting internationally known corrosion scientists and engineers for their support and participation...204 COATINGS METALLIC COATING AND SURFACE TREATMENTS 025 Study of Anticorrosion Properties of Metal Arc

  18. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Carter, Erik W.; Lambert, Warren E.; Jenkins, Abbie B.

    2013-01-01

    We reported findings of an exploratory validation study of a revised universal screening instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale--Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) for use with middle school students. Tested initially for use with elementary-age students, the SRSS-IE was adapted to include seven additional items reflecting…

  19. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    PubMed

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  20. Network reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1985-01-01

    Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

  1. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  2. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  3. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  4. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  5. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  6. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  7. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  8. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  9. Understanding Your Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001" requires all schools, districts/local education agencies (LEAs) and states to show that students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). NCLB requires states to establish targets in the following ways: (1) Annual Proficiency Target; (2) Attendance/Graduation Rates; and (3) Participation…

  10. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  11. 34 CFR 200.13 - Adequate yearly progress in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adequate yearly progress in general. 200.13 Section 200.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE...

  12. Region 9: Arizona Adequate Letter (11/1/2001)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a letter from Jack P. Broadbent, Director, Air Division to Nancy Wrona and James Bourney informing them of the adequacy of Revised MAG 1999 Serious Area Carbon Monoxide Plan and that the MAG CO Plan is adequate for Maricopa County.

  13. A systematic approach to designing reliable VV optimization methodology: Assessment of internal validity of echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and haemodynamic optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, Andreas; Li Kam Wa, Matthew E.; Pabari, Punam A.; Unsworth, Beth; Baruah, Resham; Willson, Keith; Peters, Nicholas S.; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Hughes, Alun D.; Mayet, Jamil; Whinnett, Zachary I.; Francis, Darrel P.

    2013-01-01

    Background In atrial fibrillation (AF), VV optimization of biventricular pacemakers can be examined in isolation. We used this approach to evaluate internal validity of three VV optimization methods by three criteria. Methods and results Twenty patients (16 men, age 75 ± 7) in AF were optimized, at two paced heart rates, by LVOT VTI (flow), non-invasive arterial pressure, and ECG (minimizing QRS duration). Each optimization method was evaluated for: singularity (unique peak of function), reproducibility of optimum, and biological plausibility of the distribution of optima. The reproducibility (standard deviation of the difference, SDD) of the optimal VV delay was 10 ms for pressure, versus 8 ms (p = ns) for QRS and 34 ms (p < 0.01) for flow. Singularity of optimum was 85% for pressure, 63% for ECG and 45% for flow (Chi2 = 10.9, p < 0.005). The distribution of pressure optima was biologically plausible, with 80% LV pre-excited (p = 0.007). The distributions of ECG (55% LV pre-excitation) and flow (45% LV pre-excitation) optima were no different to random (p = ns). The pressure-derived optimal VV delay is unaffected by the paced rate: SDD between slow and fast heart rate is 9 ms, no different from the reproducibility SDD at both heart rates. Conclusions Using non-invasive arterial pressure, VV delay optimization by parabolic fitting is achievable with good precision, satisfying all 3 criteria of internal validity. VV optimum is unaffected by heart rate. Neither QRS minimization nor LVOT VTI satisfy all validity criteria, and therefore seem weaker candidate modalities for VV optimization. AF, unlinking interventricular from atrioventricular delay, uniquely exposes resynchronization concepts to experimental scrutiny. PMID:22459364

  14. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  15. Army General Fund Adjustments Not Adequately Documented or Supported

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    statements were unreliable and lacked an adequate audit trail. Furthermore, DoD and Army managers could not rely on the data in their accounting...risk that AGF financial statements will be materially misstated and the Army will not achieve audit readiness by the congressionally mandated...and $6.5 trillion in yearend adjustments made to Army General Fund data during FY 2015 financial statement compilation. We conducted this audit in

  16. Reliable VLSI sequential controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.; Shamanna, M.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI architecture for synchronous sequential controllers is presented that has attractive qualities for producing reliable circuits. In these circuits, one hardware implementation can realize any flow table with a maximum of 2(exp n) internal states and m inputs. Also all design equations are identical. A real time fault detection means is presented along with a strategy for verifying the correctness of the checking hardware. This self check feature can be employed with no increase in hardware. The architecture can be modified to achieve fail safe designs. With no increase in hardware, an adaptable circuit can be realized that allows replacement of faulty transitions with fault free transitions.

  17. (Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CRDO))

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J

    1987-04-21

    One of the primary goals of the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is to be an international focal point for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) data. During FY-1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Specific Memorandum of Agreement (SMA) with Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) regarding cooperative data exchange efforts. This agreement was CREDO's first step toward internationalization and represented an initial realization of the previously mentioned goal. DOE's interest in further internationalization of the CREDO system was the primary motivation for the traveler's attendance at the Reliability '87 conference.

  18. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  19. Elements for adequate informed consent in the surgical context.

    PubMed

    Abaunza, Hernando; Romero, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Given a history of atrocities and violations of ethical principles, several documents and regulations have been issued by a wide variety of organizations. They aim at ensuring that health care and clinical research adhere to defined ethical principles. A fundamental component was devised to ensure that the individual has been provided the necessary information to make an informed decision regarding health care or participation in clinical research. This article summarizes the history and regulations for informed consent and discusses suggested components for adequate consent forms for daily clinical practice in surgery as well as clinical research.

  20. Fatigue and daytime sleepiness rating scales in myotonic dystrophy: a study of reliability

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, L; Gagnon, C; Jean, S; Mathieu, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the reliability of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Daytime Sleepiness Scale (DSS), Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS), and Krupp's Fatigue Severity Scale (KFSS) in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Methods: In total, 27 patients with DM1 were administered the questionnaires on two occasions, with a 2 week interval. Internal consistency and test retest reliability were measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Cronbach's α, Cohen's κ, and Goodman-Kruskal's γ coefficients. Results: Internal consistency of the CFS and KFSS were adequate (α>0.70) but that of the ESS was weak (α = 0.24). Both daytime sleepiness and fatigue rating scales showed significant test retest reliability. Test retest reliability for individual items revealed inconsistencies for some ESS and CFS items. Conclusions: Reliability of the CFS, DSS, and KFSS was high, allowing their use for individual patients with DM1, but that of the ESS was lower, rendering its current usage in DM1 questionable. Fatigue rating scales such as the KFSS, which are based on the behavioural consequences of fatigue, may constitute a more accurate and comprehensive measure of fatigue severity in the DM1 population. PMID:16170085

  1. The validity and reliability of the Dutch Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E K; Schaufeli, W; Vrijkotte, T; Plomp, N H; Godaert, G L

    2000-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire were tested in 775 blue- and white-collar workers in the Netherlands. Cronbach's alpha revealed sufficient internal consistency of all subscales except Need for Control. With exploratory probabilistic scaling (Mokken) analysis, the psychometric qualities of the Need for Control scale were improved. With confirmatory factor analysis, the factorial validity of the Extrinsic Effort and Reward subscales was confirmed. A model with 3 separate dimensions for reward (status control, esteem reward, and monetary gratification) proved adequate, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing subscales. The congruent validity of the subscales and a hypothesized relationship with an external construct, health functioning, were confirmed.

  2. Smoking Cessation/Prevention in the Air Force: How Adequate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    FNP , Com. Member Approval DaW APPROVED: F.G. Abdellah, EdD, ScD, RN, FAAN Date Dean CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Cheryl Anita Udensi Permanent Address...sample of charts and client interview was employed to compare providers’ documented practice protocols with established guidelines set by the Department of...validity in smoking cessation practices was utilized. A pilot study was done to determine intercoder reliability. Descriptive statistics were utilized to

  3. Reliability and validity of the Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ)

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, Paola; Blais, Mark A.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Shelton, Richard C.; Walker, Rosemary S. W.; Fava, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Current measures for major depressive disorder focus primarily on the assessment of depressive symptoms, while often omitting other common features. However, the presence of comorbid features in the anxiety spectrum influences outcome and may effect treatment. More comprehensive measures of depression are needed that include the assessment of symptoms in the anxiety–depression spectrum. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), which assesses irritability, anger attacks, and anxiety symptoms together with the commonly considered symptoms of depression. Analysis of the factor structure of the SDQ identified 5 subscales, including one in the anxiety–depression spectrum, with adequate internal consistency and concurrent validity. The SDQ may be a valuable new tool to better characterize depression and identify and administer more targeted interventions. PMID:25275853

  4. WAIS-III reliability data for clinical groups.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S; Price, L; Chen, H Y

    2001-11-01

    Reliability estimates for psychological tests are almost always reported for nonclinical populations (e.g., the normative samples). Such practice will no longer be sufficient as the new standards for testing call for an adequate assessment of psychometric properties within the specific population being tested. The purpose of this study was to provide internal consistency reliability estimates for clinical groups on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. The study included data from 403 clinical participants composed of 10 groups of adults recruited as part of the WAIS-III clinical validity studies. Split-half reliability coefficients were obtained for these groups replicating the procedure used in the WAIS-III. With 8 of the clinical groups, the split-half reliability coefficients were comparable to, or even higher than, those reported for the WAIS-III standardization sample. In general, the split-half coefficients for the Verbal subtests tended to be higher than the coefficients for the Performance subtests. The high magnitude and general pattern of these coefficients demonstrate that the WAIS-III scales do not include additional error variance above and beyond what is reported in the WAIS-III-WMS-III Technical Manual when it was used to assess certain clinical groups. For the ADHD/ADD and learning disabilities groups, however, the internal consistencies coefficients of some subtests were relatively lower, although not statistically significant, than the normative sample. These findings may reflect more heterogeneity within the groups. The implications for assessment and for using alternate methods of determining the psychometric properties in these populations are discussed.

  5. Prostate cancer between prognosis and adequate/proper therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grozescu, T; Popa, F

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the indolent, non-invasive nature of most types of prostate cancer, as well as the simple fact that the disease seems more likely to be associated with age rather than with other factors (50% of men at the age of 50 and 80% at the age of 80 have it [1], with or without presenting any symptom), the big challenge of this clinical entity was to determine severity indicators (so far insufficient) to guide the physician towards an adequate attitude in the clinical setting. The risk of over-diagnosing and over-treating many prostate cancer cases (indicated by all the major European and American studies) is real and poses many question marks. The present paper was meant to deliver new research data and to reset the clinical approach in prostate cancer cases. PMID:28255369

  6. The cerebellopontine angle: does the translabyrinthine approach give adequate access?

    PubMed

    Fagan, P A; Sheehy, J P; Chang, P; Doust, B D; Coakley, D; Atlas, M D

    1998-05-01

    A long-standing but unfounded criticism of the translabyrinthine approach is the misperception that this approach does not give adequate access to the cerebellopontine angle. Because of what is perceived as limited visualization and operating space within the cerebellopontine angle, some surgeons still believe that the translabyrinthine approach is inappropriate for large acoustic tumors. In this study, the surgical access to the cerebellopontine angle by virtue of the translabyrinthine approach is measured and analyzed. The parameters are compared with those measured for the retrosigmoid approach. This series objectively confirms that the translabyrinthine approach offers the neurotologic surgeon a shorter operative depth to the tumor, via a similar-sized craniotomy. This permits superior visualization by virtue of a wider angle of surgical access. Such access is achieved with the merit of minimal cerebellar retraction.

  7. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; P<0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04% versus 83.8%; P=0.02). Conclusion The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  8. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed.

  9. Duration of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infectiousness under Adequate Therapy, as Assessed Using Induced Sputum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yousang; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Suh-Young; Park, So Young; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Changhwan

    2017-01-01

    Background A sputum culture is the most reliable indicator of the infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB); however, a spontaneous sputum specimen may not be suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infectious period in patients with non–drug-resistant (DR) PTB receiving adequate standard chemotherapy, using induced sputum (IS) specimens. Methods We evaluated the duration of infectiousness of PTB using a retrospective cohort design. Results Among the 35 patients with PTB, 22 were smear-positive. The rates of IS culture positivity from baseline to the sixth week of anti-tuberculosis medication in the smear-positive PTB group were 100%, 100%, 91%, 73%, 36%, and 18%, respectively. For smear-positive PTB cases, the median time of conversion to culture negativity was 35.0 days (range, 28.0–42.0 days). In the smear-negative PTB group (n=13), the weekly rates of positive IS culture were 100%, 77%, 39%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, and the median time to conversion to culture-negative was 21.0 days (range, 17.5–28.0 days). Conclusion The infectiousness of PTB, under adequate therapy, may persist longer than previously reported, even in patients with non-DR PTB. PMID:28119744

  10. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  11. Ensuring reliability in expansion schemes.

    PubMed

    Kamal-Uddin, Abu Sayed; Williams, Donald Leigh

    2005-01-01

    Existing electricity power supplies must serve, or be adapted to serve, the expansion of hospital buildings. With the existing power supply assets of many hospitals being up to 20 years old, assessing the security and reliability of the power system must be given appropriate priority to avoid unplanned outages due to overloads and equipment failures. It is imperative that adequate contingency is planned for essential and non-essential electricity circuits. This article describes the methodology undertaken, and the subsequent recommendations that were made, when evaluating the security and reliability of electricity power supplies to a number of major London hospitals. The methodology described aligns with the latest issue of NHS Estates HTM 2011 'Primary Electrical Infrastructure Emergency Electrical Services Design Guidance' (to which ERA Technology has contributed).

  12. National Intelligence Focus on Latin America: Is It Adequate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-22

    independent legislature, an impartial judicial branch, and the ability to control their national borders and internal territory. A stable...powers” (los poderes fácticos, including elites, media, business groups, military, criminal organizations, etc.) in electoral contests. Ungoverned...between the IC, government agencies and academia, increase the use of foreign born analysts and approve judicious use of the Article 98 waiver

  13. Systemic Crisis of Civilization: In Search for Adequate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozin, Grigori

    In December 1972 a jumbo jet crashed in the Florida Everglades with the loss of 101 lives. The pilot, distracted by a minor malfunction, failed to note until too late the warning signal that - correctly - indicated an impending disaster. His sudden, astonished cry of Hey, what happening here? were his last words 1. Three decades after this tragic episode, as the Humankind approaches the threshold of the third Millennium, the problem of adequate reaction to warning signals of different nature and of distinguishing minor malfunctions in everyday life of society, in economy and technology as well as in evolution of biosphere from grave threats to the world community and the phenomenon of life on our planet remains crucial to human survival and the future of Civilization. Rational use of knowledge and technology available to the world community remains in this context the corner stone of discussions on the destiny of the intelligent life both on the planet Earth and in the Universe (the fact of intelligent life in the Universe is to be detected by the Humankind)…

  14. ENSURING ADEQUATE SAFETY WHEN USING HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-01-22

    Demonstration projects using hydrogen as a fuel are becoming very common. Often these projects rely on project-specific risk evaluations to support project safety decisions. This is necessary because regulations, codes, and standards (hereafter referred to as standards) are just being developed. This paper will review some of the approaches being used in these evolving standards, and techniques which demonstration projects can implement to bridge the gap between current requirements and stakeholder desires. Many of the evolving standards for hydrogen-fuel use performance-based language, which establishes minimum performance and safety objectives, as compared with prescriptive-based language that prescribes specific design solutions. This is being done for several reasons including: (1) concern that establishing specific design solutions too early will stifle invention, (2) sparse performance data necessary to support selection of design approaches, and (3) a risk-adverse public which is unwilling to accept losses that were incurred in developing previous prescriptive design standards. The evolving standards often contain words such as: ''The manufacturer shall implement the measures and provide the information necessary to minimize the risk of endangering a person's safety or health''. This typically implies that the manufacturer or project manager must produce and document an acceptable level of risk. If accomplished using comprehensive and systematic process the demonstration project risk assessment can ease the transition to widespread commercialization. An approach to adequately evaluate and document the safety risk will be presented.

  15. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  16. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  17. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  18. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-03-23

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  19. Reliability: A Comparison of Absence Measures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    1965). Other methods of estimating internal consistency, such as Kuder - Richardson formula 20, involve analysis of item variance and are more... formula . The results show the frequency indices to be very reliable , but that a carefully defined and measured index like sick leave hours lost can provide... formulas show that reliability is interpreted as a coefficient of determination (Guilford, 1954). The conceptual difference is that reliability concerns

  20. INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE AND ANALYSIS CENTER. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ARCHIVE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  1. Reliability model generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

  2. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  3. Measuring the Reliability of Picture Story Exercises like the TAT

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Nicole; Kreuzpointner, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    As frequently reported, psychometric assessments on Picture Story Exercises, especially variations of the Thematic Apperception Test, mostly reveal inadequate scores for internal consistency. We demonstrate that the reason for this apparent shortcoming is not caused by the coding system itself but from the incorrect use of internal consistency coefficients, especially Cronbach’s α. This problem could be eliminated by using the category-scores as items instead of the picture-scores. In addition to a theoretical explanation we prove mathematically why the use of category-scores produces an adequate internal consistency estimation and examine our idea empirically with the origin data set of the Thematic Apperception Test by Heckhausen and two additional data sets. We found generally higher values when using the category-scores as items instead of picture-scores. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, the estimated reliability is also superior to each category within a picture as item measuring. When comparing our suggestion with a multifaceted Rasch-model we provide evidence that our procedure better fits the underlying principles of PSE. PMID:24348902

  4. Reliability Generalization of Working Alliance Inventory Scale Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Curry, Kyle T.; Bandalos, Deborah L.

    2002-01-01

    Used reliability generalization to study five versions of the Working Alliance Inventory (A. Horvath, 1981; WAI), analyzing 67 internal consistency estimates, 6 interrater reliability estimates, and 4 study characteristics. In general WAI scale scores appear to be robust. (SLD)

  5. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  6. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  7. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  8. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  9. Cross-cultural validity and reliability testing of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Bolton, P

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cross-culture validity and reliability of a standard psychiatric assessment instrument without the usual "gold standards." Normally criterion validity testing requires comparison with such a standard--usually another instrument or a professional diagnosis. Instead local informants identified persons with and without "agahinda gakabije" (a locally described grief syndrome) who were then asked if they thought they had this syndrome and also interviewed using the depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL). To assess criterion validity, interviews where respondent and informant agreed on the presence or absence of agahinda gakabije were compared with depression diagnosis using the DHSCL. We also assessed construct validity (using factor analysis), internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha), and test-retest reliability using results from a subsequent community-based survey employing the DHSCL. We found a similar relationship between depression and agahinda gakabije as between depression and grief in western countries, which supports criterion validity. Construct validity and internal reliability were good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Test-retest reliability of a DHSCL-based scale was less adequate (0.67). Although not replacing the usual gold standards for testing criterion validity, this approach may prove useful where these standards are unavailable. As this includes much of the developing world, this could result in more accurate mental health assessments among populations for whom this has hitherto not been possible.

  10. The need for adequate ethical guidelines for qualitative health research.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses adequacy as to the application of Brazilian guidelines, Resolution 196/96(1) and complementaries to qualitative health researches, considering that these are based on non-positivistic paradigms. Frequently, decisions about the research are made together with the studied community. There is a concern with justice and social change. And, since subjectivity can be considered their privileged instrument, such researchers seek a balance between objectivity and subjectivity, discussing how to overcome the researcher's view. We have studied the application and the concept of research found in international and in the Brazilian guidelines. We have noticed that they adopt a positivist conception of research, which establishes 1) the hypothesis test, 2) that all procedures are previously defined by the researcher; 3) neutrality of the researcher and of the knowledge produced. We will present some characteristics of qualitative research; the ethical implications in the way as qualitative research is conceived in non-positivist paradigms and a brief history of these guidelines. Our conclusion: it is inadequate to analyze qualitative researches using these documents, and we suggest the design of specific guidelines for them.

  11. Reliability Modeling of Critical Electronic Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Functional Degradation Failure ........ 84 Mechanisms 7.1.3 Semiconductor Laser Reliability Prediction 87.*>* Procedures 7.1.4 Model Limitations...vidicons, helium-cadmium lasers, semiconductor laser,,, circuit breakers, * I.G. sockets and surface acoustic wave devices. - 22 40 *oŔ Several of the...failure mechanism . To insure . adequate discharge of the photoconductive surface in a single scan, the total *capacitance of the target should be

  12. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  13. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  14. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  15. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  16. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  17. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for use means directions under which the layman can use a device...

  18. A Nomogram to Predict Adequate Lymph Node Recovery before Resection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Li, Cong; Gao, Wei; Yin, Xiao-wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Liu, Nan; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymph node count (LNC) has been associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The study aims to identify new predictors and develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the probability of adequate LNC (≥ 12). 501 eligible patients were retrospectively selected to identify clinical-pathological factors associated with LNC ≥ 12 through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The nomogram was built according to multivariate analyses of preoperative factors. Model performance was assessed with concordance index (c-index) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), followed by internal validation and calibration using 1000-resample bootstrapping. Clinical validity of the nomogram and LNC impact on stage migration were also evaluated. Multivariate analyses showed patient age, CA19-9, circulating lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, tumor diameter, histology and deposit significantly correlated with LNC (P < 0.05). The effects were marginal for CEA, anemia and CRC location (0.05 < P < 0.1). The multivariate analyses of preoperative factors suggested decreased age, CEA, CA19-9, neutrophils, proximal location, and increased platelets and diameter were significantly associated with increased probability of LNC ≥ 12 (P < 0.05). The nomogram achieved c-indexes of 0.75 and 0.73 before and after correction for overfitting. The AUC was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.79) and the clinically valid threshold probabilities were between 10% and 60% for the nomogram to predict LNC < 12. Additionally, increased probability of adequate LNC before surgery was associated with increased LNC and negative lymph nodes rather than increased positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, pN stages or AJCC stages. Collectively, the results indicate the LNC is multifactorial and irrelevant to stage migration. The significant correlations with preoperative circulating markers may

  19. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  20. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  1. Reliability and validity of MINCIR scale for methodological quality in dental therapy research.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés; Manterola, Carlos; Aravena, Pedro; Moraga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The clinical paradigm of evidence-based medicine requires a foundation of good quality research upon which clinical and epidemiological decisions can be based. Several instruments have been designed to assess research quality and validated, though most have limitations. The MINCIR scale was designed to determine the methodological quality (MQ) of clinical research, its psychometric properties for dental research involving large-scale evaluations have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the MINCIR scale for assessment of the MQ of dental therapy studies published in journals indexed in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) databases. A validation study was performed on a sample of 99 articles from four representative ISI dental journals. Criterion validity was determined in relation to level of evidence (LoE) classification as described by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) ranking system, reliability was determined by calculation of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values, and internal consistency was determined by calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Very good inter-observer reliability (ICC=0.93), excellent temporal stability (ICC=0.97), good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.77), and a strong (inverse) correlation with OCEBM LoEs (-0.807; p<.0001) were obtained. These results indicate that the MINCIR scale has adequate psychometric properties and therefore is a valid option for use in the assessment of MQ in dental therapy research articles.

  2. Integrated avionics reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alikiotis, Dimitri

    1988-01-01

    The integrated avionics reliability task is an effort to build credible reliability and/or performability models for multisensor integrated navigation and flight control. The research was initiated by the reliability analysis of a multisensor navigation system consisting of the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Long Range Navigation system (Loran C), and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Markov reliability models were developed based on system failure rates and mission time.

  3. Barriers to help-seeking, detection, and adequate treatment for anxiety and mood disorders: implications for health care policy.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, David

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care.

  4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)

  5. Reliability and structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    An analytic model is developed to calculate the reliability of a structure after it is inspected for cracks. The model accounts for the growth of undiscovered cracks between inspections and their effect upon the reliability after subsequent inspections. The model is based upon a differential form of Bayes' Theorem for reliability, and upon fracture mechanics for crack growth.

  6. Reliability model generator specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Mccann, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The Reliability Model Generator (RMG), a program which produces reliability models from block diagrams for ASSIST, the interface for the reliability evaluation tool SURE is described. An account is given of motivation for RMG and the implemented algorithms are discussed. The appendices contain the algorithms and two detailed traces of examples.

  7. Viking Lander reliability program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilny, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Viking Lander reliability program is reviewed with attention given to the development of the reliability program requirements, reliability program management, documents evaluation, failure modes evaluation, production variation control, failure reporting and correction, and the parts program. Lander hardware failures which have occurred during the mission are listed.

  8. Theory of reliable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to refine the current notion of system reliability by identifying and investigating attributes of a system which are important to reliability considerations. Techniques which facilitate analysis of system reliability are included. Special attention was given to fault tolerance, diagnosability, and reconfigurability characteristics of systems.

  9. Predicting software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlewood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed look is given to software reliability techniques. A conceptual model of the failure process is examined, and some software reliability growth models are discussed. Problems for which no current solutions exist are addressed, emphasizing the very difficult problem of safety-critical systems for which the reliability requirements can be enormously demanding.

  10. The Validity and reliability of the Comprehensive Home Environment Survey (CHES).

    PubMed

    Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L; Hart, Michael H; Serrano, Elena L; McFerren, Mary M; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Few comprehensive measures exist to assess contributors to childhood obesity within the home, specifically among low-income populations. The current study describes the modification and psychometric testing of the Comprehensive Home Environment Survey (CHES), an inclusive measure of the home food, physical activity, and media environment related to childhood obesity. The items were tested for content relevance by an expert panel and piloted in the priority population. The CHES was administered to low-income parents of children 5 to 17 years (N = 150), including a subsample of parents a second time and additional caregivers to establish test-retest and interrater reliabilities. Children older than 9 years (n = 95), as well as parents (N = 150) completed concurrent assessments of diet and physical activity behaviors (predictive validity). Analyses and item trimming resulted in 18 subscales and a total score, which displayed adequate internal consistency (α = .74-.92) and high test-retest reliability (r ≥ .73, ps < .01) and interrater reliability (r ≥ .42, ps < .01). The CHES score and a validated screener for the home environment were correlated (r = .37, p < .01; concurrent validity). CHES subscales were significantly correlated with behavioral measures (r = -.20-.55, p < .05; predictive validity). The CHES shows promise as a valid/reliable assessment of the home environment related to childhood obesity, including healthy diet and physical activity.

  11. Reliability Generalization of the Psychopathy Checklist Applied in Youthful Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Justin S.; Pulos, Steven; Hogan, Mike; Murry, Francie

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the average reliability of Hare Psychopathy Checklists (PCLs) adapted for use in samples of youthful offenders (aged 12 to 21 years). Two forms of reliability are examined: 18 alpha estimates of internal consistency and 18 intraclass correlation (two or more raters) estimates of interrater reliability. The results, an average…

  12. Reliability of AIDS knowledge scales: conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Zimet, G D

    1992-01-01

    A common approach to evaluating the reliability of AIDS knowledge scales has relied on the demonstration of internal consistency through the use of Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR-20) or coefficient alpha. In this study, the argument was made that, in a knowledge-based scale with diverse content (exemplified by AIDS knowledge scales), internal consistency does not make sense conceptually and underestimates the scale's true reliability. It was therefore hypothesized that a split-half approach, in which items in each half were matched for content, would provide superior estimates of reliability when compared to either KR-20 or an odd-even split-half approach. Reliability analyses performed on a knowledge scale developed by the author supported this hypothesis.

  13. Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what is the most adequate preventive strategy? A Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-01-01

    Among the various strategies to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases reduction of sodium intake in the general population has been recognized as one of the most cost-effective means because of its potential impact on the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Yet, this strategic health recommendation of the WHO and many other international organizations is far from being universally accepted. Indeed, there are still several unresolved scientific and epidemiological questions that maintain an ongoing debate. Thus what is the adequate low level of sodium intake to recommend to the general population and whether national strategies should be oriented to the overall population or only to higher risk fractions of the population such as salt-sensitive patients are still discussed. In this paper, we shall review the recent results of the literature regarding salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and we present the recommendations recently proposed by a group of experts of Switzerland. The propositions of the participating medical societies are to encourage national health authorities to continue their discussion with the food industry in order to reduce the sodium intake of food products with a target of mean salt intake of 5–6 grams per day in the population. Moreover, all initiatives to increase the information on the effect of salt on health and on the salt content of food are supported. PMID:26321959

  14. Software Reliability 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    In FY01 we learned that hardware reliability models need substantial changes to account for differences in software, thus making software reliability measurements more effective, accurate, and easier to apply. These reliability models are generally based on familiar distributions or parametric methods. An obvious question is 'What new statistical and probability models can be developed using non-parametric and distribution-free methods instead of the traditional parametric method?" Two approaches to software reliability engineering appear somewhat promising. The first study, begin in FY01, is based in hardware reliability, a very well established science that has many aspects that can be applied to software. This research effort has investigated mathematical aspects of hardware reliability and has identified those applicable to software. Currently the research effort is applying and testing these approaches to software reliability measurement, These parametric models require much project data that may be difficult to apply and interpret. Projects at GSFC are often complex in both technology and schedules. Assessing and estimating reliability of the final system is extremely difficult when various subsystems are tested and completed long before others. Parametric and distribution free techniques may offer a new and accurate way of modeling failure time and other project data to provide earlier and more accurate estimates of system reliability.

  15. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1990-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predicitons for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates prodcued by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  16. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1989-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predictions for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates produced by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  17. Estimating and comparing the reliability of a suite of workplace-based assessments: an obstetrics and gynaecology setting.

    PubMed

    Homer, Matt; Setna, Zeryab; Jha, Vikram; Higham, Jenny; Roberts, Trudie; Boursicot, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on a study that compares estimates of the reliability of a suite of workplace based assessment forms as employed to formatively assess the progress of trainee obstetricians and gynaecologists. The use of such forms of assessment is growing nationally and internationally in many specialties, but there is little research evidence on comparisons by procedure/competency and form-type across an entire specialty. Generalisability theory combined with a multilevel modelling approach is used to estimate variance components, G-coefficients and standard errors of measurement across 13 procedures and three form-types (mini-CEX, OSATS and CbD). The main finding is that there are wide variations in the estimates of reliability across the forms, and that therefore the guidance on assessment within the specialty does not always allow for enough forms per trainee to ensure that the levels of reliability of the process is adequate. There is, however, little evidence that reliability varies systematically by form-type. Methodologically, the problems of accurately estimating reliability in these contexts through the calculation of variance components and, crucially, their associated standard errors are considered. The importance of the use of appropriate methods in such calculations is emphasised, and the unavoidable limitations of research in naturalistic settings are discussed.

  18. Extension of a noninteractive reliability model for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Wetherhold, Robert C.; Jain, Lalit K.

    1990-01-01

    Developments in the processing of high temperature ceramic composites demand innovative and progressive design protocols that adequately predict the thermal and mechanical behavior of these materials. The focus here is the extension of a reliability model for orthotropic ceramic composites. The approach chosen to describe failures leads to a noninteractive formulation of reliability that is phenomenological. This particular criterion, which was constructed using tensorial invariant theory, allows six potential failure modes to emerge.

  19. Planning 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT) Cannot Adequately Represent Daily Intrafractional Motion of Abdominal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Noel, Camille; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether planning 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can adequately represent daily motion of abdominal tumors in regularly fractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional tumor motion of 10 patients with abdominal tumors (4 pancreas-fractionated and 6 liver-stereotactic patients) with implanted fiducials was measured based on daily orthogonal fluoroscopic movies over 38 treatment fractions. The needed internal margin for at least 90% of tumor coverage was calculated based on a 95th and fifth percentile of daily 3-dimensional tumor motion. The planning internal margin was generated by fusing 4DCT motion from all phase bins. The disagreement between needed and planning internal margin was analyzed fraction by fraction in 3 motion axes (superior-inferior [SI], anterior-posterior [AP], and left-right [LR]). The 4DCT margin was considered as an overestimation/underestimation of daily motion when disagreement exceeded at least 3 mm in the SI axis and/or 1.2 mm in the AP and LR axes (4DCT image resolution). The underlying reasons for this disagreement were evaluated based on interfractional and intrafractional breathing variation. Results: The 4DCT overestimated daily 3-dimensional motion in 39% of the fractions in 7 of 10 patients and underestimated it in 53% of the fractions in 8 of 10 patients. Median underestimation was 3.9 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.7 mm in the SI axis, AP axis, and LR axis, respectively. The 4DCT was found to capture irregular deep breaths in 3 of 10 patients, with 4DCT motion larger than mean daily amplitude by 18 to 21 mm. The breathing pattern varied from breath to breath and day to day. The intrafractional variation of amplitude was significantly larger than intrafractional variation (2.7 mm vs 1.3 mm) in the primary motion axis (ie, SI axis). The SBRT patients showed significantly larger intrafractional amplitude variation than fractionated patients (3.0 mm vs 2

  20. Reliability, Recursion, and Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Melvin, Ed.; Wagon, Stan, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The discrete mathematics topics of trees and computational complexity are implemented in a simple reliability program which illustrates the process advantages of the PASCAL programing language. The discussion focuses on the impact that reliability research can provide in assessment of the risks found in complex technological ventures. (Author/JJK)

  1. Monte Carlo Reliability Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    to Stochastic Processes , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1975. (5) R. E. Barlow and F. Proscham, Statistical TheorX of Reliability and Life...Lewis and Z. Tu, "Monte Carlo Reliability Modeling by Inhomogeneous ,Markov Processes, Reliab. Engr. 16, 277-296 (1986). (4) E. Cinlar, Introduction

  2. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  3. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne William; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  4. The Japanese version of the revised Life Orientation Test: reliability and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Katsunori

    2004-08-01

    The Japanese translation of the revised Life Orientation Test was completed by 223 Japanese college students. Factor analysis yielded two factors, namely, Optimism and Pessimism. These factor scales showed adequate reliability and construct validity.

  5. Chapter 9: Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ...

  7. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  8. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  9. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  10. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  11. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  13. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  14. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  15. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and....568 Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination...

  16. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  17. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  18. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  19. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438... Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... provides supporting documentation that demonstrates that it has the capacity to serve the...

  20. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  1. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility...

  2. The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy: reliability and validity studies.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Ann M; McKibbin, Christine; Zeiss, Antonette M; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.

  3. Validity and Reliability of a Scale Assessing Attitudes toward Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In a study involving 50 undergraduate and graduate education students the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale was found to have a large first factor with adequate reliability. There was a low correlation between knowledge and ATMS scores, although knowledge was more strongly related to classroom acceptance of exceptional students. (CL)

  4. Adequate health literacy is associated with higher heart failure knowledge and self-care confidence in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Cheryl R; McEntee, Mindy L; Samuel, Laura; Johnson, Brandon J; Rotman, Stacey; Kielty, Alexandra; Russell, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients with inadequate health literacy are at increased risk for poor self-care and negative health outcomes such as hospital readmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of inadequate health literacy, the reliability of the Dutch HF Knowledge Scale (DHFKS) and the Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), and the differences in HF knowledge, HF self-care, and 30-day readmission rate by health literacy level among patients hospitalized with HF. The convenience sample included adults (n = 95) admitted to a large, urban, teaching hospital whose primary diagnosis was HF. Measures included the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the DHFKS, the SCHFI, and readmission at 30 days after discharge. The sample was 59 ± 14 years in age, 51% male, and 67% African American; 35% had less than a high school education, 35% were employed, 73% lived with someone who helps with their HF care, and 16% were readmitted within 30 days of index admission. Health literacy was inadequate for 42%, marginal for 19%, and adequate for 39%. Reliability of the DHFKS and SCHFI scales was comparable to prior reports. Mean knowledge score was 11.43 ± 2.26; SCHFI subscale scores were 56.82 ± 17.12 for maintenance, 63.64 ± 18.29 for management, and 65.02 ± 16.34 for confidence. Those with adequate health literacy were younger and had higher education level, HF knowledge scores, and HF self-care confidence compared with those with marginal or inadequate health literacy. Self-care maintenance and management scores and 30-day readmission rate did not differ by health literacy level. These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of inadequate and marginal health literacy and that health literacy is an important consideration in promoting HF knowledge and confidence in self-care behaviors, particularly among older adults and those with less than a high school education.

  5. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  6. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  7. Evaluation of validity and reliability of the Persian version of the functional index of hand osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kordi Yoosefinejad, Amin; Motealleh, Alireza; Babakhani, Mohammad

    2017-01-13

    The Functional index of hand osteoarthritis (FIHOA) is a commonly used patient-reported outcome questionnaire designed to measure function in patients with hand osteoarthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the FIHOA. The Persian-translated version of FIHOA was administered to 72 native Persian-speaking patients in Iran with hand osteoarthritis. Thirty-six of the patients completed the questionnaire on two occasions 1 week apart. The physical component of the SF-36 and a numerical rating scale were used to evaluate the construct validity of the Persian version of FIHOA. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89). Test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent (weighted kappa = 0.89, 95% CI 0.79-0.94). A significant positive correlation between total FIHOA score and numerical rating scale (r = 0.70) and a significant negative correlation between total FIHOA score and the physical component scale of the SF-36 (r = -0.76) were observed. The Persian version of the FIHOA showed adequate validity and reliability to evaluate functional disability in Persian-speaking patients with hand osteoarthritis.

  8. Factor Score Reliabilities and Domain Validities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Kaiser and Michael reported a formula for factor scores giving an internal consistency reliability and its square root, the domain validity. Using this formula is inappropriate if variables are included which have trival weights rather than salient weights for the factor for which the score is being computed. (Author/RL)

  9. Determining the validity and reliability of clinical communication assessment tools for dental patients and students.

    PubMed

    Schönwetter, Dieter J; Wener, Mickey Emmons; Mazurat, Nita

    2012-10-01

    A shortcoming identified in the dental education literature is the scarcity of patient assessment of the quality of communication between student clinicians and patients. This study, the second in a series, attempts to address this scarcity by testing the communication components deemed critical to patients identified in the first article. Two instruments were tested: the Patient Communication Assessment Instrument (PCAI) and the Student Communication Assessment Instrument (SCAI). Item-to-total correlations and Cronbach's alpha were used to determine internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was examined through principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation using a total of 820 participants (410 patients and 410 students), who completed communication skills questionnaires collected in the 2006-07 school year as part of dental and dental hygiene clinical courses. Each component in the assessment instruments demonstrated internal consistency (alpha range=0.779-0.960). Based on a principal components analysis, six new factors were found to be significantly associated with communication skills: being caring and respectful, sharing information, interacting with team members, tending to comfort, professional relationship-building, and appointment preparation/follow-up. Correlational analysis demonstrated a core of critical instrument items to be considered for future assessment of the quality of communication between student clinicians and patients. Adequate estimates of reliability and validity for the PCAI and SCAI were demonstrated. Further research is needed in other countries and cultures to test and confirm the constructs.

  10. Reliability Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    RAM program determines probability of success for one or more given objectives in any complex system. Program includes failure mode and effects, criticality and reliability analyses, and some aspects of operations, safety, flight technology, systems design engineering, and configuration analyses.

  11. The rating reliability calculator

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David J

    2004-01-01

    Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program. PMID:15117416

  12. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  13. Metrology automation reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Elizabeth E.

    1996-09-01

    At Motorola's MOS-12 facility automated measurements on 200- mm diameter wafers proceed in a hands-off 'load-and-go' mode requiring only wafer loading, measurement recipe loading, and a 'run' command for processing. Upon completion of all sample measurements, the data is uploaded to the factory's data collection software system via a SECS II interface, eliminating the requirement of manual data entry. The scope of in-line measurement automation has been extended to the entire metrology scheme from job file generation to measurement and data collection. Data analysis and comparison to part specification limits is also carried out automatically. Successful integration of automated metrology into the factory measurement system requires that automated functions, such as autofocus and pattern recognition algorithms, display a high degree of reliability. In the 24- hour factory reliability data can be collected automatically on every part measured. This reliability data is then uploaded to the factory data collection software system at the same time as the measurement data. Analysis of the metrology reliability data permits improvements to be made as needed, and provides an accurate accounting of automation reliability. This reliability data has so far been collected for the CD-SEM (critical dimension scanning electron microscope) metrology tool, and examples are presented. This analysis method can be applied to such automated in-line measurements as CD, overlay, particle and film thickness measurements.

  14. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  15. Inferential Processing among Adequate and Struggling Adolescent Comprehenders and Relations to Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Barnes, Marcia; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon; York, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments accounted for significant unique variance for passage-level, but not sentence-level comprehension, particularly for adequate comprehenders. PMID:26166946

  16. Target Window Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  17. Region 8: Colorado Lamar and Steamboat Springs Adequate Letter (11/12/2002)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Lamar and Steamboat Springs particulate matter (PM10) maintenance plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate for transportation conformity purposes

  18. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency... floodplain management regulations meeting minimum requirements under the National Flood Insurance Program... they have brought their floodplain management regulations into compliance with the NFIP...

  19. Region 9: California Adequate / Inadequate Letter Attachment (5/30/2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a document that states that it has been found adequate for transportation conformitypurposes certain 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 motor vehicleemissions budgets in the 2007 South Coast StateImplementation Plan.

  20. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  1. Statistical modelling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    During the six-month period from 1 April 1991 to 30 September 1991 the following research papers in statistical modeling of software reliability appeared: (1) A Nonparametric Software Reliability Growth Model; (2) On the Use and the Performance of Software Reliability Growth Models; (3) Research and Development Issues in Software Reliability Engineering; (4) Special Issues on Software; and (5) Software Reliability and Safety.

  2. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  3. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  4. Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, D. Phillip

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.

  5. Proposed reliability cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  6. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  7. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in older persons - from pathophysiology to adequate intervention: a review and summary of an international expert meeting.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Rainer; Dziewas, Rainer; Beck, Anne Marie; Clavé, Pere; Hamdy, Shaheen; Heppner, Hans Juergen; Langmore, Susan; Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Martino, Rosemary; Pluschinski, Petra; Rösler, Alexander; Shaker, Reza; Warnecke, Tobias; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Volkert, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a highly prevalent and growing condition in the older population. Although OD may cause very severe complications, it is often not detected, explored, and treated. Older patients are frequently unaware of their swallowing dysfunction which is one of the reasons why the consequences of OD, ie, aspiration, dehydration, and malnutrition, are regularly not attributed to dysphagia. Older patients are particularly vulnerable to dysphagia because multiple age-related changes increase the risk of dysphagia. Physicians in charge of older patients should be aware that malnutrition, dehydration, and pneumonia are frequently caused by (unrecognized) dysphagia. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in the case of silent aspiration. In addition to numerous screening tools, videofluoroscopy was the traditional gold standard of diagnosing OD. Recently, the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is increasingly utilized because it has several advantages. Besides making a diagnosis, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is applied to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic maneuvers and texture modification of food and liquids. In addition to swallowing training and nutritional interventions, newer rehabilitation approaches of stimulation techniques are showing promise and may significantly impact future treatment strategies.

  8. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in older persons – from pathophysiology to adequate intervention: a review and summary of an international expert meeting

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Rainer; Dziewas, Rainer; Beck, Anne Marie; Clavé, Pere; Hamdy, Shaheen; Heppner, Hans Juergen; Langmore, Susan; Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Martino, Rosemary; Pluschinski, Petra; Rösler, Alexander; Shaker, Reza; Warnecke, Tobias; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Volkert, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a highly prevalent and growing condition in the older population. Although OD may cause very severe complications, it is often not detected, explored, and treated. Older patients are frequently unaware of their swallowing dysfunction which is one of the reasons why the consequences of OD, ie, aspiration, dehydration, and malnutrition, are regularly not attributed to dysphagia. Older patients are particularly vulnerable to dysphagia because multiple age-related changes increase the risk of dysphagia. Physicians in charge of older patients should be aware that malnutrition, dehydration, and pneumonia are frequently caused by (unrecognized) dysphagia. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in the case of silent aspiration. In addition to numerous screening tools, videofluoroscopy was the traditional gold standard of diagnosing OD. Recently, the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is increasingly utilized because it has several advantages. Besides making a diagnosis, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing is applied to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic maneuvers and texture modification of food and liquids. In addition to swallowing training and nutritional interventions, newer rehabilitation approaches of stimulation techniques are showing promise and may significantly impact future treatment strategies. PMID:26966356

  9. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  10. Validity and reliability of an Arabic version of the state-trait anxiety inventory in a Saudi dental setting

    PubMed Central

    Bahammam, Maha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To test the psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic version of the state trait anxiety-form Y (STAI-Y) in Saudi adult dental patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the published Arabic version of the STAI-Y was evaluated by 2 experienced bilingual professionals for its compatibility with Saudi culture and revised prior to testing. Three hundred and eighty-seven patients attending dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, King Abdullah University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the study. The Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of anxiety were used to assess the concurrent criterion validity. Results: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.989) for state and trait subscales. Factor analysis indicated unidimensionality of the scale. Correlations between STAI-Y scores and both MDAS and VAS scores indicated strong concurrent criterion validity. Discriminant validity was supported by the findings that higher anxiety levels were present among females as opposed to males, younger individuals as compared to older individuals, and patients who do not visit the dentist unless they have a need as opposed to more frequent visitors to the dental office. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y has an adequate internal consistency reliability, generally similar to that reported in the international literature, suggesting it is appropriate for assessing dental anxiety in Arabic speaking populations. PMID:27279514

  11. Reliability and Validity of a Self-Concept Scale for Researchers in Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathus, Spencer A.; Siegel, Larry J.

    1976-01-01

    Self-concept questionnaire was shown to have high test-retest reliability, but only fair to moderate split-half (odd-even) reliability. Validity was adequate. The scale will serve as a heuristic device for family counselors who require a rapid assessment of a child's self-esteem. (Author)

  12. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    PubMed

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  14. Reliability Engineering Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-06-01

    INTEVAL 00 0 542 917 1953 OPERATING TIME IN HOURS Figure 6-4. TWT Reliability Function, Showing the 90% Confidence Interval 6-7 6-2-4 to 6-2-5 NAVWEPS...the lower one-sided 90% greater than 977 hours, or 90% confidence confidence limit on 0 is (.704)(530) = 373 that 0 lies between these two bounds . R...6-4 6-2-2 Measurement of Reliability (Application of Confidence Limits).. 6-4 6-2-3 Procedural Steps

  15. Designing for Reliability and Robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svetlik, Randall G.; Moore, Cherice; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has a negative effect on the human body, and exercise countermeasures are used on-board the International Space Station (ISS) to minimize bone and muscle loss, combatting these effects. Given the importance of these hardware systems to the health of the crew, this equipment must continue to be readily available. Designing spaceflight exercise hardware to meet high reliability and availability standards has proven to be challenging throughout the time the crewmembers have been living on ISS beginning in 2000. Furthermore, restoring operational capability after a failure is clearly time-critical, but can be problematic given the challenges of troubleshooting the problem from 220 miles away. Several best-practices have been leveraged in seeking to maximize availability of these exercise systems, including designing for robustness, implementing diagnostic instrumentation, relying on user feedback, and providing ample maintenance and sparing. These factors have enhanced the reliability of hardware systems, and therefore have contributed to keeping the crewmembers healthy upon return to Earth. This paper will review the failure history for three spaceflight exercise countermeasure systems identifying lessons learned that can help improve future systems. Specifically, the Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (TVIS), Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) will be reviewed, analyzed, and conclusions identified so as to provide guidance for improving future exercise hardware designs. These lessons learned, paired with thorough testing, offer a path towards reduced system down-time.

  16. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  17. Reliability and construct validity for scale of rejection of Christianity.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J; Bradford, Amanda

    2003-02-01

    A sample of 16 male and 30 female undergraduates completed the Greer and Francis Scale of Rejection of Christianity. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale for this sample.

  18. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  19. Structural validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) in a sample of the general Spanish population.

    PubMed

    González Rodríguez, Manuel; Avero Delgado, Pedro; Rovella, Anna Teresa; Cubas León, Rosario

    2008-11-01

    This paper introduces the validation of the Spanish adaptation of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) by Wegner and Zanakos (1994). A sample of 833 people from the general population completed the WBSI along with other questionnaires. The exploratory factor analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution accounting for 51.8% of the cumulative variance. This structure is comprised of the two following factors: unwanted intrusive thoughts (alpha = .87, r = .70) and actions of distraction and suppression of thoughts (alpha = .80, r = .60). Both internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89) and test-retest reliability (r = .71) showed adequate homogeneity, sound consistency, and stability over time. The results are discussed bearing in mind both isolated factors and the possible relationships of the suppression factor with automatic negative thoughts and insomnia.

  20. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  1. Validity and Reliability of the School Physical Activity Environment Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to establish the factor validity of the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Robertson-Wilson, Levesque, & Holden, 2007) using confirmatory factor analysis procedures. Another goal was to establish internal reliability and test-retest reliability. The confirmatory factor analysis…

  2. The Validity and Reliability of the Mobbing Scale (MS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop the Mobbing Scale and examine its validity and reliability. The sample of the study consisted of 515 persons from Sakarya and Bursa. In this study, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for construct…

  3. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WISC-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.; Bartels, Jared M.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation provides internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) subtest and index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities range from 0.50 to 0.82 for subtest discrepancy scores and from 0.78 to 0.88 for index discrepancy scores.…

  4. Assuring Software Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    resources.sei.cmu.edu/asset_files/WhitePaper/2009_019_001_29066.pdf [Boydston 2009] Boydston, A. & Lewis , W. Qualification and Reliability of...Woody, Carol . Survivability Analysis Framework (CMU/SEI-2010-TN-013). Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2010. http

  5. Sequential Reliability Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiting, Mindert H.

    1991-01-01

    A method is proposed for sequential evaluation of reliability of psychometric instruments. Sample size is unfixed; a test statistic is computed after each person is sampled and a decision is made in each stage of the sampling process. Results from a series of Monte-Carlo experiments establish the method's efficiency. (SLD)

  6. Designing reliability into accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ``factories,`` reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis.

  7. Designing reliability into accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis.

  8. Reliable solar cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Magney, G.K.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the activities of SERVE, a Christian relief and development agency, to introduce solar ovens to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. It has provided 5,000 solar cookers since 1984. The experience has demonstrated the potential of the technology and the need for a durable and reliable product. Common complaints about the cookers are discussed and the ideal cooker is described.

  9. Software reliability report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry

    1991-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Unfortunately, the models appear to be unable to account for the random nature of the data. If the same code is debugged multiple times and one of the models is used to make predictions, intolerable variance is observed in the resulting reliability predictions. It is believed that data replication can remove this variance in lab type situations and that it is less than scientific to talk about validating a software reliability model without considering replication. It is also believed that data replication may prove to be cost effective in the real world, thus the research centered on verification of the need for replication and on methodologies for generating replicated data in a cost effective manner. The context of the debugging graph was pursued by simulation and experimentation. Simulation was done for the Basic model and the Log-Poisson model. Reasonable values of the parameters were assigned and used to generate simulated data which is then processed by the models in order to determine limitations on their accuracy. These experiments exploit the existing software and program specimens which are in AIR-LAB to measure the performance of reliability models.

  10. Reliability Design Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    prediction, failure modes and effects analysis ( FMEA ) and reliability growth techniques represent those prediction and design evaluation methods that...Assessment Production Operation Ö Maintenance MIL-HDBK- 217 Bayesian Techniques Probabilistic Design FMEA I R Growth " I...devices suffer thermal aging; oxidation and other chemical reactions are enhanced; viscosity reduction and evaporation of lubricants are problems

  11. Validity, Reliability and Acceptability of the Team Standardized Assessment of Clinical Encounter Report*

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Camilla L.; Norris, Mireille; Sinha, Samir S.; Zorzitto, Maria L.; Madala, Sushma; Hamid, Jemila S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Team Standardized Assessment of a Clinical Encounter Report (StACER) was designed for use in Geriatric Medicine residency programs to evaluate Communicator and Collaborator competencies. Methods The Team StACER was completed by two geriatricians and interdisciplinary team members based on observations during a geriatric medicine team meeting. Postgraduate trainees were recruited from July 2010–November 2013. Inter-rater reliability between two geriatricians and between all team members was determined. Internal consistency of items for the constructs Communicator and Collaborator competencies was calculated. Raters completed a survey previously administered to Canadian geriatricians to assess face validity. Trainees completed a survey to determine the usefulness of this instrument as a feedback tool. Results Thirty postgraduate trainees participated. The prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa range inter-rater reliability for Communicator and Collaborator items were 0.87–1.00 and 0.86–1.00, respectively. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for Communicator and Collaborator items was 0.997 (95% CI: 0.993–1.00) and 0.997 (95% CI: 0.997–1.00), respectively. The instrument lacked discriminatory power, as all trainees scored “meets requirements” in the overall assessment. Niney-three per cent and 86% of trainees found feedback useful for developing Communicator and Collaborator competencies, respectively. Conclusions The Team StACER has adequate inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. Poor discriminatory power and face validity challenge the merit of using this evaluation tool. Trainees felt the tool provided useful feedback on Collaborator and Communicator competencies. PMID:28050222

  12. The Structured Clinical Interview for Complicated Grief: Reliability, Validity, and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Eric; Mauro, Christine; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Skritskaya, Natalia A.; Wang, Yuanjia; Gribbin, Colleen; Ghesquiere, Angela; Horenstein, Arielle; Duan, Naihua; Reynolds, Charles; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi M.; Shear, M. Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Complicated grief (CG) has been recently included in the DSM-5, under the term “Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder”, as a condition requiring further study. To our knowledge, no psychometric data on any structured clinical interview of CG is available to date. In this manuscript, we introduce the Structured Clinical Interview for CG (SCI-CG) a 31-item “SCID-like” clinician-administered instrument to assess the presence of CG symptoms. Methods Participants were 281 treatment-seeking adults with CG (77.9% (n=219) women, mean age = 52.4, SD = 17.8) who were assessed with the SCI-CG and measures of depression, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, functional impairment. Results The SCI-CG exhibited satisfactory internal consistency (α = .78), good test-retest reliability (Inter-class correlation [ICC] 0.68, 95% CI [0.60, 0.75]), and excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.95, 95% CI [0.89, 0.98]). Exploratory factor analyses revealed that a five-factor structure, explaining 50.3% of the total variance, was the best fit for the data. Conclusions The clinician-rated SCI-CG demonstrates good internal consistency, reliability, and convergent validity in treatment-seeking individuals with CG and therefore can be a useful tool to assess CG. Although diagnostic criteria for CG have yet to be adequately validated, the SCI-CG may facilitate this process. The SCI-CG can now be used as a validated instrument in research and clinical practice. PMID:26061724

  13. Reliability Generalization (RG) Analysis: The Test Is Not Reliable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Literature shows that most researchers are unaware of some of the characteristics of reliability. This paper clarifies some misconceptions by describing the procedures, benefits, and limitations of reliability generalization while using it to illustrate the nature of score reliability. Reliability generalization (RG) is a meta-analytic method…

  14. [Reliability of the Greek version of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) in a sample of adolescent students].

    PubMed

    Pliatskidou, S; Samakouri, M; Kalamara, E; Goulemtzakis, C; Koutrouvi, K; Papageorgiou, E; Livadites, M

    2012-01-01

    behavioral features ranged from 0.22 to 0.57. All the above correlations that concern the test-retest reliability of the EDE-Q were statistically significant at the 0.001 level. The Greek version of EDE-Q 6.0, standardized in a sample of secondary school students, presents adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency as well.

  15. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-12-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress.

  16. [Prevention of ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus by adequate treatment with acyclovir].

    PubMed

    Borruat, F X; Buechi, E R; Piguet, B; Fitting, P; Zografos, L; Herbort, C P

    1991-05-01

    We compared the frequency of severe ocular complications secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) in 232 patients. They were divided into three groups: 1) patients without treatment (n = 164); 2) patients treated adequately (n = 48) with acyclovir (ACV; 5 x 800 mg/d orally and ophthalmic ointment 5 x /d for a minimum of 7 days, given within three days after skin eruption); and, 3) patients treated inadequately (n = 20) with ACV (only topical treatment, insufficient doses, interrupted treatment, delayed treatment). Patients with no treatment or with inadequate treatments showed the same frequency of severe ocular complications (21% (34/164) and 25% (5/20), respectively). In contrast, when adequate treatment of ACV was given complications occurred in only 4% (2/48) of cases. This study emphasizes the need for prompt (within three days after skin eruption) and adequate (5 x 800 mg/d for at least 7 days) treatment of ACV to prevent the severe complications of HZO.

  17. Broadband inversion of 1J(CC) responses in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra.

    PubMed

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Martin, Gary E; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Establishing the carbon skeleton of a molecule greatly facilitates the process of structure elucidation, both manual and computer-assisted. Recent advances in the family of ADEQUATE experiments demonstrated their potential in this regard. 1,1-ADEQUATE, which provides direct (13)C-(13)C correlation via (1)J(CC), and 1,n-ADEQUATE, which typically yields (3)J(CC) and (1)J(CC) correlations, are more sensitive and more widely applicable experiments than INADEQUATE and PANACEA. A recently reported modified pulse sequence that semi-selectively inverts (1)J(CC) correlations in 1,n-ADEQUATE spectra provided a significant improvement, allowing (1)J(CC) and (n)J(CC) correlations to be discerned in the same spectrum. However, the reported experiment requires a careful matching of the amplitude transfer function with (1)J(CC) coupling constants in order to achieve the inversion, and even then some (1)J(CC) correlations could still have positive intensity due to the oscillatory nature of the transfer function. Both shortcomings limit the practicality of the method. We now report a new, dual-optimized inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment, which provides more uniform inversion of (1)J(CC) correlations across the range of 29-82 Hz. Unlike the original method, the dual optimization experiment does not require fine-tuning for the molecule's (1)J(CC) coupling constant values. Even more usefully, the dual-optimized version provides up to two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise for some long-range correlations. Using modern, cryogenically-cooled probes, the experiment can be successfully applied to samples of ~1 mg under favorable circumstances. The improvements afforded by dual optimization inverted (1)J(CC) 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment make it a useful and practical tool for NMR structure elucidation and should facilitate the implementation and utilization of the experiment.

  18. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  19. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  20. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  1. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  2. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  3. Compact, Reliable EEPROM Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2010-01-01

    A compact, reliable controller for an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) has been developed specifically for a space-flight application. The design may be adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for reliability in general and, in particular, for prevention of inadvertent writing of data in EEPROM cells. Inadvertent writes pose risks of loss of reliability in the original space-flight application and could pose such risks in other applications. Prior EEPROM controllers are large and complex and do not provide all reasonable protections (in many cases, few or no protections) against inadvertent writes. In contrast, the present controller provides several layers of protection against inadvertent writes. The controller also incorporates a write-time monitor, enabling determination of trends in the performance of an EEPROM through all phases of testing. The controller has been designed as an integral subsystem of a system that includes not only the controller and the controlled EEPROM aboard a spacecraft but also computers in a ground control station, relatively simple onboard support circuitry, and an onboard communication subsystem that utilizes the MIL-STD-1553B protocol. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD- 1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) The intent was to both maximize reliability while minimizing the size and complexity of onboard circuitry. In operation, control of the EEPROM is effected via the ground computers, the MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem, and the onboard support circuitry, all of which, in combination, provide the multiple layers of protection against inadvertent writes. There is no controller software, unlike in many prior EEPROM controllers; software can be a major contributor to unreliability, particularly in fault

  4. Designing reliability into accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-07-01

    Future accelerators will have to provide a high degree of reliability. Quality must be designed in right from the beginning and must remain a central theme throughout the project. The problem is similar to the problems facing US industry today, and examples of the successful application of quality engineering will be given. Different aspects of an accelerator project will be addressed: Concept, Design, Motivation, Management Techniques, and Fault Diagnosis. The importance of creating and maintaining a coherent team will be stressed.

  5. Reliability and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Reliability and its interdependence with testing are important topics for development and manufacturing of successful products. This generally accepted fact is not only a technical statement, but must be also seen in the light of 'Human Factors.' While the background for this paper is the experience gained with electromechanical/electronic space products, including control and system considerations, it is believed that the content could be also of interest for other fields.

  6. Laser System Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    NEALE CAPT. RANDALL D. GODFREY CAPT. JOHN E. ACTON HR. DAVE B. LEMMING (ASD) :,^ 19 . ••^w**** SECTION III RELIABILITY PREDICTION...Dete Exchange Program) failure rate date bank. In addition, some data have been obtained from Hughes. Rocketdyne , Garrett, and the AFWL’s APT Failure...Central Ave, Suite 306, Albuq, NM 87108 R/M Systems, Inc (Dr. K. Blemel), 10801 Lomas 81vd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112 Rocketdyne 01 v, Rockwell

  7. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  8. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  9. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  10. Highly reliable PLC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, L.V.

    1995-03-01

    Today`s control engineers are afforded many options when designing microprocessor based systems for safety applications. The use of some form of redundancy is typical, but the final selection must match the requirements of the application. Should the system be fail safe or fault tolerant? Is safety the overriding consideration, or is production a concern as well? Are redundant PLC`s (Programmable Logic Controllers) adequate, or should a system specifically designed for safety applications be utilized? There is a considerable effort in progress, both in the USA and in Europe, to establish guidelines and standards which match the safety integrity of the system with the degree of risk inherent in the application. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the subject, and explore some of the microprocessor based alternatives available to the control or safety engineer.

  11. Data Used in Quantified Reliability Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana; Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Kahn, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Data is the crux to developing quantitative risk and reliability models, without the data there is no quantification. The means to find and identify reliability data or failure numbers to quantify fault tree models during conceptual and design phases is often the quagmire that precludes early decision makers consideration of potential risk drivers that will influence design. The analyst tasked with addressing a system or product reliability depends on the availability of data. But, where is does that data come from and what does it really apply to? Commercial industries, government agencies, and other international sources might have available data similar to what you are looking for. In general, internal and external technical reports and data based on similar and dissimilar equipment is often the first and only place checked. A common philosophy is "I have a number - that is good enough". But, is it? Have you ever considered the difference in reported data from various federal datasets and technical reports when compared to similar sources from national and/or international datasets? Just how well does your data compare? Understanding how the reported data was derived, and interpreting the information and details associated with the data is as important as the data itself.

  12. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a documented safety analysis... provide guidance on meeting the requirements imposed by DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...

  13. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a... contract for services (for example, a management contract), directly assigning the costs to the...

  14. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  15. Towards Defining Adequate Lithium Trials for Individuals with Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Use of lithium with mentally retarded individuals with psychiatric conditions and/or behavior disturbances is discussed. The paper describes components of an adequate clinical trial and reviews case studies and double-blind cases. The paper concludes that aggression is the best indicator for lithium use, and reviews treatment parameters and…

  16. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  17. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  18. 45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all systems in which identifiable personal data... data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of personal data. (4... technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual...

  19. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  20. Effect of tranquilizers on animal resistance to the adequate stimuli of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maksimovich, Y. B.; Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of tranquilizers on vestibulospinal reflexes and motor activity was studied in 900 centrifuged albino mice. Actometric studies have shown that the tranquilizers have a group capacity for increasing animal resistance to the action of adequate stimuli to the vestibular apparatus.

  1. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  3. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  4. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending...

  5. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  6. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  7. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  8. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall...

  9. Identifying the Factors Impacting the Adequately Yearly Progress Performance in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Ju-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) specifies that states must develop AYP (adequate yearly progress) statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students, including economically disadvantaged students, students from minority races, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. By the 2013-2014…

  10. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances of adequate capacity and services. 438.207 Section 438.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and...

  11. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  12. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  13. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  14. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  15. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  16. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  17. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  18. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... with one or more controls to provide a quantitative evaluation of drug effects. The protocol and the... for special circumstances. Examples include studies in which the effect of the new animal drug is...

  19. 30 CFR 227.801 - What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... delegated function? 227.801 Section 227.801 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.801 What if a State does not adequately perform a delegated function? If your performance of the delegated function does...

  20. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  1. 42 CFR 417.568 - Adequate financial records, statistical data, and cost finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequate financial records, statistical data, and... financial records, statistical data, and cost finding. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) An HMO or CMP must maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data for proper determination of costs payable by...

  2. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  3. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  4. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  5. 36 CFR 13.960 - Who determines when there is adequate snow cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who determines when there is adequate snow cover? 13.960 Section 13.960 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  6. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The ...

  7. Adequate Yearly Progress for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders through Research-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Temple-Harvey, Kimberly K.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2009-01-01

    Because schools are held accountable for the academic performance of all students, it is important to focus on academics and the need for effective teaching practices. Adequate yearly progress, a method of accountability that is part of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), profoundly affects the education of students who have emotional and…

  8. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  9. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  10. The puzzling reliability of the Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Rosenfield, Steven; Dedic, Helena; Dahan, Ariel; Reshef, Orad

    2011-09-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has influenced the development of many research-based pedagogies. However, no data exists on the FCI's internal consistency or test-retest reliability. The FCI was administered twice to one hundred students during the first week of classes in an electricity and magnetism course with no review of mechanics between test administrations. High Kuder-Richardson reliability coefficient values, which estimate the average correlation of scores obtained on all possible halves of the test, suggest strong internal consistency. However, 31% of the responses changed from test to retest, suggesting weak reliability for individual questions. A chi-square analysis shows that change in responses was neither consistent nor completely random. The puzzling conclusion is that although individual FCI responses are not reliable, the FCI total score is highly reliable.

  11. Reliability and validity of World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 in homeless substance-dependent veteran population.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rea, Elizabeth; LePage, James P

    2008-01-01

    The number of homeless individuals and specifically homeless veterans is increasing. Accurate assessment of quality of life is an important need in working with this population because of the myriad problems encountered. However, the reliability and validity of quality-of-life instruments have not been assessed in this population. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the U.S. version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 in a homeless veteran population. Results found adequate internal consistency for all domain and most facet scores, while test-retest stability varied for the facet scores. We confirmed validity by using subsamples with physical, emotional, and social problems and by comparing scores from populations that returned to the community with employment and housing. Limitations and directions for future study are discussed.

  12. Initial validation of the Spanish childhood trauma questionnaire-short form: factor structure, reliability and association with parenting.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ana; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí; Arntz, Arnoud; Bernstein, David P; Gaviria, Ana M; Labad, Antonio; Valero, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Jose Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    The present study examines the internal consistency and factor structure of the Spanish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the association between the CTQ-SF subscales and parenting style. Cronbach's α and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed in a female clinical sample (n = 185). Kendall's ι correlations were calculated between the maltreatment and parenting scales in a subsample of 109 patients. The Spanish CTQ-SF showed adequate psychometric properties and a good fit of the 5-factor structure. The neglect and abuse scales were negatively associated with parental care and positively associated with overprotection scales. The results of this study provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Spanish CTQ-SF.

  13. CR reliability testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Rill, Lynn; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for systematically testing the reliability of a CR system under realistic daily loads in a non-clinical environment prior to its clinical adoption. Once digital imaging replaces film, it will be very difficult to revert back should the digital system become unreliable. Prior to the beginning of the test, a formal evaluation was performed to set the benchmarks for performance and functionality. A formal protocol was established that included all the 62 imaging plates in the inventory for each 24-hour period in the study. Imaging plates were exposed using different combinations of collimation, orientation, and SID. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to acquire images of different sizes. Each combination was chosen randomly to simulate the differences that could occur in clinical practice. The tests were performed over a wide range of times with batches of plates processed to simulate the temporal constraints required by the nature of portable radiographs taken in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Current patient demographics were used for the test studies so automatic routing algorithms could be tested. During the test, only three minor reliability problems occurred, two of which were not directly related to the CR unit. One plate was discovered to cause a segmentation error that essentially reduced the image to only black and white with no gray levels. This plate was removed from the inventory to be replaced. Another problem was a PACS routing problem that occurred when the DICOM server with which the CR was communicating had a problem with disk space. The final problem was a network printing failure to the laser cameras. Although the units passed the reliability test, problems with interfacing to workstations were discovered. The two issues that were identified were the interpretation of what constitutes a study for CR and the construction of the look-up table for a proper gray scale display.

  14. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing

  15. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  16. Reliability Growth Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    the Duane model because: *e ’he reliability gSod’ data analyzed were reflective of a single Lesr- for • each equipment as opposed to a series of zest ...fabrication) and costs wbich are a function of test length (e.g., chamber operations). A life -cycle cost model, Ref. 14 for example, can be exercised tc...J. Gibson and K. K. Mcain APPROVED FOR FUBLIC RE1EAS NI ODSrRUTIG1,N UY-LUlHfF :-:-4 ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER Air Force Systems Command Griffiss

  17. Blade reliability collaborative :

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  18. Ferrite logic reliability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)

  19. Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale.

    PubMed

    Cole, Brenda S; Hopkins, Clare M; Tisak, John; Steel, Jennifer L; Carr, Brian I

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an instrument designed to assess spiritual transformations following a diagnosis of cancer-the Spiritual Transformation Scale (STS). The instrument was administering to 253 people diagnosed with cancer within the previous 2 years. Two underlying factors emerged (spiritual growth (SG) and spiritual decline (SD)) with adequate internal reliability (alpha = 0.98 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.85 and 0.73, respectively). Validity was supported by correlations between SG and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) Positive Affect Subscale (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). SD was associated with higher scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and PANAS-Negative Affect Subscale (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and lower scores on the PANAS-Positive Affect Subscale (r = -0.23, p < 0.001), and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = -0.30, p < 0.001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the subscales uniquely predicted adjustment beyond related constructs (intrinsic religiousness, spiritual coping, and general post-traumatic growth). The results indicate that the STS is psychometrically sound, with SG predicting better, and SD predicting poorer, mental and spiritual well-being following a diagnosis of cancer.

  20. Testing of reliability - Analysis tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1989-01-01

    An outline is presented of issues raised in verifying the accuracy of reliability analysis tools. State-of-the-art reliability analysis tools implement various decomposition, aggregation, and estimation techniques to compute the reliability of a diversity of complex fault-tolerant computer systems. However, no formal methodology has been formulated for validating the reliability estimates produced by these tools. The author presents three states of testing that can be performed on most reliability analysis tools to effectively increase confidence in a tool. These testing stages were applied to the SURE (semi-Markov Unreliability Range Evaluator) reliability analysis tool, and the results of the testing are discussed.

  1. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  2. Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA): initial validity and reliability of a new outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Kerstin; Brånemark, Rickard; Hägg, Olle

    2004-09-01

    The Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA) is a new self-report measure developed for nonelderly transfemoral amputees using a socket- or osseointegrated prosthesis to reflect use, mobility, problems, and global health, each in a separate score (0-100). This paper describes the initial measurement properties of the Q-TFA as completed by 156 persons with a transfemoral amputation using a socket prosthesis (67% male, 92% nonvascular cases, mean age 51 years). Criterion validity was determined by associations between scores of the Q-TFA and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36)-Item Health Survey. Reliability was assessed by retest (n = 48) and by determination of the internal consistency. Correlations between Q-TFA and SF-36-Item Health Survey scales matched hypothesized patterns. Intraclass correlations were between 0.89 and 0.97, and measurement error ranged from 10 to 19 points. Cronbach's alpha revealed good internal consistency, with no values less than 0.7. This study shows that the Q-TFA, applied to persons using a transfemoral socket prosthesis, has adequate initial validity and reliability.

  3. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  4. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  5. Integrated circuit reliability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Sayah, Hoshyar R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for use in determining the reliability of microscopic conductors deposited on an uneven surface of an integrated circuit device. A wafer containing integrated circuit chips is formed with a test area having regions of different heights. At the time the conductors are formed on the chip areas of the wafer, an elongated serpentine assay conductor is deposited on the test area so the assay conductor extends over multiple steps between regions of different heights. Also, a first test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of first height, and a second test conductor is deposited in the test area upon a uniform region of second height. The occurrence of high resistances at the steps between regions of different height is indicated by deriving the measured length of the serpentine conductor using the resistance measured between the ends of the serpentine conductor, and comparing that to the design length of the serpentine conductor. The percentage by which the measured length exceeds the design length, at which the integrated circuit will be discarded, depends on the required reliability of the integrated circuit.

  6. The Reliability of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Theodore Holmes

    1970-01-01

    The prevalent probabilistic view is virtually untestable; it remains a plausible belief. The cases usually cited can not be taken as evidence for it. Several grounds for this conclusion are developed. Three issues are distinguished in an attempt to clarify a murky debate: (a) the utility of probabilistic methods in data reduction, (b) the value of models that assume indeterminacy, and (c) the validity of the inference that the nervous system is largely indeterministic at the neuronal level. No exception is taken to the first two; the second is a private heuristic question. The third is the issue to which the assertion in the first two sentences is addressed. Of the two kinds of uncertainty, statistical mechanical (= practical unpredictability) as in a gas, and Heisenbergian indeterminancy, the first certainly exists, the second is moot at the neuronal level. It would contribute to discussion to recognize that neurons perform with a degree of reliability. Although unreliability is difficult to establish, to say nothing of measure, evidence that some neurons have a high degree of reliability, in both connections and activity is increasing greatly. An example is given from sternarchine electric fish. PMID:5462670

  7. Reliable Entanglement Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan; Gittsovich, Oleg; Donohue, John; Lavoie, Jonathan; Resch, Kevin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    Entanglement plays a central role in quantum protocols. It is therefore important to be able to verify the presence of entanglement in physical systems from experimental data. In the evaluation of these data, the proper treatment of statistical effects requires special attention, as one can never claim to have verified the presence of entanglement with certainty. Recently increased attention has been paid to the development of proper frameworks to pose and to answer these type of questions. In this work, we apply recent results by Christandl and Renner on reliable quantum state tomography to construct a reliable entanglement verification procedure based on the concept of confidence regions. The statements made do not require the specification of a prior distribution nor the assumption of an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) source of states. Moreover, we develop efficient numerical tools that are necessary to employ this approach in practice, rendering the procedure ready to be employed in current experiments. We demonstrate this fact by analyzing the data of an experiment where photonic entangled two-photon states were generated and whose entanglement is verified with the use of an accessible nonlinear witness.

  8. RELIABILITY OF THE SITTING HAND PRESS-UP TEST FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING THE LEVEL OF SCAPULAR MEDIAL BORDER POSTERIOR DISPLACEMENT IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Meredith J.; Leddon, Charles E.; Van Ryssegem, Guido; Alamar, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The lack of proper scapular kinematics can limit the function of the entire shoulder complex.1,3 Many forms of scapular dyskinesis have been proposed along with tests to measure for the position and motion associated with those positional and movement faults (2,4-6). While scapular internal rotation has been listed among the forms of scapular dyskinesis there has not been a reliable test documented in the literature that examines this motion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an innovative scapular medial border posterior displacement measurement device has adequate inter-rater and intra-rater reliability when used at rest and during the sitting hand press up test. Methods: 16 male Division III baseball players free of upper limb injury for the previous 12 months participated in the study. Posterior scapular displacement measures were taken on each subject in a resting static posture and while performing a sitting hand press up test. Subjects were tested twice within 24 hours by two separate examiners. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to determine intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Results: The intra-rater reliability for rater 1 was .97 (95% confidence interval [CI]= .91-.98), for the rest position and .95 (95% CI= .86-.98) for the sitting hand press-up position. Intra-rater reliability for rater 2 was .99 (95% CI= .97-.99) for the rest position and .98 (95% CI=. 95-.99) for the sitting hand press-up position. The ICCs for inter-rater reliability of the scapular medial border posterior displacement measurement in at the rest position and the sitting hand press-up position were .89 (95% CI= .81-.96) and .89 (95% CI= .80-.96) respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that the measurement of medial border posterior displacement using this device demonstrates good to excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. PMID:22163092

  9. Recent advances in computational structural reliability analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, Harry R.; Torng, Tony Y.; Riha, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of structural reliability analysis is to determine the probability that the structure will adequately perform its intended function when operating under the given environmental conditions. Thus, the notion of reliability admits the possibility of failure. Given the fact that many different modes of failure are usually possible, achievement of this goal is a formidable task, especially for large, complex structural systems. The traditional (deterministic) design methodology attempts to assure reliability by the application of safety factors and conservative assumptions. However, the safety factor approach lacks a quantitative basis in that the level of reliability is never known and usually results in overly conservative designs because of compounding conservatisms. Furthermore, problem parameters that control the reliability are not identified, nor their importance evaluated. A summary of recent advances in computational structural reliability assessment is presented. A significant level of activity in the research and development community was seen recently, much of which was directed towards the prediction of failure probabilities for single mode failures. The focus is to present some early results and demonstrations of advanced reliability methods applied to structural system problems. This includes structures that can fail as a result of multiple component failures (e.g., a redundant truss), or structural components that may fail due to multiple interacting failure modes (e.g., excessive deflection, resonate vibration, or creep rupture). From these results, some observations and recommendations are made with regard to future research needs.

  10. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  11. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  12. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  13. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  14. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory and its most commonly employed subscales (Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction) and the Eating Attitudes Test as a way to better identify those characteristics that might impact score reliability. Methods Published studies that used these measures were coded based on their reporting of reliability information and additional study characteristics that might influence score reliability. Results Score reliability estimates were included in 26.15% of studies using the EDI and 36.28% of studies using the EAT. Mean Cronbach’s alphas for the EDI (total score = .91; subscales = .75 to .89), EAT-40 (total score = .81) and EAT-26 (total score = .86; subscales = .56 to .80) suggested variability in estimated internal consistency. Whereas some EDI subscales exhibited higher score reliability in clinical eating disorder samples than in nonclinical samples, other subscales did not exhibit these differences. Score reliability information for the EAT was primarily reported for nonclinical samples, making it difficult to characterize the effect of type of sample on these measures. However, there was a tendency for mean score reliability to be higher in the adult (vs. adolescent) samples and in female (vs. male) samples. Conclusions Overall, this study highlights the importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency during every test administration because reliability is affected by characteristics of the participants being examined. PMID:24764530

  15. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  16. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  17. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  18. Oil & gas in the 1990`s and beyond: Adequate supplies, growing demand, flat prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Long term petroleum market fundamentals are clear: supplies are adequate and world demand will continue to grow steadily. Adequate supplies insure that prices will not increase significantly, on average, till the end of the 1990`s, probably much beyond. Despite plentiful supply and modest price increases, there will be peaks and valleys in the price graph as productive capacity is used up, then expanded. Tens of billions of dollars will be needed over the next decade to expand producing capacity. World oil consumption will increase at about 1.5% per year, at least for the next decade. Demand in Asia and Latin America will grow several times faster than this average world rate. World natural gas demand will grow at more then 2% per year well past 2000. Oil and gas companies around the world have changed the way they operate to survive the market realities of the 1990`s. restructuring, outsourcing, and partnering will continue as increasing costs and flat prices squeeze profits. Energy use patterns will change. Fuel and other product specifications will change. Market shares of oil and gas will shift. But opportunities abound in this new market environment. Growing markets always provide opportunities. Technology has helped operators dramatically lower finding, developing, and producing costs. The petroleum age is far from being over. Growing markets, adequate supply, affordable products, and a 60% market share. Those are the signs of an industry with a bright future.

  19. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  20. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  1. Assuring long-term reliability of concentrator PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Brown, J.; Crawford, C.; Darban, K.; Dutra, D.; Geer, S.; Ghassemian, V.; Gordon, R.; Kinsey, G.; Stone, K.; Turner, G.

    2009-08-01

    Concentrator PV (CPV) systems have attracted significant interest because these systems incorporate the world's highest efficiency solar cells and they are targeting the lowest cost production of solar electricity for the world's utility markets. Because these systems are just entering solar markets, manufacturers and customers need to assure their reliability for many years of operation. There are three general approaches for assuring CPV reliability: 1) field testing and development over many years leading to improved product designs, 2) testing to internationally accepted qualification standards (especially for new products) and 3) extended reliability tests to identify critical weaknesses in a new component or design. Amonix has been a pioneer in all three of these approaches. Amonix has an internal library of field failure data spanning over 15 years that serves as the basis for its seven generations of CPV systems. An Amonix product served as the test CPV module for the development of the world's first qualification standard completed in March 2001. Amonix staff has served on international standards development committees, such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), in support of developing CPV standards needed in today's rapidly expanding solar markets. Recently Amonix employed extended reliability test procedures to assure reliability of multijunction solar cell operation in its seventh generation high concentration PV system. This paper will discuss how these three approaches have all contributed to assuring reliability of the Amonix systems.

  2. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  3. Making Reliability Arguments in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Giron, Tilia

    2006-01-01

    Reliability methodology needs to evolve as validity has done into an argument supported by theory and empirical evidence. Nowhere is the inadequacy of current methods more visible than in classroom assessment. Reliability arguments would also permit additional methodologies for evidencing reliability in classrooms. It would liberalize methodology…

  4. Reliability of drivers in urban intersections.

    PubMed

    Gstalter, Herbert; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of human reliability has been widely used in industrial settings by human factors experts to optimise the person-task fit. Reliability is estimated by the probability that a task will successfully be completed by personnel in a given stage of system operation. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a technique used to calculate human error probabilities as the ratio of errors committed to the number of opportunities for that error. To transfer this notion to the measurement of car driver reliability the following components are necessary: a taxonomy of driving tasks, a definition of correct behaviour in each of these tasks, a list of errors as deviations from the correct actions and an adequate observation method to register errors and opportunities for these errors. Use of the SAFE-task analysis procedure recently made it possible to derive driver errors directly from the normative analysis of behavioural requirements. Driver reliability estimates could be used to compare groups of tasks (e.g. different types of intersections with their respective regulations) as well as groups of drivers' or individual drivers' aptitudes. This approach was tested in a field study with 62 drivers of different age groups. The subjects drove an instrumented car and had to complete an urban test route, the main features of which were 18 intersections representing six different driving tasks. The subjects were accompanied by two trained observers who recorded driver errors using standardized observation sheets. Results indicate that error indices often vary between both the age group of drivers and the type of driving task. The highest error indices occurred in the non-signalised intersection tasks and the roundabout, which exactly equals the corresponding ratings of task complexity from the SAFE analysis. A comparison of age groups clearly shows the disadvantage of older drivers, whose error indices in nearly all tasks are significantly higher than those of the other groups

  5. Discrete Reliability Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Defense, Handbook MIL - HDBK -189C, 2011 Hall, J. B., Methodology for Evaluating Reliability Growth Programs of Discrete Systems, Ph.D. thesis, University...pk,i ] · [ 1− (1− θ̆k) · ( N k · T )]k−m , (2.13) 5 2 Hall’s Model where m is the number of observed failure modes and d∗i estimates di (either based...Mode Failures FEF Ni d ∗ i 1 1 0.95 2 1 0.70 3 1 0.90 4 1 0.90 5 4 0.95 6 2 0.70 7 1 0.80 Using equations 2.1 and 2.2 we can calculate the failure

  6. International Education for Spaceship Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.

    This book is based on an extensive study conducted by the Foreign Policy Association for the United States Office of Education on needs and priorities in international education. To give students adequate preparation for today's world of constant and rapid change the schools must help them gain a global perspective of the world as a single system.…

  7. Reliability Generalization of Scores on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Harp, Diane; Jung, Woo Sik

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C. Spielberger, 1983) by reviewing and classifying 816 research articles. Average reliability coefficients were acceptable for both internal consistency and test-retest reliability, but variation was present among the estimates. Other differences are discussed.…

  8. Assessment of the Maximal Split-Half Coefficient to Estimate Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Barry L.; Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2010-01-01

    The maximal split-half coefficient is computed by calculating all possible split-half reliability estimates for a scale and then choosing the maximal value as the reliability estimate. Osburn compared the maximal split-half coefficient with 10 other internal consistency estimates of reliability and concluded that it yielded the most consistently…

  9. Computational methods for efficient structural reliability and reliability sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments in efficient structural reliability analysis methods. The paper proposes an efficient, adaptive importance sampling (AIS) method that can be used to compute reliability and reliability sensitivities. The AIS approach uses a sampling density that is proportional to the joint PDF of the random variables. Starting from an initial approximate failure domain, sampling proceeds adaptively and incrementally with the goal of reaching a sampling domain that is slightly greater than the failure domain to minimize over-sampling in the safe region. Several reliability sensitivity coefficients are proposed that can be computed directly and easily from the above AIS-based failure points. These probability sensitivities can be used for identifying key random variables and for adjusting design to achieve reliability-based objectives. The proposed AIS methodology is demonstrated using a turbine blade reliability analysis problem.

  10. Do Clinical Clerks Provide Candidates with Adequate Formative Assessment during Objective Structured Clinical Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Harold I.; Rosenfeld, Jack; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Eva, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    Context: Various research studies have examined the question of whether expert or non-expert raters, faculty or students, evaluators or standardized patients, give more reliable and valid summative assessments of performance on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Less studied has been the question of whether or not non-faculty…

  11. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  12. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  13. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  14. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    SciTech Connect

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  15. Optimal Implementations for Reliable Circadian Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko; Arita, Masanori

    2014-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are acquired through evolution to increase the chances for survival through synchronizing with the daylight cycle. Reliable synchronization is realized through two trade-off properties: regularity to keep time precisely, and entrainability to synchronize the internal time with daylight. We find by using a phase model with multiple inputs that achieving the maximal limit of regularity and entrainability entails many inherent features of the circadian mechanism. At the molecular level, we demonstrate the role sharing of two light inputs, phase advance and delay, as is well observed in mammals. At the behavioral level, the optimal phase-response curve inevitably contains a dead zone, a time during which light pulses neither advance nor delay the clock. We reproduce the results of phase-controlling experiments entrained by two types of periodic light pulses. Our results indicate that circadian clocks are designed optimally for reliable clockwork through evolution.

  16. Reliability assessment of nuclear structural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1983-01-01

    Reliability assessment of nuclear structural systems has been receiving more emphasis over the last few years. This paper deals with the recent progress made by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), in the development of a probability-based reliability analysis methodology for safety evaluation of reactor containments and other seismic category I structures. An important feature of this methodology is the incorporation of finite element analysis and random vibration theory. By utilizing this method, it is possible to evaluate the safety of nuclear structures under various static and dynamic loads in terms of limit state probability. Progress in other related areas, such as the establishment of probabilistic characteristics for various loads and structural resistance, are also described. Results of an application of the methodology to a realistic reinforced concrete containment subjected to dead and live loads, accidental internal pressures and earthquake ground accelerations are presented.

  17. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance.

  18. Computer synthesis of human motion as a part of an adequate motion analysis experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandre A.; Sholukha, Victor A.; Zinkovsky, Anatoly V.

    1999-05-01

    The role of problem of computer synthesis of a human motion for a traditional problem of control generalized and muscular forces determination is discussed. It is emphasized significance of computer model choice for adequate analysis kinematic and dynamic experimental data. On the basis of an imitation computer model influence of model's parameters values is demonstrated. With help of non-stationary constraints we can simulate human motions that satisfy to the most significant parameters of the concerned class of motion. Some results of simulation are discussed. We arrive at a conclusion that for correct interpretation of an experiment mixed problem of bodies system dynamics must be solved.

  19. The Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version Test of Mobile Phone Dependency (TMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Farokhzad, Pegah; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; Baba Reisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sanaz; Farshchi, Mojtaba; Khoda Karami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid; Sepasi, Neda; Alavi, Samaneh Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: ‎‏ ‏Despite the fact that ‎the mobile phone has become a ‎pervasive technology of our time, ‎little research has been done on ‎mobile dependency. A valid and ‎reliable assessment instrument ‎corresponding to the Persian ‎culture is essential. This study ‎aimed to describe the ‎construction and validation of the ‎Persian version of TMD (Test of ‎Mobile phone Dependency) to ‎assess the addictive use of ‎mobile phone.‎ Methods: This was a cross-‎sectional study, for which data ‎were collected from 350 students ‎who were studying at Tehran ‎universities. Sampling method ‎was quota sampling. The ‎participants anonymously ‎completed the demographic ‎questionnaire, and CPDQ as a ‎valid questionnaire and gold ‎standard. Finally, clinical ‎interview [based on DSM-IV-TR] ‎was performed. To analyze the ‎data, concurrent validity, factor ‎analysis, internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbachα), split half; test-retest ‎and ROC Curve by SPSS18 ‎Software were used.‎ Results: As a result of the ‎reliability analysis and factor ‎analysis by principal component ‎and Varimax rotation, three ‎factors (“salient”, “preoccupation” ‎and “Spend a lot of time and ‎money”) for both male and ‎female participants were ‎extracted. Internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbach's alpha) of the TMD ‎was .92 (Cronbach alpha of the ‎factors is .88, .82, and .84, ‎respectively). The test-retest ‎correlation of the TMD was ‎‎.56.The best cut off point for this ‎questionnaire (TMD) is 38.‎ Conclusion: The TMD proved to ‎have an acceptable internal ‎consistency with adequate factor ‎models to assess the extent of ‎problems caused by the "misuse" ‎of the mobile phone in the ‎Iranian society. Therefore, it can ‎be concluded that the Persian ‎version of the test was reliable ‎and valid; however, further ‎analysis is needed.‎ PMID:27006671

  20. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O'TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  1. Reliability of cause of death coding: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Antini, Carmen; Rajs, Danuta; Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Mondaca, Boris Andrés Lucero; Heiss, Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the agreement of nosologic coding of cardiovascular causes of death between a Chilean coder and one in the United States, in a stratified random sample of death certificates of persons aged ≥ 60, issued in 2008 in the Valparaíso and Metropolitan regions, Chile. All causes of death were converted to ICD-10 codes in parallel by both coders. Concordance was analyzed with inter-coder agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient by level of specification ICD-10 code for the underlying cause and the total causes of death coding. Inter-coder agreement was 76.4% for all causes of death and 80.6% for the underlying cause (agreement at the four-digit level), with differences by the level of specification of the ICD-10 code, by line of the death certificate, and by number of causes of death per certificate. Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.68-0.84) for the underlying cause and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.74-0.77) for the total causes of death. In conclusion, causes of death coding and inter-coder agreement for cardiovascular diseases in two regions of Chile are comparable to an external benchmark and with reports from other countries.

  2. An International Research Conference on Reliability and Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-13

    PANEL DISCUSSION P.M. 3: 30-5:00 Nancy Mann (Chair) University of California-Los Angeles R. Hannula General Electric Larry Crow AT&T Bell Laboratories...charts and in Taguchi designs. p ’ ACCELERATED LIFE TESTS WITH MULTIPLE STRESSES* Anthony A. Salvia The Pennsylvania State University The Behrend

  3. Improved reliability of pH measurements.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Petra; Werner, Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of pH are performed on a large scale at laboratory level, and in industry. To meet the quality-control requirements and other technical specifications there is a need for traceability in measurement results. The prerequisite for the international acceptance of analytical data is reliability. To measure means to compare. Comparability entails use of recognised references to which the standard buffer solutions used for calibration of pH meter-electrode assemblies can be traced. The new recommendation on the measurement of pH recently published as a provisional document by the International Union on Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) enables traceability for measured pH values to a conventional reference frame which is recognised world-wide. The primary method for pH will be described. If analytical data are to be accepted internationally it is necessary to demonstrate the equivalence of the national traceability structures, including national measurement standards. For the first time key comparisons for pH have been performed by the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM, set up by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM) to assess the equivalence of the national measurement procedures used to determine the pH of primary standard buffer solutions. The results of the first key comparison on pH CCQM-K9, and other international initiatives to improve the consistency of the results of measurement for pH, are reported.

  4. The Modified painDETECT Questionnaire for Patients with Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis: Translation into Dutch, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Assessment.

    PubMed

    Rienstra, Wietske; Blikman, Tim; Mensink, Frans B; van Raay, Jos J A M; Dijkstra, Baukje; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Stevens, Martin; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence that alteration in pain processing by the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in osteoarthritis pain, leading to neuropathic-like symptoms. It is essential to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile in order to offer such patients education and additional treatment options besides conventional pain treatment. The painDETECT Questionnaire is a self-report questionnaire developed to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. This questionnaire was modified to fit patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the modified painDETECT Questionnaire to the Dutch language and to provide a modified version to fit patients with hip osteoarthritis. Reliability for internal consistency, repeatability and floor and ceiling effects were subsequently assessed. A total of 278 patients were included in the reliability study and 123 patients in the repeatability analysis. The Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire shows good internal consistency and small relative measurement errors, represented by a good intraclass correlation coefficient. Absolute measurement error, represented by the Standard Error of Measurement, was acceptable. However, a measurement bias might be present when it comes to repeatability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide a Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire to fit hip and knee osteoarthritis patients and to assess internal consistency, reliability and agreement. International guidelines were followed in the translation process and this study has ample sample size with an adequate time interval for repeatability. Based on this study, the Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire seems to be fit as a discriminative tool to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile. Whether it is also suitable as an evaluative tool to record changes over time

  5. Reliability and responsiveness of measures of pain in people with osteoarthritis of the knee: a psychometric evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katie V.; Moreton, Bryan M.; Walsh, David A.; Lincoln, Nadina B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To examine the fit between data from the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2) and the Rasch model, and to explore the reliability and internal responsiveness of measures of pain in people with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Participants with knee osteoarthritis completed the SF-MPQ-2, Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain questionnaire (ICOAP) and painDETECT. Participants were sent the same questionnaires 3 and 6 months later. Results: Fit to the Rasch model was not achieved for the SF-MPQ-2 Total scale. The Continuous subscale yielded adequate fit statistics after splitting item 10 on uniform DIF for gender, and removing item 9. The Intermittent subscale fit the Rasch model after rescoring items. The Neuropathic subscale had relatively good fit to the model. Test–retest reliability was satisfactory for most scales using both original and Rasch scoring ranging from fair to substantial. Effect sizes ranged from 0.13 to 1.79 indicating good internal responsiveness for most scales. Conclusions: These findings support the use of ICOAP subscales as reliable and responsive measure of pain in people with knee osteoarthritis. The MPQ-SF-2 subscales found to be acceptable alternatives. Implications for RehabilitationThe McGill Pain Questionnaire short version 2 is not a unidimensional scale in people with knee osteoarthritis, whereas three of the subscales are unidimensional.The McGill Pain Questionnaire short version 2 Affective subscale does not have good measurement properties for people with knee osteoarthritis.The McGill Pain Questionnaire short version 2 and the Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain scales can be used to assess change over time.The painDETECT performs better as a screening measure than as an outcome measure. PMID:27027698

  6. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  7. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  8. [Incidence of primary malignant lesions in clinically benign teratoma: on the problem of adequate surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, G; Jung, E M; Maassen, V; Bise, K

    1996-08-01

    The Problem of an Adequate Surgical Approach: Frequency of malignant teratomas is, according to the literature, 2%-10%. Examining 194 own cases (1983-1993) it was 1.5%. We found one squamous cell carcinoma (0.5%). Additionally we found 2 immature teratomas (1%). We point out the different biological behaviour of malignant mature teratomas and immature teratomas. We agree with the majority of authors that the method of choice is the intact removal of all teratomas without iatrogen rupture or contamination of the abdominal cavity by contents of the teratoma. This adequate surgical procedure can and should be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy with endobag. The often practised method of cutting open the cyst during laparoscopy, sucking off the contents or cutting the teratoma into pieces, has been proven to lead to implantation and worsening the prognosis in case of a malignant teratoma. Even the rinsing of the abdominal cavity, usually carried out with this method, could not compensate always for the disadvantage of this "dirty" endoscopical method compared with usual oncological standards. This is pointed out by case reports in the literature and the first analysis of a German survey with early-follow-up of 192 laparoscopically managed ovarian malignancies [11a]. The principle of intact removal of every teratoma should again be kept in mind.

  9. MRI can determine the adequate area for debridement in the case of Fournier's gangrene.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Akira; Fujita, Fumihiko; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Yuichiro; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tajima, Yoshitsugu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was transferred to our hospital because of gluteal pain. His right buttock had flare and swelling. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis, and renal failure was evident. Pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed that the abscess, including gas, was widespread into the hypodermal tissue of the right buttock. Fournier's gangrene had been suspected, and immediate drainage was performed on the right buttock. The symptom and the condition improved rapidly, but on the day after the operation, the patient became drowsy and fell into endotoxic shock. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed strong inflammation along the entire fascia of the right femur and necrotizing fasciitis. MRI was very useful for identification of the necrotic range. Immediately, an emergency operation was performed; 3 wide incisions were made on the right thigh and crus for drainage. The patient was cared for intensively under a sedated condition, and irrigation and debridement were repeated every day. Culture of the pus revealed mixed infection of Escherichia coli and anaerobic bacteria, and a large quantity of antimicrobial drug was used. The inflammatory reaction decreased, and the patient's general condition tentatively improved. With Fournier's gangrene, initiating adequate surgical and medical treatment is essential. Therefore, MRI should be used in the early exact diagnosis of this disease to obtain knowledge of the extent of necrosis and to determine the adequate area for debridement.

  10. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    PubMed Central

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuous respiratory gas measurements according to the Craig method. The anaerobic threshold (AT) of the participants then was calculated using the Narita target heart rate equation. Results Hopkin's spreadsheet to obtain confidence limit and the chance of the true difference between gas measurements and Narita target heart rate equation revealed that the Narita equation most likely underestimates the measured anaerobic threshold in sedentary young boys (168.76±15 vs. 130.08±14.36) (Difference ±90% confidence limit: 38.1±18). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a poor agreement between the criterion method and Narita equation (ICC= 0.03). Conclusion According to the results, the Narita equation underestimates the measured AT. It seems that the Narita equation is a good predictor of aerobic not AT which can be investigated in the future studies. PMID:24427475

  11. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  12. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  13. Availability and Reliability Issues for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Himel, T.; Nelson, J.; Phinney, N.; Ross, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-27

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will be the largest most complicated accelerator ever built. For this reason extensive work is being done early in the design phase to ensure that it will be reliable enough. This includes gathering failure mode data from existing accelerators and simulating the failures and repair times of the ILC. This simulation has been written in a general fashion using MATLAB and could be used for other accelerators. Results from the simulation tool have been used in making some of the major ILC design decisions and an unavailability budget has been developed.

  14. New Allergic and Hypersensitivity Conditions Section in the International Classification of Diseases-11.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana K; Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Allergy and hypersensitivity, originally perceived as rare and secondary disorders, are one of the fastest growing conditions worldwide, but not adequately tracked in international information systems, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Having allergic and hypersensitivity conditions classification able to capture conditions in health international information systems in a realistic manner is crucial to the identification of potential problems, and in a wider system, can identify contextually specific service deficiencies and provide the impetus for changes. Since 2013, an international collaboration of Allergy Academies has spent tremendous efforts to have a better and updated classification of allergies in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 version, by providing scientific and technical evidences for the need for changes. The following bilateral discussions with the representatives of the ICD-11 revision, a simplification process was carried out. The new parented "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been built under the "Disorders of the Immune System" chapter through the international collaboration of Allergy Academies and upon ICD WHO representatives support. The classification of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions has been updated through the ICD-11 revision and will allow the aggregation of reliable data to perform positive quality-improvements in health care systems worldwide.

  15. Reliability of tactile tools for pain assessment in blind athletes.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana Claudia de Souza; Pagliuca, Lorita M Freitag; Almeida, Paulo Cesar P; Dallaire, Clemence C

    2008-06-01

    Health professionals have numerous visual and reporting scales at their disposal to assess pain. In recent years new tactile tools have been created (Pain Texture Scale and Tactile Pain Scale). This study validates these scales compared with the Numerical Rating Scale in 36 blind athletes who were assessed before and after competitions in the World Paralympics Games organized by the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) in Quebec, Canada. The reliability of these scales was analyzed through the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results showed good reliability for the Tactile Pain Scale and satisfactory reliability for the Pain Texture Scale.

  16. Calculation and Updating of Reliability Parameters in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhijian; Khan, Salah Ud Din

    2011-02-01

    The internal events of nuclear power plant are complex and include equipment maintenance, equipment damage etc. These events will affect the probability of the current risk level of the system as well as the reliability of the equipment parameter values so such kind of events will serve as an important basis for systematic analysis and calculation. This paper presents a method for reliability parameters calculation and their updating. The method is based on binomial likelihood function and its conjugate beta distribution. For update parameters Bayes' theorem has been selected. To implement proposed method a computer base program is designed which provide help to estimate reliability parameters.

  17. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  18. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  19. Using standardized essays in the veterinary medicine admissions process: are the ratings reliable and valid?

    PubMed

    Hecker, Kent; Violato, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The reliability and validity of using essays for veterinary medical school admissions requires investigation. We explored the reliability and construct validity of a structured essay station in the 2009 admission process at the University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. One hundred three applicants (female=80.6%, male=19.4%; mean age=23.05 years, SD=3.96) participated. Each applicant wrote a one-hour supervised essay (750 words). Essays were rated independently by two randomly assigned raters (n=16). Raters scored essays on four items, each on a five-point anchored scale. Nine essays were scored by all raters to perform a decision study. Generalizability analysis resulted in a reliability coefficient of 0.55. The decision study indicated that three raters and four items produces a G of 0.68. Essay score correlated with interview score (r=0.30, p<0.01) but not with GPA (r=0.05, p=ns). Overall reliability was adequate and higher than what has been reported for unsupervised written submissions. Results from the decision study suggest that three raters with four items provide adequate reliability. Correlations with interviews and grade point average provide evidence of construct validity. A time-limited essay with a clear scoring protocol results in adequate reliability and some validity.

  20. Process Stationarity and Reliability of Trunk Postural Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, HyunWook; Granata, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Empirical assessments of torso stability can be estimated from postural variability and nonlinear analyses of seated balance tasks. However, processing methods require sufficient signal duration and test-retest experiments require the assessment must be reliable. Our goal was to characterize the reliability and establish the trial duration for torso stability assessment. Methods Kinetic and kinematic data were recorded while subjects maintained a seated posture on a wobbly seat pan. Stability was evaluated from dynamic variability and nonlinear stability analyses. Process stationarity of the measured signals characterized the minimum necessary trial duration. Intra-class correlations measured within-session and between-session reliability. Findings Trial duration necessary to achieve process stationarity was 30.2 seconds. Shorter time to stationarity was observed with measures that included multi-dimensional movement behavior. Summary statistics of movement variability demonstrated moderate intra-session reliability, ICC = 0.64 (range 0.38 – 0.87). Inter-session reliability for movement variance was moderate, ICC = 0.42 (range 0.22 – 0.64). Nonlinear stability measures typically performed better than estimates of variability with inter-session reliability as high as ICC = 0.83. Process stationarity and reliability were improved in more difficult balance conditions. Interpretation To adequately capture torso dynamics during the stability assessment the trial duration should be at least 30 seconds. Moderate to excellent test-retest reliability can be achieved in intra-session analyses, but more repeated measurements are required for inter-session comparisons. Stability diffusion exponents, HS, and the Lyapunov exponents provide excellent measures for intra-session analyses, while HS provides excellent inter-session comparisons of torso stability. PMID:18304711

  1. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record systems. These security safeguards shall apply to... use of records contained in a system of records are adequately trained to protect the security and... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction...

  2. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  3. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  4. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  5. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  6. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  7. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    PubMed

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  8. Adequate connexin-mediated coupling is required for proper insulin production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To assess whether connexin (Cx) expression contributes to insulin secretion, we have investigated normal and tumoral insulin-producing cells for connexins, gap junctions, and coupling. We have found that the glucose-sensitive cells of pancreatic islets and of a rat insulinoma are functionally coupled by gap junctions made of Cx43. In contrast, cells of several lines secreting insulin abnormally do not express Cx43, gap junctions, and coupling. After correction of these defects by stable transfection of Cx43 cDNA, cells expressing modest levels of Cx43 and coupling, as observed in native beta-cells, showed an expression of the insulin gene and an insulin content that were markedly elevated, compared with those observed in both wild-type (uncoupled) cells and in transfected cells overexpressing Cx43. These findings indicate that adequate levels of Cx-mediated coupling are required for proper insulin production and storage. PMID:8522612

  9. Switching off angiogenic signalling: creating channelled constructs for adequate oxygen delivery in tissue engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Cheema, U; Alekseeva, T; Abou-Neel, E A; Brown, R A

    2010-10-06

    A major question in biomimetic tissue engineering is how much of the structure/function of native vasculature needs to be reproduced for effective tissue perfusion. O2 supplied to cells in 3D scaffolds in vitro is initially dependent upon diffusion through the scaffold and cell consumption. Low O2 (3%) enhances specific cell behaviours, but where O2 is critically low (pathological hypoxia) cell survival becomes compromised. We measured real-time O2 in 3D scaffolds and introduced micro-channelled architecture to controllably increase delivery of O2 to cells and switch off the hypoxic response. Simple static micro-channelling gives adequate perfusion and can be used to control cell generated hypoxia-induced signalling.

  10. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  11. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  12. J-modulated ADEQUATE experiments using different kinds of refocusing pulses.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Christina M; Bermel, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Owing to the recent developments concerning residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), the interest in methods for the accurate determination of coupling constants is renascenting. We intended to use the J-modulated ADEQUATE experiment by Kövér et al. for the measurement of (13)C - (13)C coupling constants at natural abundance. The use of adiabatic composite chirp pulses instead of the conventional 180 degrees pulses, which compensate for the offset dependence of (13)C 180 degrees pulses, led to irregularities of the line shapes in the indirect dimension causing deviations of the extracted coupling constants. This behaviour was attributed to coupling evolution, during the time of the adiabatic pulse (2 ms), in the J-modulation spin echo. The replacement of this pulse by different kinds of refocusing pulses indicated that a pair of BIPs (broadband inversion pulses), which behave only partially adiabatic, leads to correct line shapes and coupling constants conserving the good sensitivity obtained with adiabatic pulses.

  13. Stirling Convertor Fasteners Reliability Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor; Kovacevich, Tiodor; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Onboard Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) being developed for NASA s deep-space science and exploration missions require reliable operation for up to 14 years and beyond. Stirling power conversion is a candidate for use in an RPS because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced inventory of radioactive material. Structural fasteners are responsible to maintain structural integrity of the Stirling power convertor, which is critical to ensure reliable performance during the entire mission. Design of fasteners involve variables related to the fabrication, manufacturing, behavior of fasteners and joining parts material, structural geometry of the joining components, size and spacing of fasteners, mission loads, boundary conditions, etc. These variables have inherent uncertainties, which need to be accounted for in the reliability assessment. This paper describes these uncertainties along with a methodology to quantify the reliability, and provides results of the analysis in terms of quantified reliability and sensitivity of Stirling power conversion reliability to the design variables. Quantification of the reliability includes both structural and functional aspects of the joining components. Based on the results, the paper also describes guidelines to improve the reliability and verification testing.

  14. The Reliability of Density Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Data from a land-use study of small- and medium-sized towns in New Zealand are used to ascertain the relationship between official and effective density measures. It was found that the reliability of official measures of density is very low overall, although reliability increases with community size. (Author/RLV)

  15. Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.; Petersen, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, Third Generation) helps estimate reliability of complex, redundant, fault-tolerant systems. Program specifically designed for evaluation of fault-tolerant avionics systems. However, CARE III general enough for use in evaluation of other systems as well.

  16. The Validity of Reliability Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates that some commonly used indices can be misleading in their quantification of reliability. The effects are most pronounced on gain or difference scores. Proposals are made to avoid sources of invalidity by using a procedure to assess reliability in terms of upper and lower limits for the true scores of each examinee. (Author/JDH)

  17. Reliability in CMOS IC processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreeve, R.; Ferrier, S.; Hall, D.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    Critical CMOS IC processing reliability monitors are defined in this paper. These monitors are divided into three categories: process qualifications, ongoing production workcell monitors, and ongoing reliability monitors. The key measures in each of these categories are identified and prioritized based on their importance.

  18. Essay Reliability: Form and Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shale, Doug

    This study is an attempt at a cohesive characterization of the concept of essay reliability. As such, it takes as a basic premise that previous and current practices in reporting reliability estimates for essay tests have certain shortcomings. The study provides an analysis of these shortcomings--partly to encourage a fuller understanding of the…

  19. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  20. [Quality of Mesorectal Excision ("Plane of Surgery") - Which Quality Targets are Adequate?].

    PubMed

    Hermanek, P; Merkel, S; Ptok, H; Hohenberger, W

    2015-12-01

    Today, the examination of rectal cancer specimens includes the obligate macroscopic assessment of the quality of mesorectal excision by the pathologist reporting the plane of surgery. The frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery (earlier described as incomplete mesorectal excision) is essential. The quality of mesorectal excision is important for the prognosis, especially as local recurrences are observed more frequently after operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery. For the definition of quality targets, data of 13 studies published between 2006 and 2012, each with more than 100 patients and adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeons (5413 patients), data of the prospective multicentric observation study "Quality Assurance - Rectal Cancer" (at the Institute for Quality Assurance in Operative Medicine at the Otto-von-Guericke University at Magdeburg) from 2005 to 2010 (8044 patients) and data of the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, from 1998 to 2011 (991 patients) were analysed. The total incidence of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery was 5.0 % (721/14 448). Even with adequate specialisation and experience of the surgeon, the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane of surgery is higher in abdominoperineal excisions than in sphincter-preserving surgery (8.4 vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.001). Thus, the quality target for the frequency of operations in the muscularis propria plane should be defined as < 5 % for sphincter-preserving procedures and as < 10 % for abdominoperineal excisions.

  1. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

  2. Reliability-based design optimization using efficient global reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Bichon, Barron J.; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Eldred, Michael Scott

    2010-05-01

    Finding the optimal (lightest, least expensive, etc.) design for an engineered component that meets or exceeds a specified level of reliability is a problem of obvious interest across a wide spectrum of engineering fields. Various methods for this reliability-based design optimization problem have been proposed. Unfortunately, this problem is rarely solved in practice because, regardless of the method used, solving the problem is too expensive or the final solution is too inaccurate to ensure that the reliability constraint is actually satisfied. This is especially true for engineering applications involving expensive, implicit, and possibly nonlinear performance functions (such as large finite element models). The Efficient Global Reliability Analysis method was recently introduced to improve both the accuracy and efficiency of reliability analysis for this type of performance function. This paper explores how this new reliability analysis method can be used in a design optimization context to create a method of sufficient accuracy and efficiency to enable the use of reliability-based design optimization as a practical design tool.

  3. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  4. Statistical modeling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    This working paper discusses the statistical simulation part of a controlled software development experiment being conducted under the direction of the System Validation Methods Branch, Information Systems Division, NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment uses guidance and control software (GCS) aboard a fictitious planetary landing spacecraft: real-time control software operating on a transient mission. Software execution is simulated to study the statistical aspects of reliability and other failure characteristics of the software during development, testing, and random usage. Quantification of software reliability is a major goal. Various reliability concepts are discussed. Experiments are described for performing simulations and collecting appropriate simulated software performance and failure data. This data is then used to make statistical inferences about the quality of the software development and verification processes as well as inferences about the reliability of software versions and reliability growth under random testing and debugging.

  5. Evaluating reliability of WSN with sleep/wake-up interfering nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) (singular and plural of acronyms are spelled the same) is a distributed system composed of autonomous sensor nodes wireless connected and randomly scattered into a geographical area to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Adequate techniques and strategies are required to manage a WSN so that it works properly, observing specific quantities and metrics to evaluate the WSN operational conditions. Among them, one of the most important is the reliability. Considering a WSN as a system composed of sensor nodes the system reliability approach can be applied, thus expressing the WSN reliability in terms of its nodes' reliability. More specifically, since often standby power management policies are applied at node level and interferences among nodes may arise, a WSN can be considered as a dynamic system. In this article we therefore consider the WSN reliability evaluation problem from the dynamic system reliability perspective. Static-structural interactions are specified by the WSN topology. Sleep/wake-up standby policies and interferences due to wireless communications can be instead considered as dynamic aspects. Thus, in order to represent and to evaluate the WSN reliability, we use dynamic reliability block diagrams and Petri nets. The proposed technique allows to overcome the limits of Markov models when considering non-linear discharge processes, since they cannot adequately represent the aging processes. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique, we investigate some specific WSN network topologies, providing guidelines for their representation and evaluation.

  6. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

    PubMed

    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants.

  7. Software Reliability, Measurement, and Testing Software Reliability and Test Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    process rariables on software reliability A guidebook was produced to help pro- gram managers control and manage softwar~e reliability and testing...Integrated Reliability Management System "IRMS" 17 1.6 Organization of Report 17 2.0 SURVEYS 20 2.1 Software Projects Survey 20 2.1.1 Candidate Projects...Systems 103 4.2.2.3 Compiler 103 4.2.2.4 Data Management and Analysis 103 4.2.3 Test/Support Tools 103 4.2.3.1 DEC Test Manager 103 4.2.3.2 SDDL 103

  8. The Reliability of Survey Assessments of Characteristics of Medical Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Peter V; Landon, Bruce E; Wilson, Ira B; McInnes, Keith; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Ding, Lin; Cleary, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the reliability of survey measures of organizational characteristics based on reports of single and multiple informants. Data Source Survey of 330 informants in 91 medical clinics providing care to HIV-infected persons under Title III of the Ryan White CARE Act. Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Data Collection Methods Surveys of clinicians and medical directors measured the implementation of quality improvement initiatives, priorities assigned to aspects of HIV care, barriers to providing high-quality HIV care, and quality improvement activities. Reliability of measures was assessed using generalizability coefficients. Components of variance and clinician–director differences were estimated using hierarchical regression models with survey items and informants nested within organizations. Principal Findings There is substantial item- and informant-related variability in clinic assessments that results in modest or low clinic-level reliability for many measures. Directors occasionally gave more optimistic assessments of clinics than did clinicians. Conclusions For most measures studied, obtaining adequate reliability requires multiple informants. Using multiple-item scales or multiple informants can improve the psychometric performance of measures of organizational characteristics. Studies of such characteristics should report the organizational level reliability of the measures used. PMID:16430611

  9. Practices in adequate structural design. [of space vehicles and space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the guidelines for safe and reliable space vehicle design, especially in the structural engineering area, which have been formulated by NASA in the aftermath of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986. Illustrative examples are presented from state-of-the-art, performance-driven hardware whose design ineluctably gives rise to a high sensitivity to small variations and uncertainties. It is recommended that such hardware be designed with a view to easy inspectability and manufacturability, with emphasis on the role played in system structures by fracture mechanics. Static and dynamic coupling effects must be precluded wherever possible.

  10. The Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory: Development, Reliability, and Initial Validation of a New Scale for Assessing Criminal Thinking in a Japanese Offender Population.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Kaori; Takeda, Fumi; Nagata, Yuko; Suzuki, Junko; Monma, Takafumi; Asanuma, Tohru

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 116 Japanese men who had been placed under parole/probationary supervision or released from prison, the present study examined standardization, reliability, and validation of the Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory (JCTI) that was based on the short form of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), a self-rating instrument designed to evaluate cognitive patterns specific to criminal conduct. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that four dimensions adequately captured the structure of the JCTI, and the resultant 17-item JCTI demonstrated high internal consistency. Compared with the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), the JCTI showed a favorable pattern of criterion-related validity. Prior criminal environment and drug abuse as the most recent offense also significantly correlated with the JCTI total score. Overall, the JCTI possesses an important implication for offender rehabilitation as it identifies relevant cognitive targets and assesses offender progress.

  11. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Online Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale (OCLAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of students' attitudes towards online cooperative learning is an important issue, which has not been studied adequately. In the literature, there are few scales to measure the attitude towards online cooperative learning for which validity and reliability have been proven. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude…

  12. Can the research community respond adequately to the health risks of vaping?

    PubMed

    Cox, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Vaping of substances, primarily tobacco and cannabis at present, is increasing. The tobacco industry has committed billions of dollars into the development of vaporizing techniques. Can the international public health research community improve the coordination of scientific and timely research for policy development to address vaping?

  13. The Army’s Military Decision Making: Adequate or Update and Expand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    2001), 29. 9 Simon Dalby in his article, "Conflict, Ecology, and the Politics of Environmental Security”, analyzed the relationship between the...17 Ibid., 304. 18 Simon Dalby , "Conflict...34. International Security 27:3 (Winter 2002): 30-58. Dalby , Simon , "Conflict, Ecology, and the Politics of Environmental Security". Global Environmental Politics

  14. A reliable multicast for XTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Bert J.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    Multicast services needed for current distributed applications on LAN's fall generally into one of three categories: datagram, semi-reliable, and reliable. Transport layer multicast datagrams represent unreliable service in which the transmitting context 'fires and forgets'. XTP executes these semantics when the MULTI and NOERR mode bits are both set. Distributing sensor data and other applications in which application-level error recovery strategies are appropriate benefit from the efficiency in multidestination delivery offered by datagram service. Semi-reliable service refers to multicasting in which the control algorithms of the transport layer--error, flow, and rate control--are used in transferring the multicast distribution to the set of receiving contexts, the multicast group. The multicast defined in XTP provides semi-reliable service. Since, under a semi-reliable service, joining a multicast group means listening on the group address and entails no coordination with other members, a semi-reliable facility can be used for communication between a client and a server group as well as true peer-to-peer group communication. Resource location in a LAN is an important application domain. The term 'semi-reliable' refers to the fact that group membership changes go undetected. No attempt is made to assess the current membership of the group at any time--before, during, or after--the data transfer.

  15. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    SciTech Connect

    Morzinski, Jerome; Anderson - Cook, Christine M; Klamann, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  16. Column Grid Array Rework for High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Atul C.; Bodie, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to requirements for reduced size and weight, use of grid array packages in space applications has become common place. To meet the requirement of high reliability and high number of I/Os, ceramic column grid array packages (CCGA) were selected for major electronic components used in next MARS Rover mission (specifically high density Field Programmable Gate Arrays). ABSTRACT The probability of removal and replacement of these devices on the actual flight printed wiring board assemblies is deemed to be very high because of last minute discoveries in final test which will dictate changes in the firmware. The questions and challenges presented to the manufacturing organizations engaged in the production of high reliability electronic assemblies are, Is the reliability of the PWBA adversely affected by rework (removal and replacement) of the CGA package? and How many times can we rework the same board without destroying a pad or degrading the lifetime of the assembly? To answer these questions, the most complex printed wiring board assembly used by the project was chosen to be used as the test vehicle, the PWB was modified to provide a daisy chain pattern, and a number of bare PWB s were acquired to this modified design. Non-functional 624 pin CGA packages with internal daisy chained matching the pattern on the PWB were procured. The combination of the modified PWB and the daisy chained packages enables continuity measurements of every soldered contact during subsequent testing and thermal cycling. Several test vehicles boards were assembled, reworked and then thermal cycled to assess the reliability of the solder joints and board material including pads and traces near the CGA. The details of rework process and results of thermal cycling are presented in this paper.

  17. Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

    1992-07-01

    A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

  18. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  19. Reliability and known-group validity of the Arabic version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Ashur, S T; Shamsuddin, K; Shah, S A; Bosseri, S; Morisky, D E

    2015-12-13

    No validation study has previously been made for the Arabic version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8(©)) as a measure for medication adherence in diabetes. This study in 2013 tested the reliability and validity of the Arabic MMAS-8 for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending a referral centre in Tripoli, Libya. A convenience sample of 103 patients self-completed the questionnaire. Reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha, average inter-item correlation and Spearman-Brown coefficient. Known-group validity was tested by comparing MMAS-8 scores of patients grouped by glycaemic control. The Arabic version showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.70) and moderate split-half reliability (r = 0.65). Known-group validity was supported as a significant association was found between medication adherence and glycaemic control, with a moderate effect size (ϕc = 0.34). The Arabic version displayed good psychometric properties and could support diabetes research and practice in Arab countries.

  20. Assessing Planning Ability Across the Adult Life Span: Population-Representative and Age-Adjusted Reliability Estimates for the Tower of London (TOL-F).

    PubMed

    Kaller, Christoph P; Debelak, Rudolf; Köstering, Lena; Egle, Johanna; Rahm, Benjamin; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Beutel, Manfred E; Unterrainer, Josef M

    2016-03-01

    Planning ahead the consequences of future actions is a prototypical executive function. In clinical and experimental neuropsychology, disc-transfer tasks like the Tower of London (TOL) are commonly used for the assessment of planning ability. Previous psychometric evaluations have, however, yielded a poor reliability of measuring planning performance with the TOL. Based on theory-grounded task analyses and a systematic problem selection, the computerized TOL-Freiburg version (TOL-F) was developed to improve the task's psychometric properties for diagnostic applications. Here, we report reliability estimates for the TOL-F from two large samples collected in Mainz, Germany (n = 3,770; 40-80 years) and in Vienna, Austria (n = 830; 16-84 years). Results show that planning accuracy on the TOL-F possesses an adequate internal consistency and split-half reliability (>0.7) that are stable across the adult life span while the TOL-F covers a broad range of graded difficulty even in healthy adults, making it suitable for both research and clinical application.

  1. The reliability of the pass/fail decision for assessments comprised of multiple components

    PubMed Central

    Möltner, Andreas; Tımbıl, Sevgi; Jünger, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The decision having the most serious consequences for a student taking an assessment is the one to pass or fail that student. For this reason, the reliability of the pass/fail decision must be determined for high quality assessments, just as the measurement reliability of the point values. Assessments in a particular subject (graded course credit) are often composed of multiple components that must be passed independently of each other. When “conjunctively” combining separate pass/fail decisions, as with other complex decision rules for passing, adequate methods of analysis are necessary for estimating the accuracy and consistency of these classifications. To date, very few papers have addressed this issue; a generally applicable procedure was published by Douglas and Mislevy in 2010. Using the example of an assessment comprised of several parts that must be passed separately, this study analyzes the reliability underlying the decision to pass or fail students and discusses the impact of an improved method for identifying those who do not fulfill the minimum requirements. Method: The accuracy and consistency of the decision to pass or fail an examinee in the subject cluster Internal Medicine/General Medicine/Clinical Chemistry at the University of Heidelberg’s Faculty of Medicine was investigated. This cluster requires students to separately pass three components (two written exams and an OSCE), whereby students may reattempt to pass each component twice. Our analysis was carried out using the method described by Douglas and Mislevy. Results: Frequently, when complex logical connections exist between the individual pass/fail decisions in the case of low failure rates, only a very low reliability for the overall decision to grant graded course credit can be achieved, even if high reliabilities exist for the various components. For the example analyzed here, the classification accuracy and consistency when conjunctively combining the three individual

  2. Multicultural Competency Instrumentation: A Review and Analysis of Reliability Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Todd W.; Smith, Timothy B.; Montoya, Jared A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the internal consistency reliability of multicultural competency instrumentation. Additional psychometric properties are qualitatively reviewed for commonly used instruments and 5 other measures of multicultural competency that have not previously been reviewed in the literature. Results indicate that the most widely used…

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Alcohol Consequences Expectations Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob; Usdan, Stuart; Mays, Darren; Weitzel, Jessica Aungst; Cremeens, Jennifer; Martin, Ryan J.; Borba, Christina; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the reliability and validity of a new measure of alcohol outcome expectations for college students, the Alcohol Consequences Expectations Scale (ACES). Methods: College students (N = 169) completed the ACES and several other measures. Results: Results support the existence of 5 internally consistent subscales. Additionally,…

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), 28 youth aged 6 to 17 years with Tourette's syndrome (TS) participated in the study. Data included clinician reports of tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) severity, parent reports of tics, internalizing and externalizing problems, and child reports…

  5. A Method for Maximizing Split-Half Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, John C.; Osburn, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for maximizing split-half reliability coefficients is described. Coefficients derived by the algorithm were found to be generally larger than odd-even split-half coefficients or other internal consistency measures and nearly as large as the largest split half coefficients. MSPLIT, Odd-Even, and Kuder-Richardson-20…

  6. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor…

  7. The Modified Cognitive Constructions Coding System: Reliability and Validity Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Galia S.; Diamond, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    The cognitive constructions coding system (CCCS) was designed for coding client's expressed problem constructions on four dimensions: intrapersonal-interpersonal, internal-external, responsible-not responsible, and linear-circular. This study introduces, and examines the reliability and validity of, a modified version of the CCCS--a version that…

  8. [How reliable is the Functional Independence Measure (FMI)?].

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Katrin; Flemming, Anke; Schulz, Helmut; Dassen, Theo

    2002-06-01

    The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is an internationally well-known instrument to assess patient autonomy in Activities of Daily Life. In this article the reliability of the instrument will be discussed by the analysis of data gathered on a rehabilitation ward in a Berlin hospital. The sample consists of 154 patients. Each patient was observed by two nurses. In the first phase of the project only one of these two nurses knew the patient well. In the second phase both nurses knew the patient. As expected, the interrater reliability during the second phase was higher than during the first phase of the research. Furthermore high correlations between the items could be computed. The internal consistence of the scale showed values similar to those known from literature. The data proved a high reliability of the instrument.

  9. Longitudinal Adjustment Trajectories of International Students and Their Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the course of adjustment of international students has not been adequately tested and only one study to date has examined multiple trajectories of international students' adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of…

  10. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise shall establish adequate and efficient internal controls...

  11. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  12. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  13. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    PubMed

    Thurling, Catherine H; Harris, Candice

    2012-06-05

    South Africa's high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation. The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training. A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation. The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted. The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  14. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  15. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  16. Radiation dose reduction in invasive cardiology by restriction to adequate instead of optimized picture quality.

    PubMed

    Kuon, Eberhard; Dorn, Christian; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the cinegraphic image intensifier entrance dose level for coronary angiography was changed in four steps from dose level A (0.041 microGy frame(-1)), allowing high contrast, but coarse mottled background, to level D (0.164 microGy frame(-1)), affording high transparency and sharpness. Using this new approach throughout the course of 404 consecutive cardiac catheterizations, we reduced patient radiation exposures down to 11 to 16% of currently typical values: i.e., mean dose area products of 5.97 Gy cm2 (n = 91), 6.73 (n = 113), 8.11 (n = 91), and 8.90 (n = 109); cinegraphic dose area products of 2.34, 3.64, 4.56, and 5.49; and cinegraphic dose area products frame(-1) of 13.3, 19.8, 27.0, and 30.2 mGy cm2, for levels A, B, C, and D, respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames ranged within 168 to 182 per case. Our results show that during catheterization interventionalists should vary image intensifier entrance dose levels in accordance with documented structure, angulation, and body mass index. With the exception of cases with special requirements, lower dose levels typically guarantee an adequate image quality.

  17. Adequate nutrient intake can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Molly E; DiRienzo, Douglas B; Miller, Gregory D; McCarron, David A

    2003-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease kills nearly as many Americans each year as the next seven leading causes of death combined. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and most of its associated risk factors is markedly higher and increasing more rapidly among African Americans than in any other racial or ethnic group. Improving these statistics may be simply a matter of improving diet quality. In recent years, a substantial and growing body of evidence has revealed that dietary patterns complete in all food groups, including nutrient-rich dairy products, are essential for preventing and reducing cardiovascular disease and the conditions that contribute to it. Several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and obesity, have been shown to be positively influenced by dietary patterns that include adequate intake of dairy products. The benefits of nutrient-rich dietary patterns have been specifically tested in randomized, controlled trials emphasizing African American populations. These studies demonstrated proportionally greater benefits for African Americans without evidence of adverse effects such as symptoms of lactose intolerance. As currently promoted for the prevention of certain cancers and osteoporosis, regular consumption of diets that meet recommended nutrient intake levels might also be the most effective approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk in African Americans.

  18. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic antidepressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  19. Are neurodegenerative disorder and psychotic manifestations avoidable brain dysfunctions with adequate dietary omega-3?

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2006-01-01

    The present mismatch between what our brain needs, and the modern diet neglects our marine heritage. Last century, the priority in nutrition and food production was to achieve a high protein diet and somatic growth and function. The dietary content of omega-3 (N-3) required by the brain was neglected although evidence for the essentiality of certain fatty acids was published in 1929 and specifically re-affirmed for omega 3 in the brain in the 1970s. Cognitive decline with age and neurodegenerative disorder with dementia are now rising. This review describes signs of N-3 deficit in Alzheimer and Parkinson Disease, where maximum change involves the primary sites: olfactory cortex and the hippocampus. The olfactory agnosia observed in schizophrenia supports an N-3 deficit as does a reduction of key ologodendrocyte- and myelin-related genes in this disorder and affective disorder, where a rise in dementia accords with a deficit of N-3 also in this disorder. N-3 normalizes cerebral excitability at all levels. That the two disorders are localized at the extremes of excitability, is supported by their opposing treatments: convulsant neuroleptics and anti-epileptic anti-depressants. An adequate N-3 diet will probably prevent most psychotic episodes and prove that neurodegenerative disorder with dementia is also to a large extent not only preventable but avoidable.

  20. Are image quality metrics adequate to evaluate the quality of geometric objects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rushmeier, Holly E.

    2001-06-01

    Geometric objects are often represented by many millions of triangles or polygons, which limits the ease with which they can be transmitted and displayed electronically. This has lead to the development of many algorithms for simplifying geometric models, and to the recognition that metrics are required to evaluate their success. The goal is to create computer graphic renderings of the object that do not appear to be degraded to a human observer. The perceptual evaluation of simplified objects is a new topic. One approach has been to sue image-based metrics to predict the perceived degradation of simplified 3D models. Since that 2D images of 3D objects can have significantly different perceived quality, depending on the direction of the illumination, 2D measures of image quality may not adequately capture the perceived quality of 3D objects. To address this question, we conducted experiments in which we explicitly compared the perceived quality of animated 3D objects and their corresponding 2D still image projections. Our results suggest that 2D judgements do not provide a good predictor of 3D image quality, and identify a need to develop 'object quality metrics.'

  1. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  2. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  3. PG medical training and accreditation: responsibility of the government for the adequate health service delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-09-01

    On one hand there is obvious inadequate health coverage to the rural population and on the other hand the densely populated urban area is facing the triple burden of increasing non-communicable and communicable health problems and the rising health cost. The postgraduate medical training is closely interrelated with the adequate health service delivery and health economics. In relation to the prevailing situation, the modern medical education trend indicates the five vital issues. These are i). Opportunity needs to be given to all MBBS graduates for General Specialist and Sub-Specialist Training inside the country to complete their medical education, ii). Urgent need for review of PG residential training criteria including appropriate bed and teacher criteria as well as entry criteria and eligibility criteria, iii). Involvement of all available units of hospitals fulfilling the requirements of the residential PG training criteria, iv). PG residential trainings involve doing the required work in the hospitals entitling them full pay and continuation of the service without any training fee or tuition fee, and v). Planning of the proportions of General Specialty and Sub-Specialty Training fields, particularly General Practice (GP) including its career and female participation. With increased number of medical graduates, now it seems possible to plan for optimal health coverage to the populations with appropriate postgraduate medical training. The medical professionals and public health workers must make the Government aware of the vital responsibility and the holistic approach required.

  4. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.

  5. Ipragliflozin effectively reduced visceral fat in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under adequate diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chiho; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ono, Kota; Sugawara, Hajime; Kameda, Reina; Ichiyama, Mei; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Akinobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-30

    To investigate if ipragliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, alters body composition and to identify variables associated with reductions in visceral adipose tissue in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prospective observational study enrolled Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were administered ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) once daily for 16 weeks. Body composition, visceral adipose tissue volume and plasma variables were measured at 0, 8, and 16-weeks. The subjects' lifestyle habits including diet and exercise were evaluated at baseline and 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as the decrease of visceral adipose tissue mass. Twenty-four of 26 enrolled participants completed the study. The visceral adipose tissue decreased significantly (110 ± 33 to 101 ± 36 cm(2), p = 0.005) as well as other parameters for metabolic insufficiency including hemoglobin A1c. Seventy-one % of the total body weight reduction (-2.49 kg) was estimated by a decrease in fat mass (-1.77 kg), and the remaining reduction (22%) by water volume (-0.55 kg). A minor but significant reduction in the skeletal muscle index was also observed. Correlation analyses were performed to identify variables associated with changes in visceral adipose tissue and the only significant variable identified was diet therapy (Spearman's r = -0.416, p = 0.043). Ipragliflozin significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue, and improved parametres for metabolic dysfunction. Adequate diet therapy would be necessary to induce and enhance the therapeutic merit.

  6. Gaussian membership functions are most adequate in representing uncertainty in measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, V.; Quintana, C.; Reznik, L.

    1992-01-01

    In rare situations, like fundamental physics, we perform experiments without knowing what their results will be. In the majority of real-life measurement situations, we more or less know beforehand what kind of results we will get. Of course, this is not the precise knowledge of the type 'the result will be between alpha - beta and alpha + beta,' because in this case, we would not need any measurements at all. This is usually a knowledge that is best represented in uncertain terms, like 'perhaps (or 'most likely', etc.) the measured value x is between alpha - beta and alpha + beta.' Traditional statistical methods neglect this additional knowledge and process only the measurement results. So it is desirable to be able to process this uncertain knowledge as well. A natural way to process it is by using fuzzy logic. But, there is a problem; we can use different membership functions to represent the same uncertain statements, and different functions lead to different results. What membership function do we choose? In the present paper, we show that under some reasonable assumptions, Gaussian functions mu(x) = exp(-beta(x(exp 2))) are the most adequate choice of the membership functions for representing uncertainty in measurements. This representation was efficiently used in testing jet engines to airplanes and spaceships.

  7. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  8. Are primary care residents adequately prepared to care for women of reproductive age?

    PubMed

    Conway, T; Hu, T C; Mason, E; Mueller, C

    1995-01-01

    A 1991 study of 115 internal medicine and 28 family practice residents at a large inner-city public hospital finds that both groups would perform poorly in providing preconception counseling to women of reproductive age. More than 40% of residents failed to indicate that they would provide a healthy woman with information on rubella immunization and family planning or counseling on sexually transmitted diseases and safer sex. When counseling a diabetic woman seeking pregnancy, 74% would not have discussed congenital anomalies with her and 45% would not have considered discontinuing oral hypoglycemics if she became pregnant. Furthermore, 58% would have neglected to review or change hypertension medications in a newly diagnosed pregnant woman. Although both internal medicine and family practice residents had positive attitudes toward offering preconception care, family practice residents had significantly higher attitude scores. No clear improvement was found in patient management, attitude or knowledge scores as residents progressed from their first to their third year of training.

  9. Reliability science and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Luria, Joseph W; Muething, Stephen E; Schoettker, Pamela J; Kotagal, Uma R

    2006-12-01

    Reliability is failure-free operation over time--the measurable capability of a process, procedure, or service to perform its intended function. Reliability science has the potential to help health care organizations reduce defects in care, increase the consistency with which care is delivered, and improve patient outcomes. Based on its principles, the Institute for Health care Improvement has developed a three-step model to prevent failures, mitigate the failures that occur, and redesign systems to reduce failures. Lessons may also be learned from complex organizations that have already adopted the principles of reliability science and operate with high rates of reliability. They share a preoccupation with failure, reluctance to simplify interpretations, sensitivity to operations, commitment to resilience, and underspecification of structures.

  10. How Reliable Is Laboratory Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Key Concepts | Quality Control | Role of Testing | Conclusion | Sources What are the ... but is constantly monitored for reliability through comprehensive quality control and quality assurance procedures. Therefore, when your blood ...

  11. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  12. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  13. Reliability Validation and Improvement Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    discover and remove bugs using various test cover- age metrics to determine test sufficiency. Failure-probability density function based on code met- rics ...Coverage Metrics Traditional reliability engineering has focused on fault density and reliability growth as key met- rics . These are statistical...abs_all.jsp?arnumber=781027 [Kwiatkowska 2010] Kwiatkowska, M., Norman, G., & Parker , D. “Advances and Challenges of Probabilistic Model Checking

  14. Reliability-Based Electronics Shielding Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; O'Neill, P. J.; Zang, T. A.; Pandolf, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2007-01-01

    Shielding design on large human-rated systems allows minimization of radiation impact on electronic systems. Shielding design tools require adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and adequate follow-up on final design evaluation.

  15. Too Reliable to Be True? Response Bias as a Potential Source of Inflation in Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaire Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Eyal; Gamliel, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    When respondents answer paper-and-pencil (PP) questionnaires, they sometimes modify their responses to correspond to previously answered items. As a result, this response bias might artificially inflate the reliability of PP questionnaires. We compared the internal consistency of PP questionnaires to computerized questionnaires that presented a…

  16. Robust fusion with reliabilities weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Marques, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The reliability is a value of the degree of trust in a given measurement. We analyze and compare: ML (Classical Maximum Likelihood), MLE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Entropy), MLR (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability), MLRE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability and Entropy), DS (Credibility Plausibility), DSR (DS weighted by reliabilities). The analysis is based on a model of a dynamical fusion process. It is composed of three sensors, which have each it's own discriminatory capacity, reliability rate, unknown bias and measurement noise. The knowledge of uncertainties is also severely corrupted, in order to analyze the robustness of the different fusion operators. Two sensor models are used: the first type of sensor is able to estimate the probability of each elementary hypothesis (probabilistic masses), the second type of sensor delivers masses on union of elementary hypotheses (DS masses). In the second case probabilistic reasoning leads to sharing the mass abusively between elementary hypotheses. Compared to the classical ML or DS which achieves just 50% of correct classification in some experiments, DSR, MLE, MLR and MLRE reveals very good performances on all experiments (more than 80% of correct classification rate). The experiment was performed with large variations of the reliability coefficients for each sensor (from 0 to 1), and with large variations on the knowledge of these coefficients (from 0 0.8). All four operators reveal good robustness, but the MLR reveals to be uniformly dominant on all the experiments in the Bayesian case and achieves the best mean performance under incomplete a priori information.

  17. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  18. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) and reliability estimates were performed for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station (ISS) technologies. The analysis was applied to a hypothetical 1-year deep-space mission. High-level fault trees were initially developed relating loss of life support functionality to the Loss of Crew (LOC) top event. System reliability was then expressed as the complement (nonoccurrence) this event and was increased through the addition of redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. The reliability analysis assumed constant failure rates and used current projected values of the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) from an ISS database where available. Results were obtained showing the dependence of ESM on system reliability for each architecture. Although the analysis employed numerous simplifications and many of the input parameters are considered to have high uncertainty, the results strongly suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support system mass. As a point of reference, the reliability for a single-string architecture using the most regenerative combination of ISS technologies without unscheduled replacement spares was estimated to be less than 1%. The results also demonstrate how adding technologies in a serial manner to increase system closure forces the reliability of other life support technologies to increase in order to meet the system reliability requirement. This increase in reliability results in increased mass for multiple technologies through the need for additional spares. Alternative parallel architecture approaches and approaches with the potential to do more with less are discussed. The tall poles in life support ESM are also reexamined in light of estimated reliability impacts.

  19. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    PubMed Central

    RAGGIO, Daniela Prócida; BRAGA, Mariana Minatel; RODRIGUES, Jonas Almeida; FREITAS, Patrícia Moreira; IMPARATO, José Carlos Pettorossi; MENDES, Fausto Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Objective This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI) and fluorescence camera (FC) to detect plaque. Material and Methods Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. Results Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. Conclusions The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque. PMID:20485931

  20. 45 CFR 2508.10 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and automatic record..., and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of manual and...